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1

Three-dimensional flow in a lid-driven cavity with width-to-height ratio of 1.6  

Science.gov (United States)

The flow in a lid-driven cavity with width-to-height ratio of 1.6 is investigated numerically and experimentally. Experimental investigation use an apparatus with a spanwise length-to-height ratio of Uplambda = 10.85. Increasing the Reynolds number, we experimentally find a gradual change from the quasi-two-dimensional basic flow to a three-dimensional flow pattern. The three-dimensional flow has a significant amplitude at considerably low Reynolds numbers. Streak-line photographs and PIV vector maps are presented to illustrate the structure of the finite-amplitude flow pattern. The smooth transition is in contrast to the linear instability predicted by a linear-stability analysis for a cavity with infinite span. LDV measurements confirm the absence of a distinct threshold Reynolds number and indicate an imperfect bifurcation. The deviations between experimental observations and numerical critical Reynolds number for infinite span are explained by conducting three-dimensional simulations for a finite-span geometry. A good agreement between experimental and numerical simulation is obtained. The numerical and experimental data lead to the conjecture of a premature onset of the three-dimensional flow caused by strong secondary flows which are induced by the cavity end walls. Nevertheless, the flow structure in the finite-span cavity carries the same characteristic signatures as the nonlinear flow in the corresponding infinite-length cavity. We conclude that the observed flow can be identified as the continuation of the normal mode C {/e 4} earlier identified in a linear-stability analysis.

Siegmann-Hegerfeld, Tanja; Albensoeder, Stefan; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.

2013-06-01

2

Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank. PMID:23658003

Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B

2013-05-08

3

Normalizing facial ratios in apert syndrome patients with Le Fort II midface distraction and simultaneous zygomatic repositioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Le Fort III distraction advances the Apert midface but leaves the central concavity and vertical compression untreated. The authors propose that Le Fort II distraction and simultaneous zygomatic repositioning as a combined procedure can move the central midface and lateral orbits in independent vectors in order to improve the facial deformity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this segmental movement results in more normal facial proportions than Le Fort III distraction. METHODS: Computed tomographic scan analyses were performed before and after distraction in patients undergoing Le Fort III distraction (n = 5) and Le Fort II distraction with simultaneous zygomatic repositioning (n = 4). The calculated axial facial ratios and vertical facial ratios relative to the skull base were compared to those of unoperated Crouzon (n = 5) and normal (n = 6) controls. RESULTS: With Le Fort III distraction, facial ratios did not change with surgery and remained lower (p < 0.01; paired t test comparison) than normal and Crouzon controls. Although the face was advanced, its shape remained abnormal. With the Le Fort II segmental movement procedure, the central face advanced and lengthened more than the lateral orbit. This differential movement changed the abnormal facial ratios that were present before surgery into ratios that were not significantly different from normal controls (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with Le Fort III distraction, Le Fort II distraction with simultaneous zygomatic repositioning normalizes the position and the shape of the Apert face. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.

Hopper RA; Kapadia H; Morton T

2013-07-01

4

Assessment of facial and cranial development and comparison of anthropometric ratios.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anthropometry is the biologic science of human body measurement. Craniofacial anthropometry discusses the characteristics on the measures of different soft and hard tissues of the head and face, and it is considered an important paraclinical record for the growth and development of the index and also for the diagnosis and curing orthodontic matters. Studying the craniofacial anthropometrics ratios is very useful in sciences such as dentistry, medicine, maxillofacial surgery, growth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering, and nonmedical branches such as respiratory equipment and eye-glasses industries. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine Iranian cranial and facial anthropometric ratios and compare anthropometric ratios between Iranian and Canadian populations. METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study was done randomly on 564 four-to-eleven-year-old boys from Shirvan (North Khorasan, Iran) with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios were estimated and compared. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. The mean values of these parameters were calculated .Finally, the regression line and the growth coefficient were determined for each parameter. Furthermore, the mean anthropometric measurement of Iranians was compared with Canadians. Student t test was used for comparing the measured values. RESULTS: Iranian population when born has hypereuryprosopic face and hypercephalic cranium form. While getting older, the midface height increases, face becomes more prominent, chin becomes shorter, and the face and cranium change to eurycephalic and hyperleptoprosopic form, respectively. Comparison of results related to the face and cranium size between Iranian and Canadian boys (4-11 years old) showed that many craniofacial ratios have significant differences (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately, all of the anthropometric measurements in Iranian population and Canadians were significantly different. Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic ratios and size among Iranians and Canadians, the results obtained from Canadians should not be applied as criteria for treatment plans. Because of the wide population affinity combinations in Iran, more studies, with wider variations, should be conducted among different Iranian population affinity.

Mahdi E

2012-03-01

5

Digit ratio (2D:4D) and male facial attractiveness: New data and a meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Digit ratio (2D:4D) appears to correlate negatively with prenatal testosterone (T) effects in humans. As T probably increases facial masculinity, which in turn might be positively related to male facial attractiveness, a number of studies have looked into the relationship between 2D:4D and male facial attractiveness, showing equivocal results. Here, I present the largest and third largest samples so far, which investigate the relationship between 2D:4D and male facial attractiveness in adolescents (n = 115) and young men (n = 80). I then present random-effects meta-analyses of the available data (seven to eight samples, overall n = 362 to 469). These showed small (r ? -.09), statistically non-significant relationships between 2D:4D measures and male facial attractiveness. Thus, 2D:4D studies offer no convincing evidence at present that prenatal T has a positive effect on male facial attractiveness. However, a consideration of confidence intervals shows that, at present, a theoretically meaningful relationship between 2D:4D and male facial attractiveness cannot be ruled out either.

Hönekopp J

2013-01-01

6

Bad to the bone: facial structure predicts unethical behaviour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researchers spanning many scientific domains, including primatology, evolutionary biology and psychology, have sought to establish an evolutionary basis for morality. While researchers have identified social and cognitive adaptations that support ethical behaviour, a consensus has emerged that genetically determined physical traits are not reliable signals of unethical intentions or actions. Challenging this view, we show that genetically determined physical traits can serve as reliable predictors of unethical behaviour if they are also associated with positive signals in intersex and intrasex selection. Specifically, we identify a key physical attribute, the facial width-to-height ratio, which predicts unethical behaviour in men. Across two studies, we demonstrate that men with wider faces (relative to facial height) are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation, and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gain. Importantly, we provide evidence that the link between facial metrics and unethical behaviour is mediated by a psychological sense of power. Our results demonstrate that static physical attributes can indeed serve as reliable cues of immoral action, and provide additional support for the view that evolutionary forces shape ethical judgement and behaviour.

Haselhuhn MP; Wong EM

2012-02-01

7

Bad to the bone: facial structure predicts unethical behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers spanning many scientific domains, including primatology, evolutionary biology and psychology, have sought to establish an evolutionary basis for morality. While researchers have identified social and cognitive adaptations that support ethical behaviour, a consensus has emerged that genetically determined physical traits are not reliable signals of unethical intentions or actions. Challenging this view, we show that genetically determined physical traits can serve as reliable predictors of unethical behaviour if they are also associated with positive signals in intersex and intrasex selection. Specifically, we identify a key physical attribute, the facial width-to-height ratio, which predicts unethical behaviour in men. Across two studies, we demonstrate that men with wider faces (relative to facial height) are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation, and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gain. Importantly, we provide evidence that the link between facial metrics and unethical behaviour is mediated by a psychological sense of power. Our results demonstrate that static physical attributes can indeed serve as reliable cues of immoral action, and provide additional support for the view that evolutionary forces shape ethical judgement and behaviour. PMID:21733897

Haselhuhn, Michael P; Wong, Elaine M

2011-07-06

8

Facial structure is indicative of explicit support for prejudicial beliefs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present three studies examining whether male facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is correlated with racial prejudice and whether observers are sensitive to fWHR when assessing prejudice in other people. Our results indicate that males with a greater fWHR are more likely to explicitly endorse racially prejudicial beliefs, though fWHR was unrelated to implicit bias. Participants evaluated targets with a greater fWHR as more likely to be prejudiced and accurately evaluated the degree to which targets reported prejudicial attitudes. Finally, compared with majority-group members, racial-minority participants reported greater motivation to accurately evaluate prejudice. This motivation mediated the relationship between minority- or majority-group membership and the accuracy of evaluations of prejudice, which indicates that motivation augments sensitivity to fWHR. Together, the results of these three studies demonstrate that fWHR is a reliable indicator of explicitly endorsed racial prejudice and that observers can use fWHR to accurately assess another person's explicit prejudice. PMID:23389425

Hehman, Eric; Leitner, Jordan B; Deegan, Matthew P; Gaertner, Samuel L

2013-02-06

9

Facial structure is indicative of explicit support for prejudicial beliefs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present three studies examining whether male facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is correlated with racial prejudice and whether observers are sensitive to fWHR when assessing prejudice in other people. Our results indicate that males with a greater fWHR are more likely to explicitly endorse racially prejudicial beliefs, though fWHR was unrelated to implicit bias. Participants evaluated targets with a greater fWHR as more likely to be prejudiced and accurately evaluated the degree to which targets reported prejudicial attitudes. Finally, compared with majority-group members, racial-minority participants reported greater motivation to accurately evaluate prejudice. This motivation mediated the relationship between minority- or majority-group membership and the accuracy of evaluations of prejudice, which indicates that motivation augments sensitivity to fWHR. Together, the results of these three studies demonstrate that fWHR is a reliable indicator of explicitly endorsed racial prejudice and that observers can use fWHR to accurately assess another person's explicit prejudice.

Hehman E; Leitner JB; Deegan MP; Gaertner SL

2013-03-01

10

Facial paralysis  

Science.gov (United States)

... almost always caused by: Damage or swelling of the facial nerve, which carries signals from the brain to the ... Bell's palsy . This is a condition in which the facial nerve becomes inflamed. Stroke may cause facial paralysis. With ...

11

Facial bradykinesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to summarise the main clinical and pathophysiological features of facial bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in atypical parkinsonism. Clinical observation suggests that reduced spontaneous and emotional facial expressions are features of facial bradykinesia in PD and atypical parkinsonism. In atypical parkinsonism, facial bradykinesia is complicated by additional dystonic features. Experimental studies evaluating spontaneous and emotional facial movements demonstrate that PD is characterised by a reduction in spontaneous blinking and emotional facial expression. In PD, neurophysiological studies show that voluntary orofacial movements are smaller in amplitude and slower in velocity. In contrast, movements of the upper face (eg, voluntary blinking) are normal in terms of velocity and amplitude but impaired in terms of switching between the closing and opening phases. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), voluntary blinking is not only characterised by a severely impaired switching between the closing and opening phases of voluntary blinking, but is also slow in comparison with PD. In conclusion, in PD, facial bradykinesia reflects abnormalities of spontaneous, emotional and voluntary facial movements. In PSP, spontaneous and voluntary facial movements are abnormal but experimental studies on emotional facial movements are lacking. Data on facial bradykinesia in other atypical parkinsonism diseases, including multiple system atrophy and corticobasal degeneration, are limited. In PD, facial bradykinesia is primarily mediated by basal ganglia dysfunction whereas in PSP, facial bradykinesia is a consequence of a widespread degeneration involving the basal ganglia, cortical and brainstem structures. PMID:23236012

Bologna, Matteo; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Marsili, Luca; Defazio, Giovanni; Thompson, Philip D; Berardelli, Alfredo

2012-12-12

12

Facial Schwannoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the presence of normal facial function is difficult. Case: A 19-year-old girl with all above symptoms in the right side except loss of taste is diagnosed having facial schwannoma with full examination, audiometric, and radiological tests. She underwent surgery. In follow-up facial function were mostly restored. Conclusion: The need for careful assessment of patients with Bell's palsy cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the negative results if still there is any suspicoin, total facial nerve exploration is necessary.

Mansoureh Adel Ghahraman; Zahra Ghassem Ahmad; Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani; Yashar Amidi

2005-01-01

13

Facial Plastic Surgery Today  

Science.gov (United States)

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... information on facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Facial Plastic Surgery Today features three articles on facial plastic surgery ...

14

Facial atrophy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author's personal experience with 84 patients demonstrating varying degrees of facial atrophy is reported. Of these, 59 patients had forms of progressive hemifacial atrophy. Hemifacial atrophy seems best classified into two groups: those who demonstrate inflammatory changes during the course of the disease as opposed to the more benign or noninflammatory types. The inflammatory type of hemifacial atrophy is usually associated with skin and ophthalmic pathology. It is suggested that it is often difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish between Romberg's disease and hemifacial atrophy from scleroderma; therefore, these terms might best be eliminated in classifying hemifacial atrophy. The etiology of facial atrophy remains unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases.

Rees TD

1976-10-01

15

Granuloma faciale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 40-year old woman presented with asymptomatic erythematous well-demarcated, infiltrated plaque of 8 cm x 7 cm in size on the right cheek for past four years. Histopathological study of skin biopsy revealed features of granuloma faciale. Oral dapsone and intralesional corticosteroid caused marked improvement.

Joshi Ketuman; Patel Sarika; Shah Priti; Parikh Deepak; Bilimoria F

1998-01-01

16

Granuloma faciale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 40-year old woman presented with asymptomatic erythematous well-demarcated, infiltrated plaque of 8 cm x 7 cm in size on the right cheek for past four years. Histopathological study of skin biopsy revealed features of granuloma faciale. Oral dapsone and intralesional corticosteroid caused marked i...

Joshi Ketuman; Patel Sarika; Shah Priti; Parikh Deepak; Bilimoria F

17

[Peripheral facial nerve palsy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function.

Pons Y; Ukkola-Pons E; Ballivet de Régloix S; Champagne C; Raynal M; Lepage P; Kossowski M

2013-06-01

18

[Peripheral facial nerve palsy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function. PMID:23627995

Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

2013-04-28

19

Facial nerve pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports MR imaging and CT used in 13 cases of facial neuromas and eight simulating lesions. On MR imaging, facial neuromas has long T1 and long T2 characteristics. In a 4-year-old girl with congenital facial palsy, CT and MR imaging demonstrated a facial neuroma involving the entire intratemporal segment of the facial nerve, including massive involvement of the greater superficial petrosal nerve extending into the vidian canal. A primary chemodectoma of the facial nerve (enhanced after administration of gadolinium) was identical to the facial neuroma on CT scans and MR images. Perineural metastatic lesions could not be differentiated from facial neuromas. Isolated granulomas of the facial nerve had CT findings similar to those of a facial neuroma

1989-12-01

20

Modelling human facial UV exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are strong links between exposure to UV radiation and both adverse health outcomes (eg. skin cancer, cataracts) and protective health outcomes (e.g. the production of vitamin D). The aim of our research is to develop methods of estimating cumulative UV exposure in a manner suitable for risk-factor epidemiology. We have developed a flexible computer model that determines UV exposure over the human facial region (utilising exposure ratios as determined by polysuphone dosimeters) for various solar zenith angles (SZA). By adjusting latitude and time of year, researchers can estimate cumulative facial UV exposure for particular geographical locations and time periods. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Facially generated occlusal vertical dimension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial height has a profound effect on attractiveness. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) determines facial proportion at maximum intercuspation and influences facial dimension at rest. Deficient facial height visibly compromises optimal facial beauty. This article explores the dependent relationships between the OVD and facial esthetics, and discusses the role of facial analysis in determining an optimal OVD.

Mack MR

1997-12-01

22

Children and Facial Paralysis  

Science.gov (United States)

... damage (e.g., possibly from viral infection) to the facial nerve. Adults and children will either wake up to ... fracture, or other abnormality in the area of the facial nerve. An additional diagnostic tool is the Electro neuronography ( ...

23

Facial Sports Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial Sports Injuries Playing catch, shooting hoops, bicycling on a scenic path or just kicking around a soccer ball ... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or ...

24

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

Shah H; Kantharia C; Shenoy A

1997-01-01

25

Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for feature extraction and creates a dynamic spatiotemporal representation of the face, followed by classification into one of the expression classes. The algorithm achieves an accuracy of 81.0% for facial expression recognition fromgrayscale image.

Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

2010-01-01

26

Face structure predicts cooperation: men with wider faces are more generous to their in-group when out-group competition is salient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Male facial width-to-height ratio appears to correlate with antisocial tendencies, such as aggression, exploitation, cheating, and deception. We present evidence that male facial width-to-height ratio is also associated with a stereotypically male prosocial tendency: to increase cooperation with other in-group members during intergroup competition. We found that men who had wider faces, compared with men who had narrower faces, showed more self-sacrificing cooperation to help their group members when there was competition with another group. We propose that this finding makes sense given the evolutionary functions of social helpfulness and aggression.

Stirrat M; Perrett DI

2012-07-01

27

Update on facial aging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial aging was once thought to be the result of the relentless downward pull of gravity on skin and underlying fat. In turn, facial fat was believed to be a contiguous sheet of tissue. However, over the past four decades, a number of investigators have examined more closely the causes of facial aging, leading to a better understanding of age-related changes, and have confirmed and further explored the proposal by Gonzalez-Ulloa and Flores in 1965 that facial aging involves changes in muscle and bone, as well as skin and fat. Further, the recent work of Rohrich and Pessa (and other authors) has demonstrated that facial fat is not a sheet of tissue, but rather is compartmentalized throughout the face. This discovery has allowed the evolution of improved techniques for facial rejuvenation.

Fitzgerald R; Graivier MH; Kane M; Lorenc ZP; Vleggaar D; Werschler WP; Kenkel JM

2010-07-01

28

Facial burns - our experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems - resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery.

Zatriqi V; Arifi H; Zatriqi S; Duci S; Rrecaj Sh; Martinaj M

2013-01-01

29

Análise Facial Subjetiva Subjective Facial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a análise facial tem sido um recurso diagnóstico valorizado desde os primórdios da Ortodontia. Vários autores tentaram estabelecer referências de normalidade na direção das quais os pacientes ortodônticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupação da Ortodontia está em concordância com a expectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivação para o tratamento ortodôntico é a melhora estética. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente é fundamental que o ortodontista conheça os parâmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliação estética. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realização da Análise Facial Subjetiva, estética e morfológica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicação prática da análise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogêneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas) que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivíduos (50 de cada gênero) classificando-os como esteticamente desagradáveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3), esteticamente aceitáveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6) e esteticamente agradáveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9). RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitáveis, 8% desagradáveis e 3% agradáveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsável pela estética desagradável, seguida pelo mento ("queixo") em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar, portanto, que a Análise Facial Subjetiva é mais um instrumento diagnóstico, que tem sua importância aumentada por ser o parâmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vão avaliar os resultados do tratamento.INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The main motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists) to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9), acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6) or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3). Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively) as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis; Jorge Abrão; Leopoldino Capelozza Filho; Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

2006-01-01

30

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial) juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural) e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.

Testa José Ricardo Gurgel; Vicente Andy de Oliveira; Abreu Carlos E.C.; Benbassat Simone F.; Antunes Marcos L.; Barros Flávia A.

2003-01-01

31

Facial Nerve Neuroma Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The...

Weber, Peter C.; Osguthorpe, J. David

32

[Facial recognition and autism  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic children recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, showing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

Assumpçäo Júnior FB; Sprovieri MH; Kuczynski E; Farinha V

1999-12-01

33

Facial animation with wrinkles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a 3D facial animation system in which expressive wrinkles are taken into account and integrated into the process of facial animation. Starting from a reference wrinkle mask in which isolines are aligned with potentially existing expressive wrinkles, we present some techniques for editing ...

Viaud, Marie-Luce; Yahia, Hussein

34

The facial phenotype of the velo-cardio-facial syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic disorder that is common but often variable in its expression. Several key organ systems are most often affected, including the craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues. Identification of the associated facial features will aid in the improved detection of patients. This review aims to highlight the approaches to facial analysis that are essential to the detection of the facial dysmorphisms in velo-cardio-facial syndrome, many of which may be subtle.

Butts SC

2009-03-01

35

The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The a...

Yetiser, Sertac

36

[Facial diplegias during pregnancy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Facial diplegia is a rare event, most commonly of unknown origin. We report the case of a woman who presented bilateral Bell's palsy a few days after a normal delivery. CASE REPORT: Five days after the delivery of gemellary pregnancy, a 34-year old woman developed complete bilateral facial palsy. No treatment was initially prescribed. She was first seen in our department two weeks after the onset of her illness. The diagnostic work-up was negative and we considered that our patient had bilateral Bell's palsy. Treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous acyclovir, initiated since admission, have had very limited effect. DISCUSSION: As has already been shown for facial palsy, idiopathic facial diplegia, although exceptional, seems to be more frequent during the last trimester of pregnancy and in the early puerperium. Seven cases have been reported in the literature over the last 30 years. We discuss here the pathophysiology.

Mari I; Pouchot J; Grasland A; Vinceneux P

2000-12-01

37

Facial Nerve Paralysis in Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A retrospective study of facial nerve paralysis in two tertiary health institutions in Imo State, N igeriaover a five-year period is presented. The aim was to address the aetiology and prevalence of facial nerveparalysis. There was a total of 56 cases made up of 36(64.29%) males and 20 (35.71%) females with a male:female ratio of 1.8:1. The ages ranged from 6 to 68years with a peak prevalence occurring in the age groupof 21 – 30 years. Left facial nerve was affected in 60.71% of the cases while the right was involved in 39.29%.The commonest cause was Bell’s palsy 20(35.71%) while Road Traffic Accident was responsible for 14(25.00%). The outcome of the study would be of predictive value in assessment and management of futurecases.

Anelechi Chukuezi

2009-01-01

38

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities.

Li Y; Wang S; Zhao Y; Ji Q

2013-07-01

39

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-03-20

40

Implants in facial skeletal augmentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alloplastic implants have demonstrated longstanding utility in the augmentation of the facial skeleton. Although their popularity may have waned in recent years, their established efficacy endures. This review summarizes the techniques, limitations, and complications associated with the use of facial implants. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the recognized utility of facial implants in the augmentation of the facial skeleton, they have received little attention in the recent literature. Contemporary reports have focused on the refinement of techniques--with renewed interest in the vertical transoral approach, and expanding the scope of facial implants--that is, the utility of facial implants as alternatives and/or adjuncts to orthognathic surgery. SUMMARY: Facial augmentation using alloplastic implants remains a tried, tested, and true means of correcting skeletal insufficiencies and abnormalities. Thus, what was once old will be new again, and a renaissance in the use of facial implants will undoubtedly occur.

Brandt MG; Moore CC

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy  

Science.gov (United States)

... starts in the brain and trav- els through the facial nerves to the muscles in the face. These muscles ... in response to a stimulus. Inside the skull, the facial nerve is a single nerve. Once the nerve is ...

42

Paralisia facial periférica congênita familiar/ Familial congenital peripheral facial palsy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os autores referem 6 casos de paralisia facial periférica congênita que se sucederam em três gerações. O estudo genético sugere a atuação de um gen autosômico dominante. Na mesma família foram assinalados outras alterações congênitas (estrabismo, nistagmo). Um dos pacientes com paralisia facial (caso II-7) também apresentava micrognatia. Os pacientes com outras alterações congênitas não foram examinados adequadamente, não sendo possível, por isso, estbelecer relação etiológica entre esses achados e a paralisia facial. Abstract in english Six cases of congenital peripheral facial diplegia occurring in three generations are reported. The action of an autosomal dominant gene is suggested. In the same family were observed other congenital anomalies (strabismus, nistagmus). One of the patients with facial palsy had also micrognathy. Patients with other congenital anomalies but without facial palsy were examined not adequately; therefore it was impossible to correlate these findings with those concerning the facial palsy.

Wittig, Ehrenfried O.; Moreira, Carlos Augusto; Freire-Maia, Newton

1968-03-01

43

Paralisia facial periférica congênita familiar Familial congenital peripheral facial palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores referem 6 casos de paralisia facial periférica congênita que se sucederam em três gerações. O estudo genético sugere a atuação de um gen autosômico dominante. Na mesma família foram assinalados outras alterações congênitas (estrabismo, nistagmo). Um dos pacientes com paralisia facial (caso II-7) também apresentava micrognatia. Os pacientes com outras alterações congênitas não foram examinados adequadamente, não sendo possível, por isso, estbelecer relação etiológica entre esses achados e a paralisia facial.Six cases of congenital peripheral facial diplegia occurring in three generations are reported. The action of an autosomal dominant gene is suggested. In the same family were observed other congenital anomalies (strabismus, nistagmus). One of the patients with facial palsy had also micrognathy. Patients with other congenital anomalies but without facial palsy were examined not adequately; therefore it was impossible to correlate these findings with those concerning the facial palsy.

Ehrenfried O. Wittig; Carlos Augusto Moreira; Newton Freire-Maia

1968-01-01

44

Cosmetic Facial Surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under loca...

Adamson, Peter A.

45

[Epidemiology of facial trauma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and skin color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson chi2 statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78%) and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%), followed by fall (26.2%), run overs 6.4%), sports (5.4%), car accidents (4.2%), motorcycle accidents (3.1%), non-fall impacts (2.4%), occupational injuries (1.8%), gunshot wounds (1.2%), unspecific (1.2%). Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%), followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%), nasal bones (11.6%), zygoma (10.3%), tooth (9.1%), orbit (4.9%) and maxilla (0.6%). Associated injuries occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

Wulkan M; Parreira JG Jr; Botter DA

2005-09-01

46

Children and Facial Trauma  

Science.gov (United States)

... make a repair that will grow with your child. Types of facial trauma New technology, such as advanced CT scans that ... actions and precautions should be taken if a child has received an injury to his or her teeth or surrounding dental ...

47

Análisis Facial, Dentario y Radiográfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La estética y armonía facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepción y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estéticos por medio de cirugías para obtener una valoración positiva de sí mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la percepción, autoestima y deseo de cambio estético; y puntos antropométricos, cefalométricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 años de edad, en las cuales se realizó una encuesta sobre la autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial, deseo de cambio estético y cambio de autoestima posterior a una cirugía, éstas se asociaron a través de un análisis de chi2, regresión logística de multivariado y ANOVA, con las distancias entre puntoantropométricos objetivos basados en estudios de Farkas y entre puntos cefalométricos basados en Epker y Fish; y entre ellas a través de un análisis. La normalidad facial se ve afectada principalmente por clases caninas derecha (p=0,02) e izquierda (p=0,015) y molares derecha (p=0,015) e izquierda (p=0,04); y además el apiñamiento dentario (p=0,012). Mientras el aumento en la distancia de exocantios (p=0,04), bases alares (p=0,03), proporción glabela subnasal y subnasal mentón (p=0,02) se asocian a una percepción de anormalidad. La autoestima puede variar de forma positiva posterior a un cambio estético, a través de cirugía o tratamiento de ortodoncia. Los parámetros dentomaxilares y craneofaciales son determinantes en la percepción de normalidad estética de estas mujeres, siendo los relacionados con nariz y altura facial los de mayor influencia en este estudio. Son necesarios futuros estudios para evaluar autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial y proporciones estéticas.Aesthetics and facial harmony are directly related to self-esteem and perception individuals have of themselves. There is often a desire to make overall aesthetic changes through surgery in order to get a positive assessment of oneself. The aim of this study was to research the relationship between perception, self-esteem and desire for change; and points aesthetic anthropometric and cephalometric points, as well as malocclusions in a group of women. Twenty nine (29)Chilean women between 20 and 25 years of age were chosen, taking part in a survey on self-esteem, self-perception of facial normalcy, the desire for aesthetic change, and changes of self-esteem following surgery. These were subsequently associated through Chi2 analysis, logistic multi variant regression and ANOVA, with distances between objective anthropometric marks based on Farkas research, and between cephalometric points based in Epker and Fish study. Facial normalcy seems mainly affected by right canine class (p=0.02), and left (p=0.015); right molar class (p=0.015) and left (p=0.04), as well as dental crowding (p=0.012). While greater exocanthion distance (p=0.04), alar base (p=0.03), subnasal glabella and subnasal menton ratios (p=0.02), are related to a perception of abnormality. Self esteem perception can vary in positive ways following an aesthetic change through surgery or orthodontic treatment. Dental, maxillary and craniofacial parameters are determinants of the aesthetic normalcy perception of these women, with nose and facial height having the most influence in this study. Further research is necessary to evaluate self- esteem and self perception of facial normalcy, as well as aesthetic ratios.

Claudio Huentequeo-Molina; Pablo Navarro; Bélgica Vásquez; Sergio Olate

2013-01-01

48

Management of facial trauma in children: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender minds of young children and their parents. This case report documents the trauma and follow up care of a 4-year-old patient with maxillofacial injuries.

Das U; Nagarathna C; Viswanath D; Keerthi R; Gadicherla P

2006-01-01

49

Cosmetic facial mask  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is a type of mask used for treating the facial area. In its preferred embodiment, it is a one-use, disposable mask. These can be constructed of highly porous surface material enclosing an interior filled with an effusable substance, such as black tea, green tea, herbal tea, herbal essence, chamomile, lavender, eucalyptus, or fruits. The mask is steeped in warm water before use to release the effusable substances.

CHO MICHELLE

50

Soft tissue facial trauma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatment of soft tissue facial trauma requires attention to detail. Careful cleansing, debridement, tailoring of skin edges and meticulous closure are factors which control the ultimate result. Specific attention is required for the special problems of eyelids, auricles, lips, nose and inside of the mouth. Scar formation occurs after all trauma and sometimes requies revision. In general, revision should be performed after maturation of the scar.

Mechlin DC; Davis WE; Templer J

1980-10-01

51

Facial Tracking Using Radial Basis Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper implements facial tracking using Radial basis function neural network (RBF). There is no unique method that claims perfect facial tracking in video transfer. The local features of a frame are segmented. A ratio is found based on a criteria and output of RBF is used for transferring the necessary information of the frame from one system to another system. A decision approach, with a threshold, is used to detect if there is any change in the local object of the successive frames. The accuracy of the result depends upon the number of centers. The performance of the algorithm in reconstructing the tracked object is about 96.5% and similar to the performance of back propagation algorithm (BPA), in terms of reduced time and quality of reconstruction.

P. Mayilvahanan; S. Purushothaman; A. Jothi

2011-01-01

52

Ocular protection in facial paralysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Facial nerve paralysis has a profound impact on patients' quality of life, of which one of the most important sequelae is a risk of corneal surface disease. Herein, we discuss methods to protect the eye following insult to the facial nerve. RECENT FINDINGS: Protection of the ocular surface in patients with facial nerve injury is of paramount importance to prevent corneal injury and potential blindness. Many interventions on the eye are temporary and therefore easily reversible. A systematic approach to managing the eye is required in these patients. SUMMARY: This article provides a review of current methods used for ocular protection in patients with facial nerve paralysis.

Bhama P; Bhrany AD

2013-08-01

53

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica/ Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão supragenic (more) ulada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial. Abstract in english The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Bento, Ricardo E.; Vellutini, Eduardo A. S.; Pahl, Felix H.; Tedesco-Marchese, A. J.; Formigoni, Gilberto S.; Navarro, Hector C.; Miniti, A.

1985-09-01

54

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão suprageniculada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial.The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Ricardo E. Bento; Eduardo A. S. Vellutini; Felix H. Pahl; A. J. Tedesco-Marchese; Gilberto S. Formigoni; Hector C. Navarro; A. Miniti

1985-01-01

55

[Emotional impact of facial palsy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial palsy is not only a movement disorder but leads also to an emotional and communicative disorder in chronic stage but also in some patients already during the acute phase of the disease. The present review describes the current knowledge of the neurobiological and psychological fundamentals on the relation of facial movement and its emotional context. So far there is not much knowledge on the impact of a facial palsy on the interaction between facial movement, emotional processing and communicative skills of the patient. The emotional contagion seems to be reduced in patients with facial palsy. The ability to express emotions seems also to be reduced. Moreover, the patients feel to be perceived negatively. In fact, most of the expressions of patients with facial palsy are allocated with a negative affect even when the patients are smiling. Patients with facial palsy react with negative stress, anxiety and depression. The patients avoid social contacts. In turn, this reinforces the communicative disorder. The otorhinolaryngologist can use the Facial Disability Index as a simple questionnaire to detect such dysfunctions. Diagnostics that are necessary to develop a therapy program are presented in this review. Standardized therapy concepts that are not only treat the movement disorder but also the emotional context is missing so far. Finally, the review will give an outlook on potential therapy strategies.

Dobel C; Miltner WH; Witte OW; Volk GF; Guntinas-Lichius O

2013-01-01

56

[Pediatric facial fractures. Characteristics of Portuguese population].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fractures of the facial skeleton are relatively uncommon in children and adolescents, and there are only few reports that review a significative number of patients. We performed a retrospective study to analyse the different characteristics of such fractures in the pediatric population in the north of Portugal. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and the surgical records of a series of 247 patients younger than 19 years, that were submitted to operation due to facial fractures by the Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Service of São João Hospital, Oporto (Portugal) between 1993 and 2002. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause of the accident, time and month of hospital admission, location and type of fractures, presence and location of associated injuries, treatment methods, length of in-hospital stay, and complications. RESULTS: Surgical treatment of 325 fractures was performed. The ratio of boys to girls was 3.3:1. The majority of injuries occurred in patients with 16 to 18 years old. Motor-vehicle accident (MVA) was the most common cause of injuries (57.1%). Mandibular fractures were the most common (62.5%). Associated injuries occurred in 63.2% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric facial fractures are usually associated with severe trauma. Although MVA was the most frequent cause of fractures, this has decreased. The incidence of these type of fractures is high in Portugal.

Ferreira P; Silva N; Silva A; Cardoso A; Rodrigues J; Reis J; Amarante J

2004-03-01

57

Quantitative ultrasonography of facial muscles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: There is no standardized method for examination of facial muscles with ultrasound. The purpose of this study was to identify those facial muscles accessible for reliable identification and to provide reference data. METHODS: In healthy subjects all facial muscles were screened for visibility, separation from adjacent muscles, and reliability of landmarks. Bilateral scans of reliable muscles were performed in 40 adult volunteers. RESULTS: Six facial muscles were clearly demarcated with ultrasound. These were: frontalis, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis muscles. Cross-sectional area and muscle thickness showed gender differences and were independently related to age for some muscles. A significant left-right side difference was only seen for the orbicularis oculi muscle in women. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the usefulness of ultrasonography to assess facial muscles and provide reference values that can be applied in the clinical setting.

Volk GF; Wystub N; Pohlmann M; Finkensieper M; Chalmers HJ; Guntinas-Lichius O

2013-06-01

58

Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression  

CERN Multimedia

This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

Pickin, Andrew

2011-01-01

59

Human facial dysostoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human facial dysostoses can be subdivided into mandibulofacial dysostoses (MFDs) and acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs). The craniofacial phenotypes of the two groups of patients are similar. Both types are thought to be related to abnormal migration of neural crest cells to the pharyngeal arches and the face. The craniofacial anomalies shared by the two groups consist of downslanting palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower eyelid, from which the eyelashes medial to the defect may be absent, hypoplasia of the zygomatic complex, micrognathia, and microtia, which is often associated with hearing loss. These facial deformities are associated with limb anomalies in the AFDs. All MFDs present with the typical craniofacial phenotype, but some have additional features that help to distinguish them clinically: intellectual disability, microcephaly, chest deformity, ptosis, cleft lip/palate, macroblepharon, or blepharophimosis. The limb anomalies in the AFDs can be classified into pre-axial, post-axial, and others not fitting into the first two AFD types. Of the pre-axial types, Nager syndrome and of the post-axial types, Miller syndrome are the best-known disorders of their AFD subgroups. Several other AFDs with unknown molecular genetic bases, including lethal ones, have been described. This article reviews the MFDs and AFDs published to date. PMID:23565775

Wieczorek, D

2013-04-08

60

Human facial dysostoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human facial dysostoses can be subdivided into mandibulofacial dysostoses (MFDs) and acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs). The craniofacial phenotypes of the two groups of patients are similar. Both types are thought to be related to abnormal migration of neural crest cells to the pharyngeal arches and the face. The craniofacial anomalies shared by the two groups consist of downslanting palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower eyelid, from which the eyelashes medial to the defect may be absent, hypoplasia of the zygomatic complex, micrognathia, and microtia, which is often associated with hearing loss. These facial deformities are associated with limb anomalies in the AFDs. All MFDs present with the typical craniofacial phenotype, but some have additional features that help to distinguish them clinically: intellectual disability, microcephaly, chest deformity, ptosis, cleft lip/palate, macroblepharon, or blepharophimosis. The limb anomalies in the AFDs can be classified into pre-axial, post-axial, and others not fitting into the first two AFD types. Of the pre-axial types, Nager syndrome and of the post-axial types, Miller syndrome are the best-known disorders of their AFD subgroups. Several other AFDs with unknown molecular genetic bases, including lethal ones, have been described. This article reviews the MFDs and AFDs published to date.

Wieczorek D

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial/ Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de (more) substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial) juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural) e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas. Abstract in english Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic) and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or (more) bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%). The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves) and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel; Vicente, Andy de Oliveira; Abreu, Carlos E.C.; Benbassat, Simone F.; Antunes, Marcos L.; Barros, Flávia A.

2003-10-01

62

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial) juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural) e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic) and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%). The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves) and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

José Ricardo Gurgel Testa; Andy de Oliveira Vicente; Carlos E.C. Abreu; Simone F. Benbassat; Marcos L. Antunes; Flávia A. Barros

2003-01-01

63

Condensing Flows in High Aspect Ratio Channel Geometries  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate condensing flow regimes in high aspect ratio rectangular geometries, where the width to height ratio ranges from 20-to-1 to 65-to-1. These geometries are designed for condenser layers of a novel capillary-pumped loop heat pipe design in a high performance heat sink. In this work, we study the effect of geometry, vapor mass flow rate, and surface design on condensing flow regimes and heat removal capability. We fabricated an experimental test rig which allows for optical access from the top, temperature measurements on the condensing surface, and controlled cooling from the bottom. In addition, the rig was placed on a tilt stage to examine the effect of a gravitational head on condensation. The experimental results show that the flow regimes are largely dictated by the dominant force, i.e., gravity, surface tension, or inertia. In addition, as the backside cooling temperature increased, the condensing length increased. Current work is focused on incorporating surface features to enhance heat transfer coefficients and to eliminate unstable condensation regimes.

Koveal, Catherine; McCarthy, Matthew; Wang, Evelyn N.

2009-11-01

64

Parotidectomía y vena facial Parotidectomy and facial vein  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La cirugía de los tumores benignos de la parótida, es una cirugía de relaciones con estructuras fundamentalmente nerviosas cuyo daño, representa un gravísimo problema psicosomático por definirlo de una manera genérica. Para ayudar al manejo quirúrgico del nervio facial periférico, es por lo que en el presente artículo tratamos de enfatizar la importancia de la vena facial en la disección y conservación del nervio, precisamente donde su disección suele ser más comprometida, esto es en las ramas más caudales. El trabajo que vamos a desarrollar hay que verlo pues, como un ensalzamiento de las estructuras venosas en el seguimiento y control del nervio facial periférico y de porqué no, el nervio auricular mayor no siempre suficientemente valorado en la cirugía de la parótida al perder protagonismo con el facial.Benign parotid tumor surgery is related to fundamental nervous structures, defined simply: that when damaged cause great psychosomatic problems. In order to make peripheral facial nerve surgery easy to handle for the surgeon this article emphasizes the importance of the facial vein in the dissection and conservation of the nerve. Its dissection can be compromised if the caudal branches are damaged. The study that we develop should be seen as praise for the vein structures in the follow up and control of the peripheral facial nerve, and the main auricular nerve that is often undervalued when it is no longer the protagonist in the face.

F. Hernández Altemir; S. Hernández Montero; S. Hernández Montero; E. Hernández Montero

2009-01-01

65

MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

1996-10-01

66

MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

1996-01-01

67

Parotidectomía y vena facial/ Parotidectomy and facial vein  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La cirugía de los tumores benignos de la parótida, es una cirugía de relaciones con estructuras fundamentalmente nerviosas cuyo daño, representa un gravísimo problema psicosomático por definirlo de una manera genérica. Para ayudar al manejo quirúrgico del nervio facial periférico, es por lo que en el presente artículo tratamos de enfatizar la importancia de la vena facial en la disección y conservación del nervio, precisamente donde su disección suele ser má (more) s comprometida, esto es en las ramas más caudales. El trabajo que vamos a desarrollar hay que verlo pues, como un ensalzamiento de las estructuras venosas en el seguimiento y control del nervio facial periférico y de porqué no, el nervio auricular mayor no siempre suficientemente valorado en la cirugía de la parótida al perder protagonismo con el facial. Abstract in english Benign parotid tumor surgery is related to fundamental nervous structures, defined simply: that when damaged cause great psychosomatic problems. In order to make peripheral facial nerve surgery easy to handle for the surgeon this article emphasizes the importance of the facial vein in the dissection and conservation of the nerve. Its dissection can be compromised if the caudal branches are damaged. The study that we develop should be seen as praise for the vein structures (more) in the follow up and control of the peripheral facial nerve, and the main auricular nerve that is often undervalued when it is no longer the protagonist in the face.

Hernández Altemir, F.; Hernández Montero, S.; Hernández Montero, S.; Hernández Montero, E.

2009-10-01

68

Rapid facial mimicry in orangutan play  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emotional contagion enables individuals to experience emotions of others. This important empathic phenomenon is closely linked to facial mimicry, where facial displays evoke the same facial expressions in social partners. In humans, facial mimicry can be voluntary or involuntary, whereby its latter ...

Davila Ross, Marina; Menzler, Susanne; Zimmermann, Elke

69

Facial-massage device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a facial massage device comprising a support formed of a handle (11) terminated by a curved section (12) which supports a massage plate (13) in which there are provided a series of openings (15) intended to retain rotary massage balls (14). A central ball (17) is connected by a rod (18) to a ball joint (19) embedded in a socket (20) in the part (12) of the handle (11). The balls (14) protrude extensively from the plate (13) which serves as support for them, and the assembly consisting of the ball and plate (13) is highly movable with respect to the handle (11) due to the double articulation formed by the central ball (17) and the ball joint (19).

Kaeser Charles

70

Facial massage device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a facial massage device comprising a support formed of a handle (11) terminated by a curved section (12) which supports a massage plate (13) in which there are provided a series of openings (15) intended to retain rotary massage balls (14). A central ball (17) is connected by a rod (18) to a ball joint (19) embedded in a socket (20) in the part (12) of the handle (11). The balls (14) protrude extensively from the plate (13) which serves as support for them, and the assembly consisting of the ball and plate (13) is highly movable with respect to the handle (11) due to the double articulation formed by the central ball (17) and the ball joint (19).

KAESER CHARLES

71

Facial-washing unit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The washing-unit has a washbowl 1 having in its base a cavity closed by a porous plate 5 which separates the washbowl 1 from an air chamber 7. Air is supplied to the chamber 7 from an electric blower 9 via an air supply tube 10. Air passing into wash water in the washbowl 1 through the porous plate 4 causes large numbers of small air bubbles in the wash water which assist in facial cleansing. The air supply tube 10 projects into the air chamber 7 so that any water leaking into the chamber 7 does not pass through the tube 10 to the blower 9. For the same reason the tube 10 is provided with at least one check valve 11a. Several embodiments of check valve are disclosed. The air supply is adjusted by a control device 15 which incorporates a thyristor to vary the electric power supplied to the blower 9.

72

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

73

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion.

Khanna N; Rasool S

2011-09-01

74

Interventional procedures for facial pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interventional pain procedures are critical in the diagnosis and management of a variety of facial pain conditions. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is the most frequent diagnosis for facial pain, with a reported prevalence 10 times greater than persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP). Although pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions benefit many patients with these diagnoses, the pain remains disabling for a significant portion of others. Percutaneous interventions targeting the gasserian ganglion and its branches have proven effective in the management of TN, while there is also supportive evidence for treating the sphenopalatine ganglion in PIFP.

Vorenkamp KE

2013-01-01

75

Spontaneous trigeminal-facial reinnervation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although spontaneous recovery of denervated facial muscles has been anecdotally recorded in the clinical setting, it has never been fully documented. The establishment of anastomoses between the terminal trigeminal and facial nerves provides a possible explanation of this phenomenon. Mechanisms of myoneurotization have also been described, by which regenerating branches of severed peripheral motor nerves directly reach motor end plates of denervated muscles, with variable recovery of function. A case demonstrating unequivocal clinical evidence of trigeminal-facial cross-innervation is presented, and the pertinent literature is reviewed as it applies to the mechanisms of this phenomenon.

DeLacure MD; Sasaki CT; Petcu LG

1990-09-01

76

Facial lymphadenopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIMS: This paper reports the findings of facial nodal metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The film records of 1916 patients with histologically confirmed NPC seen over a 5-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Eight facial nodes were demonstrated in three (0.2%) patients. There were three buccinator, two malar, two infraorbital and one mandibular nodes. CONCLUSION: Facial nodal metastasis in NPC is unusual, but may be seen at presentation or during recurrence. Chong, V.F.H., Fan, Y.-F. (2000)

Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F

2000-05-01

77

Facial nerve hemangioma: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although hemangiomas are relatively common in the head and neck, those that originate in the facial nerve are extremely rare. These benign tumors have the potential to compress or invade the adjacent facial nerve and thereby produce facial paralysis and other associated symptoms. We present a case of facial nerve hemangioma in a 15-year-old girl that initially manifested as unilateral facial weakness. We also discuss the diagnostic imaging and management options.

Wu EC; Rothholtz VS; Zardouz S; Lee AD; Djalilian HR

2013-06-01

78

Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma"/ "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La int (more) roducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior). Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior). Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog) se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil. Abstract in english Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal lifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a (more) new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved

Ramírez, O. M.; Novo Torres, A.; Volpe, Ch. R.

2007-03-01

79

Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior). Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior). Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog) se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil.Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal lifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction of the sagging cheek structures. T

O. M. Ramírez; A. Novo Torres; Ch. R. Volpe

2007-01-01

80

Imaging of the facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Imaging of the facial nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

2010-05-15

82

Facial lotion containing plant extract  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a facial cleanser with plant extracts. The facial cleanser comprises the effective ingredients such as a surfactant, an emulsifier, an emollient, an anti-allergic agent, a humectant, a nutrient, an antiseptic, a pigment, an essence, deionized water, etc., and further comprises shaddock leaf and/or Chinese wampee leaf extract with 0.05-15.0% weight percentage. The invention successfully searches out a preparation method of the extract of the shaddock leaf and/or Chinese wampee leaf from the rue family plants and which is applicable to the facial cleanser, and the extract is applied to the facial cleanser. Experiments prove that the cleanser reaches the functions of high-efficiency and persistent disinfection, whitening, and resisting aging, inflammation and allergy, etc.

HUIJUAN LI

83

Facial Expression Recognition System :Basics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an important part of technology for humanmachine interface, FER draws much attention recently and numerous methods are proposed .For human beings ,facial expressions is one of the most powerful, natural and non verbal way to communicate their emotions and intensions. A human being can detect facial expression without efforts, but for a machine it is very difficult. This paper describes the problem of facial expression recognition in the field of computer vision .Firstly, the psychological background of a problem presented. Then the idea of facial expression recognition system (FERS) is outlined and the requirement of such system is specified. The FER consists of 3 stages: face detection, feature extraction and expression recognition .Method proposed in literature are reviewed for each stage of system.

Tanvi Srivastava

2012-01-01

84

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions) and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones). Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing) and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

2006-01-01

85

Facial transplantation: A concise update  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation.

Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

2013-01-01

86

[Facial volumes and vertical facial type: a three dimensional comparative study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the volume of facial cavities in untreated young subjects with long- and short-faces. METHODS: Two groups of thirty subjects each, one with low (GoGn-SN < or = 28 degrees), and the other with high (GoGn-SN > or = 36 degrees) mandibular plane angles, ages between 18 to 30 years, were selected. For each subject, volumes of orbital, sinusal and buccal cavities were measured from CT scans with the AMIRA software. The statistical studies were performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, followed by Student "t" test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Results suggest that there is no statistically significant difference between the volume of facial cavities in long- and short-face subjects. Only the ratio of nasal cavity volume to the total volume is significantly smaller in the short-face group. CONCLUSION: A compensatory phenomenon might exist between the three directions of growth to equilibrate an excess or deficit of the vertical dimension, thus maintaining constant the volume of facial cavities.

Bassil-Nassif N; Bouserhal J; Garcia R

2010-06-01

87

Epidemiology study of facial injuries during a 13 month of trauma registry in Tehran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many studies have recently noted a shift in the causative mechanism of facial injuries away from traffic accident to assaults. AIMS: Our study aimed to investigate patterns of facial injuries in trauma patients during 13 months study of trauma patients in six general hospitals in Tehran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trauma patients who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours and had sustained injuries within seven days from admission were included in the study. Of the 8000 trauma patients, four hundred (5%) sustained facial injuries. RESULTS: Male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Among them, 53.3% were aged 11-30 years. Traffic accidents were by the far the commonest cause of injury. Motorcyclists who wore a helmet sustained facial fractures less often during traffic accident than those patients who did not wear helmet. Soft tissue injury and facial bone fracture comprised 43.3% and 40.8% of facial injuries, respectively. The majority of Soft tissue injuries (79%) were located extra orally. The mandible and nasal bone were the most commonly fractured facial bones. Victims of assault sustained more severe injuries compared to those involved in falls and traffic accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Use of helmets by motorcyclists and the separation of pedestrians routes from motor vehicles could reduce the number of victims and consequently injuries due to road traffic accidents. For implementation of effective prevention programs for reduction of facial injuries due to assault, it seems to be necessary to conduct studies investigating causes and pattern of injuries resulting in assault.

Zargar M; Khaji A; Karbakhsh M; Zarei MR

2004-03-01

88

Imaging investigation of facial neuroma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To investigate imaging methods and imaging findings of facial neuroma to promote its diagnostic accuracy. Methods: CT was performed in all 10 patients with facial neuroma confirmed by pathology and surgery. Of all 10 patients, plain and enhanced MRI was performed in 6 patients. CT and MRI findings were analysed and compared retrospectively. Results: Ten facial neuromas consisted of 6 schwannoma and 4 neurofibroma. The tumor affected the horizontal segment of facial nerve in 8 cases, anterior genu in 6, mastoid segment in 4, labyrinth segment in 2, internal auditory canal segment in 3, intra-parotid segment in 2, and cistern segment in 1. On CT, enlargement of fallopian canal was seen in 9 cases, soft tissue mass in tympanum in 7 cases, destruction of auditory ossicles in 5, and bone destruction with soft tissue mass in mastoid region in 4. MRI demonstrated enlargement of facial nerve in 6 cases, soft tissue mass in tympanum, mastoid region and jugular fossa in 2, and soft tissue mass only in tympanum in 2. In 3 of 6 patients, the soft tissue mass was slightly hypointense and inhomogeneous on T1WI, hyperintense on T2WI and heterogeneous enhancement after administration of contrast medium. However, in other 3 cases, the soft tissue mass showed isointense signal on T1-and T2-weighted images and homogeneous enhancement alter contrast. 2 neuroma involving internal auditory canal segment of facial nerve was clearly demonstrated on postcontrast T1WI but not shown on pre-contrast T1-and T2-images. CT missed 3 neuromas found with MRI, 2 involving internal auditory canal segment and 1 involving tympanum segment. For the small facial neuroma, CT found enlargement and/or destruction of fallopian canal only, but MRI could demonstrated enlarged facial nerve itself. Conclusion: CT and MRI, especially postcontrast T1WI, can accurately display shape, location, extension, and structure of facial neuroma, which contribute to diagnose the lesion and provide evidence for surgical planning

2001-01-01

89

Facial transplantation: a concise update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. STUDY DESIGN: MEDLINE search of articles published on "face transplantation" until March 2012. RESULTS: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 9 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients.

Infante-Cossio P; Barrera-Pulido F; Gomez-Cia T; Sicilia-Castro D; Garcia-Perla-Garcia A; Gacto-Sanchez P; Hernandez-Guisado JM; Lagares-Borrego A; Narros-Gimenez R; Gonzalez-Padilla JD

2013-03-01

90

Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de tabagismo). Os indivíduos tabagistas e não tabagistas foram avaliados de acordo com o tempo e a quantidade de cigarros fumados, o sexo, a cor da pele e a idade. RESULTADOS: A comparação quanto ao escore da fácies de tabagismo evidenciou que o grupo tabagista apresentou maior escore que o grupo não tabagista (p=0,021). Foram observadas diferenças significativas de escore na comparação entre as faixas etárias (p=0,004) e a cor (p <0,01). Em relação à quantidade de cigarros fumados e o tempo desse hábito de acordo com sexo não houve diferenças de escore. A análise multivariada das variáveis, evidenciou que o tabagismo, Odds Ratio (OR) = 3,49, a cor da pele (OR=8,10) e a idade (OR=1,21) são fatores independentes para o envelhecimento facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo é fator de risco independente para o envelhecimento cutâneo. Esse achado confirma os efeitos cutâneos nocivos do cigarro, constituindo-se em mais um argumento na luta contra o tabagismo.

Suehara Letícia Yumi; Simone Karine; Maia Marcus

2006-01-01

91

Prosthetic therapy of the lateral facial defect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Facial defects may arise as a result of head and neck trauma or facial tumor ablation. Minor defects can be reconstructed surgically while large defects usually need combined surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. The aim of this study was to present the prosthetic reconstruction of the lateral facial defect using facial colored acrylic prosthesis. Case Report. A male patient with a maxillary defect on the left side and a large lateral facial defect on the same side received an obturator prosthesis as well as a facial colored acrylic prosthesis (facial-orbit) retained by the glasses frame. Satisfied aesthetics was accomplished. However, the stability of the prostheses during mandibular movements could not be achieved which resulted in saliva leakage over the lips. Conclusion. Better functional and aesthetic outcome could be achieved by combined surgical and prosthetic treatment of such large facial defect.

Lazi? Vojkan; ?or?evi? Igor

2012-01-01

92

Side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis via transposition of the intratemporal facial nerve  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The technique of facial nerve repair with side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is presented and evaluated in five patients, who were operated on because of facial nerve paralysis after acoustic neuroma surgery or had cranial base trauma. The classic hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is accom...

Rebol, J; Milojkovic, V; Didanovic, V

93

The contribution of different cues of facial movement to the emotional facial expression adaptation aftereffect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Probing emotional facial expression recognition with the adaptation paradigm is one way to investigate the processes underlying emotional face recognition. Previous research suggests that these processes are tuned to dynamic facial information (facial movement). Here we examined the tuning of processes involved in the recognition of emotional facial expressions to different sources of facial movement information. Specifically we investigated the effect of the availability of rigid head movement and intrinsic facial movements (e.g., movement of facial features) on the size of the emotional facial expression adaptation effect. Using a three-dimensional (3D) morphable model that allowed the manipulation of the availability of each of the two factors (intrinsic facial movement, head movement) individually, we examined emotional facial expression adaptation with happy and disgusted faces. Our results show that intrinsic facial movement is necessary for the emergence of an emotional facial expression adaptation effect with dynamic adaptors. The presence of rigid head motion modulates the emotional facial expression adaptation effect only in the presence of intrinsic facial motion. In a second experiment we show these adaptation effects are difficult to explain by merely the perceived intensity and clarity (uniqueness) of the adaptor expressions. Together these results suggest that processes encoding facial expressions are differently tuned to different sources of facial movements.

de la Rosa S; Giese M; Bülthoff HH; Curio C

2013-01-01

94

Emotion recognition using facial images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial emotion is vital path for human contact and also used in numerous real applications. Facial expression identification has in recent times become a hopeful investigate area.Their applications include human-computer interface, human emotion examination robot control, driver state surveillance and medical fields. This paper aims to perform emotion classification scheme to identify six dissimilar facial emotions, such as anger, fear, sad, happy, disgust and surprise by using JAFFE database. This was done by extracting patch based type from the image by using PCA. After patches are matched to the trained image. The scheme of patch harmonizing operations has been used to construct features for object identification and action categorization, which stay on vigorous whenthere are change in location, scale, and direction. The smallest value is chosen as the last feature for emotion categorization. The consequential distance characteristics are fed into the Random ForestClassifier to get accurate results for emotion recognition

Ramya.S; Siva sankari.S; Narasimhan.K

2013-01-01

95

Facial aging: A clinical classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

Shiffman Melvin

2007-01-01

96

Surgical Approaches to Facial Nerve Deficits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The facial nerve is one of the most commonly injured cranial nerves. Once injured, the effects on form, function, and psyche are profound. We review the anatomy of the facial nerve from the brain stem to its terminal branches. We also discuss the physical exam findings of facial nerve injury at vari...

Birgfeld, Craig; Neligan, Peter

97

Pseudotumoural hypertrophic neuritis of the facial nerve  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a retrospective study of our cases of recurrent paralysis of the facial nerve of tumoural and non-tumoural origin, a tumour-like lesion of the intra-temporal course of the facial nerve, mimicking facial nerve schwannoma, was found and investigated in 4 cases. This was defined as, pseudotumoral hy...

Zanoletti, E; Mazzoni, A; Barbò, R

98

Facial hair policy in a respirator program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the prohibition against facial hair for respirator users is explored. Reasons for the prohibition are given, along with suggestions for establishing or reviewing a policy. Recommendations are given for properly wording a facial hair policy, and the issue of facial hair on female workers is also addressed.

Steinmeyer, P.R. (Radiation Safety Associates, Inc. (US))

1989-10-01

99

Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo Evaluation of facial aging related to cigarette smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de tabagismo). Os indivíduos tabagistas e não tabagistas foram avaliados de acordo com o tempo e a quantidade de cigarros fumados, o sexo, a cor da pele e a idade. RESULTADOS: A comparação quanto ao escore da fácies de tabagismo evidenciou que o grupo tabagista apresentou maior escore que o grupo não tabagista (p=0,021). Foram observadas diferenças significativas de escore na comparação entre as faixas etárias (p=0,004) e a cor (p BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular and lung diseases, and skin aging. OBJECTIVE:To compare the facial skin of smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: The survey included 77 patients aged 40-60 years and excluded those who had been submitted to esthetic facial treatment, who had been exposed to sun over 2 hours/day and who were alcoholic. There were 34 smokers and 43 nonsmokers. The skin alterations were evaluated and classified according to Model (smoker's face). The patients were assessed considering sex, race, age and pack-years of smoking. RESULTS: We compared the total score of smoker's face in the two groups: smokers and nonsmokers, the latter had less alterations of the skin (p=0.021). There were significant statistical differences as to age (p=0.004) race (p<0.01). No differences were observed regarding sex and pack-years of smoking. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that cigarette smoking (odds ratio (OR)=3.49), race (OR=8.10) and age (OR=1.21) were independent factors for facial aging. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for facial aging. This finding could be useful in antismoking campaigns, especially those more interested in appearance than in internal damage.

Letícia Yumi Suehara; Karine Simone; Marcus Maia

2006-01-01

100

Familial focal facial dermal dysplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Familial focal facial dermal dysplasia is a disorder, autosomal dominant in its inheritance, characterized by areas of puckered skin at the temples with other areas of the face sometimes affected. The large family reported has 26 known affected individuals. The family considers "cancer of the stomach" as an hereditary trait, but their histories suggest some abdominal carcinoma, such as intestinal polyposis.

McGeoch AH; Reed WB

1971-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Giant sialocele following facial trauma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in th...

Medeiros Júnior, R; Rocha Neto, AM; Queiroz, IV; Cauby, ADEF; Gueiros, LA; Leão, JC

102

THREE-DIMENSIONAL FACIAL ANTHROPOMETRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of 3D surface technology is progressively increasing in health clinics and research centers. Methods of capturing 3D facial surface may obtain more imaging information providing a reliable and fast analysis. Stereophotogrammetry is a promising method of soft-tissue evaluation that allows rel...

DE MENEZES, MARCIO

103

Bilateral facial synkinesis in leprosy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leprosy is an important cause of cranial nerve palsy in endemic areas where it may be seen in upto 17.6% patients. The authors herein describe a rare case of bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis with video documentation and modified blink reflex. A 35-year-old gentleman presented with numbness involving right half of his face for 8 months and abnormal stretching sensations over both sides of his nose for one and a half months. Sensory and motor involvement of the right trigeminal nerve was detected along with bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis involving orbicularis oculi and nasalis. R(1) and R(2) responses consistent with mis-reinnervation were recorded on the left-side using orbicularis oculi and nasalis muscles. Skin biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli and sural nerve biopsy, the presence of granulomas. After 3 months of follow-up on WHO multi-drug therapy, an improvement in facial sensations was observed but without any change in facial synkinetic movements.

Malhotra HS; Garg RK; Goel MM; Jain A; Gupta A; Lalla R; Singh GP

2012-01-01

104

Facial aging: A clinical classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for f...

Shiffman Melvin

105

Facial pain in children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial pain is a debilitating disorder if left untreated. It has been suggested that the most commonly undiagnosed facial pain conditions include neuropathic and myofascial pains because their pathophysiologies are not well understood. Facial neuralgias are otherwise rare in children. They are not acknowledged in most paediatric tests, there are few published reports on them, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) has not been described in children. Some of the most common forms of facial pain will be considered and some considerations concerning the problem of atypical facial pain in young age and its treatment will be discussed. PMID:15926004

Grazzi, L; Usai, S; Rigamonti, A

2005-05-01

106

Epidemiologia do trauma facial Epidemiology of facial trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. Os dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78%) e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%), seguida de queda (26,2%), atropelamento (6,4%), esporte (5,4%), acidente de carro (4,2%), acidente de motocicleta (3,1%), impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%), acidente de trabalho (1,8%), ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%), inespecífica (1,2%). As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%), seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%), nasal (11,6%), zigoma (10,3%), dental (9,1%), órbita (4,9%) e maxila (0,6%). Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão.OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and skin color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78%) and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%), followed by fall (26.2%), run overs 6.4%), sports (5.4%), car accidents (4.2%), motorcycle accidents (3.1%), non-fall impacts (2.4%), occupational injuries (1.8%), gunshot wounds (1.2%), unspecific (1.2%). Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%), followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%), nasal bones (11.6%), zygoma (10.3%), tooth (9.1%), orbit (4.9%) and maxilla (0.6%). Associated injuries Epidemiologia do trauma facial occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

Marcelo Wulkan; José Gustavo Parreira Jr; Denise Aparecida Botter

2005-01-01

107

Epidemiologia do trauma facial/ Epidemiology of facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. Os dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78%) e sua incidência foi maior na (more) faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%), seguida de queda (26,2%), atropelamento (6,4%), esporte (5,4%), acidente de carro (4,2%), acidente de motocicleta (3,1%), impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%), acidente de trabalho (1,8%), ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%), inespecífica (1,2%). As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%), seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%), nasal (11,6%), zigoma (10,3%), dental (9,1%), órbita (4,9%) e maxila (0,6%). Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and skin color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78%) and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause (more) was interpersonal violence (48.1%), followed by fall (26.2%), run overs 6.4%), sports (5.4%), car accidents (4.2%), motorcycle accidents (3.1%), non-fall impacts (2.4%), occupational injuries (1.8%), gunshot wounds (1.2%), unspecific (1.2%). Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%), followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%), nasal bones (11.6%), zygoma (10.3%), tooth (9.1%), orbit (4.9%) and maxilla (0.6%). Associated injuries Epidemiologia do trauma facial occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

Wulkan, Marcelo; Parreira Jr, José Gustavo; Botter, Denise Aparecida

2005-10-01

108

Seis anos de atendimento em trauma facial: análise epidemiológica de 355 casos Six years of facial trauma care: an epidemiological analysis of 355 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traumas faciais são frequentes em emergências requerendo o diagnóstico de fraturas e lesões associadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar dados epidemiológicos de atendimento em trauma facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 335 prontuários de pacientes com trauma facial tratados pelo Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia, no período de Janeiro de 2002 a Dezembro de 2008. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade, gênero, etiologia, local anatômico da fratura, lesão associada, consumo de álcool, tratamento e hospitalização. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte longitudinal histórico. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes são homens adultos jovens (pFacial traumas are frequent in emergencies, and they require the diagnosis of fractures and associated lesions. AIM: To analyze epidemiological data concerning facial trauma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-five charts from patients with facial trauma treated by the Service of Otorhinolaryngology, from January 2002 to December 2008, were revised. The following data was collected: age, gender, etiology, anatomical localization of the fracture, associated injuries, alcohol consumption, treatment, and hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective historical longitudinal study. RESULTS: Most of the patients are young adult men (p<0.05) with a male:female ratio of 4:1(p<0.05). Interpersonal violence is the most prevalent cause of facial trauma (27.9%), followed by motor vehicle accidents (16.6%) (p<0.05). The mandible is the most prevalent facial bone fractured (44.2%), followed by nasal fracture (18.9%) (p<0.05). 41.1% of the patients consumed alcohol with a male:female ratio of 11.2:1 (p<0.05). Seventy-seven percent of the patients required surgical intervention (p<0.05) and 84.5% were hospitalized (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Young male adults are the most prevalent victims of facial trauma, and interpersonal violence is responsible for the majority of the facial injuries. Most of the cases of facial trauma are associated with the consumption of alcohol. Further studies will be necessary to provide a clear understanding of the trends in the etiology of facial trauma.

Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni Carvalho; Launa Renata Londero Cancian; Caroline Gabriele Marques; Vânia Belintani Piatto; José Victor Maniglia; Fernando Drimel Molina

2010-01-01

109

Imaging the facial nerve: a contemporary review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers.

Gupta S; Mends F; Hagiwara M; Fatterpekar G; Roehm PC

2013-01-01

110

Reconhecimento facial e autismo Facial recognizing and autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através da apresentação de quatro figuras com expressões faciais diversas, avaliamos a capacidade de reconhecimento de crianças autistas, comparando-as com crianças de inteligência normal e adultos normais. A comparação dos resultados obtidos foi realizada através do teste do qui-quadrado. As diferenças observadas mostraram-se significativas, reforçando a idéia de que existe uma dificuldade da percepção das expressões faciais nas crianças autistas, o que interfere diretamente nos relacionamentos sociais.Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic childrens recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, showing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

FRANCISCO B. ASSUMPÇÃO JR; MARIA HELENA SPROVIERI; EVELYN KUCZYNSKI; VERA FARINHA

1999-01-01

111

Sympathicotomy for Isolated Facial Blushing: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period. Quality of life (QOL) was investigated preoperatively and after 12 months by Short Form 36. Local effects and side effects were assessed by questionnaire. Results. The male/female ratio was 27/73. The median age was 29 years (range, 18-56 years. The response rate was 93%. QOL increased significantly in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient experienced Horner's syndrome. Compensatory sweating occurred in 93% of patients, gustatory sweating 36%, and dry hands in 66%; 13% of patients regretted the operation despite thorough preoperative selection and information. Conclusions. There were no significant differences in local effects or side effects between R2 and R2-R3 sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing. Both were effective, and QOL increased significantly. Despite very frequent side effects, the vast majority of patients were satisfied. Surprisingly, many patients experienced mild recurrent symptoms within the first year; this should always be discussed with patients preoperatively. (Ann Thorac Surg 2012;94:401-5) (c) 2012 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Licht, P. B.; Pilegaard, Hans

2012-01-01

112

Surgical experience of intratemporal facial nerve neurofibromas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: The first presentation of intratemporal facial neurofibromas was variable, with facial palsy most common. The tumors often involve two or more segments of facial nerve. Outcomes of the tumors were closely related to nerve integrity, preoperative facial nerve function level, and follow-up period. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present surgical experience of 11 cases with intratemporal facial neurofibroma. METHODS: Clinical data of the 11 cases with the tumors was retrospectively collected and analyzed. They were followed up for 37.9 ± 1.7 months, range 13-59 months, except for one case that was only followed up for 5 months and was excluded from the analysis of outcomes. RESULTS: Facial palsy was the first presentation in 10 cases, with repetitive facial palsy and vertigo in 1 case; 6 cases (54.5%) were insidious and 5 (45.5%) were sudden in terms of onset. Ear pain around the onset of facial palsy was found in four cases (36.4%). The tumor involved more than one segment in six cases. Among the non-grafted cases one patient with grade V facial nerve function recovered to grade III and another patient with grade VI facial nerve function recovered to grade IV, whereas only one case with grade VI recovered to grade IV among the grafted cases.

Dai C; Li J; Guo L; Song Z

2013-08-01

113

Avaliação comparativa entre agradabilidade facial e análise subjetiva do Padrão Facial/ Comparative evaluation among facial attractiveness and subjective analysis of Facial Pattern  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar duas análises subjetivas faciais utilizadas para o diagnóstico ortodôntico, avaliação da agradabilidade facial e definição de Padrão Facial, e verificar a associação existente entre elas. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se 208 fotografias faciais padronizadas (104 laterais e 104 frontais) de 104 indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação da agradabilidade por dois grupos distintos (Grupo " Ortodontia" e Grupo " Leigos" ) (more) , que classificaram os indivíduos em " agradável" , " aceitável" ou " desagradável" . Os indivíduos também foram classificados quanto ao Padrão Facial por três examinadores calibrados, utilizando-se apenas a vista lateral. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: após a análise estatística, verificou-se que houve associação fortemente positiva entre a agradabilidade facial e o Padrão Facial para a norma lateral, porém não para a frontal, em que os indivíduos tenderam a ser bem classificados mesmo no Padrão II. Abstract in english AIM: To study two subjective facial analysis commonly used on orthodontic diagnosis and to verify the association between the evaluation of facial attractiveness and Facial Pattern definition. METHODS: Two hundred and eight standardized face photographs (104 in lateral view and 104 in frontal view) of 104 randomly chosen individuals were used in the present study. They were classified as " pleasant" , " acceptable" and " not pleasant" by two distinct groups: " Lay people" (more) and " Orthodontists" . The individuals were either classified according to their Facial Pattern using lateral view images. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After statistical analysis, it was noted a strong positive concordance between facial attractiveness in lateral view and Facial Pattern, however, frontal view attractiveness classification did not have good concordance with Facial Pattern, tending to have good attractiveness classification even in Facial Pattern II.

Morihisa, Olívia; Maltagliati, Liliana Ávila

2009-12-01

114

Facial Reactions during Emotion Recognition in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Facial Electromyography Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Previous studies have suggested increased sensitivity for emotional facial expressions and subtle impairments in emotion recognition from facial expressions in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It has been proposed that facial mimicry contributes to emotion recognition of and emotional response to facial expressions. This study investigated whether BPD patients differ in facial reactions, emotion recognition and their subjective emotional response to faces showing different emotional expressions. Method: Twenty-eight female BPD patients and 28 healthy controls underwent a facial recognition task with dynamic facial pictures while facial muscle activity (occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, levator labii superioris, zygomaticus major and orbicularis oculi) was recorded. Furthermore, participants rated the emotional intensity of the presented faces and the intensity of their subjective feeling of this emotion. Results: Compared to controls, BPD patients showed enhanced responses of the corrugator supercilii muscle in response to angry, sad and disgusted facial expressions, and attenuated responses of the levator labii superioris in response to happy and surprised faces. There were no overall group differences regarding emotion recognition performance or intensity ratings. Conclusion: These results do not support the view that facial recognition in BPD is impaired or that there is a general hypersensitivity to the emotional state of others. Instead, they suggest a negativity bias in BPD, expressed by reduced facial responding to positive social signals and increased facial responding to negative social signals. This is a pattern of facial reactions that might contribute to the difficulties in social interactions frequently reported by patients with this disorder.

Matzke B; Herpertz SC; Berger C; Fleischer M; Domes G

2013-09-01

115

Q10 triggered facial vitiligo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Generation and accumulation of reactive oxygen / nitrogen species (ROS / RNS) in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo has been widely documented. Moreover, semiquinone radical mediated sensitivity has been shown in blood lymphocytes of these patients. OBJECTIVES: Possible mechanism behind Q10 induced facial vitiligo. METHODS: Clinical assessment supported by in vivo FT-Raman spectroscopy and repigmentation. RESULTS: Topical Q10 application generates hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) leading in turn to facial vitiligo in susceptible individuals. Proof of the basic result stems from reduction of epidermal hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) by a NB-UVB activated pro- pseudocatalase PC-KUS in association with cessation of depigmentation and repigmentation of the lost skin colour. CONCLUSIONS: Over the counter availability of Q10 containing topical formulations can be harmful to individuals susceptible for vitiligo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Schallreuter KU

2013-08-01

116

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients’ cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are analyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

Joa?o Paulo Machado de Sousa and Jaime Eduardo Ceci?lio Hallak

2008-01-01

117

Mapping and manipulating facial expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of nonverbal visual behavior during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions.

Theobald BJ; Matthews I; Mangini M; Spies JR; Brick TR; Cohn JF; Boker SM

2009-01-01

118

Removal of unwanted facial hair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

2002-11-15

119

Removal of unwanted facial hair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.

Shenenberger DW; Utecht LM

2002-11-01

120

Numerical modeling of facial aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial aging is a biological phenomenon. Skin properties change with time, and gravity and facial expressions exert mechanical deformation. Knowledge of these alterations may suggest ways to reverse them by identifying the corresponding distortional forces. The aim of this study was to determine a pattern of change for parameters of the face during the aging process, based on the numerical fitting of measures from a sample of patients. The first aspect of this study was to define adequate facial parameters and means of measuring them. Subsequently, each parameter was defined individually, and these data were analyzed as a set. The sample for the research was restricted to a group of 40 white female patients with a history of limited exposure to the sun, with ages ranging from 25 to 65. The reason for choosing this sample was the availability of frontal pattern photographs at different ages. The parameters for each patient were measured at two different ages. A strong correlation was found between age and behavior of the parameters. This aging model can be verified qualitatively by comparing photographs of a patient with manipulated photographs simulating aging. The quantitative verification of the model was done through the comparison of the measured and the predicted parameters. PMID:9655428

Pitanguy, I; Pamplona, D; Weber, H I; Leta, F; Salgado, F; Radwanski, H N

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

The biology of facial fillers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, particle concentration, immunogenicity, biofilm formation, gel hardness, and collagen neogenesis are considered. Bovine collagen is the most immunogenic facial filler. Porcine and bioengineered human collagen implants have very low immunogenicity, but allergic reactions and elevations of IgG are possible. Cross-linking and concentration affect the longevity of collagen and hyaluronic acid fillers. Gel hardness affects how a hyaluronic acid filler flows through the syringe and needle. Calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and polymethylmethacrylate fillers have been shown to stimulate collagen neogenesis. It appears that any facial filler can form a granuloma. Bacterial biofilms may play a role in the activation of quiescent granulomas. Various authors interpret the definition and significance of a granuloma differently.

Bentkover SH

2009-05-01

122

The biology of facial fillers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, particle concentration, immunogenicity, biofilm formation, gel hardness, and collagen neogenesis are considered. Bovine collagen is the most immunogenic facial filler. Porcine and bioengineered human collagen implants have very low immunogenicity, but allergic reactions and elevations of IgG are possible. Cross-linking and concentration affect the longevity of collagen and hyaluronic acid fillers. Gel hardness affects how a hyaluronic acid filler flows through the syringe and needle. Calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and polymethylmethacrylate fillers have been shown to stimulate collagen neogenesis. It appears that any facial filler can form a granuloma. Bacterial biofilms may play a role in the activation of quiescent granulomas. Various authors interpret the definition and significance of a granuloma differently. PMID:19415574

Bentkover, Stuart H

2009-05-04

123

Identification based on facial parts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two opposing views dominate face identification literature, one suggesting that the face is processed as a whole and another suggesting analysis based on parts. Our research tried to establish which of these two is the dominant strategy and our results fell in the direction of analysis based on parts. The faces were covered with a mask and the participants were uncovering different parts, one at the time, in an attempt to identify a person. Already at the level of a single facial feature, such as mouth or eye and top of the nose, some observers were capable to establish the identity of a familiar face. Identification is exceptionally successful when a small assembly of facial parts is visible, such as eye, eyebrow and the top of the nose. Some facial parts are not very informative on their own but do enhance recognition when given as a part of such an assembly. Novel finding here is importance of the top of the nose for the face identification. Additionally observers have a preference toward the left side of the face. Typically subjects view the elements in the following order: left eye, left eyebrow, right eye, lips, region between the eyes, right eyebrow, region between the eyebrows, left check, right cheek. When observers are not in a position to see eyes, eyebrows or top of the nose, they go for lips first and then region between the eyebrows, region between the eyes, left check, right cheek and finally chin.

Stevanov Zorica; Zdravkovi? Sun?ica

2007-01-01

124

Repeated short presentations of morphed facial expressions change recognition and evaluation of facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated whether sensitivity to and evaluation of facial expressions varied with repeated exposure to non-prototypical facial expressions for a short presentation time. A morphed facial expression was presented for 500 ms repeatedly, and participants were required to indicate whether each facial expression was happy or angry. We manipulated the distribution of presentations of the morphed facial expressions for each facial stimulus. Some of the individuals depicted in the facial stimuli expressed anger frequently (i.e., anger-prone individuals), while the others expressed happiness frequently (i.e., happiness-prone individuals). After being exposed to the faces of anger-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' angry faces. Further, after being exposed to the faces of happiness-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' happy faces. We also found a relative increase in the social desirability of happiness-prone individuals after exposure to the facial stimuli. PMID:23179582

Moriya, Jun; Tanno, Yoshihiko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

2012-11-21

125

Repeated short presentations of morphed facial expressions change recognition and evaluation of facial expressions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated whether sensitivity to and evaluation of facial expressions varied with repeated exposure to non-prototypical facial expressions for a short presentation time. A morphed facial expression was presented for 500 ms repeatedly, and participants were required to indicate whether each facial expression was happy or angry. We manipulated the distribution of presentations of the morphed facial expressions for each facial stimulus. Some of the individuals depicted in the facial stimuli expressed anger frequently (i.e., anger-prone individuals), while the others expressed happiness frequently (i.e., happiness-prone individuals). After being exposed to the faces of anger-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' angry faces. Further, after being exposed to the faces of happiness-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' happy faces. We also found a relative increase in the social desirability of happiness-prone individuals after exposure to the facial stimuli.

Moriya J; Tanno Y; Sugiura Y

2013-11-01

126

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Man Wai Li, Liman

2013-03-15

127

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.

Ito K; Masuda T; Man Wai Li L

2013-06-01

128

Gamer's Facial Cloning for Online Interactive Games  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Virtual illustration of a human face is essential to enhance the mutual interaction in a cyber community. In this paper we propose a solution to solve two bottlenecks in facial analysis and synthesis for an interactive system of human face cloning for non-expert users of computer games. Tactical maneuvers of the gamer make single camera acquisition system unsuitable to analyze and track the face due to its large lateral movements. For an improved facial analysis system, we propose to acquire the facial images from multiple cameras and analyze them by multiobjective 2.5D Active Appearance Model (MOAAM). Facial morphological dissimilarities between a human face and an avatar make the facial synthesis quite complex. To successfully clone or retarget the gamer facial expressions and gestures on to an avatar, we introduce a simple mathematical link between their appearances. Results obtained validate the efficiency, accuracy and robustness achieved.

Abdul Sattar; Nicolas Stoiber; Renaud Seguier; Gaspard Breton

2009-01-01

129

Rinoplastia e assimetria facial: análise de fatores subjetivos e antropométricos no nariz caucasiano/ Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Proporções antropométricas e simetria são consideradas determinantes de beleza. Tais parâmetros têm importância significativa em cirurgia plástica facial, notadamente na Rinoplastia. Sendo o nariz o órgão central da face, ele tem especial importância na determinação da simetria facial, tanto através da percepção de um nariz torto quanto através da determinação do crescimento facial. A avaliação da presença de assimetrias faciais tem gra (more) nde relevância no pré-operatório, tanto para planejamento cirúrgico quanto aconselhamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e documentar a presença de assimetria facial em pacientes com plano de Rinoplastia e correlacionar as medidas antropométricas com percepção de assimetria ou simetria facial, avaliando se há uma maior prevalência de assimetria facial entre esses pacientes em comparação com voluntários sem queixa nasal. MÉTODO: trabalho prospectivo, realizado através de comparação de fotografias, em pacientes com Pré-operatório de Rinoplastia e voluntários (controles), n=201, através de controle de medidas antropométricas tomadas de uma linha passando pelo centro da face, até: tragus, canto medial, canto lateral, margem alar, e comissura oral, de cada lado da face, por meio de testes estatísticos (teste Z e Odds ratio). RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes ou voluntários apresentou valores totalmente simétricos. Subjetivamente, 59% dos pacientes foram percebidos como assimétricos, contra 54%dos voluntários. Objetivamente, mais de 89% dos pesquisados tiveram medidas assimétricas. Os pacientes apresentaram RLMTr (Razão Linha Média Tragus) mais assimétrica que os voluntários, com diferença estatisticamente significativa. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÃO: assimetrias faciais são muito frequentes em pacientes que procuram Rinoplastia, portanto, especial atenção deve ser dada a estes aspectos, tanto para o planejamento cirúrgico, quanto para orientação aos pacientes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, bo (more) th for surgical planning and counseling. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. METHODS: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). RESULTS: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Christine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraff; Hurtado, Johann G. G. Melcherts; Mocellin, Marcos

2012-12-01

130

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

1986-01-01

131

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid.

Mueller, W.; Bumb, P.

1986-11-01

132

Lightning Ratios  

Science.gov (United States)

Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.

133

Facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Classic facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are shortened palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum, and thin upper vermillion. We aim to help pediatricians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum, especially among nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE) individuals without classic facial characteristics. METHODS: Of 192 Cape Coloured children recruited, 69 were born to women who reported abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. According to multifaceted criteria, the remainder were allocated clinically to the FAS (n = 22), partial FAS (n = 26) or nonsyndromal HE (n = 75) categories. We used dense surface modeling and signature analyses of 3-dimensional facial photographs to determine agreement between clinical categorization and classifications induced from face shape alone, to visualize facial differences, and to consider predictive links between face shape and neurobehavior. RESULTS: Face classification achieved significant agreement with clinical categories for discrimination of nonexposed from FAS alone (face: 0.97-1.00; profile: 0.92) or with the addition of partial FAS (face: 0.90; profile: 0.92). Visualizations of face signatures delineated dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum and in half of the nonsyndromal HE category face signature graphs detected facial characteristics consistent with prenatal alcohol exposure. This subgroup performed less well on IQ and learning tests than did nonsyndromal subjects without classic facial characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Heat maps and morphing visualizations of face signatures may help clinicians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum. Face signature graphs show potential for identifying nonsyndromal heavily exposed children who lack the classic facial phenotype but have cognitive impairment.

Suttie M; Foroud T; Wetherill L; Jacobson JL; Molteno CD; Meintjes EM; Hoyme HE; Khaole N; Robinson LK; Riley EP; Jacobson SW; Hammond P

2013-03-01

134

Case of a completely absent facial artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a student course on gross anatomy dissection at Showa University School of Dentistry in 2005, we found a case of a unilateral absence of the facial artery in a 75-year-old Japanese male cadaver.In this case, the left facial artery was completely absent, and it was compensated by the transverse facial artery which had a larger than normal diameter. In addition, the ascending palatine artery formed a common trunk with the lingual artery and the branch of the submandibular gland arose directly from the position where the normal facial artery would usually be in the external carotid artery.

Ezure H; Mori R; Ito J; Otsuka N

2011-01-01

135

TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

... TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain Submitted by ... Consumer Daniel M. Laskin, D.D.S., M.S., Director Temporomandibular Joint and Facial Pain Research Center University of Illinois ...

136

Supramaximal stimulation during intraoperative facial nerve monitoring as a simple parameter to predict early functional outcome after parotidectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: A supramaximal stimulation at 2 mA during intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) facial nerve monitoring appears to be a simple and effective parameter to predict immediate postoperative injury. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of systematic intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in predicting the early functional outcomes obtained after parotidectomy. METHODS: Data were collected from patients who underwent parotidectomy. Intraoperative EMG monitoring of the facial nerve was performed by registering two parameters, event intensity (>100 ?V) and amplitude of response after a supramaximal stimulation at 2 mA, at the beginning and end of gland removal. Early postoperative clinical functional facial nerve disorder was assessed at day 2. RESULTS: Overall, 50 patients were included and an early facial dysfunction was detected in 27 cases (54%). The maximal response amplitude after supramaximal stimulation at the trunk of the facial nerve was higher in patients with normal facial function compared with those with poor outcomes at the end of surgery (p < 0.01). The postdissection to predissection ratios of maximal response amplitude, but not the stimulation thresholds, were indicative of a nerve conduction block and were significantly lower in the patient group with a poor outcome compared with the group with a normal facial outcome (p < 0.02).

Mamelle E; Bernat I; Pichon S; Granger B; Sain-Oulhen C; Lamas G; Tankéré F

2013-07-01

137

Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author)

1991-01-01

138

Incidence of dental trauma associated with facial trauma in Brazil: a 1-year evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dental trauma occurs frequently in young people, and mostly occurs in conjunction with facial trauma. In the literature, there are still few reports relating dental trauma, facial trauma, and soft-tissue injuries. This research aimed to evaluate: (i) the overall incidence of dental trauma in 340 patients who presented with facial trauma over a 1-year-period, (ii) the epidemiology of these related diseases, and (iii) the most common dental trauma when a facial trauma was present. Of all facial trauma, 15.29% presented dental trauma, of which luxations and avulsions were the most frequent injuries (40.30% each), occurring mainly on weekends (38.46%) and in October (15.38%), followed by March and June (13.46% each). The sex ratio presented the proportion of 3.3:1 (M:F). Trauma occurred mainly in the second decade (44.23%). These results highlight the high incidence of dental and facial trauma, and suggest the importance of the adoption of appropriate prevention protocols and effective therapeutic methods.

Da Silva AC; Passeri LA; Mazzonetto R; De Moraes M; Moreira RW

2004-02-01

139

Depth Detection of Facial feature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main problem in computer vision is to calculate depth using two images.This paper aims in calculating the depth of facial feature(i.e nose),using left and right images. This left and right images are captured by left and right camera which are mounted horizontally separated by slight distance such that they are able to capture image from left and right camera .The extracted correspondent feature point(i.e nose)from both left and right image is used and triangulation method is used to calculate 3D distance of nose.The triangulation method requires disparity map along with correspondence points.

Sushma.H.R

2013-01-01

140

Facial pigmentation associated with amiodarone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used drugs for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. Several undesirable effects are associated with its long-term use. This report describes the case of a 71-year-old female patient, with a diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia, who presented with a stigmatizing blue-gray facial pigmentation and altered serum values of thyroid hormones associated with the intake of amiodarone. The patient was referred to her cardiologist. The aim of this report is to increase clinicians' awareness about the potential adverse effects of this drug.

Gonzalez-Arriagada WA; Silva AR; Vargas PA; Almeida OP; Lopes MA

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Facial pigmentation associated with amiodarone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used drugs for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. Several undesirable effects are associated with its long-term use. This report describes the case of a 71-year-old female patient, with a diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia, who presented with a stigmatizing blue-gray facial pigmentation and altered serum values of thyroid hormones associated with the intake of amiodarone. The patient was referred to her cardiologist. The aim of this report is to increase clinicians' awareness about the potential adverse effects of this drug. PMID:23823354

Gonzalez-Arriagada, Wilfredo Alejandro; Silva, Alan Roger Santos; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

2013-07-01

142

Epidemiology study of facial injuries during a 13 month of trauma registry in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have recently noted a shift in the causative mechanism of facial injuries away from traffic accident to assaults. AIMS: Our study aimed to investigate patterns of facial injuries in trauma patients during 13 months study of trauma patients in six general hospitals in Tehran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trauma patients who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours and had sustained injuries within seven days from admission were included in the study. Of the 8000 trauma patients, four hundred (5%) sustained facial injuries. RESULTS: Male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Among them, 53.3% were aged 11-30 years. Traffic accidents were by the far the commonest cause of injury. Motorcyclists who wore a helmet sustained facial fractures less often during traffic accident than those patients who did not wear helmet. Soft tissue injury and facial bone fracture comprised 43.3% and 40.8% of facial injuries, respectively. The majority of Soft tissue injuries (79%) were located extra orally. The mandible and nasal bone were the most commonly fractured facial bones. Victims of assault sustained more severe injuries compared to those involved in falls and traffic accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Use of helmets by motorcyclists and the separation of pedestrians routes from motor vehicles could reduce the number of victims and consequently injuries due to road traffic accidents. For implementation of effective prevention programs for reduction of facial injuries due to assault, it seems to be necessary to conduct studies investigating causes and pattern of injuries resulting in assault.

Zargar Moosa; Khaji Ali; Karbakhsh Mojgan; Zarei Mohammad

2004-01-01

143

Predicting facial nerve invasion by parotid gland carcinoma and outcome of facial reanimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to define risk factors for facial nerve involvement in parotid gland carcinoma and assess the outcome of facial nerve reanimation. Medical records were reviewed of 66 patients who underwent surgery for parotid carcinoma in 2000–2007 at a tertiary hospital. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between patients with and without facial nerve involvement and were analyzed on their influence on functional outcome following reanimation. Facial nerve involvement was verified intraoperatively in 24 patients, of whom 16 underwent reanimation during ablative surgery. Deep lobe invasion was significantly associated with intraoperative finding of facial nerve involvement. Tumors larger than 4 cm and salivary duct carcinoma had an obvious trend for facial nerve involvement. House-Brackmann score at 12 months was 3-4 in most patients. Deep lobe involvement and large tumor size may identify patients at risk of facial nerve involvement. Reanimation is associated with good functional outcome regardless of patient's age. PMID:19350259

Preis, M; Soudry, E; Bachar, G; Shufel, H; Feinmesser, R; Shpitzer, T

2010-01-01

144

Predicting facial nerve invasion by parotid gland carcinoma and outcome of facial reanimation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We sought to define risk factors for facial nerve involvement in parotid gland carcinoma and assess the outcome of facial nerve reanimation. Medical records were reviewed of 66 patients who underwent surgery for parotid carcinoma in 2000–2007 at a tertiary hospital. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between patients with and without facial nerve involvement and were analyzed on their influence on functional outcome following reanimation. Facial nerve involvement was verified intraoperatively in 24 patients, of whom 16 underwent reanimation during ablative surgery. Deep lobe invasion was significantly associated with intraoperative finding of facial nerve involvement. Tumors larger than 4 cm and salivary duct carcinoma had an obvious trend for facial nerve involvement. House-Brackmann score at 12 months was 3-4 in most patients. Deep lobe involvement and large tumor size may identify patients at risk of facial nerve involvement. Reanimation is associated with good functional outcome regardless of patient's age.

Preis M; Soudry E; Bachar G; Shufel H; Feinmesser R; Shpitzer T

2010-01-01

145

An amplification of feedback from facial muscles strengthened sympathetic activations to emotional facial cues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that feedback from cutaneous and muscular afferents influences our emotions during the control of facial expressions. Enhancing facial expressiveness produces an increase in autonomic arousal and self-reported emotional experience, whereas limiting facial expression attenuates these responses. The present study investigated differences in autonomic responses during imitated versus observed facial expressions. Thus, we obtained the facial electromyogram (EMG) of the corrugator muscle, and measured the skin conductance response (SCR) and pupil size (PS) of participants while they were either imitating or simply observing emotional expressions of anger. We found that participants produced significantly greater responses across all three measures (EMG, SCR, and PS) during active imitation than during passive observation. These results show that amplified feedback from facial muscles during imitation strengthens sympathetic activation in response to negative emotional cues. Our findings suggest that manipulations of muscular feedback could be used to modulate the bodily expression of emotion, including autonomic responses to the emotional cues.

Lee IS; Yoon SS; Lee SH; Lee H; Park HJ; Wallraven C; Chae Y

2013-07-01

146

Facial nerve involvement in critical illness polyneuropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although ICU-acquired neuromuscular weakness is a well-known problem, critical illness neuropathy is an under-diagnosed entity in critically ill patients. Facial musculature is typically not involved in critical illness neuropathy. This report highlights an unusual presentation of critical illness polyneuropathy in a patient with involvement of facial musculature.

Gurjar Mohan; Azim Afzal; Baronia Arvind; Poddar Banani

2010-01-01

147

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHAC...

Nagdeve N; Mudkhedkar K

148

The Surgical Management of Facial Nerve Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The surgical management of facial nerve injuries is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve anatomy, nerve physiology, and microsurgical techniques. When possible, primary neurorrhaphy is the “gold standard” repair technique. Injuries resulting in long nerve gaps or a significant del...

Rovak, Jason M.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

149

Intracanalicular and Intratemporal Facial Nerve Schwannomas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial nerve schwannomas can mimic acoustic neuromas. We report herein two cases: a purely intracanalicular and an intratemporal facial nerve tumor extending into the internal auditory canal and the cerebellopontine angle. These tumors have to be suspected in patient with small-size tumors presentin...

Kehrli, Pierre; Gauthier, Nathalie; Maitrot, Daniel; Gentine, André; Conraux, Claude

150

Computer-Aided Forensic Facial Comparison  

CERN Multimedia

Based on the quantification and analysis of more than 3000 facial images, this work lays the foundation for future forensic facial comparison, computer applications development, and research in face shape variation and analysis. It also includes two DVDs which contain the raw 3D landmark datasets for 3000 faces

Evison, Martin Paul

2010-01-01

151

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE) syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

Nagdeve N; Mudkhedkar K

2009-01-01

152

Facial feature extraction and pose determination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A combined approach for facial feature extraction and determination of gaze direction is proposed that employs some improved variations of the adaptive Hough transform for curve detection, minima analysis of feature candidates, template matching for inner facial feature localization, active contour ...

Nikolaidis, A.; Pitas, I.

153

Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features e...

M. Oravec; B. Kristof; M. Kolarik; J. Pavlovicova

154

Facial nerve palsy associated with leptospirosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case report describes the findings of a 27-year-old black male from Bahia, Brazil, who developed facial palsy during the convalescence phase of leptospirosis. The patient recovered without neurological sequel. This work calls attention to a possible association between leptospirosis and facial palsy.

Costa Everaldo; Sacramento Edilson; Lopes Antonio Alberto; Bina José Carlos

2001-01-01

155

Facial affect recognition and schizotypal personality characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Deficits in facial affect recognition are well established in schizophrenia, yet relatively little research has examined facial affect recognition in hypothetically psychosis-prone or 'schizotypal' individuals. Those studies that have examined social cognition in psychosis-prone individuals have paid little attention to the association between facial emotion recognition and particular schizotypal personality features. The present study therefore sought to investigate relationships between facial emotion recognition and the different aspects of schizotypy. METHODS: Facial affect recognition accuracy was examined in 50 psychiatrically healthy individuals assessed for level of schizotypy using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. This instrument provides a multidimensional measure of schizophrenia proneness, encompassing 'cognitive-perceptual', 'interpersonal' and 'disorganized' features of schizotypy. It was hypothesized that the cognitive-perceptual and interpersonal aspects of schizotypy would be associated with difficulties identifying facial expressions of emotion during a forced-choice recognition task using a standardized series of colour photographs. RESULTS: As predicted, interpersonal aspects of schizotypy (particularly social anxiety) were associated with reduced accuracy on the facial affect recognition task, but there was no association between affect recognition accuracy and cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that subtle deficits in facial affect recognition in otherwise psychiatrically healthy individuals may be related to the vulnerability for interpersonal communication difficulties, as seen in schizophrenia.

Abbott GR; Green MJ

2013-02-01

156

Facial nerve palsy and hemifacial spasm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial nerve lesions are usually benign conditions even though patients may present with emotional distress. Facial palsy usually resolves in 3-6 weeks, but if axonal degeneration takes place, it is likely that the patient will end up with a postparalytic facial syndrome featuring synkinesis, myokymic discharges, and hemifacial mass contractions after abnormal reinnervation. Essential hemifacial spasm is one form of facial hyperactivity that must be distinguished from synkinesis after facial palsy and also from other forms of facial dyskinesias. In this condition, there can be ectopic discharges, ephaptic transmission, and lateral spread of excitation among nerve fibers, giving rise to involuntary muscle twitching and spasms. Electrodiagnostic assessment is of relevance for the diagnosis and prognosis of peripheral facial palsy and hemifacial spasm. In this chapter the most relevant clinical and electrodiagnostic aspects of the two disorders are reviewed, with emphasis on the various stages of facial palsy after axonal degeneration, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various features of hemifacial spasm, and the cues for differential diagnosis between the two entities.

Valls-Solé J

2013-01-01

157

Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

2007-01-01

158

Variant facial artery in the submandibular region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial artery has been considered to be the most important vascular pedicle in facial rejuvenation procedures and submandibular gland (SMG) resection. It usually arises from the external carotid artery and passes from the carotid to digastric triangle, deep to the posterior belly of digastric muscle, and lodges in a groove at the posterior end of the SMG. It then passes between SMG and the mandible to reach the face after winding around the base of the mandible. During a routine dissection, in a 62-year-old female cadaver, in Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, an unusual pattern in the cervical course of facial artery was revealed. The right facial artery was found to pierce the whole substance of the SMG before winding around the lower border of the mandible to enter the facial region. Awareness of existence of such a variant and its comparison to the normal anatomy will be useful to oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

Vadgaonkar R; Rai R; Prabhu LV; Bv M; Samapriya N

2012-07-01

159

Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

Zhang S; Zhao X; Lei B

2012-01-01

160

Navigation aided surgery for facial fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A navigation system that has been developed in neurosurgery has recently been applied in the maxillofacial region. We introduced a navigation system (Stealth Station, Medtronic) in the maxillofacial region. As preoperative preparation, CT scanning was performed with a slice of 1 mm. Navigation aided surgery was performed in 11 patients with facial fractures between April 2005 and July 2006. Navigation aided reduction of the bone segment was performed by comparing with the sound site on the screen. Facial symmetry was recovered in 10 of 11 cases. Facial asymmetry in 1 case (midfacial multiple fractures) remained, because the system did not work after the surgeon contacted the reference frame during the operation. The navigation system is useful for repairing facial fractures, especially for verifying facial symmetry. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

MR imaging of the intraparotid facial nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a 1.5T MR imaging system, seven normal volunteers and 6 patients with parotid tumors were studied and their intraparotid facial nerves were directly imaged. The findings were evaluated by T1-weighted axial, sagittal and oblique images. The facial nerve appeared to be relatively hypointensive within the highsignal parotid parenchyma, and the main trunks of the facial nerves were observed directly in all the cases examined. Their main divisions were detected in all the volunteers and 5 of 6 patients were imaged obliquely. The facial nerves run in various fashions and so the oblique scan planes were determined individually to detect this running figure directly. To verify our observations, surgical findings of the facial nerve were compared with the MR images or results. (author)

Kurihara, Hiroaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Furukawa, Masaki [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1996-05-01

162

MR imaging of the intraparotid facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using a 1.5T MR imaging system, seven normal volunteers and 6 patients with parotid tumors were studied and their intraparotid facial nerves were directly imaged. The findings were evaluated by T1-weighted axial, sagittal and oblique images. The facial nerve appeared to be relatively hypointensive within the highsignal parotid parenchyma, and the main trunks of the facial nerves were observed directly in all the cases examined. Their main divisions were detected in all the volunteers and 5 of 6 patients were imaged obliquely. The facial nerves run in various fashions and so the oblique scan planes were determined individually to detect this running figure directly. To verify our observations, surgical findings of the facial nerve were compared with the MR images or results. (author)

1996-01-01

163

Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV) of the statistical shape model (SSM) built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have been used for the testing. The experimental results show that the SSV not only controls the shape variations but also captures the expressive characteristic of the faces and can be used as a significant feature for facial expression recognition. Finally the paper suggests improvements of the SSV discriminatory characteristics by using 3D facial sequences rather than 3D stills.

Wei Quan; Bogdan J. Matuszewski; Lik-Kwan Shark; Djamel Ait-Boudaoud

2009-01-01

164

Treatment of facial rejuvenation with fat restoration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seyed Reza MousaviSurgical Department, Shohada Medical, Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tajrish, Tehran, IranObjective: To improve the compensation for fat atrophy and making the face look young and improve the mental and emotional conditions of patients.Material and methods: Our study was done from April 2003 to March 2006 with an assessment and documentation of the degree of facial lipoatrophy.Results: We have very good results in 91% of patients with no important complications.Discussion: Treatment of facial lipoatrophy is justified to overcome the physical and social consequences of facial fat loss that occur as a natural part of aging.Keywords: facial rejuvenation, facial lipoatrophy, aging

Seyed Reza Mousavi

2010-01-01

165

A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, human–computer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

ANITHA C,; M K VENKATESHA; B SURYANARAYANA ADIGA

2010-01-01

166

Medidas faciais antropométricas de adultos segundo tipo facial e sexo Adult facial anthropometric measurements according to facial type and gender  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever medidas antropométricas faciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram comparados os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo de face com sete medidas antropométricas faciais diretas: altura facial anterior- násio ao mentoniano; distância bizigomática- zigomático esquerdo ao direito; altura do terço facial inferior- subnasal ao mentoniano; altura da face média- násio ao estômio; altura do queixo- supramentoniano ao mentoniano; altura da face inferior- estômio ao mentoniano; e altura facial posterior- condílio ao gônio. RESULTADOS: para o sexo masculino, os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para os valores médios das medidas antropométricas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média e altura da face inferior. Para o sexo feminino, diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram encontradas nas medidas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média, altura da face inferior e altura facial posterior. CONCLUSÃO: houve dimorfismo sexual para todas as medidas antropométricas obtidas, as quais tiveram valores médios maiores para o sexo masculino quando comparados ao feminino. Os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para quatro medidas antropométricas do sexo masculino e cinco do feminino.PURPOSE: to describe anthropometric measurements in adults according to facial type and gender. METHODS: 105 Caucasian adults took part, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%) with ages between 20 and 40-year old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings from the cephalometric analysis were compared for determining facial type with seven direct anthropometric measurements: anterior face height- nasion to menton; distance bizygomatique- zygion left to right; lower face height- subnasale to menton; middle face height- nasion to stomion; chin height- supramenton to menton; inferior face height- stomion to menton; and posterior face height- condylion to gonion. RESULTS: for male, the facial types classified by means of cephalometry had significant statistical differences for the average values of the anthropometric measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height and inferior face height. For female, significant statistical differences were found in the following measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height, inferior face height and posterior face height. CONCLUSION: there was sexual dimorphism for all collected anthropometric measurements. The male showed higher average values when compared with the female. The facial types classified by means of cephalometry showed significant statistical differences in four anthropometric measurements, for male and five for female.

Rossana Ribeiro Ramires; Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira; Irene Queiroz Marchesan; Débora Martins Cattoni; Marta Assumpção de Andrada e Silva

2011-01-01

167

Management of facial gunshot wounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine pattern and presentation in terms of site of injury, airway, associated injuries; and management of facial gunshot wounds. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Oral Surgery Department, Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi, between January 2001 and December 2008. METHODOLOGY: All patients with gunshot wounds of the face managed at the Oral Surgery Department during the study period were included by convenient sampling method. Patients were treated by a multidisciplinary team of maxillofacial surgeon, otorhinolaryngologist and plastic surgeon. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequencies and mean + or - SD for qualitative and quantitative variables respectively. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients with gunshot wounds to the face were identified. Age ranged from 15 to 42 years with mean of 28 + or - 4.98 years. There were 32 (84%) males and 06 (16%) females. Twenty two (57%) patients required airway management. The most frequent site involved was mandible in 25 (65%) patients while midface was involved in 13 (35%) patients. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) was performed in 17 (44%) patients, while 21 (56%) patients were managed conservatively. Out of 38 patients, 15 (39%) patients had some complications; trismus, sinusitis and infection being the most frequent (10.5% each). CONCLUSION: Facial gunshot wounds frequently involve mandible with more likely requirement of establishment of emergency airway and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Early management of gunshot wounds results in better psychosocial profile, aesthetics, reduced hospital stay and early return to function.

Sali Bukhari SG; Khan I; Pasha B; Ahmad W

2010-06-01

168

[Evaluation of derma and fat combined pedicled superficial temporal fascia flap for reconstruction of facial depression  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the curative effect of derma and fat combined pedicled superficial temporal fascia flap for reconstruction of facial depression. METHOD: Postoperative follow-up and comparative study were performed. 10 cases of facial depression deformities were involved, in which 5 cases were hemifacial atrophy, and 5 cases were branchial arch maldevelopment. RESULTS: Postoperative follow-up for 1-3 years showed that the method produced better results in branchial arch depression than in hemifacial atrophy. The combined tissue used in plomb of branchial arch maldevelopment had a low ratio of anaphase absorption, maintaining a satisfactory long-term full contour. In plomb of hemifacial atrophy, the anaphase absorption ratio of the was combined tissue approximately 20%-40%. CONCLUSIONS: The noxa of depression ought to be noticed when this method is used in reconstruction of facial depression. The exorbitant plomb is inadvisable for facial depression of branchial arch maldevelopment. However, in facial depression of hemifacial atrophy, in considering anaphases absorption, the suitable exorbitant plomb is reasonable for better future results.

Zou L; Feng S; Shi Y

2000-11-01

169

Trends in the Pattern of Facial Fractures in Different Countries of the World/ Tendencias en el Patrón de Fracturas Faciales en Diferentes Países del Mundo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los cambios en el patrón de las fracturas maxilofaciales entre los países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo en dos períodos de tiempo (1987-1999) y (2000-2007). Una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en PubMed se llevó a cabo entre las publicaciones de lesiones maxilofaciales publicados durante los últimos 20 años. Sólo 45 artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, y los textos completos de estos artículos f (more) ueron examinados a fondo. En cada uno de los estudios incluidos se registraron diferentes parámetros. Se calculó el porcentaje de "peso" de cada parámetro a través del número total de pacientes. La mandíbula fue el hueso facial más fracturado (57%). En todo el periodo evaluado, la media de edad de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue de 24,4 años y la incidencia de las fracturas faciales fue mayor en hombres (81,3%) que en mujeres. La razón hombre-mujer de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue mayor en los países en vías de desarrollo (5,1:1,0) que en los países desarrollados (3,7:1,0) en todo el período. Las lesiones relacionadas con accidentes de tránsito disminuyeron considerablemente en los países desarrollados, mientras que aumentó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. Sin embargo, las lesiones faciales relacionadas con asaltos aumentaron considerablemente en los países desarrollados y disminuyó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. El cuerpo de la mandíbula fue el sitio de fractura más común (27,2%). Se concluyó que las fracturas mandibulares son las lesiones más comunes en el tercio medio del esqueleto facial. La mayoría de los pacientes afectados por fracturas faciales en los diferentes países fueron hombres jóvenes. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999) and (2000-2007). A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injuries published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included stud (more) ies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%). In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3%) than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0) than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0) in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%). It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.

Shayyab, Mohammad; Alsoleihat, Firas; Ryalat, Sukaina; Khraisat, Ameen

2012-06-01

170

Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse t (more) rabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente) e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias). RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa), feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different meth (more) ods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric) and the Facial Index (photographs). RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa), made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.

Martins, Luciana Flaquer; Vigorito, Julio Wilson

2012-10-01

171

Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric) and the Facial Index (photographs). RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa), made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente) e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias). RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa), feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários.

Luciana Flaquer Martins; Julio Wilson Vigorito

2012-01-01

172

Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, and they can facilitate a statistical study of large populations in disorders known to impact facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity.

Hamm J; Kohler CG; Gur RC; Verma R

2011-09-01

173

Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees.

Neaux D; Guy F; Gilissen E; Coudyzer W; Vignaud P; Ducrocq S

2013-01-01

174

FACIAL FEATURES EXTRACTION USING SKIN COLOR SEGMENTATION FOR FACIAL EXPRESSIONS DETECTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer has been widely deployed to our daily lives, but human computer interaction still lacks intuition. Researchers intend to resolve these shortcomings by augmenting traditional systems with human like interaction mechanism. Dedicated hardware often infers the emotional state from human body measures. These have been a considerable amount of research done into the detection and implicit communication channels, including the study of facial feature extraction. [5] Artificial recognition of facial features has attracted a lot of attention due to its potential commercial value in fields like Lie detection, Surveillance, Criminal Investigation, Security and Forensic applications. Facial feature extraction can be utilized for automated analysis of human emotion. Communication between humans is influenced by emotion. Interpersonal behavior is affected by facial expressions during communication. Recent approaches for facial expression detection is Feature Based Method by Black and Yacoob (1997). The feature based approach uses a training set of images for different emotional expressions. The features are extracted from each emotion subset for all facial expressions and then are subsequently tested unseen facial images. Feature based technique involves detecting changes of the features in different facial regions. The selection of these facial regions is based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). [9].

Surbhi Bhatta

2011-01-01

175

Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs). The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs) and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs) for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than 10 weeks were, respectively, 68.6% and 77.4%.

H. Madokoro; K. Sato

2012-01-01

176

Orbital abscess after facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta um caso de abscesso agudo em cavidade orbitária, após 2 dias de trauma facial, sem a presença de fratura óssea, ocorrido em uma mulher da raça negra com 20 anos de idade. Os sintomas se intensificaram nas últimas 24 h com o desenvolvimento de distúrbios visuais do tipo diplopia e fotofobia. Durante exame clínico foi constatado a presença de febre, edema e eritema periorbitário, ptose, proptose e limitação de movimentação ocular para cim (more) a, baixo, lado direto e esquerdo. A tomografia computadorizada evidenciava proptose associada a edema considerável, dos tecidos moles no lado esquerdo da face, sem fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. A internação hospitalar e o início da antibioticoterapia endovenosa foram realizados, e o tratamento cirúrgico de incisão e drenagem do abscesso sob anestesia geral foi conduzido, sendo realizado por meio de incisão na pálpebra superior e inferior para acesso a cavidade orbitária e por acesso de Caldwell-Luc para o seio maxilar. No pós-operatório imediato foi observada rápida melhora dos sintomas inicialmente relatados pela paciente. Após 2 dias da intervenção cirúrgica foi observado melhora na movimentação ocular e na acuidade visual, retornando ao normal. No décimo segundo dia pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou melhora significativa com relação à ptose palpebral e a proptose, com adequado processo de cicatrização. Abstract in english This paper reports a rare case of acute severe orbital abscess manifested 2 days after a facial trauma without bone fracture in a 20-year-old Afro-American female. The symptoms worsened within the 24 h prior to hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. The clinical findings at the first consultation included fever, periorbital swelling and redness, ptosis, proptosis and limitation of ocular movements upwards, downwards, to the r (more) ight and to the left. Computed tomography scan showed proptosis with considerable soft tissue swelling on the left side and no fracture was evidenced in the facial skeleton, including the zygomatic-orbital complex. After hospital admission and antibiotic therapy intravenously the patient was conducted to the operation room and submitted to incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The orbit was approached thorough both eyelids and the maxillary sinus was reached only through the Caldwell-Luc approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. Visual acuity and ocular motility returned to the normal ranges within 2 days after the surgical intervention. After 12 postoperative days, the patient presented with significative improvement in the ptosis and proptosis, and acceptable scars.

Serra, Elis Cristina Sousa; Sverzut, Cassio Edvard; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

2009-01-01

177

Iatrogenic facial nerve palsy: lessons to learn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to review the management and discuss the outcome of patients with iatrogenic facial nerve palsy. METHODS: 11 patients with iatrogenic facial nerve palsy (FNP) were evaluated retrospectively in a tertiary centre between June 1995 and September 2008. All the cases were referred from other centres. RESULTS: Ten patients had iatrogenic immediate FNP secondary to mastoidectomy and one had FNP secondary to superficial parotidectomy. Of the ten cases, three had concomitant profound sensorineural hearing loss and one had concomitant labyrinthine fistula. Ten patients underwent facial nerve exploration and one patient was managed conservatively. The second genu was the commonest site of injury (60 percent). Facial nerve recoveries were achieved to Grade I House Brackmann classification in five cases, Grade II in two cases and Grade III in two cases postoperatively. One case defaulted follow-up. One patient, managed conservatively, recovered to FNP Grade II after five months post-injury. CONCLUSION: Mistakes that most likely occurred during mastoid surgery are drilling towards the antrum, causing injury to the facial nerve at the second genu. Early facial nerve exploration and neurolysis resulted in good facial nerve recovery.

Asma A; Marina MB; Mazita A; Fadzilah I; Mazlina S; Saim L

2009-12-01

178

Sequential effects in facial expression categorization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial expressions are highly dynamic signals that are rarely categorized as static, isolated displays. However, the role of sequential context in facial expression categorization is poorly understood. This study examines the fine temporal structure of expression-based categorization on a trial-to-trial basis as participants categorized a sequence of facial expressions. The results showed that the local sequential context provided by preceding facial expressions could bias the categorical judgments of current facial expressions. Two types of categorization biases were found: (a) Assimilation effects-current expressions were categorized as close to the category of the preceding expressions, and (b) contrast effects-current expressions were categorized as away from the category of the preceding expressions. The effects of such categorization biases were modulated by the relative distance between the preceding and current expressions, as well as by the different experimental contexts, possibly including the factors of face identity and the range effect. Thus, the present study suggests that facial expression categorization is not a static process. Rather, the temporal relation between the preceding and current expressions could inform categorization, revealing a more dynamic and adaptive aspect of facial expression processing.

Hsu SM; Yang LX

2013-06-01

179

Radiologic finding of facial nerve schwannoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze the radilologic findings of facial nerve schwannoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT and/or MR images and clinical history of eight patients with histologically proven facial nerve schwannama. After classifying this extratemporal and intratemporal types, clinical and radilologic findings were analysed. The most common clinical findings of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve palsy and hearing impairment in an intratemporal schwannoma(4/5), and a palpable parotid mass in an extratemporal schwannoma(3/3). On CT, each involved segment of intratemporal schwannomas(five cases) showed characteristic radilologic findings, while extratemporal schwannomas(three cases) showed masses of various types. On MRI, all tumors(two cases) showed hypointensity of T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI, and strong enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas can be easily diagnosed by characteristic clinical and radilologic findings. Extratemporal facial nerve schwannomas show nonspecific findings. However, if the tumor is located between the superficial and the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extends to the posterior portion of the styloid process, then facial nerve schwannoma is strongly suspected.

Chung, Sun Yang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Hee; Chung, Tae Sub [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-03-01

180

Radiologic finding of facial nerve schwannoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyze the radilologic findings of facial nerve schwannoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT and/or MR images and clinical history of eight patients with histologically proven facial nerve schwannama. After classifying this extratemporal and intratemporal types, clinical and radilologic findings were analysed. The most common clinical findings of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve palsy and hearing impairment in an intratemporal schwannoma(4/5), and a palpable parotid mass in an extratemporal schwannoma(3/3). On CT, each involved segment of intratemporal schwannomas(five cases) showed characteristic radilologic findings, while extratemporal schwannomas(three cases) showed masses of various types. On MRI, all tumors(two cases) showed hypointensity of T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI, and strong enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas can be easily diagnosed by characteristic clinical and radilologic findings. Extratemporal facial nerve schwannomas show nonspecific findings. However, if the tumor is located between the superficial and the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extends to the posterior portion of the styloid process, then facial nerve schwannoma is strongly suspected.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hemihypoglossal nerve transfer for acute facial paralysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: The authors have developed a technique for the treatment of facial paralysis that utilizes anastomosis of the split hypoglossal and facial nerve. Here, they document improvements in the procedure and experimental evidence supporting the approach. METHODS: They analyzed outcomes in 36 patients who underwent the procedure, all of whom had suffered from facial paralysis following the removal of large vestibular schwannomas. The average period of paralysis was 6.2 months. The authors used 5 different variations of a procedure for selecting the split nerve, including evaluation of the split nerve using recordings of evoked potentials in the tongue. RESULTS: Successful facial reanimation was achieved in 16 of 17 patients using the cephalad side of the split hypoglossal nerve and in 15 of 15 patients using the caudal side. The single unsuccessful case using the cephalad side of the split nerve resulted from severe infection of the cheek. Procedures using the ansa cervicalis branch yielded poor success rates (2 of 4 cases). Some tongue atrophy was observed in all variants of the procedure, with 17 cases of minimal atrophy and 14 cases of moderate atrophy. No procedure led to severe atrophy causing functional deficits of the tongue. CONCLUSIONS: The split hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis procedure consistently leads to good facial reanimation, and the use of either half of the split hypoglossal nerve results in facial reanimation and moderate tongue atrophy.

Hayashi A; Nishida M; Seno H; Inoue M; Iwata H; Shirasawa T; Arai H; Kayamori R; Komuro Y; Yanai A

2013-01-01

182

Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physicalexamination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging is helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. Components of soft tissue, dental and skeletal differences contributing to facialasymmetry are evaluated. Frequently dental malocclusion,canting of the occlusal level and midline shift are found.Management of facial asymmetry first aims at correcting theunderlying disorder. Orthognathic surgery is performed for the treatment of facial asymmetry combined with dental occlusal problems. A symmetrical facial midline, harmoniousfacial profile and dental occlusion are obtained from treatment. Additional surgical procedures may be required to increase or reduce the volume of skeletal and soft tissue components on both sides to achieve better symmetry

You-Wei Cheong; Lun-Jou Lo

2011-01-01

183

Schwannoma of the facial nerve: indications for surgical treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no preoperative diagnostic modality that can identify facial nerve schwannoma with certainty. Difficulty in locating the facial nerve intraoperatively raises suspicion of a neurogenous tumor of the facial nerve, and this may prevent unnecessary damage to the nerve. Not every facial nerve schwannoma should be resected. PMID:23851733

Belli, Evaristo; Rendine, Guido; Mazzone, Noemi

2013-07-01

184

Facial motor neuron migration advances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During development, the migration of specific neuronal subtypes is required for the correct establishment of neural circuits. In mice and zebrafish, facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons undergo a tangential migration from rhombomere 4 caudally through the hindbrain. Recent advances in the field have capitalized on genetic studies in zebrafish and mouse, and high-resolution time-lapse imaging in zebrafish. Planar cell polarity signaling has emerged as a critical conserved factor in FBM neuron migration, functioning both within the neurons and their environment. In zebrafish, migration depends on specialized 'pioneer' neurons to lead follower FBM neurons through the hindbrain, and on interactions with structural components including pre-laid axon tracts and the basement membrane. Despite fundamental conservation, species-specific differences in migration mechanisms are being uncovered.

Wanner SJ; Saeger I; Guthrie S; Prince VE

2013-09-01

185

Rapid facial mimicry in geladas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges.

Mancini G; Ferrari PF; Palagi E

2013-01-01

186

Facial ulcer treated with olanzapine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 69-year-old woman presented with a nonhealing ulcer on her right cheek. On histological examination of a biopsy, no evidence of granuloma formation or malignancy was found, and the overall picture was felt to be consistent with dermatitis artefacta (DA). The patient was referred to a joint psychodermatology clinic, where treatment with risperidone was started. However, at follow-up the ulcer remained unchanged, and treatment was changed to olanzapine 2.5 mg twice daily. Within 10 months, the large facial ulcer, which had been refractory to treatment for several years, had completely healed. Anxiolytics, antidepressants and low-dose antipsychotics have been shown to be helpful in the management of DA. Successful treatment with olanzapine has been described. The good clinical response to olanzapine may be attributed to its anti-impulsive effect, antihistaminic properties and low risk of parkinsonian side-effects. PMID:23611260

Lowry, C L; Bewley, A; Taylor, R

2013-04-23

187

Facial ulcer treated with olanzapine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 69-year-old woman presented with a nonhealing ulcer on her right cheek. On histological examination of a biopsy, no evidence of granuloma formation or malignancy was found, and the overall picture was felt to be consistent with dermatitis artefacta (DA). The patient was referred to a joint psychodermatology clinic, where treatment with risperidone was started. However, at follow-up the ulcer remained unchanged, and treatment was changed to olanzapine 2.5 mg twice daily. Within 10 months, the large facial ulcer, which had been refractory to treatment for several years, had completely healed. Anxiolytics, antidepressants and low-dose antipsychotics have been shown to be helpful in the management of DA. Successful treatment with olanzapine has been described. The good clinical response to olanzapine may be attributed to its anti-impulsive effect, antihistaminic properties and low risk of parkinsonian side-effects.

Lowry CL; Bewley A; Taylor R

2013-07-01

188

Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible.

Yeong SS; Tassone P

2011-05-01

189

Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

2011-05-01

190

Three patients with full facial transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike conventional reconstruction, facial transplantation seeks to correct severe deformities in a single operation. We report on three patients who received full-face transplants at our institution in 2011 in operations that aimed for functional restoration by coaptation of all main available motor and sensory nerves. We enumerate the technical challenges and postoperative complications and their management, including single episodes of acute rejection in two patients. At 6 months of follow-up, all facial allografts were surviving, facial appearance and function were improved, and glucocorticoids were successfully withdrawn in all patients. PMID:22204672

Pomahac, Bohdan; Pribaz, Julian; Eriksson, Elof; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Rybicki, Frank J; Annino, Donald J; Orgill, Dennis; Caterson, Edward J; Caterson, Stephanie A; Carty, Matthew J; Chun, Yoon S; Sampson, Christian E; Janis, Jeffrey E; Alam, Daniel S; Saavedra, Arturo; Molnar, Joseph A; Edrich, Thomas; Marty, Francisco M; Tullius, Stefan G

2011-12-28

191

Three patients with full facial transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unlike conventional reconstruction, facial transplantation seeks to correct severe deformities in a single operation. We report on three patients who received full-face transplants at our institution in 2011 in operations that aimed for functional restoration by coaptation of all main available motor and sensory nerves. We enumerate the technical challenges and postoperative complications and their management, including single episodes of acute rejection in two patients. At 6 months of follow-up, all facial allografts were surviving, facial appearance and function were improved, and glucocorticoids were successfully withdrawn in all patients.

Pomahac B; Pribaz J; Eriksson E; Bueno EM; Diaz-Siso JR; Rybicki FJ; Annino DJ; Orgill D; Caterson EJ; Caterson SA; Carty MJ; Chun YS; Sampson CE; Janis JE; Alam DS; Saavedra A; Molnar JA; Edrich T; Marty FM; Tullius SG

2012-02-01

192

Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided.

Disbro, M.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Osborn, A.G.

1985-06-01

193

Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one?s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

De Sousa Avinash

2010-01-01

194

Facial emotion recognition in trait anxiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated the relationship between recognition of emotional facial expressions and trait anxiety. A nonclinical sample of 19 participants with high-trait anxiety was selected, using the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and compared with a sample of 20 participants with low-trait anxiety on a facial expression recognition task. Visual stimuli were 42 faces, representing seven emotional expressions: anger, sadness, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust and neutral. Participants had to identify the emotion portrayed by each face. Results showed that participants with high-trait anxiety recognized fear faces significantly better while the two groups did not differ in recognition of other facial expressions. PMID:16325118

Surcinelli, Paola; Codispoti, Maurizio; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Baldaro, Bruno

2005-01-21

195

Facial emotion recognition in trait anxiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study investigated the relationship between recognition of emotional facial expressions and trait anxiety. A nonclinical sample of 19 participants with high-trait anxiety was selected, using the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and compared with a sample of 20 participants with low-trait anxiety on a facial expression recognition task. Visual stimuli were 42 faces, representing seven emotional expressions: anger, sadness, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust and neutral. Participants had to identify the emotion portrayed by each face. Results showed that participants with high-trait anxiety recognized fear faces significantly better while the two groups did not differ in recognition of other facial expressions.

Surcinelli P; Codispoti M; Montebarocci O; Rossi N; Baldaro B

2006-01-01

196

Bilateral facial palsy associated with leptospirosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. It is an acute feverish disease with a broad clinical spectrum and follows a characteristic biphasic course. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical condition and the differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive. The objective of this exploratory study, presented as a case report, is to describe the occurrence of bilateral facial palsy as an unusual manifestation of leptospirosis. This suggestion should not be overlooked when analyzing the causes for bilateral facial palsy, and should be considered with other possible differential diagnoses, some of which are potentially fatal.

Andressa Alves da Silva; Marcelo Ducroquet; Jeff Chandler Pedrozo Junior

2009-01-01

197

Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three selection methods. It was found out that fusing the facial features gives better recognition rate than either facial feature used individually regardless of the landmark selection method.

Jamal Ahmad Dargham; Ali Chekima; Ervin Gubin Moung

2012-01-01

198

Software Antropmeter, una Nueva Herramienta para Análisis Facial Antropmeter Software, a New Tool for Facial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El análisis de las dimensiones y proporciones faciales es necesario en distintos ámbitos de la odontoestomatología y de la antropología física. En este informe presentamos el software Antropmeter, diseñado para realizar análisis de dimensiones y proporciones faciales, en base a fotografías estandarizadas, de fácil manejo por parte del clínico y de utilidad en análisis faciales estéticos y antropológicos.The dimensions and facial proportions analysis are necessary in different áreas of the odontostomatology and physical anthropology practice. In this report we present the Antropmeter software, designed to carry out analysis of dimensions and facial proportions, based on standardized pictures, of easy handling on the part of the clinical one and of utility in aesthetic and anthropological facial analysis.

Iván Suazo Galdames; Xaviera López Cortés; Valeria Márquez Miranda

2008-01-01

199

Severe cranio-facial deformities and their management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historical attitudes to cranio-facial deformities are discussed. A simple nosology of cranio-facial deformities is given, the main groups being craniosynostosis syndromes, facial clefts, tumours, trauma, facial microsomias, and midface hypoplasias. Each group is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the craniosynostosis syndromes and facial clefts. Cases from these two groups are illustrated before and after surgery, showing the dramatic improvement offered by cranio-facial techniques. The basic principles of cranio-facial surgery are briefly discussed, and the complications discussed. The South Australian Cranio-Facial Unit experience with complications is discussed, especially blindness and persistent C S F leaks. The necessity for only a few cranio-facial units each with a high workload is reiterated, and new directions for cranio-facial surgery discussed, including the use of microvascular techniques and early surgery to minimise later deformity, particularly in cases with plagiocephaly.

David DJ; White J

1981-04-01

200

Intraparotid Facial Nerve Neurofibroma: an Uncommon Neoplasm Neurofibroma Intraparotídeo del Nervio Facial: una Neoplasia Poco Frecuente  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibromas are a rare entity, and are grossly and histopathologically distinct from the comparatively more prevalent schwannomas. We report a rare case of an intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma with intratemporal extension in a 48-year-old female. The tumor was surgically excised with cable grafting of the facial nerve. Electroneurography may eventually assist in the preoperative diagnosis. Facial nerve resection should be more readily contemplated in a patient with neurofibroma than in a patient with schwannoma; however, facial nerve preservation with serial follow-up electroneurography and computerized tomography remains a viable option in patients with small facial nerve neurofibromas when electrical testing reveals minimal evidence of progressive neural degeneration. Close monitoring, especially in neurofibromas associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease, is mandatory because of an increased risk of sarcomatous degeneration.Los neurofibromas intraparotídeos del nervio facial son una entidad poco frecuente, macroscópicamente e histopatológicamente diferentes de los comparativamente más frecuentes schwannomas. Se presenta un caso raro de un neurofibroma del nervio facial con extensión intraparotídea intratemporal en una mujer de 48 años de edad. El tumor se extirpó quirúrgicamente con injerto del nervio facial. La electroneurografía puede llegar a ayudar en el diagnóstico preoperatorio. La resección del nervio facial debe ser realizada con mayor facilidad en un paciente con neurofibroma que en un paciente con schwannoma, sin embargo, la preservación del nervio facial con electroneurografía de seguimiento y tomografía computarizada sigue siendo una opción viable en pacientes con pequeños neurofibromas del nervio facial, cuando las pruebas eléctricas revelan mínima evidencia de degeneración neuronal progresiva. Una estrecha vigilancia, especialmente en los neurofibromas asociados con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen es fundamental debido al aumento del riesgo de degeneración sarcomatosa.

Ashwani Sethi; Shamit Chopra; J. C Passey; A. K Agarwal

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Intraparotid Facial Nerve Neurofibroma: an Uncommon Neoplasm/ Neurofibroma Intraparotídeo del Nervio Facial: una Neoplasia Poco Frecuente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los neurofibromas intraparotídeos del nervio facial son una entidad poco frecuente, macroscópicamente e histopatológicamente diferentes de los comparativamente más frecuentes schwannomas. Se presenta un caso raro de un neurofibroma del nervio facial con extensión intraparotídea intratemporal en una mujer de 48 años de edad. El tumor se extirpó quirúrgicamente con injerto del nervio facial. La electroneurografía puede llegar a ayudar en el diagnóstico preoperato (more) rio. La resección del nervio facial debe ser realizada con mayor facilidad en un paciente con neurofibroma que en un paciente con schwannoma, sin embargo, la preservación del nervio facial con electroneurografía de seguimiento y tomografía computarizada sigue siendo una opción viable en pacientes con pequeños neurofibromas del nervio facial, cuando las pruebas eléctricas revelan mínima evidencia de degeneración neuronal progresiva. Una estrecha vigilancia, especialmente en los neurofibromas asociados con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen es fundamental debido al aumento del riesgo de degeneración sarcomatosa. Abstract in english Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibromas are a rare entity, and are grossly and histopathologically distinct from the comparatively more prevalent schwannomas. We report a rare case of an intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma with intratemporal extension in a 48-year-old female. The tumor was surgically excised with cable grafting of the facial nerve. Electroneurography may eventually assist in the preoperative diagnosis. Facial nerve resection should be more readily cont (more) emplated in a patient with neurofibroma than in a patient with schwannoma; however, facial nerve preservation with serial follow-up electroneurography and computerized tomography remains a viable option in patients with small facial nerve neurofibromas when electrical testing reveals minimal evidence of progressive neural degeneration. Close monitoring, especially in neurofibromas associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease, is mandatory because of an increased risk of sarcomatous degeneration.

Sethi, Ashwani; Chopra, Shamit; Passey, J. C; Agarwal, A. K

2011-09-01

202

Facial nerve palsy associated with leptospirosis Paralisia facial associada à leptospirose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case report describes the findings of a 27-year-old black male from Bahia, Brazil, who developed facial palsy during the convalescence phase of leptospirosis. The patient recovered without neurological sequel. This work calls attention to a possible association between leptospirosis and facial palsy.Este relato de caso descreve os achados de um homem de 27 anos, residente na Bahia, Brasil, que desenvolveu paralisia facial durante a fase de convalescença da leptospirose. O paciente se recuperou sem sequela neurológica. Este trabalho chama atenção para uma possível associação entre leptospirose e paralisia facial.

Everaldo Costa; Edilson Sacramento; Antonio Alberto Lopes; José Carlos Bina

2001-01-01

203

Quantitative assessment of facial muscle impairment in patients with hemispheric stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial weakness is frequently observed in patients with hemispheric stroke. Most reports refer to qualitative assessment. The aim was to quantify the upper and lower facial muscle function in patients with hemispheric stroke. Three different facial expressions (forced smile, posed smile and maximum eyebrow lift) and facial rest position were mapped using a 3D video system. Twenty-seven patients with hemispheric stroke (PG) and 22 controls (CG) were recruited. Facial asymmetry was expressed as absolute side differences between four corresponding distances. In PG, a longer distance was found from inner canthus to oral commissure (dist1) on the impaired side in all investigated poses (PG non-affected-affected side: range of all poses 1·18 ± 4·45 to 1·80 ± 2·37 mm; CG right-left side: range -0·69 ± 1·55 to -0·43 ± 1·39 mm, Mann-Whitney tests: 0·0002 < P < 0·0423). In addition, the ratio of the impaired to the non-affected side was different in PG for dist1 in rest and eyebrow lift (Wilcoxon tests: 0·0011 < P < 0·0288). CG showed asymmetries in rest and forced smile (Wilcoxon tests: P = 0·0392 and P = 0·0424). Furthermore, dist1 in PG showed higher variances than in CG (F-tests: 0·0001 < P < 0·0445) except for the relative dist1 at rest (F-test: P = 0·0533). The distance between inner eyebrow corner and inner canthus showed no side difference in both groups during eyebrow lift (n.s.); nevertheless, two patients showed distinct asymmetries. The employed 3D video system proved sensitive in assessing facial muscle function. The results confirm and quantify that the lower facial muscles are more affected by hemispheric stroke than the upper ones and show that the measured distances were more variable in post-stroke patients than in control subjects.

Schimmel M; Leemann B; Christou P; Kiliaridis S; Herrmann FR; Müller F

2011-11-01

204

Bilateral traumatic facial paralysis. Case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although traumatic injury of the facial nerve is a relatively common condition in neurosurgical practice, bilateral lesions related to fracture of temporal bones are seldom seen. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient admitted to Intensive Care Unit after severe head trauma requiring ventilatory support (Glasgow Coma Scale of 7 on admission). A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a longitudinal fracture of the right temporal bone and a transversal fracture of the left. After successful weaning from respirator, bilateral facial paralysis was observed. The possible aetiologies for facial diplegia differ from those of unilateral injury. Due to the lack of facial asymmetry, it can be easily missed in critically ill patients, and both the high resolution CT scan and electromyographic studies can be helpful for correct diagnosis.

Undabeitia J; Liu B; Pendleton C; Nogues P; Noboa R; Undabeitia JI

2013-09-01

205

Transient Facial Nerve Baroparesis: Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a rare case of facial paralysis that was unusual not only in its causation but also in its rapidity of onset and recovery. We describe a rare case history of this accruing in 35 years old women traveling at the high altitude mountain road referred to ENT clinic with sudden symptoms of middle ear effusion and facial nerve paralysis. Patient had undergone medical systemic steroid treatment and after 3-4 weeks she had a good recovery of facial palsy with a minimum remnant of sensory neural hearing loss. Facial nerve paralysis resulting from a barotrauma of the middle ear is suggested. The correct diagnosis of this condition is important and unnecessary treatment should be avoided.

M.M. Ardehali; N. Yazdani; M. Heidarali

2009-01-01

206

Common craniofacial anomalies: the facial dysostoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Learning Objectives: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the etiology and pathogenesis of facial dysostosis syndromes. 2. Recognize and classify common facial dysostoses. 3. Understand the different management plans for the reconstruction of facial dysostoses. The wide spectrum of craniofacial malformations makes classification difficult. A simple classification system allows an overview of the current understanding of the etiology, assessment, and treatment of the most frequently encountered craniofacial anomalies. Facial dysostoses are reviewed on the basis of their diverse etiology, pathogenesis, anatomy, and treatment. Conditions discussed include craniofacial microsomia, Goldenhar syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, Nager syndrome, Binder syndrome, and Pierre Robin sequence. Approaches to the surgical management of these conditions are reviewed.

Hunt JA; Hobar PC

2002-12-01

207

Co2 Laser Resurfacing for Facial Rhytides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resurfacing of facial rhytides (periorbital crow-feet wrinkles) was performed in three cases by carbon dioxide laser (Sharplan® 1030 machine). Good to excellent results were observed. However, erythema and postinflammatory pigmentation were important side effects.

Jain, Vinod K; Ghiya, B C; Gupta, Dhruv; Singhi, Mahendra K

208

Innovations in minimally invasive facial treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients are seeking healthier lives, and at the same time their concern about having a beautiful face and maintaining a youthful appearance over time has increased. Traditionally, surgeries based on tissue resection and resurfacing were the focus in facial rejuvenation. Over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have expanded exponentially because of the variety of cosmetic products available on the market and because patients are looking for a better appearance with nonincision methods. The understanding of the aging process, facial anatomy, and ideal proportions is extremely important for successful rejuvenation procedures. Also, neuromodulators, chemical peels, filler properties, correct indications, and effectiveness must be well known by the injector for favorable results. Therefore, knowledge of all facial cosmetic options and an adequate facial analysis are essential for a better performance. In this article, the authors review some different product options and show cases of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures for the face currently used. PMID:23761118

Jurado, José Roberto Parisi; Lima, Leila Freire Rego; Olivetti, Isabela Peixoto; Arroyo, Helena Hotz; de Oliveira, Ingrid Helena Lopes

2013-06-12

209

Innovations in minimally invasive facial treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients are seeking healthier lives, and at the same time their concern about having a beautiful face and maintaining a youthful appearance over time has increased. Traditionally, surgeries based on tissue resection and resurfacing were the focus in facial rejuvenation. Over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have expanded exponentially because of the variety of cosmetic products available on the market and because patients are looking for a better appearance with nonincision methods. The understanding of the aging process, facial anatomy, and ideal proportions is extremely important for successful rejuvenation procedures. Also, neuromodulators, chemical peels, filler properties, correct indications, and effectiveness must be well known by the injector for favorable results. Therefore, knowledge of all facial cosmetic options and an adequate facial analysis are essential for a better performance. In this article, the authors review some different product options and show cases of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures for the face currently used.

Jurado JR; Lima LF; Olivetti IP; Arroyo HH; de Oliveira IH

2013-06-01

210

Computed tomography of orbital-facial neurofibromatosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-four patients with orbital-facial manifestations of neurofibromations were examined by computed tomography. Delineation of the extent of the disease, and differentiation of the disease processes (orbital tumor, osseous orbital dysplasia, plexiform neurofibromatosis, and buphthalmos) was possible.

Zimmerman, R.A. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Bilaniuk, L.T.; Metzger, R.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Schut, L.; Bruce, D.A.

1983-01-01

211

Dynamic reanimation for facial palsy: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial paralysis can have a profound effect on the patient from both an aesthetic and functional point of view. The symptoms depend on which branch of the nerve has been damaged and the severity of the injury. The purpose of this paper is to review currently available treatments for dynamic reanimation of a damaged facial nerve, and the goals are a symmetrical and coordinated smile. Careful selection of patients and use of the appropriate surgical technique can have excellent results. PMID:23385066

Coyle, Margaret; Godden, Andrew; Brennan, Peter A; Cascarini, Luke; Coombes, Darryl; Kerawala, Cyrus; McCaul, James; Godden, Daryl

2013-02-01

212

Dynamic reanimation for facial palsy: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial paralysis can have a profound effect on the patient from both an aesthetic and functional point of view. The symptoms depend on which branch of the nerve has been damaged and the severity of the injury. The purpose of this paper is to review currently available treatments for dynamic reanimation of a damaged facial nerve, and the goals are a symmetrical and coordinated smile. Careful selection of patients and use of the appropriate surgical technique can have excellent results.

Coyle M; Godden A; Brennan PA; Cascarini L; Coombes D; Kerawala C; McCaul J; Godden D

2013-02-01

213

Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (OFD-II) is characterized by frenulated tongue, midline cleft lip, high arched or cleft palate, micrognathia, syndactyly and polydactyly, bilateral reduplicated hallux, conductive hearing loss, choroidal coloboma and normal intelligence. There are nine forms of oro-facial-digital syndromes with different modes of inheritance. A young female with features of oro-facio-digital syndrome type-II is being reported. PMID:23777026

Kalyan, Meenakshi; Kanitkar, S; John, Robby; Gireesh, G; Bhate, Amit; Mithun, M

2012-10-01

214

Altered dopamine D2 receptor binding in atypical facial pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal studies suggest that the dopaminergic system plays a role in central pain modulation. We have previously demonstrated with positron emission tomography (PET) that striatal dopaminergic hypofunction may be involved in the burning mouth syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients with atypical facial pain using PET. In seven patients with atypical facial pain, striatal presynaptic dopaminergic function was assessed with [18F]FDOPA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptor availabilities with [11C]NNC 756 and [11C]raclopride, respectively. The results were compared with those of healthy controls. A quantitative region-of-interest analysis showed that the uptakes of [18F]FDOPA and [11C]NNC 756 did not differ between patients and controls. There was a tendency of increased D2 receptor availability in the left putamen (P=0.056), and the D1/D2 ratio in the putamen was decreased bilaterally by 7.7% (P=0.002) in patients when compared to controls. In a voxel-based analysis, the uptake of [11C]raclopride was increased in the left putamen (P=0.025). In conclusion, the increase in D2 receptor availability in the left putamen and the decrease in D1/D2 ratio imply that alterations in the striatal dopaminergic system as evaluated by PET may be involved in chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:14581109

Hagelberg, Nora; Forssell, Heli; Aalto, Sargo; Rinne, Juha O; Scheinin, Harry; Taiminen, Tero; Någren, Kjell; Eskola, Olli; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

2003-11-01

215

Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest), happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ?a? like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection) sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It?s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

Mahyar Hamedi; Sh-Hussain Salleh; Tan T. Swee; Kamarulafizam

2011-01-01

216

Facial injuries in Scotland 2001-2009: epidemiological and sociodemographic determinants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To our knowledge, sociodemographic determinants of facial injuries in children have not previously been reported in Scotland. We analysed the pattern, time trends, and key sociodemographic determinants of facial injuries in children and adolescents using Scottish morbidity records for inpatient care (2001-2009) which were retrieved from the Information Services Division of National Health Services (NHS) Scotland. We calculated annual incidences by age, sex, health board, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), and mechanism of injury. A Poisson regression analysis model was used to incorporate the variables. A total of 45388 patients aged from birth to 17 years sustained a facial injury (4.7/1000 population over nine years); 60% (27101) of injuries were unintentional, 15% (6726) resulted from motor vehicle accidents, and 9% (4149) resulted from alleged assaults; 5% (2058) were alcohol related. The incidence decreased over time from 5.5/1000 in 2001 to 4.0/1000 in 2009. The rate ratio for boys was 1.94 times greater than for girls (p<0.001), and it varied significantly between health board areas (0.68 in Dumfries and Galloway and 1.76 in Grampian) (p<0.001). There was a significant association between facial injury and increasing deprivation (p<0.001). The incidence of facial injury is highest among boys living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation so education and resources should be directed towards prevention in these areas.

Rhouma O; McMahon AD; Conway DI; Armstrong M; Welbury R; Goodall C

2013-04-01

217

Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation. PMID:22575677

Lajevardi, S; Wu, H

2012-05-03

218

Facial soft tissue thickness of Colombian adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial reconstruction is a widely used technique in forensic sciences to identify human bone remains and, for such, it is necessary to be aware of the values of facial soft tissue thickness characteristic for each population group. In Colombia, no conclusive values exist regarding facial soft tissue thickness for populations of mixed racial origin that also consider the nutritional state. The study used images from 30 live subjects from both genders, 26 males and four females, age range from 18 to 35 years, The images were obtained through cone beam computed tomography in mestizo population from the city of Cali (Colombia), taken in sitting position and 0.3 mm resolution. The height and weight of all subjects were determined and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Seventeen facial thicknesses were measured over the corresponding anatomical landmarks of the skull. No significant difference was found associated to gender for most anatomical landmarks. However, where differences were found, these were mainly located on the anatomical landmarks of the medial line and particularly with greater value among males. Differences were observed in thicknesses for Colombian population when compared to other studies. The values of facial thickness characterize the Colombian population of mixed racial origin and permit greater approximation in facial reconstructions with forensic purposes. PMID:23587676

Perlaza Ruiz, Néstor Alonso

2013-04-12

219

Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: As people mature, their skin gradually presents lines, wrinkles, and folds that become more pronounced with time. Skin wrinkles are perceived as important cues in communicating information about the age of the person. Nowadays, documenting the facial appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling can be a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for assessing benefits to facial appearance due to various dermatological treatments. However, few image-based algorithms for computationally assessing facial wrinkles are present in the literature, and those that exist have limited reliability. METHODS: In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated spatial features, captured via digital image filtering. RESULTS: The algorithm is tested against one set of clinically validated 11-point wrinkle scales present on the face. The algorithm is employed for assessing the presence of forehead furrows on a set of 100 clinically graded facial images. The proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores. CONCLUSION: We find that the results are in better agreement with clinical scoring when the wrinkle depth information, approximated via filter responses, is combined with the wrinkle length information as opposed to the case when the two measures are considered separately.

Cula GO; Bargo PR; Nkengne A; Kollias N

2013-02-01

220

Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation.

Lajevardi S; Wu H

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Facial affect recognition in myasthenia gravis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The assessment of facial expression is an important aspect of a clinical neurological examination, both as an indicator of a mood disorder and as a sign of neurological damage. To date, although studies have been conducted on certain psychosocial aspects of myasthenia, such as quality of life and anxiety, and on neuropsychological aspects such as memory, no studies have directly assessed facial emotion recognition accuracy. The aim of this study was to assess the facial emotion recognition accuracy (fear, surprise, sadness, happiness, anger, and disgust), empathy, and reaction time of patients with myasthenia. Thirty-five patients with myasthenia and 36 healthy controls were tested for their ability to differentiate emotional facial expressions. Participants were matched with respect to age, gender, and education level. Their ability to differentiate emotional facial expressions was evaluated using the computer-based program Feel Test. The data showed that myasthenic patients scored significantly lower (p < 0.05) than healthy controls in the total Feel score, fear, surprise, and higher reaction time. The findings suggest that the ability to recognize facial affect may be reduced in individuals with myasthenia.

Lázaro E; Amayra I; López-Paz JF; Jometón A; Martín N; Caballero P; De Nicolás L; Hoffmann H; Kessler H; Ruiz B; Martínez O

2013-01-01

222

Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

Lacruz, Rodrigo S; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, María; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G

2013-06-06

223

Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor.

Lacruz RS; de Castro JM; Martinón-Torres M; O'Higgins P; Paine ML; Carbonell E; Arsuaga JL; Bromage TG

2013-01-01

224

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-03-15

225

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence.

Starbuck JM; Cole TM 3rd; Reeves RH; Richtsmeier JT

2013-05-01

226

Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in facial nerve paralysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] GD-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging was used to evaluate 11 patients with facial nerve paralysis (five acute idiopathic facial palsy (Bell palsy), three chronic recurrent facial palsy, one acute facial palsy after local radiation therapy, one chronic facial dyskinesia, and one facial neuroma). In eight of 11 patients, there was marked enhancement of the infratemporal facial nerve from the labyrinthine segment to the stylomastoid foramen. Two patients had additional contrast enhancement in the internal auditory canal segment. In one patient, enhancement persisted (but to a lesser degree) 8 weeks after symptoms had resolved. In one patient, no enhancement was seen 15 months after resolution of Bell palsy. The facial neuroma was seen as a focal nodular enhancement in the mastoid segment of the facial nerve

1989-12-01

227

Total Facial Nerve Decompression for Severe Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of 10 Cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of traumatic facial nerve disorders is challenging. Facial nerve decompression is indicated if 90–95% loss of function is seen at the very early period on ENoG or if there is axonal degeneration on EMG lately with no sign of recovery. Middle cranial or translabyrinthine approach is select...

Yetiser, Sertac

228

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron) survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system)-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate ...

Derek A Wainwright; Junping Xin; Nichole A Mesnard; Taylor R Beahrs; Christine M Politis; Virginia M Sanders; Kathryn J Jones

229

An analysis of facial expression recognition under partial facial image occlusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, an analysis of the effect of partial occlusion on facial expression recognition is investigated. The classification from partially occluded images in one of the six basic facial expressions is performed using a method based on Gabor wavelets texture information extraction, a supervise...

Kotsia, I.; Buciu, I.; Pitas, I.

230

Processing facial emotions in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome: functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) using a facial emotional processing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults with this syndrome and controls matched for age and IQ. The VCFS group had less activation in the right insula...

van Amelsvoort, T.; Schmitz, N.; Daly, E.; Deeley, Q.; Critchley, H.; Henry, J.; Robertson, D.; Owen, M.J; Murphy, K.C.

231

Soccer-related facial fractures: postoperative management with facial protective shields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial fractures are one of the most common orofacial injury sustained during participation in sporting events.The frequency of maxillofacial lesions varies according to the popularity that each sport has in a particular country. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy, and it is responsible for a large number of facial traumas.Traumas and fractures in soccer mainly involve the zygomatic and nasal regions and are especially caused by direct contact that takes place mainly when the ball is played with the forehead. In particular, elbow-head and head-head impacts are the most frequent dangerous contacts.Soccer is not a violent sport, and the use of protective helmets is not allowed because it could be dangerous especially when players play the ball with the head. The use of protective facial shields are exclusively permitted to preserve players who underwent surgery for facial fractures.The use of a facial protection mask after a facial fracture treatment has already been reported. This article describes a clinical experience of management of 4 soccer-related facial fractures by means of fabrication of individual facial protective shields.

Procacci P; Ferrari F; Bettini G; Bissolotti G; Trevisiol L; Nocini PF

2009-01-01

232

Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as facial nerve palsy and facial pain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial nerve palsy due to temporal bone metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has rarely been reported. We experienced a rare case of temporal bone metastasis of HCC that initially presented as facial nerve palsy and was diagnosed by surgical biopsy. This patient also discovered for the first...

Yang, Jong In; Kang, Jung Mook; Byun, Hee Jin; Chung, Go Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Park, Min Jung; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yoon, Jung Hwan

233

Medidas faciais antropométricas de adultos segundo tipo facial e sexo/ Adult facial anthropometric measurements according to facial type and gender  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: descrever medidas antropométricas faciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram comparados os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo de face com sete medidas antropométricas faciais diretas: altura facial anterior- násio ao mentoniano; d (more) istância bizigomática- zigomático esquerdo ao direito; altura do terço facial inferior- subnasal ao mentoniano; altura da face média- násio ao estômio; altura do queixo- supramentoniano ao mentoniano; altura da face inferior- estômio ao mentoniano; e altura facial posterior- condílio ao gônio. RESULTADOS: para o sexo masculino, os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para os valores médios das medidas antropométricas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média e altura da face inferior. Para o sexo feminino, diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram encontradas nas medidas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média, altura da face inferior e altura facial posterior. CONCLUSÃO: houve dimorfismo sexual para todas as medidas antropométricas obtidas, as quais tiveram valores médios maiores para o sexo masculino quando comparados ao feminino. Os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para quatro medidas antropométricas do sexo masculino e cinco do feminino. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe anthropometric measurements in adults according to facial type and gender. METHODS: 105 Caucasian adults took part, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%) with ages between 20 and 40-year old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings from the cephalometric analysis were compared for determining facial type with seven direct anthropometric measurements: anterior face height- nasion to menton; distance bizygom (more) atique- zygion left to right; lower face height- subnasale to menton; middle face height- nasion to stomion; chin height- supramenton to menton; inferior face height- stomion to menton; and posterior face height- condylion to gonion. RESULTS: for male, the facial types classified by means of cephalometry had significant statistical differences for the average values of the anthropometric measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height and inferior face height. For female, significant statistical differences were found in the following measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height, inferior face height and posterior face height. CONCLUSION: there was sexual dimorphism for all collected anthropometric measurements. The male showed higher average values when compared with the female. The facial types classified by means of cephalometry showed significant statistical differences in four anthropometric measurements, for male and five for female.

Ramires, Rossana Ribeiro; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto; Marchesan, Irene Queiroz; Cattoni, Débora Martins; Andrada e Silva, Marta Assumpção de

2011-04-01

234

Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India  

CERN Document Server

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

2010-01-01

235

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação de patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman) e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman). O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável.Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this association, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman) and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman). Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Fernando Kaoru Yonamine; Juliane Tuma; Rogério Fernandes Nunes da Silva; Maria Claudia Mattos Soares; José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

2009-01-01

236

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda/ Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação de patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clini (more) camente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman) e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman). O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável. Abstract in english Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this association, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemio (more) logical data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman) and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman). Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Yonamine, Fernando Kaoru; Tuma, Juliane; Silva, Rogério Fernandes Nunes da; Soares, Maria Claudia Mattos; Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel

2009-04-01

237

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequência de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%), a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5%) tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8%) pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita.BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facial paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2%) underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5%) showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8%) sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Kátia Torres Batista

2011-01-01

238

3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease

1994-01-01

239

3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease.

Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hyun Ung; Moon, Woong Jae [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1994-10-15

240

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication.

Marian DE; Shimamura AP

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Risk factors associated with facial fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a < 0.05), univariate and multivariate Poisson distributions and the logistic regression analysis (p < 0.20). Maxillofacial trauma was recorded in 790 charts (70.5%), with 393 (35.1%) charts reporting facial fractures. Motorcycle accidents were found to be the main risk factor for mandibular fractures (PR = 1.576, CI = 1.402-1.772) and simultaneous fractures of more than one facial bone (OR = 4.625, CI = 1.888-11.329) as well as the only risk factor for maxillary bone fractures (OR = 11.032, CI = 5.294-22.989). Fractures of the zygomatic and nasal bones were mainly associated with accidents involving animals (PR = 1.206, CI = 1.104-1.317) and sports (OR = 8.710, CI = 4.006-18.936), respectively. The determinant for the majority of facial fractures was motorcycle accidents, followed by accidents involving animals and sports.

Anne Margareth Batista; Fernanda de Oliveira Ferreira; Leandro Silva Marques; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge; Meire Coelho Ferreira

2012-01-01

242

[Internet information availability about facial nerve paralysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The Internet is widely used to find medical information. Facial nerve paralysis, with its numerous, varied diagnoses and broad field expertise in otorhinolaryngology and other departments, has triggered countless sites with widely varying quality and reliability. We clarified concerns on Internet-related information availability on facial nerve paralysis. METHODS: We reviewed information using Japanese and English search terms for "facial nerve paralysis, facial palsy" on Google Japan (GJ), Yahoo Japan! (YJ), and Google USA (GU), clarifying the top 50 Web sites. RESULTS: GJ and YJ search results showed few public institution Web sites, whereas those of commercial acupuncture and moxibustion practitioners accounted for about 40% of all the sites. GU sites generally described differential diagnoses well, with extensive, accurate information mainly developed by Western-medicine doctors rather than acupuncture and moxibustion practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of facial nerve paralysis information on the Internet varies widely, with Web sites containing reliable, extensive information, especially those developed by public institutions, greatly lacking as of this writing.

Suzuki J; Kobayashi T

2010-11-01

243

Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

Haley G. Trontel; Tyler C. Duffield; Erin D. Bigler; Alyson Froehlich; Molly B.D. Prigge; Jared A. Nielsen; Jason R. Cooperrider; Annahir N. Cariello; Brittany G. Travers; Jeffrey S. Anderson; Brandon A. Zielinski; Andrew Alexander; Nicholas Lange; Janet E. Lainhart

2013-01-01

244

Clinical outcomes of facial transplantation: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 18 composite tissue allotransplants of the face have currently been reported. Prior to the start of the face transplant programme, there had been intense debate over the risks and benefits of performing this experimental surgery. This review examines the surgical, functional and aesthetic, immunological and psychological outcomes of facial transplantation thus far, based on the predicted risks outlined in early publications from teams around the world. The initial experience has demonstrated that facial transplantation is surgically feasible. Functional and aesthetic outcomes have been very encouraging with good motor and sensory recovery and improvements to important facial functions observed. Episodes of acute rejection have been common, as predicted, but easily controlled with increases in systemic immunosuppression. Psychological improvements have been remarkable and have resulted in the reintegration of patients into the outside world, social networks and even the workplace. Complications of immunosuppression and patient mortality have been observed in the initial series. These have highlighted rigorous patient selection as the key predictor of success. The overall early outcomes of the face transplant programme have been generally more positive than many predicted. This initial success is testament to the robust approach of teams. Dissemination of outcomes and ongoing refinement of the process may allow facial transplantation to eventually become a first-line reconstructive option for those with extensive facial disfigurements.

Shanmugarajah K; Hettiaratchy S; Clarke A; Butler PE

2011-01-01

245

Does attribution of blame influence psychological outcomes in facial trauma victims?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The relative importance of different variables and specific post-traumatic psychological reactions after facial injuries is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the subjective attribution of blame and anxiety and depression in facial trauma victims. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We undertook a comparative cross-sectional study of psychological outcomes in a cohort of adult patients who have sustained a facial injury. The primary predictor variable was the attribution of blame (self-blame vs blame-others). The main outcome variable was the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores. We also considered several demographic and other clinical variables to assess their relationship with the nature of blame attribution. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics were used to assess the relationship between the primary predictor and outcome variables, adjusted for age, gender, and confounding factors. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 102 facial trauma victims (77 men and 25 women). Of the 77 patients, 63 attributed blame for their injuries to someone else and 39 patients attributed blame to themselves. Psychometric scores suggestive of anxiety and the depressive state were significantly greater in the "blame-others" group than in the "self-blame" group (HADS-Anxiety 22% vs 13%, HADS-Depression 17% vs 8%). The prevalence of psychomorbidity in the blame-others group was approximately twice that found in the self-blame group (odds ratio 2.2). Facial trauma patients who blamed others for their injury were predominantly younger men (P = .01) and typically victims of intentional trauma (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that external attribution of blame for facial injury is associated with poor postinjury psychiatric outcomes.

Islam S; Cole JL; Walton GM; Dinan TG; Hoffman GR

2012-03-01

246

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI) will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something about the human’s emotions and mood. This paper focuses on the novel Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm (HFGA) and comparative analysis of Facial Geometry algorithm and HFGA for facial feature extraction and its use to classify facial expressions. Feed forward back propagation neural network (BPNN) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) are used as classifiers for expression classification and recognition. Experimentations are carried out using Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) database. Experimental results shows that average recognition efficiency from 95.33% to 93.33% is achieved for 30 to 75 test samples using BPNN and 95.71% to 95.33% with ANFIS approach.

Sunanda P. Khandait; R. C. Thool; Prabhakar D. Khandait

2013-01-01

247

The role of facial response in the experience of emotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expression and emotional stimuli were varied orthogonally in a 3 x 4 factorial design in order to test whether facial expression is necessary or sufficient to influence emotional experience. Subjects watched a film eliciting fear, sadness, or no emotion, while holding their facial muscles in the position characteristic of fear or sadness, or in an effortful but nonemotional grimace; those in a fourth group received no facial instructions. The subjects believed that the study concerned subliminal perception and that the facial positions were necessary to prevent physiological recording artifacts. The films had powerful effects on reported emotions, the facial expressions none. Correlations between facial expression and reported emotion were zero. Sad and fearful subjects showed distinctive patterns of physiological arousal. Facial expression also tended to affect physiological responses in a manner consistent with an effort hypothesis. PMID:501520

Tourangeau, R; Ellsworth, P C

1979-09-01

248

The role of facial response in the experience of emotion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial expression and emotional stimuli were varied orthogonally in a 3 x 4 factorial design in order to test whether facial expression is necessary or sufficient to influence emotional experience. Subjects watched a film eliciting fear, sadness, or no emotion, while holding their facial muscles in the position characteristic of fear or sadness, or in an effortful but nonemotional grimace; those in a fourth group received no facial instructions. The subjects believed that the study concerned subliminal perception and that the facial positions were necessary to prevent physiological recording artifacts. The films had powerful effects on reported emotions, the facial expressions none. Correlations between facial expression and reported emotion were zero. Sad and fearful subjects showed distinctive patterns of physiological arousal. Facial expression also tended to affect physiological responses in a manner consistent with an effort hypothesis.

Tourangeau R; Ellsworth PC

1979-09-01

249

[Therapeutic trial in facial hemispasm. Initial results (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors propose an original easy technic of hemi-facial spasm. They take a drain on the emergence of facial nerve (stylo mastoïd hole). The, they proceed at successif alcoholizations. The first results are more favorable than formes tecnicals.

Labayle J; Dahan S; Bordes R; Aben-Moha JG; Margo

1980-06-01

250

Relationships among facial mimicry, emotional experience, and emotion recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions.

Sato W; Fujimura T; Kochiyama T; Suzuki N

2013-01-01

251

Identity Transfer and Identity Restoration in Facial Allotransplantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Facial allotransplantation is fast becoming a reconstructive option for severely disfigured individuals, but it is still in experimental stage. Facial allotransplantation will be considered fully ethical only when it addresses the recipient's identity concerns. There exist no such studies...

Modgil, Ajay

252

Inclusion body myositis presenting with facial diplegia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction: The hallmark clinical presentation of inclusion body myositis (IBM) is slowly progressive weakness that characteristically affects the quadriceps and finger and wrist finger flexor muscles. Facial weakness can also occur, but it is typically mild and not a prominent finding. Methods: We describe the clinical features, laboratory investigations, and muscle biopsy findings in a 58-year old man who presented with a 6-year history of marked progressive symmetrical facial weakness. Examination also showed shoulder abduction and hip extensor weakness. Results: The serum creatine kinase level was 655 U/L, and EMG showed fibrillation potentials and myopathic motor unit potentials. A biopsy specimen of the left biceps muscle was pathognomonic for IBM. Conclusions: Our patient did not have a typical presentation for IBM but fulfilled pathological criteria for IBM. To our knowledge, facial diplegia has not been reported previously as a presenting manifestation of IBM. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ghosh PS; Laughlin RS; Engel AE

2013-08-01

253

Facial Animation Based on Feature Points  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for synthesizing natural animation of facial expression with data from motion capture. The captured expression was transferred from the space of source performance to that of a 3D target face using an accurate mapping process in order to realize the reuse of motion data. The transferred animation was then applied to synthesize the expression of the target model through a framework of two-stage deformation. A local deformation technique preliminarily considered a set of neighbor feature points for every vertex and their impact on the vertex. Furthermore, the global deformation was exploited to ensure the smoothness of the whole facial mesh. The experimental results show our hybrid mesh deformation strategy was effective, which could animate different target face without complicated manual efforts required by most of facial animation approaches.

Beibei Li; Qiang Zhang; Dongsheng Zhou; Xiaopeng Wei

2013-01-01

254

Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

1996-01-01

255

Chinese medicine for treating palsy facial paralysis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a Chinese medicine for remedying stroke facial paralysis. The Chinese medicine is made from the raw materials with the following weight portions of 30-35g rhizoma typhon 25-30g, 30-35g of muscardine silkworm, 30-35g of whole worm, 10-15 of centipede, 25-30g of parsnip and 25-30g of Arisacma Consanguineum. The Chinese medicine has simple and reasonable preparation, good curative effect and wide medicine sources without any side effects. The Chinese medicine is mainly used for remedying facial distortion or accompanied lateral facial tic caused by that the head surface meridian is blocked by wind-phlegm. The effective rate is 80 percent, and the cure rate is above 60 percent.

YUNBO LIU; DEFEN WANG

256

Sexual orientation perception involves gendered facial cues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perceivers can accurately judge a face's sexual orientation, but the perceptual mechanisms mediating this remain obscure. The authors hypothesized that stereotypes casting gays and lesbians as gender "inverts," in cultural circulation for a century and a half, lead perceivers to use gendered facial cues to infer sexual orientation. Using computer-generated faces, Study 1 showed that as two facial dimensions (shape and texture) became more gender inverted, targets were more likely to be judged as gay or lesbian. Study 2 showed that real faces appearing more gender inverted were more likely to be judged as gay or lesbian. Furthermore, the stereotypic use of gendered cues influenced the accurate judgment of sexual orientation. Although using gendered cues increased the accuracy of sexual orientation judgments overall, Study 3 showed that judgments were reliably mistaken for targets that countered stereotypes. Together, the findings demonstrate that perceivers utilize gendered facial cues to glean another's sexual orientation, and this influences the accuracy or error of judgments.

Freeman JB; Johnson KL; Ambady N; Rule NO

2010-10-01

257

Automatic Facial Spots and Acnes Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently medical cosmetic has attracted significant business opportunity. Micro cosmetic surgery usually involves invasive cosmetic procedures such as non-ablative laser procedure for skin rejuvenation. However, to select an appropriate treatment for skin relies on accurate preoperative evaluations. In this paper, an automatic facial skin defects detection and recognition method is proposed. The system first locates the facial region from the input image. Then, the shapes of faces were recognized using a contour descriptor. The facial features are extracted to define regions of interest and an image segment method is used to extract potential defect. A support-vector-machine-based classifier is then used to classify the potential defects into spots, acnes and normal skin. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

Chuan-Yu Chang; Heng-Yi Liao

2013-01-01

258

Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

2009-02-01

259

Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

1996-02-01

260

Incidencia de las lesiones cutáneas malignas faciales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de las lesiones malignas de la piel facial en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey en los años 2000 y 2001. La información se obtuvo de 148 historias clínicas con el diagnóstico de lesiones malignas de la piel, de las cuales 42 correspondieron a lesiones de localización facial. La entidad que nos ocupa fue mayor en pacientes mayores de 50 años de edad, blancos, masculinos, con predominio en el tercio medio facial. Los principales tipos histológicos fueron: el carcinoma basocelular y el espinocelular, pero con mayor predominio en el primero. Se revisa el tema y se comparan nuestros resultados con los de otros autores.

Jorge Luis Zequeira Peña; Oscar García-Roco Pérez; Miguel Arredondo López

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Changing perception: Facial reanimation surgery improves attractiveness and decreases negative facial perception.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Determine the effect of facial reanimation surgery on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception of patients with facial paralysis. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment. METHODS: Ninety observers viewed images of paralyzed faces, smiling and in repose, before and after reanimation surgery, as well as normal comparison faces. Observers rated the attractiveness of each face and characterized the paralyzed faces by rating severity, disfigured/bothersome, and importance to repair. Iterated factor analysis indicated these highly correlated variables measure a common domain, so they were combined to create the disfigured, important to repair, bothersome, severity (DIBS) factor score. Mixed effects linear regression determined the effect of facial reanimation surgery on attractiveness and DIBS score. RESULTS: Facial paralysis induces an attractiveness penalty of 2.51 on a 10-point scale for faces in repose and 3.38 for smiling faces. Mixed effects linear regression showed that reanimation surgery improved attractiveness for faces both in repose and smiling by 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67, 1.01) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) respectively. Planned hypothesis tests confirmed statistically significant differences in attractiveness ratings between postoperative and normal faces, indicating attractiveness was not completely normalized. Regression analysis also showed that reanimation surgery decreased DIBS by 0.807 (95% CI: 0.704, 0.911) for faces in repose and 0.989 (95% CI: 0.886, 1.093), an entire standard deviation, for smiling faces. CONCLUSIONS: Facial reanimation surgery increases attractiveness and decreases negative facial perception of patients with facial paralysis. These data emphasize the need to optimize reanimation surgery to restore not only function, but also symmetry and cosmesis to improve facial perception and patient quality of life.

Dey JK; Ishii M; Boahene KD; Byrne PJ; Ishii LE

2013-06-01

262

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron) survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system)-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type), a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3?/? mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2?/? (recombination activating gene-2-deficient) mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3?/? mice, but not in CCR3?/? mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

Derek A Wainwright; Junping Xin; Nichole A Mesnard; Taylor R Beahrs; Christine M Politis; Virginia M Sanders; Kathryn J Jones

2009-01-01

263

Aspectos neurofisiológicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: revisão teórica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiológicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial periférica. MÉTODOS: revisão da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos periódicos nacionais e internacionais e nos livros científicos sobre o tema, no período entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referências neste trabalho. Destas, 20 sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em três grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Características morfológicas e histoquímicas dos músculos da face e III - Denervação e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impressão dos autores, são relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitação da paralisia facial.PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophysiology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

Adriana Tessitore; Leopoldo Nisan Pfelsticker; Jorge Rizzato Paschoal

2008-01-01

264

Aspectos neurofisiológicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial/ Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: revisão teórica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiológicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial periférica. MÉTODOS: revisão da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos periódicos nacionais e internacionais e nos livros científicos sobre o tema, no período entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referências neste trabalho. Destas, 20 (more) sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em três grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Características morfológicas e histoquímicas dos músculos da face e III - Denervação e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impressão dos autores, são relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitação da paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophy (more) siology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

Tessitore, Adriana; Pfelsticker, Leopoldo Nisan; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato

2008-03-01

265

Posterior fossa gangliocytoma with facial nerve invasion: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 5 year-old boy with a cerebellar gangliocytoma with a peripheral right facial paresis and ataxia is presented. His MRI showed a heterogenous, diffuse lesion, isointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weigthed sequences, involving the right cerebellar hemisphere with direct extension into the right facial nerve. The present case is the first description of a gangliocytoma with direct facial nerve invasion, as demonstrated for the facial nerve paresis and supported by MRI and surgical inspection.

Koerbel Andrei; Prevedello Daniel Monte-Serrat; Tatsui Cláudio Esteves; Pellegrino Luciano; Hanel Ricardo Alexandre; Bleggi-Torres Luiz Fernando; Araújo João Cândido

2003-01-01

266

Facial nerve: From anatomy to pathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The facial nerve (CN VII) emerges from the facial nerve nucleus in the pons. It is accompanied by CN VIII along its cisternal pathway, as well as at the internal auditory meatus. Its petrous pathway includes a labyrinthine segment, a horizontal tympanic segment and a vertical mastoid segment until the stylomastoid foramen. It then continues to the parotid gland. Pontine impairment is usually associated with other neurological symptoms. Lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (most often meningioma and schwannoma) initially result in impairment of CN VIII. The impairment of CN VII takes second place. Peripheral impairment (outside of a traumatic context) is most often due to Bell's palsy.

Toulgoat F; Sarrazin JL; Benoudiba F; Pereon Y; Auffray-Calvier E; Daumas-Duport B; Lintia-Gaultier A; Desal HA

2013-10-01

267

PFAPA with facial swelling- a new association?  

Science.gov (United States)

PFAPA (periodic fever, apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) is a rare condition of unknown cause affecting children. Although the exact etiology is unknown, inflammatory, immunological or genetic causes have been suggested. The diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes of periodic fever. Although management is essentially symptomatic, single corticosteroid dose, tonsillectomy and Cimetidine has been shown to be associated with resolution of symptoms. Although abdominal pain and genital ulcers have been reported in association with PFAPA, unilateral transient facial swelling has not been previously reported. The authors present a hitherto unreported association of PFAPA with recurrent episodes of unilateral facial swelling. PMID:22528696

Khodaghalian, B; Tewary, K K; Narchi, H

2012-04-13

268

PFAPA with facial swelling- a new association?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PFAPA (periodic fever, apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) is a rare condition of unknown cause affecting children. Although the exact etiology is unknown, inflammatory, immunological or genetic causes have been suggested. The diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes of periodic fever. Although management is essentially symptomatic, single corticosteroid dose, tonsillectomy and Cimetidine has been shown to be associated with resolution of symptoms. Although abdominal pain and genital ulcers have been reported in association with PFAPA, unilateral transient facial swelling has not been previously reported. The authors present a hitherto unreported association of PFAPA with recurrent episodes of unilateral facial swelling.

Khodaghalian B; Tewary KK; Narchi H

2013-05-01

269

Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

M. Oravec; B. Kristof; M. Kolarik; J. Pavlovicova

2008-01-01

270

Risk factors associated with facial fractures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Stat (more) istical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a

Batista, Anne Margareth; Ferreira, Fernanda de Oliveira; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

2012-04-01

271

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: Report of two cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma is a rare tumor. Case report: In this article we presented two cases of intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma. In two cases tumor presented with asymptomatic parotid mass that mimic pleomorphic adenoma. No preoperative facial nerve dysfunction in...

Seyyed Basir Hashemi; Ayeh Taraghi

272

The treatment of facial nerve palsy by static suspension methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be direc...

Jovanovi? Milan D.; Ron?evi? Radmilo P.; Coli? Miodrag M.; Stoji?i? Milan T.; Rasuli? Lukas G.

273

Primary tumor of the facial nerve: Diagnosis and management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Benign primary tumors of facial nerve are rare, difficult to diagnose due to their subtle and variable clinical manifestations and these are usually misdiagnosed as idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. A case of facial nerve sehwannoma in internal auditory meatus presenting as a tumor indistinguishabl...

Pampori, Rafiq Ahmad; Ahmad, Asif; Ahmad, Manzoor

274

Facial Nerve Schwannoma of the Cerebellopontine Angle: A Diagnostic Challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial nerve schwannomas are rare lesions that may involve any segment of the facial nerve. Because of their rarity and the lack of a consistent clinical and radiological pattern, facial nerve schwannomas located at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) represent a diagn...

Lassaletta, Luis; Roda, José María; Frutos, Remedios; Patrón, Mercedes; Gavilán, Javier

275

Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

Joseph B; Rajshekhar V

2002-01-01

276

Reduced cholinergic and glutamatergic synaptic input to regenerated motoneurons after facial nerve repair in rats: potential implications for recovery of motor function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deafferentation of motoneurons after facial nerve injury is a well-documented phenomenon but whether synaptic inputs to facial motoneurons are completely restored after reinnervation is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in motor performance after transection/suture of the facial nerve (facial-facial anastomosis, FFA) in adult rats are associated with incomplete recovery of synaptic inputs. At 2 months after FFA, we found, in congruence with previous results, that the amplitude of whisking had recovered to only 31 % of control (sham operation). In the same FFA-treated rats, estimates of number of chemically defined synaptic terminals in the facial nucleus by immunohistochemistry and stereology showed a significant loss, compared with sham controls, of glutamatergic terminals (-26 %) and cholinergic perisomatic boutons (-31 %), but not inhibitory (GABA/glycinergic) terminals (-14 %). Synaptic deficits were accompanied by persistent microgliosis in the facial nucleus but soma area, dendritic arbor volume, and total number of motoneurons were normal. Correlation analyses revealed significant co-variations of whisking amplitude with number of glutamatergic and cholinergic synapses. Compared with 2 months, analyses of animals at 4 months after FFA showed no attenuation of the functional deficit and structural aberrations with one exception, increase of inhibitory terminal numbers beyond control level (+11 %) leading to further reduction of the excitatory/inhibitory terminal ratio. We suggest that deficits in motoneuron innervation in the regenerated facial nucleus-reduced glutamatergic and cholinergic input and reduced excitatory/inhibitory terminal ratio-could attenuate the motor output and, thus, negatively impact the functional performance after facial nerve regeneration.

Raslan A; Ernst P; Werle M; Thieme H; Szameit K; Finkensieper M; Guntinas-Lichius O; Irintchev A

2013-03-01

277

Diagnosis and surgical outcomes of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma showing normal facial nerve function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The findings of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma (FNS) using preoperative diagnostic tools, including ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy, computed tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were analyzed to determine if there are any useful findings that might suggest the presence of a lesion. Treatment guidelines are suggested. The medical records of 15 patients who were diagnosed with an intraparotid FNS were retrospectively analyzed. US and CT scans provide clinicians with only limited information; gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted images from MRI provide more specific findings. Tumors could be removed successfully with surgical exploration, preserving facial nerve function at the same time. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed more characteristic findings for the diagnosis of intraparotid FNS. Intraparotid FNS without facial palsy can be diagnosed with MRI preoperatively, and surgical exploration is a suitable treatment modality which can remove the tumor and preserve facial nerve function. PMID:23618834

Lee, D W; Byeon, H K; Chung, H P; Choi, E C; Kim, S-H; Park, Y M

2013-04-22

278

Processing facial emotions in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome: functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) using a facial emotional processing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults with this syndrome and controls matched for age and IQ. The VCFS group had less activation in the right insula and frontal brain regions and more activation in occipital regions. Genetically determined abnormalities in pathways including those involved in emotional processing may underlie deficits in social cognition in people with VCFS.

van Amelsvoort T; Schmitz N; Daly E; Deeley Q; Critchley H; Henry J; Robertson D; Owen M; Murphy KC; Murphy DG

2006-12-01

279

A rare case of keloidal granuloma faciale with extra-facial lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon, cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques, or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extra-facial lesions occur rarely. We present a case report of 33-year-old male who presented with keloidal lesions on face and left shoulder. The patient didn't respond with intralesional triamcinolone and showed poor response with the addition of topical tacrolimus. Surgical excision in consultation with plastic surgeons is planned.

Singh SK; Rai T; Sharma T

2013-01-01

280

Reproducibility of facial soft tissue landmarks on facial images captured on a 3D camera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Fast and non-invasive systems of the three-dimensional (3D) technology are a recent trend in orthodontics. The reproducibility of facial landmarks is important so that 3D facial measurements are accurate and may-be applied clinically. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of facial soft tissue landmarks using a non-invasive stereo-photogrammetry 3D camera. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four soft tissue landmarks on 3D facial images captured using a VECTRA-3D dual module camera system for full face imaging (Canfield Scientific inc, Fairfield, NJ, USA) were viewed and analysed using Mirror software on 30 adult subjects (15 males and 15 females, in the age range of 20-25 years). The landmarks were identified, recorded and measured twice on each 3D facial image by one examiner after a 2-week interval. Intra-class correlations and paired t-test or Wilcoxon Rank test were performed for each landmark to assess intra-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation coefficients for all 24 landmarks ranged from 0.68 to 0.97, indicating moderate to high reliability and reproducibility of all facial soft tissue landmarks. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Rank test also revealed that there were no significant differences in all 24 facial soft tissue landmarks measurements (p = 0. 17 - 0.99). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the reproducibility of identification of landmarks by one operator on facial images captured using a VECTRA-3D camera was acceptable. This device may be useful in treatment planning and may provide accurate information in making clinical decisions. However, it is suggested that further studies on inter-examiner reproducibility should be undertaken.

Othman SA; Ahmad R; Mericant AF; Jamaludin M

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Capsule for treating obstinate facial neuritis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a capsule for treating obstinate facial neuritis. The invention is characterized by comprising the following steps: scolopendra and scorpio are dried by microwaves and ground into powder for use stiff silkworm, rhizoma typhonii and loranthus parasitic are singly extracted into condensed extractum by supercritical extraction technique and the extractum is dried, ground and encapsulated into capsules.

TAO HUANG

282

Degloving facial injury treated with hydroconductive dressing.  

Science.gov (United States)

COMPLEX, OPEN MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES ARE OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY EXTENSIVE CONTAMINATION, CRUSH, OR AVULSION OF THE OVERLYING SOFT TISSUE, THERE HAVE BEEN TWO ALTERNATIVES TO TREATMENT: either radical debridement of all contaminated tissue, fixation of the underlying fractures, and soft tissue closure by pedicle flap or graft is done; or more conservative debridement is repeated multiple times until the contaminated tissue is removed and fracture fixation is deemed safe. Debridement is usually accomplished by sharp debridement or with high-pressure intermittent irrigation or some combination of both modalities. The problems with this standard treatment in the face are that facial features may be distorted, superficial branches of the facial and/or trigeminal nerve can be inadvertently sacrificed (even with the use of nerve stimulators), and scarring can distort contours and radically change facial appearance. A serious facial degloving injury with necrotic malodorous tissue and no clear anatomical delineations demanded special attention. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the management of a soft tissue avulsive contaminated injury of the face with underlying maxillofacial fractures. PMID:23662267

Perumal, Colin; Bouckaert, Michael; Robson, Martin

2013-01-01

283

Degloving facial injury treated with hydroconductive dressing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

COMPLEX, OPEN MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES ARE OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY EXTENSIVE CONTAMINATION, CRUSH, OR AVULSION OF THE OVERLYING SOFT TISSUE, THERE HAVE BEEN TWO ALTERNATIVES TO TREATMENT: either radical debridement of all contaminated tissue, fixation of the underlying fractures, and soft tissue closure by pedicle flap or graft is done; or more conservative debridement is repeated multiple times until the contaminated tissue is removed and fracture fixation is deemed safe. Debridement is usually accomplished by sharp debridement or with high-pressure intermittent irrigation or some combination of both modalities. The problems with this standard treatment in the face are that facial features may be distorted, superficial branches of the facial and/or trigeminal nerve can be inadvertently sacrificed (even with the use of nerve stimulators), and scarring can distort contours and radically change facial appearance. A serious facial degloving injury with necrotic malodorous tissue and no clear anatomical delineations demanded special attention. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the management of a soft tissue avulsive contaminated injury of the face with underlying maxillofacial fractures.

Perumal C; Bouckaert M; Robson M

2013-01-01

284

Ophthalmic Management of the Facial Palsy Patient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The management of the ocular sequelae of facial palsy should be individualized for each patient. The patient's age, ocular motility, tear production, and corneal sensation are considered when developing a treatment plan. Individuals with transient weakness often require only therapy with topical lub...

Custer, Philip L.

285

A Review Paper on Biometrics: Facial Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last ten years or so, facial recognition has become a popular area of research in computer vision and one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding. Because of the nature of the problem, not only computer science researchers are interested in it, but neuroscientists and psychologists also. It is the general opinion that advances in computer vision research will provide useful insights to neuroscientists and psychologists into how human brain works, and vice versa. Humans have always had the innate ability to recognize and distinguish between faces,yet computers only recently have shown the same ability. In the mid 1960s, scientists began work on using the computer to recognize human faces. Since then,facial recognition software has come a long way. In this article, we will look at the reason behind using facial recognition, the various technology used in the facial recognition, the products been made to implement this biometrics technique and also the criticisms and advantages that are bounded with it.

Sakshi Goel1, Akhil Kaushik2, Kirtika Goel

2012-01-01

286

Facial injuries sustained during sports and games.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study is an investigation into the number and type of facial injuries due to sports and games, because no detailed information on these dental misfortunes could be found in the literature. The group investigated consisted of 319 patients, treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Nijmegen in the period January 1, 1971-December 31, 1978. Facial injuries were classified into different types of fractures according to site as also were further series of associated injuries. Males were shown to be more prone to facial injuries than females (2.4:1). In the age group 15-40 years, males proved to be more prone to such injuries than the age group under 15 years. The major part of the injuries is due to fractures of the alveolar process and/or luxation of teeth (59.6%), the zygomatic bone and arch (24.2%) and the mandible (15.3%). Fractures of the maxilla and the nose were rarely seen.

Linn EW; Vrijhoef MM; de Wijn JR; Coops RP; Cliteur BF; Meerloo R

1986-04-01

287

Analysis of facial deformities in korean leprosy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. METHODS: One hundred ninety six patients with leprosy were examined for various facial deformities using a nasal speculum, endoscope, and digital camera. The frequency and severity of external nasal deformities and septal perforations were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Eye deformities, ear deformities, and facial palsy were also assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients (36.2%) displayed external nasal deformities: 28 minimal contractures, three cartilage contractures, two bony-cartilage contractures, and 38 skin defects. The external nasal deformity and severe form deformity in lepromatous types were more frequent compared to other types (P<0.05 for each variable). Twenty-three patients (9%) displayed septal perforations, among whom 11 had cartilaginous perforations and 12 had bony-cartilaginous perforations. The frequency of septal and bony-cartilaginous perforations did not differ significantly between the types of leprosy (P>0.05 for each variable). Sixty-one patients (31.1%) had eye deformities and 19 patients (9.7%) had facial nerve palsy, common in the borderline type. No cases of ear deformities were observed. CONCLUSION: Korean patients had characteristic deformities according to the type of leprosy. They were different from those seen in the prior analyses of Caucasian populations.

Kim JH; Lee OJ; Lee JJ; Park CH

2013-06-01

288

Facial asymmetries: problems in genetic counselling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nosology of the facial asymmetries was studied and illustrated by 4 personal cases: two of incomplete oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia, one of probable Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and one of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. Hints for the recurrent risk counselling are given.

Dodinval P

1979-10-01

289

Disseminated intravascular coagulation and facial injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A severe case of disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to a road traffic accident in a pregnant woman is presented. The nature of this recognised complication of pregnancy is noted, and the problems encountered when it occurs together with facial trauma, are described. The importance of awareness and recognition of this condition is emphasised.

Samman N

1984-08-01

290

Facial Nerve Monitoring under Neuromuscular Blockade  

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The characteristics of facial nerve electromyography at various levels of neuromuscular blockade are unclear. Partial blockade is well known to facilitate anesthetic safety and management. However, the use of neuromuscular blockage in many skull base procedures is avoided to allow intraoperative fac...

Hester, T. Oma; Hasan, Akbar; McDonnell, Francis; Valentino, Joseph; Jones, Raleigh

291

Predicting treatment compliance following facial pain evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to document compliance to treatment follow-up for facial pain patients referred for outside services. In addition, we generated a multidimensional model of the psychosocial constructs associated with chronic pain to determine whether these factors were predictive of compliance across recommended therapy modalities or with an overall measure of compliance. These constructs included pain report, depressive symptoms, anxiety, cognitive coping strategies, and physical activity reduction. The sample consisted of 80 facial pain patients evaluated at a tertiary care, facial pain clinic at a large university medical center. Compliance ratings ranged from 93% to 50% and are consistent with the literature that indicates that compliance differs across treatment modality. Furthermore, compliance rates were lower for the more nontraditional facial pain treatments performed by physical therapists or psychologists. Depression was negatively associated with compliance to medication changes, therapeutic injections, and splint therapy, but not psychological counseling or physical therapy. Increased pain was only associated with physical therapy. Measures of psychological distress (depression and anxiety) and pain were predictive of the overall measure of compliance. These results suggest that psychological distress can be a barrier for positive patient outcomes through reduced treatment compliance. PMID:10425925

Riley, J L; Robinson, M E; Wise, E A; Campbell, L C; Kashikar-Zuck, S; Gremillion, H A

1999-01-01

292

Predicting treatment compliance following facial pain evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to document compliance to treatment follow-up for facial pain patients referred for outside services. In addition, we generated a multidimensional model of the psychosocial constructs associated with chronic pain to determine whether these factors were predictive of compliance across recommended therapy modalities or with an overall measure of compliance. These constructs included pain report, depressive symptoms, anxiety, cognitive coping strategies, and physical activity reduction. The sample consisted of 80 facial pain patients evaluated at a tertiary care, facial pain clinic at a large university medical center. Compliance ratings ranged from 93% to 50% and are consistent with the literature that indicates that compliance differs across treatment modality. Furthermore, compliance rates were lower for the more nontraditional facial pain treatments performed by physical therapists or psychologists. Depression was negatively associated with compliance to medication changes, therapeutic injections, and splint therapy, but not psychological counseling or physical therapy. Increased pain was only associated with physical therapy. Measures of psychological distress (depression and anxiety) and pain were predictive of the overall measure of compliance. These results suggest that psychological distress can be a barrier for positive patient outcomes through reduced treatment compliance.

Riley JL 3rd; Robinson ME; Wise EA; Campbell LC; Kashikar-Zuck S; Gremillion HA

1999-01-01

293

Searching for Prototypical Facial Feedback Signals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Embodied conversational agents should be able to provide feedback on what a human interlocutor is saying. We are compiling a list of facial feedback expressions that signal attention and interest, grounding and attitude. As expressions need to serve many functions at the same time and most of the co...

Heylen, Dirk; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Tellier, Marion; Pelachaud, Catherine

294

Static and dynamic repairs of facial nerve injuries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The patient with facial paralysis presents a daunting challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. A thorough evaluation is key in directing the surgeon to the appropriate treatment methods. Aggressive and immediate exploration with primary repair of the facial nerve continues to be the standard of care for traumatic transection of the facial nerve. Secondary repair using dynamic techniques is preferred over static procedures, because the outcomes have proved to be superior. However, patients should be counseled that facial movement and symmetry are difficult to mimic and none of the procedures described is able to restore all of the complex vectors and overall balance of facial movement and expression.

White H; Rosenthal E

2013-05-01

295

A novel human-machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multichannel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Fron-tails and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passes through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs. rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. (author)

2011-01-01

296

Delayed facial palsy following laser stapedectomy: in vitro study of facial nerve temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delayed facial palsy following conventional stapes surgery is a rare event, but this complication appears to be more common when a laser is used. We have investigated the temperature in the facial canal during stapes surgery using a KTP laser or a microdrill in preserved human temporal bones. Thermocouples were placed in the facial canal and under the foot plate. The results show maximum rises in temperature of between 1.4 degrees C and 15.2 degrees C in the facial canal during laser surgery (mean 6.1 degrees C, SD 4.5 degrees C), but only between 0.45 degrees C and 2 degrees C during procedures in which a microdrill was used (mean 0.9 degrees C, SD 0.9 degrees C) (P = < 0.009). In addition, the facial nerve undergoes repeated heating and cooling cycles during the laser surgery. We conclude that heating of the facial nerve during laser surgery causes oedema, which in turn leads to compression of the nerve within its bony canal. PMID:12755758

Mills, R; Szymanski, M; Abel, E

2003-06-01

297

Delayed facial palsy following laser stapedectomy: in vitro study of facial nerve temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Delayed facial palsy following conventional stapes surgery is a rare event, but this complication appears to be more common when a laser is used. We have investigated the temperature in the facial canal during stapes surgery using a KTP laser or a microdrill in preserved human temporal bones. Thermocouples were placed in the facial canal and under the foot plate. The results show maximum rises in temperature of between 1.4 degrees C and 15.2 degrees C in the facial canal during laser surgery (mean 6.1 degrees C, SD 4.5 degrees C), but only between 0.45 degrees C and 2 degrees C during procedures in which a microdrill was used (mean 0.9 degrees C, SD 0.9 degrees C) (P = < 0.009). In addition, the facial nerve undergoes repeated heating and cooling cycles during the laser surgery. We conclude that heating of the facial nerve during laser surgery causes oedema, which in turn leads to compression of the nerve within its bony canal.

Mills R; Szymanski M; Abel E

2003-06-01

298

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos/ Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à compressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi fei (more) ta pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Abstract in english Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression lesion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STAT (more) ISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p

Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto

2006-12-01

299

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. METHODS: Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases), from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection.

Kulkarni SS; Reddy NP; Hariharan SI

2009-01-01

300

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases), from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection.

Kulkarni Saket S; Reddy Narender P; Hariharan SI

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Deformidad Facial Asimétrica: Papel de la Hiperplasia Condilar/ Asymmetric Facial Deformity: Role of Condylar Hyperplasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las deformidades dentofaciales (DDF) son conocidas y su diagnostico es cada vez mas frecuente; las DDF asimétricas son un grupo de enfermedades de complejo manejo debido a las condicionantes estéticas y funcionales comprometidas. La etiología es variada, aunque la hiperplasia condilar suele estar asociada en los pacientes adolescentes y adultos; su diagnostico se establece mediante análisis facial, estudio con medicina nuclear, tomografías computadorizadas y otros ex (more) ámenes. La terapéutica mas aceptada hoy día consiste en la condilectomia parcial y la corrección de la deformidad facial basada en las necesidades estéticas y funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de esta revisión es determinar las condicionantes actuales asociadas al diagnostico y tratamiento de las DDF asimétricas y el papel que cumple la hiperplasia condilar en el desarrollo de estas alteraciones faciales. Abstract in english Dentofacial deformities (DDF) are know and the diagnosis is ever more executed; the asymmetric DDF are a group of disease with difficult management because of esthetic a functional conditions. The etiology is these conditions is varied, although the condylar hyperplasia is frequently in adolescent and adult patients; the diagnosis is realized by facial analysis, nuclear medicine study and computed tomography and others. The more accepted therapy is related to partial cond (more) ilectomy and facial deformity correction in relation to aesthetic and functional needs of patient. The aim of this review is to determine the current conditions associated to diagnosis and treatment of asymmetric DDF and the role of condylar hyperplasia in the development of these facial alterations.

Olate, Sergio; de Moraes, Marcio

2012-01-01

302

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo): elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural). CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial.PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients were evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles). CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Daniele Fontes Ferreira Bernardes; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira Bento

2010-01-01

303

Facial harmony in orthodontic diagnosis and planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial Harmony is one of the main goals of orthodontic treatment, and it is not always correlated with the attainment of cephalometric objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two groups of subjects presenting a clinically balanced soft tissue profile using cephalometric radiographs. Thirty lateral cephalometric radiographs of white females, divided in two groups, one with excellent facial profile (Group 1), and the other with good facial profile (Group 2) were used. Student's t-test (P?< .05) was used to compare the cephalometric parameters of the 2 groups. Linear regression analysis was also performed between 1.NB and SnV-Pog and between AB horizontal and SnV-Pog'. Group 2 showed higher mean values than group 1 for ANB (p = 0.002), AB horizontal (p < 0.001), 1.NB (p < 0.001), and a lower mean value for SnV-Pog (p = 0.003). The higher the SnV-Pog value, the lower the 1.NB value, no matter what group was evaluated. For each 1 mm increase in SnV-Pog, a 0.61º decrease could be expected in 1.NB (p = 0.003). The higher the SnV-Pog value, the lower the AB horizontal value, although group 2 presented greater AB horizontal values. For each 1 mm increase in SnV-Pog, a 0.24 mm decrease could be expected in AB horizontal (p = 0.019). We concluded that women with good facial profile do not necessarily present the same cephalometric values, and facial analysis should be the main reference in planning orthodontic treatments and should be considered together with cephalometric analysis in an individualized way.

João Batista de Paiva; Miguel Ferragut Attizzani; Hiroshi Miasiro Júnior; José Rino Neto

2010-01-01

304

Facial nerve schwannoma arising from the cerebellopontine angle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 74-year-old female suffered hearing disturbance in the right ear persisting for several years, followed by sudden onset of right facial nerve palsy. Her symptoms gradually worsened and neuroradiological imaging revealed a 4-cm cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor. Intraoperatively, the tumor was found to originate from the facial nerve. Total removal of the tumor was achieved, followed by a split hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. Facial nerve schwannomas are rare and extremely difficult to preoperatively distinguish from vestibular schwannomas, especially if arising from the CPA and the internal auditory canal. However, preoperative diagnosis of facial nerve schwannomas is important because functional preservation of the facial nerve is more challenging than for vestibular schwannomas. Facial nerve palsy is one of the most unique symptoms in patients with facial nerve schwannomas, but is rare with vestibular schwannomas. Facial nerve schwannomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of CPA tumors with atypical clinical manifestations, and patients should be informed before surgery of the possibility of facial nerve dysfunction and the consequent need for facial nerve graft or reconstruction.

Amano T; Sangatsuda Y; Hata N; Inoue D; Mori M; Nakamizo A; Yoshimoto K; Mizoguchi M; Sasaki T

2013-01-01

305

Hypoglossal-facial-jump-anastomosis without an interposition nerve graft.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The hypoglossal-facial-anastomosis is the most often applied procedure for the reanimation of a long lasting peripheral facial nerve paralysis. The use of an interposition graft and its end-to-side anastomosis to the hypoglossal nerve allows the preservation of the tongue function and also requires two anastomosis sites and a free second donor nerve. We describe the modified technique of the hypoglossal-facial-jump-anastomosis without an interposition and present the first results. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case study. METHODS: We performed the facial nerve reconstruction in five patients. The indication for the surgery was a long-standing facial paralysis with preserved portion distal to geniculate ganglion, absent voluntary activity in the needle facial electromyography, and an intact bilateral hypoglossal nerve. Following mastoidectomy, the facial nerve was mobilized in the fallopian canal down to its bifurcation in the parotid gland and cut in its tympanic portion distal to the lesion. Then, a tensionless end-to-side suture to the hypoglossal nerve was performed. The facial function was monitored up to 16 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The reconstruction technique succeeded in all patients: The facial function improved within the average time period of 10 months to the House-Brackmann score 3. CONCLUSION: This modified technique of the hypoglossal-facial reanimation is a valid method with good clinical results, especially in cases of a preserved intramastoidal facial nerve. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. Laryngoscope, 123:2392-2396, 2013.

Beutner D; Luers JC; Grosheva M

2013-10-01

306

Perceptually Valid Facial Expressions for Character-Based Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of creating facial expression of mixed emotions in a perceptually valid way. The research has been done in the context of a “game-like” health and education applications aimed at studying social competency and facial expression awareness in autistic children as well as native language learning, but the results can be applied to many other applications such as games with need for dynamic facial expressions or tools for automating the creation of facial animations. Most existing methods for creating facial expressions of mixed emotions use operations like averaging to create the combined effect of two universal emotions. Such methods may be mathematically justifiable but are not necessarily valid from a perceptual point of view. The research reported here starts by user experiments aiming at understanding how people combine facial actions to express mixed emotions, and how the viewers perceive a set of facial actions in terms of underlying emotions. Using the results of these experiments and a three-dimensional emotion model, we associate facial actions to dimensions and regions in the emotion space, and create a facial expression based on the location of the mixed emotion in the three-dimensional space. We call these regionalized facial actions “facial expression units.”

Ali Arya; Steve DiPaola; Avi Parush

2009-01-01

307

Aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deficits in facial emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between abnormal emotion perception and functional outcome remains poorly understood. To better understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial Emotion Perception Task to identify differences in usage of visual facial information in schizophrenia patients (n = 20) and controls (n = 20), when differentiating between angry and neutral facial expressions. As hypothesized, schizophrenia patients required more facial information than controls to accurately differentiate between angry and neutral facial expressions, and they relied on different facial features and spatial frequencies to differentiate these facial expressions. Specifically, schizophrenia patients underutilized the eye regions, overutilized the nose and mouth regions, and virtually ignored information presented at the lowest levels of spatial frequency. In addition, a post hoc one-tailed t test revealed a positive relationship of moderate strength between the degree of divergence from "normal" visual facial information usage in the eye region and lower overall social functioning. These findings provide direct support for aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia in differentiating between socially salient emotional states.

Clark CM; Gosselin F; Goghari VM

2013-05-01

308

Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture. PMID:24029906

Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

2013-11-01

309

An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However, the irradiated graft group had a greater proportion of patients with pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p = 0.007) and unfavorable type of nerve graft (p = 0.04). Although the irradiated graft cohort had more potentially negative prognostic factors, there was no difference in functional outcome (H-B Grade III or IV) between irradiated and unirradiated graft patients. H-B Grades III, IV, V, and VI were the best postoperative facial nerve functions achieved in 35%, 39%, 13%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The patient with preoperative radiotherapy never recovered any facial nerve function (H-B Grade VI). Median time to best facial nerve function after surgery was longer in the irradiated patients (13.1 vs. 10.8 months), but this was not statistically significant (p 0.10). Presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy (p = 0.005), duration of preoperative palsy (p = 0.003), and age greater than 60 years at the time of grafting (p = 0.04) were all negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve on univariate analysis. Analysis of age as a continuous variable (p = 0.12) and pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p 0.1) revealed a trend toward negative prognostic factors. Gender, number of previous operations in the parotid bed, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, and type of grafting procedure were not significant prognostic factors. Whether radiotherapy was delivered less than 6 weeks after nerve grafting or more than 6 weeks had no impact on achievement of a functional facial nerve. Conclusion: Negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve in our series include the presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy, and age greater than 60 years. Radiotherapy was not a negative prognostic factor. Comparing irradiated and unirradiated grafts revealed no difference in best facial nerve function achieved, despite the presence of a greater proportion of negative prognostic factors in the irradiated group. Therefore, planned postoperative radiation therapy is not a contrain

2000-10-01

310

Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous analysis and symptom correlation of the fracture patterns seen in facial nerve canal injury in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy is helpful for treatment planning and prognosis.

Seo, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Hyun Min; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

311

Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous analysis and symptom correlation of the fracture patterns seen in facial nerve canal injury in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy is helpful for treatment planning and prognosis

2002-01-01

312

Anatomic study of full facial and scalp allografts without cutaneous facial scars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Conventional reconstructive procedures for face and scalp reconstruction fall short of aesthetic and functional goals because of the unique quality and quantity of facial and scalp soft tissue. The purpose of this cadaver study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a flap design for full face and scalp composite tissue allotransplantation, without cutaneous facial scars. Six fresh human cadavers were dissected with sagittal scalp and mucosal incisions for full face and scalp harvest without cutaneous facial incisions. Sub-galeal and sub-SMAS dissection allowed for inclusion of the external carotid and internal jugular systems. Time of facial-scalp flap harvesting, length of the arterial and venous pedicles, length of sensory nerves (that were included in the facial flaps) and approximate surface area of the flaps were measured. Three of six flaps were transferred to recipient cadavers and the time of transfer was recorded. As a proof of concept, the external carotid arteries of one of six cadavers was flushed to remove clots and perfused with a radio-opaque latex polymer, Microfil (Flow Tech Inc.), to study flap perfusion by X-ray imaging. In the donor cadaver, the mean harvesting time of the total facial-scalp flap was 105 ± 19 minutes. The mean length of the supraorbital, infraorbital, mental and great auricular nerves were 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The mean length of the external carotid artery and external jugular vein were 8.7 ± 0.3 and 9.2 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. The approximate area of the harvested flap was 1063 ± 60 cm(2). In preparation for full face and scalp allotransplantation in humans, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of a full face and scalp flap without visible facial incisions.

Bastidas N; Runyan CM; Jones DC; Taylor JA

2013-05-01

313

Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MAT (more) ERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Grandi, Gaia; Mian, Fabrizio; Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

2009-10-01

314

MR findings of facial nerve on oblique sagittal MRI using TMJ surface coil: normal vs peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the findings of normal facial nerve, as seen on oblique sagittal MRI using a TMJ (temporomandibular joint) surface coil, and then to evaluate abnormal findings of peripheral facial nerve palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of 20 patients with peripheral facial palsy and 50 normal facial nerves of 36 patients without facial palsy. All underwent oblique sagittal MRI using a T MJ surface coil. We analyzed the course, signal intensity, thickness, location, and degree of enhancement of the facial nerve. According to the angle made by the proximal parotid segment on the axis of the mastoid segment, course was classified as anterior angulation (obtuse and acute, or buckling), straight and posterior angulation. Among 50 normal facial nerves, 24 (48%) were straight, and 23 (46%) demonstrated anterior angulation; 34 (68%) showed iso signal intensity on T1W1. In the group of patients, course on the affected side was either straight (40%) or showed anterior angulation (55%), and signal intensity in 80% of cases was isointense. These findings were similar to those in the normal group, but in patients with post-traumatic or post-operative facial palsy, buckling, of course, appeared. In 12 of 18 facial palsy cases (66.6%) in which contrast materials were administered, a normal facial nerve of the opposite facial canal showed mild enhancement on more than one segment, but on the affected side the facial nerve showed diffuse enhancement in all 14 patients with acute facial palsy. Eleven of these (79%) showed fair or marked enhancement on more than one segment, and in 12 (86%), mild enhancement of the proximal parotid segment was noted. Four of six chronic facial palsy cases (66.6%) showed atrophy of the facial nerve. When oblique sagittal MR images are obtained using a TMJ surface coil, enhancement of the proximal parotid segment of the facial nerve and fair or marked enhancement of at least one segment within the facial canal always suggests pathology of the facial nerve. The use of this modality, together with the coil, is, therefore, an effective complementary technique for the evaluation of a facial nerve. (author)

Park, Yong Ok; Lee, Myeong Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeong Hyun [Dongdaemoon Hospital, College of Medicine, Ewha Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2000-07-01

315

MR findings of facial nerve on oblique sagittal MRI using TMJ surface coil: normal vs peripheral facial nerve palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To evaluate the findings of normal facial nerve, as seen on oblique sagittal MRI using a TMJ (temporomandibular joint) surface coil, and then to evaluate abnormal findings of peripheral facial nerve palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of 20 patients with peripheral facial palsy and 50 normal facial nerves of 36 patients without facial palsy. All underwent oblique sagittal MRI using a T MJ surface coil. We analyzed the course, signal intensity, thickness, location, and degree of enhancement of the facial nerve. According to the angle made by the proximal parotid segment on the axis of the mastoid segment, course was classified as anterior angulation (obtuse and acute, or buckling), straight and posterior angulation. Among 50 normal facial nerves, 24 (48%) were straight, and 23 (46%) demonstrated anterior angulation; 34 (68%) showed iso signal intensity on T1W1. In the group of patients, course on the affected side was either straight (40%) or showed anterior angulation (55%), and signal intensity in 80% of cases was isointense. These findings were similar to those in the normal group, but in patients with post-traumatic or post-operative facial palsy, buckling, of course, appeared. In 12 of 18 facial palsy cases (66.6%) in which contrast materials were administered, a normal facial nerve of the opposite facial canal showed mild enhancement on more than one segment, but on the affected side the facial nerve showed diffuse enhancement in all 14 patients with acute facial palsy. Eleven of these (79%) showed fair or marked enhancement on more than one segment, and in 12 (86%), mild enhancement of the proximal parotid segment was noted. Four of six chronic facial palsy cases (66.6%) showed atrophy of the facial nerve. When oblique sagittal MR images are obtained using a TMJ surface coil, enhancement of the proximal parotid segment of the facial nerve and fair or marked enhancement of at least one segment within the facial canal always suggests pathology of the facial nerve. The use of this modality, together with the coil, is, therefore, an effective complementary technique for the evaluation of a facial nerve. (author)

2000-01-01

316

Avaliação dos fatores determinantes da estética do perfil facial/ Evaluation of the determinants of facial profile aesthetics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da idade, do sexo, da relação oclusal sagital, do Padrão Facial e de 8 medidas do perfil facial sobre a estética do perfil. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas tabelas de contingência, o Teste Qui-quadrado e o coeficiente de Cramér para avaliar a possível associação entre a nota dada por 32 avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 6 artistas) para a estética do perfil de 100 brasileiros - adultos, leucodermas, portadores de selamento lab (more) ial passivo - e a idade, o sexo, a relação oclusal sagital, o Padrão Facial e as variáveis da análise facial numérica do perfil. RESULTADOS: não foi observada associação entre a idade, o sexo e a relação oclusal sagital e a estética do perfil facial. A associação foi observada entre a nota recebida para a estética do perfil e o Padrão Facial, o ângulo de convexidade facial e o ângulo do terço inferior da face. CONCLUSÃO: o Padrão Facial, definido na avaliação do perfil pela convexidade do perfil facial, e a projeção anterior do mento foram, entre os fatores avaliados, os determinantes para a estética do perfil facial. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of age, gender, sagittal occlusal relationship, facial pattern and 8 facial profile measures on profile aesthetics. METHODS: Contingency tables, chi-square test and Cramer's coefficient were used to evaluate the possible association between the scores assigned by 32 examiners (14 orthodontists, 12 laypeople and 6 artists) to the aesthetics of the profile of 100 Brazilian Caucasian adults, all patients with lip seal competence, and age, (more) gender, sagittal occlusal relationship, facial pattern and the variables of the numerical analysis of the facial profile. RESULTS: No association was found between age, gender and sagittal occlusal relationship and the aesthetics of facial profile. An association was observed between profile scores and facial pattern, facial convexity angle and lower face angle. CONCLUSIONS: Among the factors evaluated in this study, facial profile convexity and anterior chin projection were the key determinants of facial profile aesthetics.

Reis, Sílvia Augusta Braga; Abrão, Jorge; Claro, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino

2011-02-01

317

Paralisis de Bell: Parálisis Facial Idiopática  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Parálisis de Bell, es una enfermedad benigna de la porción infratemporal del nervio facial, que consiste en la pérdida temporal de la función contráctil de la musculatura mímica de la cara, de causa desconocida, pero puede ser secundaria a un traumatismo, compresión o tumor. Este es un proceso autolimitante que no amenaza la vida del paciente y generalmente desaparece en un plazo de 1 a 3 semanas. Su rango de incidencia es de 23 por cada 100.000 personas por año. Esta alteración no tiene diferencia por sexo, en últimos estudios hay una incidencia entre los 20 y 35 años de edad, siendo mas frecuente en pacientes diabéticos e hipertensos que en la población normal. Se presenta indiferentemente en cualquiera de los lados de la cara y solo el 1 % en ambos lados simultáneamente. Se caracteriza por presentar el fenómeno de Bell, (Figura 1) (signo de parálisis facial periférica que se manifiesta por el movimiento ocular hacia arriba y afuera del globo acular, cuando el enfermo intenta cerrar el párpado), dolor facial o retroarticular, diagusia, hiperacusia y disminución del lagrimeo. 1, 2, 3.The paralysis of Bell, is an bening illness of the portion infratemporal of the facial nerve that consists on the temporary loss of the contractile function of the mimic musculature of the face, of unknown cause , but it can be secondary to a traumatism, compression or tumor. This is a process autolimitante that she/he doesn´t threatren the life of the parient one and it generally disappears in a term from 1 to 3 weeks. Their range of incidence is of 23 for each 100.000 people per year. This alteration doesn´t have difference for sex, in last studies there is an incidence between the 20 and 35 years of age, being but it frecuents in diabetics patients and hipertensos that in the normal population. It is presented nonchalantly in anyone of the sides of the face and alone 1% in both sides simultaneously. It is characterized to present the phenomenon of Bell(Figura 1) (sign of outlying facial paralysis that one manifests for the ocular movement up and away from the ocular globe, when the sick person tries to close the lid), facial pain or retroarticular, diagusia, hiperagusia and decreaase of the shed I shed tears. 1, 2, 3.

José María González H

2001-01-01

318

Paralisis de Bell: Parálisis Facial Idiopática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La Parálisis de Bell, es una enfermedad benigna de la porción infratemporal del nervio facial, que consiste en la pérdida temporal de la función contráctil de la musculatura mímica de la cara, de causa desconocida, pero puede ser secundaria a un traumatismo, compresión o tumor. Este es un proceso autolimitante que no amenaza la vida del paciente y generalmente desaparece en un plazo de 1 a 3 semanas. Su rango de incidencia es de 23 por cada 100.000 personas por añ (more) o. Esta alteración no tiene diferencia por sexo, en últimos estudios hay una incidencia entre los 20 y 35 años de edad, siendo mas frecuente en pacientes diabéticos e hipertensos que en la población normal. Se presenta indiferentemente en cualquiera de los lados de la cara y solo el 1 % en ambos lados simultáneamente. Se caracteriza por presentar el fenómeno de Bell, (Figura 1) (signo de parálisis facial periférica que se manifiesta por el movimiento ocular hacia arriba y afuera del globo acular, cuando el enfermo intenta cerrar el párpado), dolor facial o retroarticular, diagusia, hiperacusia y disminución del lagrimeo. 1, 2, 3. Abstract in english The paralysis of Bell, is an bening illness of the portion infratemporal of the facial nerve that consists on the temporary loss of the contractile function of the mimic musculature of the face, of unknown cause , but it can be secondary to a traumatism, compression or tumor. This is a process autolimitante that she/he doesn´t threatren the life of the parient one and it generally disappears in a term from 1 to 3 weeks. Their range of incidence is of 23 for each 100.000 (more) people per year. This alteration doesn´t have difference for sex, in last studies there is an incidence between the 20 and 35 years of age, being but it frecuents in diabetics patients and hipertensos that in the normal population. It is presented nonchalantly in anyone of the sides of the face and alone 1% in both sides simultaneously. It is characterized to present the phenomenon of Bell(Figura 1) (sign of outlying facial paralysis that one manifests for the ocular movement up and away from the ocular globe, when the sick person tries to close the lid), facial pain or retroarticular, diagusia, hiperagusia and decreaase of the shed I shed tears. 1, 2, 3.

González H, José María

2001-01-01

319

Diminished sensitivity to sad facial expressions in high functioning autism spectrum disorders is associated with symptomatology and adaptive functioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prior studies implicate facial emotion recognition (FER) difficulties among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, many investigations focus on FER accuracy alone and few examine ecological validity through links with everyday functioning. We compared FER accuracy and perceptual sensitivity (from neutral to full expression) between 42 adolescents with high functioning (IQ > 80) ASD and 31 typically developing adolescents (matched on age, IQ, sex ratio) across six basic emotions and examined links between FER and symptomatology/adaptive functioning within the ASD group. Adolescents with ASD required more intense facial expressions for accurate emotion identification. Controlling for this overall group difference revealed particularly diminished sensitivity to sad facial expressions in ASD, which was uniquely correlated with ratings of autism-related behavior and adaptive functioning.

Wallace GL; Case LK; Harms MB; Silvers JA; Kenworthy L; Martin A

2011-11-01

320

Comparison of clinical characteristics in myogenic, TMJ internal derangement and atypical facial pain patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders have been collectively grouped as myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) or temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome (TMJDS). In the past, these terms have been used synonomously to describe a set of clinical signs and symptoms that include pain in the TMJ and muscles of mastication, limited or deviant opening of the mandible, and/or joint sounds. The present study segregated two major subgroups subsumed within this diagnostic classification and assigned them to a myogenic facial pain (MFP) group and a TMJ internal derangement (TMJID) group. Previous studies may have included both of these disorders as MPDS/TMJDS. While some signs and symptoms are similar, the primary differentiation is based on meniscus displacement present with TMJID patients and pain distribution patterns between the two groups. While MFP/TMJID patients comprise the majority of the facial pain population, a third major group of patients is encountered, being classified under the diagnostic appellation of atypical facial pain (AFP). Patients with AFP usually complain of vague and wandering pain in the maxilla or mandible; however, no identifiable source of infection or organic disease can be uncovered. One hundred fifty patients seeking consultation and care for facial pain met the criteria for inclusion into one of three clinical groups. The groups were compared for age, sex, duration of symptoms, bruxism and/or clenching habits, and disturbed sleep patterns. Differences in surface electromyographic levels from the facial and cervical muscles were also examined. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores from 95 subjects were compared with self-report measures of depression and anxiety. It was concluded that subcategorization of myofascial pain dysfunction patients into a MFP and TMJID group is justified on the basis of psychometric differences, clenching habits, masseter EMG levels, and male:female ratio. Furthermore, psychopathological factors are more significant among MFP and AFP subjects than TMJID patients.

Harness DM; Donlon WC; Eversole LR

1990-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

Takafumi Nishizaki; Norio Ikeda; Shigeki Nakano; Takanori Sakakura; Masaru Abiko; Tomomi Okamura

2011-01-01

322

Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua were created by morphing end-point photo exemplars into 11 images, changing linearly from one expression to another in equal steps. For both affective and linguistic expressions, hearing non-signers exhibited better discrimination across category boundaries than within categories for both experiments, thus replicating previous results with affective expressions and demonstrating CP effects for non-canonical facial expressions. Deaf signers, however, showed significant CP effects only for linguistic facial expressions. Subsequent analyses indicated that order of presentation influenced signers' response time performance for affective facial expressions: viewing linguistic facial expressions first slowed response time for affective facial expressions. We conclude that CP effects for affective facial expressions can be influenced by language experience.

McCullough S; Emmorey K

2009-02-01

323

Relación entre la porciónextracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático: triángulo cigomático-facial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo.Determinar larelación entre la porción extracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático.Método. Estudiamos 4 cabezas cadavéricas (8 regiones parotídeas),fijadas en formol e inyectadas con silicona coloreada.Resultados. El nervio facial tiene 6 porciones. La extracraneanacomienza cuando el nervio atraviesa el foramen estilomasteoideo y corre dentrode la parótida. Anterior al trago el nervio se ubica a 26,88 mm debajo del arcosuperior del arco cigamático. Desde ese punto el nervio toma una direcciónsuperoanterior, cruzando el cigoma 18,65 mm por delante del trago. Así dibujaun triángulo (cigomático-facial), con 3 puntos: a) sobre el borde superior delcigoma, a nivel del borde anterior del trago; b) 26 mm por debajo del punto a)y c) 18 mm por delante del punto a) podemos trazar un área de trabajo libre,sin riesgo de dañar el facial.Conclusión. El triángulo cigomaticofacial es un reparo útil paratrabajar debajo del arco cigomático con bajo riesgo de dañar al facial.Objective: To determine the relationship between the extracranialportion of the seventh nerve and the zygomatic arch.Method: We studied 4 cadaveric heads (8 parotid regions) formaline fixedand injected with coloured silicone. A surgical microscope was used to performthe disections. Measures were taken with a caliper.Results: The facial nerve has 6 portions. The extracranial portionstarts when the nerve traverses the stylomastoid foramen, running inside theparotid gland. Just anterior to the tragus, the nerve is located 26.88 mm belowthe superior edge of the zygomatic arch. From that point, the nerve takes asuperior and anterior direction, crossing the zygomatic arch 18.65 mm ahead ofthe tragus. Thus, drawing a triangle (zygomatic-facial triangle), with threepoints: a) over the superior edge of the zygomatic arch, at the level of theanterior border of the tragus, b) 26 mm below the point a, and c) 18 mm aheadthe point a, we can trace a safe area of working, without risk of damage of thefacial nerve.Conclusion: The zygomatic-facial triangle is a very useful landmark forto work below the zygomatic arch with a low risk of damage of the facial nerve.

Álvaro Campero; Abraham Campero; Rafael Torino; Mariano Socolovsky; Conrado Rivadeneira

2006-01-01

324

Exogenous attention to facial vs non-facial emotional visual stimuli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The capacity of the two types of non-symbolic emotional stimuli most widely used in research on affective processes, faces and (non-facial) emotional scenes, to capture exogenous attention, was compared. Negative, positive and neutral faces and affective scenes were presented as distracters to 34 participants while they carried out a demanding digit categorization task. Behavioral (reaction times and number of errors) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials-ERPs) indices of exogenous attention were analyzed. Globally, facial expressions and emotional scenes showed similar capabilities to attract exogenous attention. Electrophysiologically, attentional capture was reflected in the P2a component of ERPs at the scalp level, and in left precentral areas at the source level. Negatively charged faces and scenes elicited maximal P2a/precentral gyrus activity. In the case of scenes, this negativity bias was also evident at the behavioral level. Additionally, a specific effect of facial distracters was observed in N170 at the scalp level, and in the fusiform gyrus and inferior parietal lobule at the source level. This effect revealed maximal attention to positive expressions. This facial positivity offset was also observed at the behavioral level. Taken together, the present results indicate that faces and non-facial scenes elicit partially different and, to some extent, complementary exogenous attention mechanisms.

Carretié L; Kessel D; Carboni A; López-Martín S; Albert J; Tapia M; Mercado F; Capilla A; Hinojosa JA

2012-06-01

325

Exogenous attention to facial vs non-facial emotional visual stimuli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacity of the two types of non-symbolic emotional stimuli most widely used in research on affective processes, faces and (non-facial) emotional scenes, to capture exogenous attention, was compared. Negative, positive and neutral faces and affective scenes were presented as distracters to 34 participants while they carried out a demanding digit categorization task. Behavioral (reaction times and number of errors) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials-ERPs) indices of exogenous attention were analyzed. Globally, facial expressions and emotional scenes showed similar capabilities to attract exogenous attention. Electrophysiologically, attentional capture was reflected in the P2a component of ERPs at the scalp level, and in left precentral areas at the source level. Negatively charged faces and scenes elicited maximal P2a/precentral gyrus activity. In the case of scenes, this negativity bias was also evident at the behavioral level. Additionally, a specific effect of facial distracters was observed in N170 at the scalp level, and in the fusiform gyrus and inferior parietal lobule at the source level. This effect revealed maximal attention to positive expressions. This facial positivity offset was also observed at the behavioral level. Taken together, the present results indicate that faces and non-facial scenes elicit partially different and, to some extent, complementary exogenous attention mechanisms. PMID:22689218

Carretié, Luis; Kessel, Dominique; Carboni, Alejandra; López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Tapia, Manuel; Mercado, Francisco; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José A

2012-06-29

326

Special locations dermoscopy: facial, acral, and nail.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although dermoscopy reflects the anatomy, skin anatomy is different on facial and acral skin as well as in the nail unit. Malignant patterns on acral sites include the parallel ridge pattern and irregular diffuse pigmentation, whose presence should lead to a biopsy. Malignant patterns on the face include features of follicular invasion (signet-ring images, annular granular images, and rhomboidal structures) and atypical vessels. Malignant patterns on the nail unit include the micro-Hutchinson sign and irregular longitudinal lines. PMID:24075549

Thomas, Luc; Phan, Alice; Pralong, Pauline; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Dalle, Stéphane

2013-08-23

327

Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

Bakshi S; Oak J; Chawla K; Kulkarni S; Apte N

1992-01-01

328

Surgical treatment of particular facial pain syndromes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors list the facial pain syndromes not responsive to pharmacological therapies that can be treated with surgicalprocedures specific for the different syndromes.Surgical techniques as the stereotaxic microsurgery, implantation of electrodes and stimulators to produce neuromodulation or neurostimulation of peripheral and central structures at superficialand deep level are described.Efficacy and safety of the surgical techniques are also reported.

Angelo Franzini, MD; Giuseppe Messina, MD; Michele Rizzi, MD; Giovanni Broggi, MD

2013-01-01

329

Cosmetic medicine: facial resurfacing and injectables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the most common options available for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation. 2. Identify key elements essential to each treatment option. 3. Know how to avoid and manage complications for these procedures. SUMMARY: Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures continue to increase in popularity. This article is intended to provide a broad and practical overview of common minimally invasive cosmetic techniques available to the plastic surgeon.

Nguyen AT; Ahmad J; Fagien S; Rohrich RJ

2012-01-01

330

Dentigerous cyst presenting as facial pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rare case is presented in which a maxillary dentigerous cyst had eroded the posterior wall of the right maxillary sinus into the pterygo-palatine fossa causing facial pain due to pressure on the nerves. It had also eroded the lateral wall of sinus and into the oral cavity and got infected resulting in foul smelling oral discharge. The case was dealt with complete removal of cyst using Caldwell Luc's approach. (author)

2006-01-01

331

[Hemiparesis and facial palsy caused by methotrexate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methotrexate used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia, can cause neurotoxicity, including a rare presentation with hemiparesis. We describe two teenagers, who during the implementation of the M phase of the protocol, suffered hemiparesis, facial paresis and dysarthria which quickly reversed. Leukemia involvement of the central nervous system and stroke, were ruled out. We briefly review the pathophysiology of methotrexate neurotoxicity, the characteristics of the focal paresis presentation and magnetic resonance image findings.

Rueda Arenas E; García Corzo J; Franco Ospina L

2013-06-01

332

Fetal facial sonographic markers for second trimester Down syndrome screening in a Thai population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of using facial sonographic markers for screening fetuses in the second trimester for Down syndrome (DS) in a high-risk Thai population. METHOD: Frontomaxillary facial angle (FMF) and nasal bone length (NBL) were measured prospectively in pregnant women at high-risk for DS who were undergoing genetic amniocentesis from November 2008 to October 2009. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the screening efficacy of FMF angle and NBL. RESULT: A total of 460 pregnant women were recruited, and a mid-sagittal facial profile was obtained for 403 fetuses. There were 386 fetuses with normal chromosomes, 10 fetuses with DS, 1 fetus with trisomy 13, and 1 fetus with trisomy 18. The remaining 5 fetuses had balanced translocation (n = 2), deletion (n = 1), and mosaic Turner (n = 2). Two different combinations of FMF angle and biparietal diameter to nasal bone length (BPD:NBL) ratio for DS screening in the second trimester achieved 50% and 90% detection rates and 4.4% and 14.0% false positive rates, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combination of FMF angle and BPD:NBL ratio has a high sensitivity and specificity for screening for DS in the second trimester in a high-risk Thai population.

Sooklim R; Manotaya S

2010-11-01

333

Recognition of facial emotional expression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether recognition of facial emotional expression would be affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 50 elderly persons met the initial inclusion criteria; 10 were subsequently excluded (Geriatric Depression Score > 5). 22 subjects were classified with aMCI based on published criteria (single domain aMCI [SD-aMCI], n = 10; multiple domain aMCI [MD-aMCI], n = 12); 18 subjects were cognitively normal. All underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological evaluations as well as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER) and famous faces identification (FFI). Among normal controls, FFI was negatively correlated with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and positively correlated with executive function. Among patients with aMCI, FER was correlated with attention/speed of processing. No other correlations were significant. In a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, and education, a poorer score on FER, but not on FFI, was associated with greater odds of being classified as MD-aMCI (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-13.91; p = 0.042). This association was not explained by memory or global cognitive score. There was no association between FER or FFI and SD-aMCI (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.36-3.57; p = 0.836). Therefore, FER, but not FFI, may be impaired in MD-aMCI. This implies that in MD-aMCI, the tasks of FER and FFI may involve segregated neurocognitive networks. PMID:22954669

Varjassyová, Alexandra; Ho?ínek, Daniel; Andel, Ross; Amlerova, Jana; Laczó, Jan; Sheardová, Kate?ina; Magerová, Hana; Holmerová, Iva; Vyhnálek, Martin; Bradá?, Ond?ej; Geda, Yonas E; Hort, Jakub

2013-01-01

334

Recognition of facial emotional expression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined whether recognition of facial emotional expression would be affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 50 elderly persons met the initial inclusion criteria; 10 were subsequently excluded (Geriatric Depression Score > 5). 22 subjects were classified with aMCI based on published criteria (single domain aMCI [SD-aMCI], n = 10; multiple domain aMCI [MD-aMCI], n = 12); 18 subjects were cognitively normal. All underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological evaluations as well as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER) and famous faces identification (FFI). Among normal controls, FFI was negatively correlated with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and positively correlated with executive function. Among patients with aMCI, FER was correlated with attention/speed of processing. No other correlations were significant. In a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, and education, a poorer score on FER, but not on FFI, was associated with greater odds of being classified as MD-aMCI (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-13.91; p = 0.042). This association was not explained by memory or global cognitive score. There was no association between FER or FFI and SD-aMCI (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.36-3.57; p = 0.836). Therefore, FER, but not FFI, may be impaired in MD-aMCI. This implies that in MD-aMCI, the tasks of FER and FFI may involve segregated neurocognitive networks.

Varjassyová A; Ho?ínek D; Andel R; Amlerova J; Laczó J; Sheardová K; Magerová H; Holmerová I; Vyhnálek M; Bradá? O; Geda YE; Hort J

2013-01-01

335

Facial blanching due to neurotoxins: proposed mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The effect of perceived facial blanching with neurotoxin therapy has been described in the literature and has been used to treat the undesirable facial flushing of Frey's syndrome. Patients rarely report it as a complication after cosmetic injection, but it can be distressing. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the proposed mechanism(s) of this unusual vasculocutaneous phenomenon, we reviewed normal physiologic responses to heat stress and the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in modulating cutaneous vascular tone in the context of the literature. MATERIALS/METHODS: We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who complained of white patches on her forehead at sites of abobotulinumtoxinA injections administered 2 weeks before presentation. RESULTS: Acetylcholine is a primary mediator of cutaneous vasodilatation; certain co-transmitters modulate its effect. Chemical denervation by botulinum toxin (BoNT) appears to interfere with these normal signaling pathways and can provide symptomatic relief to patients with undesirable facial flushing. Conversely, it may create an unwanted cosmetic effect in patients who desire isolated muscle paresis. CONCLUSIONS: Skin sites injected with BoNT type A may not experience the expected decrease in cutaneous vessel tone associated with higher body temperature. The exact mechanism remains unclear.

Khan TT; Herne K; Dayan SH; Woodward JA

2013-01-01

336

A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF FACIAL FRACTURE ETIOLOGIES.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of mechanism of injury and type and location of the facial injury. Material and Methods: The medical records of 276 patients with 216 facial fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Fracture patterns were classified based on the presence or absence of fractures of the orbit, zygoma, maxilla, mandible and nose. Results: The most common etiology of trauma was assault (42.6%) followed by car accident (23.1%), fall (16.2%), sports (5%), occupational (2%), and gunshot wound (0.9%) (fig. 1). The most common fracture type was mandible fractures (31.1%), followed by nasal bone fracture (29.3%) (fig. 2). Car accident was found to be a significant predictor of panfacial fractures or associated injury, as was GSW. Sports injuries were a significant predictor of isolated upper midface fractures, and assault was a significant predictor for isolated mandible and nasal bones fractures. Car accident and GSW each were found to lead to significantly higher severity of injury than assault, fall, and sports. Conclusion: The results confirm intuitive aspects of the etiology of facial fractures that have been anecdotally supported in the past .

Martin Rubiev; Elitsa Deliverska

2012-01-01

337

Sexual orientation perception involves gendered facial cues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceivers can accurately judge a face's sexual orientation, but the perceptual mechanisms mediating this remain obscure. The authors hypothesized that stereotypes casting gays and lesbians as gender "inverts," in cultural circulation for a century and a half, lead perceivers to use gendered facial cues to infer sexual orientation. Using computer-generated faces, Study 1 showed that as two facial dimensions (shape and texture) became more gender inverted, targets were more likely to be judged as gay or lesbian. Study 2 showed that real faces appearing more gender inverted were more likely to be judged as gay or lesbian. Furthermore, the stereotypic use of gendered cues influenced the accurate judgment of sexual orientation. Although using gendered cues increased the accuracy of sexual orientation judgments overall, Study 3 showed that judgments were reliably mistaken for targets that countered stereotypes. Together, the findings demonstrate that perceivers utilize gendered facial cues to glean another's sexual orientation, and this influences the accuracy or error of judgments. PMID:20682754

Freeman, Jonathan B; Johnson, Kerri L; Ambady, Nalini; Rule, Nicholas O

2010-08-03

338

Interfacing Assessment Using Facial Expression Recognition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most important issues in gaming is deciding about the employed interfacing technology. Gamepad has traditionally been a popular interfacing technology for the gaming industry, but, recently motion controlled interfacing has been used widely in this industry. This is exactly the purpose of this paper to study whether the motion controlled interface is a feasible alternative to the gamepad, when evaluated from a user experience point of view. To do so, a custom game has been developed and 25 test subjects have been asked to play the game using both types of the interfaces. To evaluate the users experiences during the game, their hedonic and pragmatic quality are assessed using both subjective and objective evaluation methods in order to cross-validate the obtained results. An application of computer vision, facial expression recognition, has been used as a non-obtrusive objective and hedonic measure. While, the score obtained by the user during the game has been used as a pragmatic quality measure. The use of facial expression recognition has, to the best of our knowledge, not been used before to assess the hedonic quality of interfaces for games. The thorough experimental results show that the user experience of the motion controlled interface is significantly better than the gamepad interface, both in terms of hedonic and pragmatic quality. The facial expression recognition system proved to be a useful non-obtrusive way to objectively evaluate the hedonic quality of the interfacing technologies.

Albjerg Andersen, Rune; Nasrollahi, Kamal

2014-01-01

339

Laypersons' perception of facial and dental asymmetries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article was to determine the individual visual perception thresholds of certain facial and dental discrepancies for a symmetric face model (SFM). A facial photograph of a female subject's smile was digitally manipulated into an artificially symmetric picture. Modifications were made on the SFM for shifts in the dental midline, nose, and chin (group 1) and cants of dental midline and incisal plane (group 2), resulting in a total of 24 different images divided into two groups. One-hundred randomly selected laypersons divided into two groups were used to evaluate each image according to their own personal beauty and esthetic criteria using a visual analog scale. The visual perception thresholds found for the SFM were 2 mm for a dental midline shift, 4 mm for nose deviation, 5 degrees for dental midline cant, and 3 degrees for frontal incisal plane cant. Chin deviations of 6 mm or less were not noticed. Dental midline shift, nose deviation, dental midline cant, and incisal plane cant relative to an SFM have an impact on the perception of facial attractiveness. Chin deviations did not have a statistically significant impact. PMID:24116371

Silva, Bruno Pereira; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Martinez-de-Fuentes, Rafael; Greenberg, Joseph R; Chu, Stephen

340

Laypersons' perception of facial and dental asymmetries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this article was to determine the individual visual perception thresholds of certain facial and dental discrepancies for a symmetric face model (SFM). A facial photograph of a female subject's smile was digitally manipulated into an artificially symmetric picture. Modifications were made on the SFM for shifts in the dental midline, nose, and chin (group 1) and cants of dental midline and incisal plane (group 2), resulting in a total of 24 different images divided into two groups. One-hundred randomly selected laypersons divided into two groups were used to evaluate each image according to their own personal beauty and esthetic criteria using a visual analog scale. The visual perception thresholds found for the SFM were 2 mm for a dental midline shift, 4 mm for nose deviation, 5 degrees for dental midline cant, and 3 degrees for frontal incisal plane cant. Chin deviations of 6 mm or less were not noticed. Dental midline shift, nose deviation, dental midline cant, and incisal plane cant relative to an SFM have an impact on the perception of facial attractiveness. Chin deviations did not have a statistically significant impact.

Silva BP; Jiménez-Castellanos E; Martinez-de-Fuentes R; Greenberg JR; Chu S

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Use of the innervated platysma flap in facial reanimation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The innervated platysma musculocutaneous flap replaces facial tissue with like tissue. The thinness of the flap, the color match, and the presence of functional subcutaneous muscle are unmatched by any other flap that does not originate on the face. The superior blood supply is reliably provided by the submental branch of the facial artery, creating a reliable axial flap. Rotation of the muscle into the cheek aligns the fibers of the platysma muscle to provide upward pull on the oral commissure to assist with facial animation. Three cases of innervated platysma flap rotation to reconstruct the contour of the cheek and assist with facial animation are reported. All the patients achieved an improved facial contour and all flaps demonstrated noticeable contraction, augmenting facial animation.

Fine NA; Pribaz JJ; Orgill DP

1995-03-01

342

Facial nerve palsy caused by parotid gland abscess.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We present the first report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes parotid abscesses complicated by facial nerve palsy. Facial nerve palsy secondary to parotid gland abscess is rare, with only eight previously reported cases. METHOD: Case reports and literature review concerning parotid abscess and facial nerve palsy presentation and management. CASE REPORTS: Within two months, two female patients presented with parotid gland abscess complicated by unilateral facial paralysis. Both were treated with intravenous antibiotics and surgery. In the first case, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was cultivated, in the other, Propionibacterium acnes was found. In the first case, facial nerve function did not recover. CONCLUSION: Parotid gland abscess can lead to facial paralysis. Both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes may be involved. Ultrasonography or computed tomography is recommended to exclude a parotid abscess in patients presenting with suppurative parotitis.

Kristensen RN; Hahn CH

2012-03-01

343

The submental island flap for reconstruction of facial defects.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The procedure of facial resurfacing dictates that there should be an excellent colour and texture match between the facial and the transposed skin. Cervical flaps e.g. platysma flap are commonly used for reconstruction of facial defects but, with disadvantages like limited mobility, unacceptable donor site and unpredictable outcomes. The submental island flap is a new addition to the armamentorium of the Plastic Surgeon. It is an axial pattern flap based on the submental branch of facial artery and the submental tributary of common facial vein. We report the use of this flap for the reconstruction of postexcisional facial defects in two patients having basal cell carcinoma and recurrent parotid tumour. In both patients, the flap provided an excellent colour and texture match. Other advantages of this flap are inconspicuous donor site, wide arc of rotation, simple dissection and a reliable pedicle.

Prabhune K; Patni S; Gomes D; Bhathena H; Kavarana N

1998-01-01

344

[Modifications in the vertical position of the stomion in facial osteotomies and osseous genioplasties  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A retrospective statistical analysis is made on 45 patients who have undergone a facial osteotomy. The authors study the vertical changes of the stomion on pre- and post-operative lateral cephalograms. Considering the bad initial results, it has been necessary to create subdivisions on the surgical procedure and to work on homogeneous groups. The results of this study led to the following conclusions: the stomion follows the vertical displacement of the maxilla on an approximative ratio of 1/3, with rather great variations between the subjects; the functional osseous genioplasties, specially with vertical displacement, are not accompanied by significant vertical changes in the position of the stomion. Furthermore, it is obvious that it is necessary to use a "multivariable" method for a better prevision of the cutaneous changes after facial osteotomies, specially for the lips. Indeed, vertical soft tissue changes are the result of the interactions of many vertical and horizontal surgical squelettal displacements.

Boutault F; Cadenat H; Combelles R; Poirot A; Bodin H

1988-01-01

345

[Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma facial with extra facial presentation, the same pathology?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis is a rare fibro inflammatory lesion of unknown etiology which occurs usually in the upper respiratory tract mucosa of middle-aged adults. The histologic features show an eosinophilic vasculitis and an angiocentric fibrosis with onion-skin pattern. Firstly described as a mucosal variant of the granuloma facial, which is a rare cutaneous vasculitis with eosinophils, it is considerated by some authors as separated entities. Four cases have been described in the orbit and three of them were in fact an extension of a sinusal lesion. We report the first case affecting a 69-years-old male patient who showed an isolated orbital involvement in association with granuloma facial, extra facial. This observation illustrates the relationship between these two pathologies and consolidates the first hypothesis of a single disease with cutaneous or mucosal involvement.

Depaepe L; Chouvet B; Claudy A; Thomas L; Berger F; Balme B

2011-06-01

346

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à compressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression lesion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p<0.05). RESULTS:There was partial functional recovery after two weeks, and complete recovery after five weeks. Qualitative analysis demonstrated a degenerative pattern in the AL group, with an increased tissue inflammatory process. Evident regeneration signs were observed in the BL group, and almost complete regeneration was seen in the CL group. Normal nerves (N) had an average TD of 15705.59 and average PD of 21800.75. The BL group had an average TD of 10818.55 and an average PD of 15340.56. The CL group had an average TD of 13920.36 and an average PD of 16589.15. The BL group had an average TD of N equal to 68.88%, and the CL group had an average TD of N equal to 88,63% (statistically significant). N showed a significant higher PD than injured nerves. However, this was not statistically different between BL and CL subgroups. Nerve DT was a more reliable method than PD in this study.

Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi Costa; Ciro Ferreira da Silva; Gustavo Polacow Korn; Paulo Roberto Lazarini

2006-01-01

347

Facial nerve canal: CT analysis of the protruding tympanic segment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development and subsequent course of the facial nerve canal are complex. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an opportunity for the study of this often perplexing structure. Normal anatomy and normal variations of the facial nerve canal must be considered when examining patients who have facial nerve palsy referrable to the temporal bone. The author recommends direct axial and coronal imaging supplemented by sagittal and possibly oblique reformations

1984-01-01

348

Trends in facial plastic surgery in Latin America.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to try to define the tendencies in the practice of facial plastic surgery in the different countries of Latin America, a survey was conducted from June 2012 to August 2012. Questionnaires were sent to specialists in otolaryngology and facial plastic surgery in the countries of Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Chile, Peru, and Mexico. Results are shown and discussed. Comparisons are made with existing surveys performed by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. PMID:23761117

Cobo, Roxana

2013-06-12

349

Injury to the Intratemporal Facial Nerve: Report of a Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injury to the intratemporal facial nerve is caused most commonly by temporal bone fractures resulting from trauma sustained in motor vehicle accidents. Most cases of facial paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture are caused by longitudinal fractures of this bone. We report a 13 year-old girl with paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture. After removal of the bone fragments, we observed that the continuity of the facial nerve was intact.

M Motasaddi; N Saki

2001-01-01

350

Duplicated facial nerve trunk with a first branchial cleft cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

First branchial cleft anomalies are rare and their various anatomical relationships to the facial nerve have been described. We encountered a 15-year-old female with a type II first branchial cleft cyst presenting as a right neck mass that we found during surgical excision to transverse two main facial nerve trunks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a first branchial cleft anomaly in conjunction with a duplicated facial nerve trunk. Laryngoscope, 2013.

Hinson D; Poteet P; Bower C

2013-08-01

351

Current Concepts for Eyelid Reanimation in Facial Palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT: The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Two distinct anatomical regions and functions are the focus of interest when managing facial palsy: (1) reanimation of the eyelids and (2) reconstruction of the smile. This review will focus on the treatment of ocular manifestations of facial palsy. The principles of eyelid rehabilitation will be presented along with a discussion of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options. PMID:23241787

Momeni, Arash; Khosla, Rohit K

2012-12-13

352

Current Concepts for Eyelid Reanimation in Facial Palsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT: The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Two distinct anatomical regions and functions are the focus of interest when managing facial palsy: (1) reanimation of the eyelids and (2) reconstruction of the smile. This review will focus on the treatment of ocular manifestations of facial palsy. The principles of eyelid rehabilitation will be presented along with a discussion of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options.

Momeni A; Khosla RK

2012-12-01

353

Facial nerve canal: CT analysis of the protruding tympanic segment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development and subsequent course of the facial nerve canal are complex. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an opportunity for the study of this often perplexing structure. Normal anatomy and normal variations of the facial nerve canal must be considered when examining patients who have facial nerve palsy referrable to the temporal bone. The author recommends direct axial and coronal imaging supplemented by sagittal and possibly oblique reformations.

Swartz, J.D.

1984-11-01

354

[Individualized three-dimensional finite element model of facial soft tissue and preliminary application in orthodontics].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To get individualized facial three-dimensional finite element (FE) model from transformation of a generic one to assist orthodontic analysis and prediction of treatment-related morphological change of facial soft tissue. METHODS: A generic three-dimensional FE model of craniofacial soft and hard tissue was constructed based on a volunteer's spiral CT data. Seven pairs of main peri-oral muscles were constructed based on a combination of CT image and anatomical method. Individualized model could be obtained through transformation of the generic model based on selection of corresponding anatomical landmarks and radial basis functions (RBF) method. Validation was analyzed through superimposition of the transformed model and cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction data. Pre- and post-treatment CBCT data of two patients were collected, which were superimposed to gain the amount of anterior teeth retraction and anterior alveolar surface remodeling that could be used as boundary condition. Different values of Poisson ratio ? and Young's modulus E were tested during simulation. RESULTS: Average deviation was 0.47 mm and 0.75 mm in the soft and hard tissue respectively. It could be decreased to a range of +0.29 mm and -0.21 mm after a second transformation at the lip-mouth region. The best correspondence between simulation and post-treatment result was found with elastic properties of soft tissues defined as follows. Poisson ratio ? for skin, muscle and fat being set as 0.45 while Young's modulus being set as 90.0 kPa, 6.2 kPa and 2.0 kPa respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Individualized three-dimensional facial FE model could be obtained through mathematical model transformation. With boundary condition defined according to treatment plan such FE model could be used to analyze the effect of orthodontic treatment on facial soft tissue.

Chen S; Xu TM; Lou HD; Rong QG

2012-12-01

355

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available information which is belong to original semantic web, reduces the complexity and indirectly analysis the national facial features. Lastly, the effectiveness of our experiment is demonstrated by some real-word data sets.  

LI Zedong; DUAN Xiaodong; ZHANG Qingling

2013-01-01

356

Idiopathic hemi-facial lipoatrophy treated with autologous fat transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial lipoatrophy can be socially disfiguring, often prompting patients to seek correction. A variety of agents are used to treat facial lipoatrophy, but the quest for the ideal agent remains elusive. We present a case of non-HIV associated, idiopathic hemi-facial lipoatrophy successfully treated with autologous fat transfer (ATF). Because ATF has no complications from antigenicity, it is a safe and cost-effective treatment option for patients with non-HIV associated cases of facial lipoatrophy and abundant donor tissue.

Liu SW; Cohen GF

2010-09-01

357

[Facial paralysis and tuberculous otitis. Significance of early neural decompression  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial paralyses associated with tuberculous otitis have consistently had a bad prognosis. This is bound up with delay in diagnosing the tuberculous nature of the lesions and with slow-acting medical treatment. The facial nerve must be decompressed immediately and not delayed until medical treatment has failed. This attitude is particularly necessary in two types of circumstances in which the tuberculous origin should be under suspicion as a matter of routine / firstly when facial paralysis appears in the secondary sequelae of ear surgery and, secondly, when facial paralysis is a complication in chronic otitis without cholesteatoma.

Legent F; Baron F

1975-05-01

358

Cochlear implantation surgery in patients with narrow facial recess.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: The new method of facial recess enlargement through suspending, antedisplacing, and adhering the chorda tympani nerve to the posterior wall of the auditory canal can expose the round window, make electrode insertion easier, and preserve the function of the facial nerve and chorda tympani nerve. OBJECTIVE: To describe and report cochlear implantation surgery in patients with narrow facial recess, including surgical technique and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Cochlear implantation surgery was performed in our hospital in 39 cases with narrow facial recess by enlarging the facial recess. To enlarge the distance between the facial nerve and chorda tympani nerve, the chorda tympani nerve was suspended. The chorda tympani was anteplaced and adhered to the posterior wall of the auditory canal. RESULTS: Among the 39 cases, the narrowest distance between the facial nerve and the chorda tympani nerve was less than 1.0 mm. All patients successfully underwent cochlear implantation surgery. No injuries of the facial nerve, chorda tympani nerve, or the posterior wall of the auditory canal were reported in any of the patients. There were significant differences in the injuries of the facial nerve, chorda tympani nerve, and posterior wall of the auditory canal in these cases compared with previous approaches to this operation.

Wang L; Yang J; Jiang C; Zhang D

2013-09-01

359

Facial nerve neuroma: Role of CT and MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author studied by CT eight facial neuromas and nine lesions that simulated neuromas. In four patients MR imaging was also performed. In one patient CT and MR imaging showed characteristic enlargement of the geniculate ganglion and the entire internal auditory canal segment of the facial nerve. Characteristic bone expansion and scalloping of the mastoid were seen in another patient. Two neuromas were limited to the distal portion of the mastoid segment of facial nerve. In two cases, isolated granuloma of the facial nerve could not be differentiated from neuroma on CT. The appearance of perineural tumor infiltration was identical to that of neuroma on CT and MR imaging

1986-12-05

360

Total facial nerve decompression: technique to avoid complications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure of the facial nerve from the brainstem to the parotid can be accomplished without injury to the nerve, tympanic membrane, external auditory canal, ossicular chain, inner ear or structures within the cerebello-pontine angle. The procedure has reliably provided good results for patients who have had the proper indications with facial paralysis from Bell's palsy, herpes zoster oticus, infection, hemi-facial spasm, temporal bone fracture and tumors. The current technique for exposure through the mastoid, middle cranial fossa and retrolabyrinthine combined approaches are described. This technique, properly performed, is a valuable treatment for facial nerve lesions.

Pulec JL

1996-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Static treatment modalities in facial paralysis: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Facial nerve dysfunction can be attributed to several different causes. Several techniques have been developed to help treat the appearance and functional limitation of patients with sequelae of facial nerve dysfunction. There are options regarding static techniques of facial nerve injury treatment that range from facial musculature plication or shortening, fascial sling suspension via allograft or autograft, injectables and implants (ENDURAGen, AlloDerm, LifeCell, Bridgewater, New Jersey, USA) to techniques such as brow lift, open and endoscopic facelifts, and various eyelid surgeries with upper and lower lid procedures. In this review the various static facial nerve treatment modalities are discussed. METHODS AND RESULTS: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed detailing the most common static facial nerve treatment modalities and their known results and complications. CONCLUSIONS: There are individual issues associated with facial palsy for which individual solutions must be carefully tailored. Despite the presence of many surgical options, the results of reconstruction are limited. With the rapid advancement of surgical techniques, approaches to the management of facial nerve dysfunction have expanded, helping surgeons to improve and utilize alternative techniques for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic facial paralysis.

Ibrahim AM; Rabie AN; Kim PS; Medina M; Upton J; Lee BT; Lin SJ

2013-05-01

362

Mechanical properties of a new facial prosthetic material.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tensile strength, tear resistance, and hardness of four silicone elastomers were compared. Results suggest that Cosmesil has improved mechanical properties over commonly used facial prosthetic silicone elastomers.

Wolfaardt JF; Chandler HD; Smith BA

1985-02-01

363

Stapedial synkinesis causing change in hearing threshold with facial motion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Synkinetic facial movement after facial nerve regeneration is a well-documented phenomenon. Rarely, patients recovering from facial nerve injury report feelings of auditory ringing, fullness, and a sensation of ear tightness as a result of stapedial muscle involvement. It is exceedingly rare for such synkinesis to produce perceivable changes in hearing threshold. We report a unique case of stapedial synkinesis causing pure-tone changes in hearing threshold with activation of the facial musculature. PATIENT: A single patient is presented who developed stapedial synkinesis after suboccipital resection of a unilateral acoustic neuroma. RESULTS: Despite facial nerve sparing, surgery resulted in House-Brackmann grade V/VI right facial nerve paralysis that improved to Grade III/VI after 7 months. Synkinesis developed that caused eye closure with puckering of the lips. Puckering of the lips likewise caused decreased hearing in the right ear, corresponding to a measured decrease of 10 dB in the PTA. Over the next several months, facial motion continued to improve, and hearing changes became less bothersome, so no intervention was undertaken. CONCLUSION: The changes presented in the hearing threshold fit within the classically described 15-dB attenuation provided by the stapedial reflex. Although no intervention was undertaken in this particular case, some patients with unremitting stapedial synkinesis might benefit from sectioning of the stapedial muscle. Thus, consideration should be made for audiometric evaluation with and without facial muscle contraction in the evaluation of individuals with synkinetic facial movement.

Brichacek MA; Brandt MG; Carey JP; Byrne PJ

2013-06-01

364

Bilateral transverse facial cleft as an isolated deformity: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transverse facial clefts are rare deformities, these mostly occur as part of syndromes such as facial dysostosis and branchial arch syndrome. This is a report of a case of isolated, asyndromic bilateral facial cleft seen at a semi-urban specialist hospital. Congenital facial defects remain sources of mental and social stress to the families. Infanticide, perhaps a thing of the past in the developed world may still be practiced in cases of congenital deformities in the developing countries, hence the need for early involvement of social workers and clinical psychologist in management.

Akinmoladun V; Owotade F; Afolabi A

2007-01-01

365

Serum androgens and depression in women with facial hirsutism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies on the psychopathologic aspects of hirsutism are sparse. Attempts to correlate these aspects with either the extent of the facial hirsutism and/or circulating serum androgens are virtually nonexistent. This study evaluates the psychopathologic aspects of hirsutism and correlates these findings with the extent of the facial hirsutism as well as with the circulating serum androgens. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the psychopathologic aspects of facial hirsutism and to determine whether any correlation exists between these findings and either the extent of the facial hirsutism or the circulating serum androgens. METHODS: Twenty consecutive women with facial hirsutism were studied by administration of psychologic tests (DeRogatis Symptom Inventory and the Affects Balance Scale). The results of these tests were correlated with the grade of facial hirsutism as well as serum levels of total testosterone (T), biologically active testosterone (BT), free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (A-dione). RESULTS: Significant levels of depression were found. No correlation was found between the psychopathologic measurements and the extent of facial hirsutism or serum levels of T, DHEA, DHEA-S, and A-dione. Significant correlations were found between depression and serum levels of FT and BT. CONCLUSION: There is an increased incidence of depression in facially hirsute women and this correlates with their circulating active testosterone levels and not with the extent of their facial hirsutism.

Shulman LH; DeRogatis L; Spielvogel R; Miller JL; Rose LI

1992-08-01

366

Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right  

CERN Multimedia

The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

Osipa, Jason

2010-01-01

367

Paralisia facial periférica e otite média tuberculosa Peripheric facial paralysis and tuberculous otitis media: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de paralisia facial periférica devido a uma otite média tuberculosa. Chamam atenção para a raridade atual da otite tuberculosa e para a freqüência com que esta afecção compromete o nervo facial. A regressão da paralisia após tratamento cirúrgico (mastoidectomia e descompressão do nervo facial) e medicamentoso específico foi assinalada.In reporting on a case of peripherical facial paralysis due to tuberculous otitis media attention is called both to the present rarity of tuberculous otitis and to the frequency of the attack of this infection to the facial nerve, emphasis being made on the paralysis regression following surgical treatment (mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression) and use of specific medication.

José Geraldo Camargo Lima; Nelson Alvares Cruz

1974-01-01

368

Paralisia facial periférica e otite média tuberculosa/ Peripheric facial paralysis and tuberculous otitis media: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os autores apresentam um caso de paralisia facial periférica devido a uma otite média tuberculosa. Chamam atenção para a raridade atual da otite tuberculosa e para a freqüência com que esta afecção compromete o nervo facial. A regressão da paralisia após tratamento cirúrgico (mastoidectomia e descompressão do nervo facial) e medicamentoso específico foi assinalada. Abstract in english In reporting on a case of peripherical facial paralysis due to tuberculous otitis media attention is called both to the present rarity of tuberculous otitis and to the frequency of the attack of this infection to the facial nerve, emphasis being made on the paralysis regression following surgical treatment (mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression) and use of specific medication.

Lima, José Geraldo Camargo; Cruz, Nelson Alvares

1974-09-01

369

Intratemporal Grafting of the Facial Nerve following Lateral Skull Base Tumor Resection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intratemporal skull base tumors may invade the facial nerve in the horizontal (tympanic) or descending (vertical) segments, while parotid malignancies typically infiltrate the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen. This article will describe our results following intratemporal facial nerve grafti...

Leonetti, John P.; Anderson, Douglas E.; Marzo, Sam J.; Origitano, Thomas C.; Petruzzelli, Guy J.

370

Uma causa rara de paralisia facial periférica recorrente A rare cause of recurrent peripheral facial palsy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recurrent peripheral facial palsy (PFP) is not uncommon and it is reported in 3 to 15% of idiopathic PFPs. Other etiologies include intracranial compressive tumors, parotid gland tumors or inflammation, recurrent otitis media, head trauma, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Lyme disease,...

Pinho, J; Rocha, S; Machado, A; Lourenço, E

371

Guide of maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns Guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The guide for maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns has been developed on the basis of the results obtained in a retrospective descriptive study of a series of patients for facial burns, were treated in serving Burned Cienfuegos University General Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "between January 2005 and September 2007. The document describes the set of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, both general and local, to treat patients with facial burns depending on the extent and depth of burns, also describes some special considerations depending on their location in central facial structures (eyelids, flag ear, nose, mouth, neck). It took into account national guidelines and the Pan American Health Organization, were also consulted experts and specialists in the field. The guide was approved by the scientific council of the institution cited above.La guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales ha sido elaborada sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos en un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de una serie de pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario de Cienfuegos “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. El documento describe el conjunto de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos, tanto generales como locales, para tratar a los pacientes con quemaduras faciales según la extensión y profundidad de las quemaduras, además se describen algunas consideraciones especiales según su localización en estructuras centro faciales (párpados, pabellón auricular, nariz, boca, cuello). Se tuvieron en cuenta los lineamientos nacionales y de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, también fueron consultados expertos y especialistas en el tema. La guía fue aprobada por el consejo científico de la institución antes citada.

Eduardo Duarte Marrero; Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

2010-01-01

372

Laser welding of rat's facial nerve.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to compare regeneration of the severed nerves that were repaired by laser welding with those repaired by microsurgical suturing and evaluate the value in use of laser nerve welding in the head and neck area. In 12 rats the buccal branches of the facial nerves on the both sides were transected, and CO2 laser welding of the epineurium was performed on the right side and microsurgical suture technique was applied on the left side. In six rats Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the nerve anastomosis site at postoperative week 4. Another six rats were treated exactly in the same way in postoperative week 8. Six normal rats were used as controls. Intact facial nerve was observed after injection of CTb as well. Neurons of facial nuclei labeled positively by CTb were detected immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. CTb-positive neurons in the control group were 1311 +/- 258 (n = 6). CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with laser nerve welding were 1174 +/- 122 in postoperative week 4 and 1562 +/- 565 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with microsurgical suture were 1066 +/- 89 in postoperative week 4 and 1443 +/- 531 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons were seen significantly more in the group with laser welding than in the group with microsurgical suture in postoperative week (P = 0.028), but there was not much difference in postoperative week 8 (P = 0.463). None of 12 rats showed dehiscence at the nerve anastomosis done by laser welding. This study shows that nerve regeneration is more apparent in the nerve repaired by laser welding than in that repaired by microsurgical suture.

Hwang K; Kim SG; Kim DJ; Lee CH

2005-11-01

373

Facial appearance in persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent hyperinsulinism is the most common cause of recurrent hypoglycemia in infancy because of inappropriate oversecretion of insulin by the pancreas. Pancreatic lesions can be either focal or diffuse, and they have distinct molecular bases. We have studied the facial features in 17 unrelated patients presenting with neonatal (n = 8) or infancy-onset (n = 9) hyperinsulinism. Hyperinsulinism was related to focal adenomatous hyperplasia (n = 7), diffuse hyperinsulinism (n = 5), non-operated hyperinsulinism (n = 2), and hyperinsulinism with hyperammonemia (n = 3). SUR1 or Kir6.2 mutations were found in six of seven focal adenomatous hyperplasia and three of five diffuse hyperinsulinism. A loss of the maternal allele from chromosome 11p15 in the lesion was found in all focal adenomatous hyperplasia. GLUD1 mutations were found in all patients with hyperammonemia. Large birth weight (mean > 3,800 g) was consistently observed (11/17) but protruding tongue, exomphalos, or visceromegaly were never noted and Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome could always be ruled out. All patients presented with high forehead, small nasal tip, and short columella giving the impression that the nose is large and bulbous, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip. A square appearance to the face was more obvious in younger patients. These specific facial features, observed in patients with hyperinsulinism of various molecular mechanisms, could be the consequence of fetal intoxication by insulin. However, to date, facial anomalies have not been noted in infants of diabetic mothers and inversely, malformations that are commonly reported in infants of diabetic mothers were not present in our hyperinsulinemic patients. PMID:12210338

de Lonlay, Pascale; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Amiel, Jeanne; Touati, Guy; Goldenberg, Alice; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Brunelle, Francis; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; Rahier, Jacques; Junien, Claudine; Robert, Jean-Jacques; Saudubray, Jean-Marie

2002-08-01

374

Facial appearance in persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Persistent hyperinsulinism is the most common cause of recurrent hypoglycemia in infancy because of inappropriate oversecretion of insulin by the pancreas. Pancreatic lesions can be either focal or diffuse, and they have distinct molecular bases. We have studied the facial features in 17 unrelated patients presenting with neonatal (n = 8) or infancy-onset (n = 9) hyperinsulinism. Hyperinsulinism was related to focal adenomatous hyperplasia (n = 7), diffuse hyperinsulinism (n = 5), non-operated hyperinsulinism (n = 2), and hyperinsulinism with hyperammonemia (n = 3). SUR1 or Kir6.2 mutations were found in six of seven focal adenomatous hyperplasia and three of five diffuse hyperinsulinism. A loss of the maternal allele from chromosome 11p15 in the lesion was found in all focal adenomatous hyperplasia. GLUD1 mutations were found in all patients with hyperammonemia. Large birth weight (mean > 3,800 g) was consistently observed (11/17) but protruding tongue, exomphalos, or visceromegaly were never noted and Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome could always be ruled out. All patients presented with high forehead, small nasal tip, and short columella giving the impression that the nose is large and bulbous, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip. A square appearance to the face was more obvious in younger patients. These specific facial features, observed in patients with hyperinsulinism of various molecular mechanisms, could be the consequence of fetal intoxication by insulin. However, to date, facial anomalies have not been noted in infants of diabetic mothers and inversely, malformations that are commonly reported in infants of diabetic mothers were not present in our hyperinsulinemic patients.

de Lonlay P; Cormier-Daire V; Amiel J; Touati G; Goldenberg A; Fournet JC; Brunelle F; Nihoul-Fékété C; Rahier J; Junien C; Robert JJ; Saudubray JM

2002-08-01

375

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na Paralisia Facial Periférica/ Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição f (more) oram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and wat (more) er. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Mory, Marion Renée; Tessitore, Adriana; Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo Nizam; Couto Junior, Euro de Barros; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato

2012-01-01

376

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica/ Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição f (more) oram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and wat (more) er. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Mory, Marion Renée; Tessitore, Adriana; Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo Nizam; Couto Junior, Euro de Barros; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato

2013-04-01

377

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory; Adriana Tessitore; Leopoldo Nizam Pfeilsticker; Euro de Barros Couto Junior; Jorge Rizzato Paschoal

2013-01-01

378

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na Paralisia Facial Periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory; Adriana Tessitore; Leopoldo Nizam Pfeilsticker; Euro de Barros Couto Junior; Jorge Rizzato Paschoal

2012-01-01

379

An Active Model for Facial Feature Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a system for finding and tracking a face and extract global and local animation parameters from a video sequence. The system uses an initial colour processing step for finding a rough estimate of the position, size, and inplane rotation of the face, followed by a refinement step drived by an active model. The latter step refines the pre­vious estimate, and also extracts local animation parame­ters. The system is able to track the face and some facial features in near real-time, and can compress the result to a bitstream compliant to MPEG-4 face and body animation.

Ahlberg Jörgen

2002-01-01

380

[Interpersonal violence and major facial trauma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

70% of body lesions due to interpersonal violence are situated at the level of the face. Different factors such as the consumption of alcohol or drugs, unemployment, social maladjustment and poverty are responsible of its worrisome increase in incidence over the last years. This article describes the type and incidence of major facial lesions due to interpersonal violence treated at the Division of Maxillofacial surgery of the CHUV in Lausanne during 1992, and compares it with the series of cases treated ten years later, during 2001.

Arza A; Jaques B

2002-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Perforator flaps of the facial artery angiosome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For small to moderate-sized defects in the head and neck region, local flaps have been the mainstay of reconstruction for years. However, in certain instances, additional flap translation is required be it advancement, transposition or rotation. In such cases, the local flap concept is combined with perforator flap know-how, allowing larger loco-regional flaps to be raised to reconstruct relatively larger defects, even in cosmetically-expensive areas. In our cohort of fifteen patients', we have utilised detailed microanatomy of the facial artery perforators to reconstruct such defects with good results.

Kannan RY; Mathur BS

2013-04-01

382

Major facial trauma after helicopter landing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Injuries in civil aviation can occur as a consequence of work-related accidents happening in airport. The ground crew can sustain slips, trips, falls, and machinery accidents. Most such accidents are observed when aircraft is departing. This clinical report describes a case of an airport ground assistant severely injured by a helicopter after the strike with a main rotor blade that was slowing after that the craft was landed and the engine was stopped, and reports surgical emergency treatment of life-threatening facial lesions.

Becelli R; Morello R; Renzi G; Matarazzo G; Dominici C

2011-07-01

383

[Infantile facial paralysis: diagnostic and therapeutic features  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper deals with a series of 11 cases of peripheral unilateral facial paralyses affecting children under 15 years. Following parameters are reviewed: age, sex, side immobilized, origin, morbid antecedents, clinical and neurophysiological explorations (electroneurography through magnetic stimulation) and the evolutive course of the cases. These items are assembled in 3 sketches in the article. Clinical assessment of face movility is more difficult as the patient is younger, nevertheless electroneurography was possible in the whole group. Clinical restoration was complete, excepting one complicated cholesteatomatous patient. Some aspects concerning the etiology, diagnostic explorations and management of each pediatric case are discussed.

Montalt J; Barona R; Comeche C; Basterra J

2000-01-01

384

Topical rapamycin (sirolimus) for facial angiofibromas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a fungal fermentation product that inhibits the proper functioning of a serine/threonine protein kinase in mammalian cells eponymously named mammalian target of rapamycin, or mTOR. Rapamycin is a novel class of anticancer and immunosuppressant drugs targeting the proteins at molecular level. Rapamycin (sirolimus) is routinely incorporated in drug-eluting stents used for cardiac angioplasty. In recent years, rapamycin was found to be efficacious in managing the symptom complex of tuberous sclerosis, i.e. renal angiomyolipoma, giant cell astrocytoma and pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Various investigators have also proved that topically applied rapamycin causes regression of facial angiofibromas, giving better cosmetic results.

Madke B

2013-01-01

385

Proposta para determinação do tipo facial a partir da antropometria Proposal for facial type determination based on anthropometry  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever índices e proporções orofaciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e gênero, e verificar a possibilidade de estabelecer uma forma classificação da face, a partir da antropometria. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo prospectivo 105 adultos, leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) mulheres, de 20 a 40 anos, pacientes de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os achados da análise cefalométrica que constavam em suas documentações ortodônticas foram utilizados para determinação do tipo facial. Os indivíduos divididos em gêneros e tipos faciais foram submetidos à coleta de algumas medidas antropométricas faciais por meio de paquímetro. Essas medidas foram comparadas a seis variáveis: índice facial, índice facial inferior, índice facial superior, proporção queixo-face, proporção do queixo e proporção mandibular. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios das variáveis obtidas dos indivíduos divididos em gêneros e tipos faciais que apresentaram diferenças foram: índice facial, índice facial inferior, índice facial superior e proporção mandibular, para o gênero masculino, e proporção mandibular, para o feminino. Para se predizer os tipos faciais, houve diferença entre índice facial, índice facial superior e proporção mandibular para o tipo dolicofacial, para o gênero masculino; e proporção mandibular para o tipo dolicofacial e índice facial inferior para o braquifacial, para o gênero feminino. CONCLUSÃO: Alguns índices e proporções orofaciais apresentam variações de acordo com os tipos faciais e gêneros. De maneira geral, as variáveis antropométricas desta pesquisa não apresentam boa habilidade preditiva para se determinar os tipos faciais.PURPOSE: To describe orofacial indexes and proportions in adults, according to facial type and gender, and to verify the possibility to establish a way of classifying face based on anthropometry. METHODS: Participants were 105 leukoderm adults, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%), with ages between 20 and 40 years old, patients in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings from the cephalometric analysis contained in their orthodontic records were used for determination of facial type. Subjects were divided according to gender and facial type, and were submitted to anthropometric facial measures obtained directly through a caliper rule. These measures were compared to six variables: facial index, lower face index, upper face index, chin-face height proportion, chin height proportion, and mandibular height proportion. RESULTS: The average values obtained by the subjects divided into genders and facial types that presented significant differences were: facial index, lower face index, upper face index, and mandibular height proportion for males, and mandibular height proportion, for females. To predict facial types, the following parameters were considered significant: facial index, upper face index and mandibular height proportion for the dolichofacial type, for males; and mandibular height proportion for the dolichofacial and lower face index for the brachyfacial type, for females. CONCLUSION: Some indexes and orofacial proportions present variations according to facial types and genders. In general, the anthropometric variables in this study are not good predictors to determine facial types.

Rossana Ribeiro Ramires; Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira; Irene Queiroz Marchesan; Débora Martins Cattoni; Marta Assumpção de Andrada e Silva

2011-01-01

386

Facial Nerve Schwannoma Involving Middle Cranial Fossa: When the Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Guide to the Correct Diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Facial Nerve Schwannoma is a rare tumor and it seldom involved the middle cranial fossa. Facial nerve schwannoma has various manifestations, including facial palsy but unfortunately facial nerve is very resistant to compression and often facial nerve paralysis or a facial weakness are not presen...

De Stefano, Alessandro; Dispenza, Francesco; Kulamarva, Gautham

387

Parálisis facial en otitis media: Revisión bibliográfica Facial paralysis in otitis media: Literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La parálisis facial secundaria a una otitis media es una conocida complicación de infecciones agudas y crónicas. Su fisiopatología es desconocida pero la presión elevada en el oído medio, la osteítis, la invasión bacteriana y la neurotoxicidad, podrían estar involucradas. Los exámenes de laboratorio no entregan mayor información para determinar la etiología de la parálisis facial y la tomografía computada de oídos sería el estudio radiológico de elección ya que permite identificar el compromiso óseo, la extensión de la enfermedad y posibles alteraciones anatómicas existentes, además de ser utilizado para el diagnóstico de eventuales complicaciones intracraneales. El tratamiento de la parálisis en el curso de una otitis media aguda es médico, con antibióticos y esteroides, con buen pronóstico de recuperación; mientras en una otitis media crónica el tratamiento es quirúrgico y el pronóstico global peorFacial paralysis secondary to otitis media is a well known complication of acute and chronic infection. The physiopathology of facial nerve paralysis secondary to otitis media of not known, but high middle ear pressure, osteitis, direct bacterial invasion and neurotoxicity could be involved. Laboratory studies have failed to provide clues as to determining the etiology of facial<