WorldWideScience
1

Facial width-to-height ratio in a large sample of Commonwealth Games athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) is a sexually dimorphic morphological measure is mixed. Research has also linked FWHR with aggression and other behavioral tendencies, at least in men. Again, other research has found no such relationship. Here, I tested for both possible relationships using a sample of 2,075 male and 1,406 female athletes from the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games. Men showed significantly greater FWHRs than women, but this difference could be attributed to differences in body size. In addition, I found greater FWHRs in men who competed in sports involving physical contact and those stereotyped as more masculine. Again, these results could be attributed to differences in body size between categories. For women, no differences in FWHR were found regarding the amount of contact involved in a sport and how that sport was stereotyped. Finally, the FWHRs of athletes showed no relationship with the amount of aggression and related traits that were judged as required for success in those sports, although FWHRs did correlate with perceived endurance demands in women. Therefore, in a large sample of athletes, the sex difference in FWHR could be attributed to body size, and little support was found for the predicted links between this facial measure and behavior. PMID:25714799

Kramer, Robin S S

2015-01-01

2

Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys  

OpenAIRE

Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial...

Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

3

Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men). PMID:24754804

Alrajih, Shuaa; Ward, Jamie

2014-05-01

4

Further evidence for links between facial width-to-height ratio and fighting success: Commentary on Zilioli et al. (2014).  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has reported an association between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) and both fighting performance and judgments of formidability in a sample of mixed martial arts (MMA) combatants. The results provide evidence of fWHR being associated with sporting performance and aggression in men. However, it has been argued that the effect of fWHR might be a by-product of associations between body size and behavioral measures. Here we tested whether fWHR is associated with perceived aggressiveness, fighting ability and success in physical confrontation, while controlling for body size, also in a sample of MMA fighters. We found that perceived fighting ability was predicted by weight but not by fWHR. In contrast, both fWHR and body weight independently predicted perceived aggressiveness. Furthermore, we found positive associations between fWHR and fighting performance which appear to be independent of body size. Our findings provide further support for the proposal that fWHR is associated with fighting ability and perceived aggression, and that these effects are independent of body size. Therefore, fWHR might be considered as a viable and reliable marker for inference of success in male intra-sexual competition. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25236530

T?ebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Havlí?ek, Jan

2014-09-18

5

Judging a man by the width of his face: the role of facial ratios and dominance in mate choice at speed-dating events.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has shown that men with higher facial width-to-height ratios (fWHRs) have higher testosterone and are more aggressive, more powerful, and more financially successful. We tested whether they are also more attractive to women in the ecologically valid mating context of speed dating. Men's fWHR was positively associated with their perceived dominance, likelihood of being chosen for a second date, and attractiveness to women for short-term, but not long-term, relationships. Perceived dominance (by itself and through physical attractiveness) mediated the relationship between fWHR and attractiveness to women for short-term relationships. Furthermore, men's perceptions of their own dominance showed patterns of association with mating desirability similar to those of fWHR. These results support the idea that fWHR is a physical marker of dominance. This is the first study to show that male dominance and higher fWHRs are attractive to women for short-term relationships in a controlled and interactive situation that could actually lead to mating and dating. PMID:24458269

Valentine, Katherine A; Li, Norman P; Penke, Lars; Perrett, David I

2014-03-01

6

Sex ratio influences the motivational salience of facial attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did this using an effort-based key-press task, in which the motivational salience of facial attractiveness was assessed in samples of faces in which the ratio of male to female images was manipulated. The motivational salience of attractive opposite-sex, but not own-sex, faces was greater in the own-sex-biased (high competition for mates) than in the opposite-sex-biased (low competition for mates) condition. Moreover, this effect was not modulated by participant sex. These results present new evidence that sex ratio influences human mating-related behaviours. They also present the first evidence that the perceived sex ratio of the local population may modulate allocation of mating effort in women, as well as men. PMID:24919700

Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-06-01

7

Facial Masculinity: How the Choice of Measurement Method Enables to Detect Its Influence on Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has explored the relationship between facial masculinity, human male behaviour and males' perceived features (i.e. attractiveness). The methods of measurement of facial masculinity employed in the literature are quite diverse. In the present paper, we use several methods of measuring facial masculinity to study the effect of this feature on risk attitudes and trustworthiness. We employ two strategic interactions to measure these two traits, a first-price auction and a trust game. We find that facial width-to-height ratio is the best predictor of trustworthiness, and that measures of masculinity which use Geometric Morphometrics are the best suited to link masculinity and bidding behaviour. However, we observe that the link between masculinity and bidding in the first-price auction might be driven by competitiveness and not by risk aversion only. Finally, we test the relationship between facial measures of masculinity and perceived masculinity. As a conclusion, we suggest that researchers in the field should measure masculinity using one of these methods in order to obtain comparable results. We also encourage researchers to revise the existing literature on this topic following these measurement methods. PMID:25389770

Sanchez-Pages, Santiago; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Claudia; Turiegano, Enrique

2014-01-01

8

Second-to-fourth digit ratio and facial shape in boys: the lower the digit ratio, the more robust the face  

Science.gov (United States)

During human ontogeny, testosterone has powerful organizational and activational effects on the male organism. This has led to the hypothesis that the prenatal environment (as studied through the second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D : 4D) is not only associated with robust adult male faces that are perceived as dominant and masculine, but also that there is an activational step during puberty. To test the latter, we collected digit ratios and frontal photographs of right-handed Caucasian boys (aged 4–11 years) along with age, body height and body weight. Using geometric morphometrics, we show a significant relationship between facial shape and 2D : 4D before the onset of puberty (explaining 14.5% of shape variation; p = 0.014 after 10 000 permutations, n = 17). Regression analyses depict the same shape patterns as in adults, namely that the lower the 2D : 4D, the smaller and shorter the forehead, the thicker the eyebrows, the wider and shorter the nose, and the larger the lower face. Our findings add to previous evidence that certain adult male facial characteristics that elicit attributions of masculinity and dominance are determined very early in ontogeny. This has implications for future studies in various fields ranging from social perception to life-history strategies. PMID:22337693

Meindl, Konstanze; Windhager, Sonja; Wallner, Bernard; Schaefer, Katrin

2012-01-01

9

Facial trauma  

Science.gov (United States)

Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFort injuries ... Mayersak RJ. Facial trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

10

Second-to-fourth digit ratio and facial shape in boys: the lower the digit ratio, the more robust the face  

OpenAIRE

During human ontogeny, testosterone has powerful organizational and activational effects on the male organism. This has led to the hypothesis that the prenatal environment (as studied through the second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D : 4D) is not only associated with robust adult male faces that are perceived as dominant and masculine, but also that there is an activational step during puberty. To test the latter, we collected digit ratios and frontal photographs of right-handed Caucasian boys (ag...

Meindl, Konstanze; Windhager, Sonja; Wallner, Bernard; Schaefer, Katrin

2012-01-01

11

Ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

2014-12-01

12

Granuloma Faciale  

OpenAIRE

A 40-year old woman presented with asymptomatic erythematous well-demarcated, infiltrated plaque of 8 cm x 7 cm in size on the right cheek for past four years. Histopathological study of skin biopsy revealed features of granuloma faciale. Oral dapsone and intralesional corticosteroid caused marked improvement.

Sarkar Rashmi; Kanwar Amrinder J

2002-01-01

13

Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

Duchovi?ová, So?a; Zahradníková, Barbora; Schreiber, Peter

2014-12-01

14

Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies reveal that when people are exposed to emotional facial expressions, they spontaneously react with distinct facial electromyographic (EMG) reactions in emotion-relevant facial muscles. These reactions reflect, in part, a tendency to mimic the facial stimuli. We investigated whether corresponding facial reactions can be elicited when people are unconsciously exposed to happy and angry facial expressions. Through use of the backward-masking technique, the subjects were prevented from consciously perceiving 30-ms exposures of happy, neutral, and angry target faces, which immediately were followed and masked by neutral faces. Despite the fact that exposure to happy and angry faces was unconscious, the subjects reacted with distinct facial muscle reactions that corresponded to the happy and angry stimulus faces. Our results show that both positive and negative emotional reactions can be unconsciously evoked, and particularly that important aspects of emotional face-to-face communication can occur on an unconscious level. PMID:11228851

Dimberg, U; Thunberg, M; Elmehed, K

2000-01-01

15

Facial features  

Science.gov (United States)

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Mrs. Allan

2008-09-21

16

Facial Orf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions.

Enver Turan

2012-06-01

17

[Facial injuries].  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of a certain reduction in their numbers, facial injuries still raise frequent problems for general surgeons. Car accidents are now less commonly responsible than motorcycle accidents. In the most complex cases, one may find lesions of the soft parts and bony lesions in association. The wounds should be examined carefully, all foreign bodies removed and should only be sutured if one is certain tht the subjacent structures are undamaged, e.g. facial bony canals are often damaged in vertical wounds of the cheek situated behind the anterior border of the masseter muscle. As far as bony lesions are concerned, they rarely give rise to typical breakdowns of the suture lines described by Lefort, but more commonly cause true dislocations which are impossible to describe. Fractures are often undiagnosed owing to oedema which masks them, e.g. those of the malar bone and of the orbit and even those of the nose. This failure to diagnose them is serious for, at a later stage, surgical correction is more difficult and the prejudice is then not only esthetic but also functional, e.g. causing diplopia. Clinical examination of a patient with trauma of the face includes a series of simple gestures which a general surgeion should carry out in order to avoid failure to diagnose such lesions. Although he may not treat them all, he sould recognise them and decide which have priority in the treatment of multiple injuries. Careful inspection and palpation usually permit one to detect bony lesions which XRays then demonstrate only by careful choice of appropriate views. PMID:1176565

Nicolétis, C; Chancholle, A R; Jost, G; Merville, L; Nouly, R; Peri, G; Souyris, F; Stricker, M; Tessier, P; Vaillant, J M

1975-04-01

18

Facial reanimation with masseteric to facial nerve transfer: a three-dimensional longitudinal quantitative evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial paralysis is a severe pathological condition, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. The altered tone and mobility of the mimetic musculature provoke both functional and morphological deficits. In the present study, we longitudinally measured facial movements in 14 patients (21-69 years) affected by unilateral facial paralysis not lasting longer than 23 months. The patients were analyzed before and after surgical masseteric to facial nerve neurorrhaphy. Examinations were performed at least 3 months after they had clinically started to regain facial mimicry. The displacement of selected facial landmarks was measured using an optoelectronic three-dimensional motion analyzer during: maximum smile without clenching (pre- and postsurgery), maximum smile by clenching on their posterior teeth (only postsurgery), and spontaneous smile (recorded during the vision of a funny video in both examinations). Before facial surgery, in all smiles facial landmarks moved more in the healthy than in the paretic side; after surgery, the differences decreased for both reduction of the healthy-side motion, and increment of the paretic-side motion (motion ratio before 52%, after 87%, p < 0.05, Students' t-test). The ratio between the paretic and healthy-side total motion (asymmetry) did not modify for maximum and spontaneous smiles, but significantly increased for the maximum smiles made with teeth clenching (asymmetry before 32%, after 11%, p < 0.001). Spontaneous smiles were recorded only in a subset of patients, but their execution was modified by surgery, with more symmetrical movements of the rehabilitated-side landmarks (asymmetry before 33%, after 10%), and reduced motion of the healthy-side ones (motion ratio before 51%, after 83%). In conclusion, the significant asymmetry in the magnitude of facial movements that characterized the analyzed patients before surgery reduced after surgery, at least in those facial areas interested by the masseteric to facial nerve reanimation. PMID:24939829

Sforza, Chiarella; Tarabbia, Filippo; Mapelli, Andrea; Colombo, Valeria; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Annoni, Isabella; Biglioli, Federico

2014-10-01

19

Facial Orf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 58-60

Enver Turan

2012-06-01

20

Face structure predicts cooperation: men with wider faces are more generous to their in-group when out-group competition is salient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male facial width-to-height ratio appears to correlate with antisocial tendencies, such as aggression, exploitation, cheating, and deception. We present evidence that male facial width-to-height ratio is also associated with a stereotypically male prosocial tendency: to increase cooperation with other in-group members during intergroup competition. We found that men who had wider faces, compared with men who had narrower faces, showed more self-sacrificing cooperation to help their group members when there was competition with another group. We propose that this finding makes sense given the evolutionary functions of social helpfulness and aggression. PMID:22623509

Stirrat, M; Perrett, D I

2012-07-01

21

Facial Expression Recognition  

OpenAIRE

Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for fe...

Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

2010-01-01

22

Contextualizing facial activity  

OpenAIRE

Drawing on research reviewed in this special section, the present article discusses how various contextual factors impact on production and decoding of emotion-related facial activity. Although emotion-related variables often contribute to activation of prototypical "emotion expressions" and perceivers can often infer emotional meanings from these facial configurations, neither process is invariant or direct. Many facial movements are directed towards or away from events in the shared environ...

Parkinson, B.

2013-01-01

23

Cosmetic Facial Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

Adamson, Peter A.

1987-01-01

24

Epidemiology of facial clefts.  

OpenAIRE

Data from the Glasgow Register of Congenital Malformations were used to investigate the epidemiology of congenital facial clefts over the period 1974-85. Facial clefts were registered in 247 infants representing a prevalence of 1.56 per 1000 total births. Cleft palate was more common than cleft lip, with cleft lip and palate occupying an intermediate position. More than half of the infants with facial clefts had associated defects. Males predominated for cleft lip; females for cleft palate. C...

Womersley, J.; Stone, D. H.

1987-01-01

25

Facial Soft Tissue Trauma  

OpenAIRE

Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries.

Kretlow, James D.; Mcknight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

2010-01-01

26

Análise Facial Subjetiva Subjective Facial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a análise facial tem sido um recurso diagnóstico valorizado desde os primórdios da Ortodontia. Vários autores tentaram estabelecer referências de normalidade na direção das quais os pacientes ortodônticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupação da Ortodontia está em concordância com a expectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivação para o tratamento ortodôntico é a melhora estética. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente é fundamental que o ortodontista conheça os parâmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliação estética. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realização da Análise Facial Subjetiva, estética e morfológica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicação prática da análise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogêneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivíduos (50 de cada gênero classificando-os como esteticamente desagradáveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3, esteticamente aceitáveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6 e esteticamente agradáveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9. RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitáveis, 8% desagradáveis e 3% agradáveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsável pela estética desagradável, seguida pelo mento ("queixo" em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar, portanto, que a Análise Facial Subjetiva é mais um instrumento diagnóstico, que tem sua importância aumentada por ser o parâmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vão avaliar os resultados do tratamento.INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The main motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9, acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6 or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3. Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

2006-10-01

27

Facial talon cusps.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

McNamara, T

1997-12-01

28

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

29

PCA facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

30

Blink detection robust to various facial poses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications based on eye-blink detection have increased, as a result of which it is essential for eye-blink detection to be robust and non-intrusive irrespective of the changes in the user's facial pose. However, most previous studies on camera-based blink detection have the disadvantage that their performances were affected by the facial pose. They also focused on blink detection using only frontal facial images. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed a new method for blink detection, which maintains its accuracy despite changes in the facial pose of the subject. This research is novel in the following four ways. First, the face and eye regions are detected by using both the AdaBoost face detector and a Lucas-Kanade-Tomasi (LKT)-based method, in order to achieve robustness to facial pose. Secondly, the determination of the state of the eye (being open or closed), needed for blink detection, is based on two features: the ratio of height to width of the eye region in a still image, and the cumulative difference of the number of black pixels of the eye region using an adaptive threshold in successive images. These two features are robustly extracted irrespective of the lighting variations by using illumination normalization. Thirdly, the accuracy of determining the eye state - open or closed - is increased by combining the above two features on the basis of the support vector machine (SVM). Finally, the SVM classifier for determining the eye state is adaptively selected according to the facial rotation. Experimental results using various databases showed that the blink detection by the proposed method is robust to various facial poses. PMID:20826183

Lee, Won Oh; Lee, Eui Chul; Park, Kang Ryoung

2010-11-30

31

Análise Facial Subjetiva / Subjective Facial Analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: a análise facial tem sido um recurso diagnóstico valorizado desde os primórdios da Ortodontia. Vários autores tentaram estabelecer referências de normalidade na direção das quais os pacientes ortodônticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupação da Ortodontia está em concordância com a ex [...] pectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivação para o tratamento ortodôntico é a melhora estética. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente é fundamental que o ortodontista conheça os parâmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliação estética. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realização da Análise Facial Subjetiva, estética e morfológica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicação prática da análise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogêneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas) que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivíduos (50 de cada gênero) classificando-os como esteticamente desagradáveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3), esteticamente aceitáveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6) e esteticamente agradáveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9). RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitáveis, 8% desagradáveis e 3% agradáveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsável pela estética desagradável, seguida pelo mento ("queixo") em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar, portanto, que a Análise Facial Subjetiva é mais um instrumento diagnóstico, que tem sua importância aumentada por ser o parâmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vão avaliar os resultados do tratamento. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The mai [...] n motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists) to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9), acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6) or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3). Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively) as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

Sílvia Augusta Braga, Reis; Jorge, Abrão; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho; Cristiane Aparecida de Assis, Claro.

2006-10-01

32

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-07-01

33

Orbital and facial fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the importance of particular radiologic findings related to facial trauma and their implications for clinical and surgical management. An emphasis is placed on critical imaging signs that warrant immediate surgical attention. PMID:25086804

Uzelac, Alina; Gean, Alisa D

2014-08-01

34

Treatment of Facial Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

... of specialists in oral and maxillofacial surgery, otorhinolaryngology, plastic surgery, and ophthalmology, is beneficial for the treatment of complex cranial facial injuries. Moreover, many of the techniques that are ...

35

The role of structural facial asymmetry in asymmetry of peak facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetric facial expression is generally attributed to asymmetry in movement, but structural asymmetry in the face may also affect asymmetry of expression. Asymmetry in posed expressions was measured using image-based approaches in digitised sequences of facial expression in 55 individuals, N=16 men, N=39 women. Structural asymmetry (at neutral expression) was higher in men than women and accounted for .54, .62, and .66 of the variance in asymmetry at peak expression for joy, anger, and disgust expressions, respectively. Movement asymmetry (measured by change in pixel values over time) was found, but was unrelated to peak asymmetry in joy or anger expressions over the whole face and in facial subregions relevant to the expression. Movement asymmetry was negatively related to peak asymmetry in disgust expressions. Sidedness of movement asymmetry (defined as the ratio of summed movement on the left to movement on the right) was consistent across emotions within individuals. Sidedness was found only for joy expressions, which had significantly more movement on the left. The significant role of structural asymmetry in asymmetry of emotion expression and the exploration of facial expression asymmetry have important implications for evolutionary interpretations of facial signalling and facial expressions in general. PMID:16966242

Schmidt, Karen L; Liu, Yanxi; Cohn, Jeffrey F

2006-11-01

36

Facial resemblance enhances trust.  

OpenAIRE

Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subje...

Debruine, Lisa M.

2002-01-01

37

Facial reconstruction project  

OpenAIRE

Facial reconstruction of mummies and corpses is important in anthropological, medical and forensic studies. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of three-Dimensional Multidetector CT examination for 3D facial reconstruction. We present a multidisciplinary work performed by radiologists, anthropologists and forensic police in reconstructing the possible physiognomy of an ancient Egyptian mummy. Three-Dimensional data were obtained from a well-preserved completely wrapped Egypti...

Gandini, Giovanni; Boano, Rosa

2005-01-01

38

Facial infiltrative lipomatosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

39

Facial infiltrative lipomatosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Pennington, A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Plastic Surgey; Philips, R. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of General Pediatrics

2006-11-15

40

The aesthetic proportion index of facial contour surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

An oval-shaped face is considered ideal in Chinese culture, which means not only narrow mid and low face but also appropriate proportion between them. Numerous surgical resections of the malar and mandibular angles began in the 1980s. The objective of this study was to investigate the facial proportion index before and after facial contour surgery. All 266 patients were subjected to L-shaped reduction malarplasty and reduction of mandibular angles with partial masseter muscle resection. All computed tomographic parameters (preoperative and 2 years postoperative) were conducted on facial morphometry to reveal the change of the facial proportion index of hard and soft tissue, respectively, such as the widest part of the mid face (WM), widest part of the lower face (WL), facial height (FH), WM/WL, WM/FH, and WL/FH. All patients were satisfied with the optimal outcome of the combined facial contour surgery. Morphometric analysis indicated that the ideal WM/WL ratio was 1.27 ± 0.1 (1.21 ± 0.09 preoperative) in hard tissue and 1.2 ± 0.12 (1.16 ± 0.12 preoperative) in soft tissue 2 years postoperatively. The combined facial contour surgery could acquire an ideal facial contour for Chinese patients. Furthermore, the relative proportion index can be referenced as the standard for preoperative design. PMID:25699538

Li, Dong; Xu, Haisong; Xu, Liang; Huang, Xiaoxiang; Yuan, Jie; Wei, Min

2015-03-01

41

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial expression database and Japanese Female Facial Expression database. The results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy

2012-01-01

42

Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. PMID:25620090

Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

2015-03-01

43

Facial Asymmetry Correction in Facial Palsy Patients with Silhouette Sutures  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: over the last few decades several techniques static and dynamics, have been performed to improve facial asymmetry and functionality alter suffering facial paralysis. Methods: we present a pilot study to show and evaluate the benefits of a new form of facial suspension, with Silhouette sutures. We performed two patients with total and complete facial palsy due to otical tuberculosis in one case and to parotid carcinoma in the other. Results: one year after surgery, both patients ...

Juan Fernando Fuentes; Lluisa Torrent; Ricard Palao; María Luisa Navarrete; Mireia González

2012-01-01

44

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

OpenAIRE

A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facia...

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani

2012-01-01

45

Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change  

Science.gov (United States)

By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

2005-12-01

46

Automated and objective action coding of facial expressions in patients with acute facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of the present observational single center study was to objectively assess facial function in patients with idiopathic facial palsy with a new computer-based system that automatically recognizes action units (AUs) defined by the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Still photographs using posed facial expressions of 28 healthy subjects and of 299 patients with acute facial palsy were automatically analyzed for bilateral AU expression profiles. All palsies were graded with the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system and with the Stennert Index (SI). Changes of the AU profiles during follow-up were analyzed for 77 patients. The initial HB grading of all patients was 3.3 ± 1.2. SI at rest was 1.86 ± 1.3 and during motion 3.79 ± 4.3. Healthy subjects showed a significant AU asymmetry score of 21 ± 11 % and there was no significant difference to patients (p = 0.128). At initial examination of patients, the number of activated AUs was significantly lower on the paralyzed side than on the healthy side (p < 0.0001). The final examination for patients took place 4 ± 6 months post baseline. The number of activated AUs and the ratio between affected and healthy side increased significantly between baseline and final examination (both p < 0.0001). The asymmetry score decreased between baseline and final examination (p < 0.0001). The number of activated AUs on the healthy side did not change significantly (p = 0.779). Radical rethinking in facial grading is worthwhile: automated FACS delivers fast and objective global and regional data on facial motor function for use in clinical routine and clinical trials. PMID:25373838

Haase, Daniel; Minnigerode, Laura; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Denzler, Joachim; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

2014-11-01

47

Facial Expressions Evaluation Survey  

OpenAIRE

Facial expressions are probably the most visual method to convey emotions and one of the most powerful means to relate to each other. A typical automatic system for the recognition of facial expressions is based on a representation of the expression, learned from a training set of pre-selected meaningful features. The learning process relies on the labels associated by an expert or a group of experts to the training samples. The experts are asked to associate each images in the training set t...

Sorci, Matteo; Antonini, Gianluca; Thiran, Jean-philippe; Bierlaire, Michel

2007-01-01

48

Computer facial animation  

CERN Document Server

This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

Parke, Frederic I

2008-01-01

49

Relaciones de Forma y Proporción del Incisivo Central Maxilar con Medidas Faciales, Línea Mediana Dentaria y Facial en Adultos / Relationships between Shape and Proportion of the Maxillary Central Incisor with Facial Measurements, Dental and Facial Midline in Adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue relacionar la forma y proporción del incisivo central maxilar (ICM) derecho con la forma facial y ubicación de las líneas medianas dentarias y facial. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal sobre una muestra por conveniencia constituida por 118 pacientes de ambos [...] sexos, con una edad promedio de 25,09±7,71 años, escogidos según criterios de inclusión. En cada caso, fueron medidos el largo y ancho del ICM derecho, proporción dentaria resultante entre estas medidas, líneas medianas dentarias en relación a la línea mediana facial. Estas medidas se correlacionaron con las medidas faciales para forma y clase facial. Los resultados revelaron que la forma dentaria más frecuente encontrada fue la ovoide; las medidas promedio de largo y ancho para el ICM fueron de 10,28±0,91 mm y 8,69±0,57 mm, respectivamente. En mujeres fue 9,98 mm y 8,55 mm, y en hombres de 10,62 mm y 8,86 mm. La proporción dentaria fue de un 85%. Se encontraron coincidencias de las líneas medianas dentarias maxilar, mandibular y facial sólo en un 18% de los casos, y los tipos de contornos gingivales más frecuentes fueron de tipo estético (97%). No hubo relación entre medidas dentarias y faciales para las distintas clases faciales (análisis de varianza, y pruebas de comparaciones múltiples de Scheffe), sin embargo, encontramos que en todas las clases faciales de ambos sexos, predominó el tipo mesofacial y la clase I facial (57%). No se puede establecer una correlación entre forma dentaria y forma facial de manera significativa, por lo que otros parámetros también deben ser tomados en cuenta. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to relate the shape and proportion of the right maxillary central incisor with facial shape and location of dental and facial median lines. Cross-sectional study on a convenience sample consisting of 118 patients of both sexes was performed, with an average age of 25.09 [...] ±7.71 years, selected according to inclusion criteria. In each case, were measured the length and width of right maxillary central incisor, tooth ratio resulting of these measures and medium tooth lines in relation to the midline. These measures were correlated with measures of facial shape and facial class. The results revealed that the most common tooth shape found was ovoid; average length and width for the maxillary central incisor were 10.28±0.91 mm and 8.69±0.57 mm, respectively; of 9.98 mm and 8.55 mm in women, and 10.62 mm and 8.86 mm in men. The dental proportion was 85%. Matches between the median lines of maxillary teeth, jaw and face were only found in 18% of cases, and the most common types of gingival contours were aesthetic (97%). There was no relationship between dental and facial for different facial types (analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests of Scheffe) measures, however, we found that all facial classes in both sexes, prevailed mesofacial and class I facial types (57%). Unable to establish a correlation between tooth shape and facial shape significantly, so other parameters should also be taken into account.

Benjamín, Weber; Ramón, Fuentes; Nerilda, García; Mario, Cantín.

1101-11-01

50

Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported. PMID:24761505

Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

2013-06-01

51

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

52

Facial Asymmetry Correction in Facial Palsy Patients with Silhouette Sutures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: over the last few decades several techniques static and dynamics, have been performed to improve facial asymmetry and functionality alter suffering facial paralysis. Methods: we present a pilot study to show and evaluate the benefits of a new form of facial suspension, with Silhouette sutures. We performed two patients with total and complete facial palsy due to otical tuberculosis in one case and to parotid carcinoma in the other. Results: one year after surgery, both patients have improved facial asymmetry, mastication and speech production which have lead to a higher self-esteem and major social interaction. Conclusions: static facial suspension with Silhouette sutures is a non invasive alternative to dynamic techniques in patients who don’t want or can’t undergo more complex surgeries.

Juan Fernando Fuentes

2012-01-01

53

Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

J. Fortes-Rego

1976-03-01

54

Facial resemblance enhances trust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust. PMID:12079651

DeBruine, Lisa M

2002-07-01

55

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

OpenAIRE

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of...

Tan, Pearlie W. W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

56

Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression  

OpenAIRE

Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is u...

Devi Arumugam; Purushothaman, Dr S.

2011-01-01

57

Emotion recognition using facial images  

OpenAIRE

Facial emotion is vital path for human contact and also used in numerous real applications. Facial expression identification has in recent times become a hopeful investigate area.Their applications include human-computer interface, human emotion examination robot control, driver state surveillance and medical fields. This paper aims to perform emotion classification scheme to identify six dissimilar facial emotions, such as anger, fear, sad, happy, disgust and surprise by using JAFFE database...

Ramya.S; Siva sankari.S; Narasimhan K

2013-01-01

58

Magnetically retained silicone facial prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with orocutaneous fistulas suffer from discomfort in terms of facial esthetics, food spill over and lack of psychological confidence to present them socially. Prosthetic camouflaging of facial defects and use of silicone maxillofacial material are the alternatives to the surgical retreatment. Silicone elastomers provide more options to clinician for customization of the facial prosthesis which is simple, esthetically good when coupled with bio magnets for retention. PMID:24553044

Venugopalan, S; Ariga, P; Aggarwal, P; Viswanath, A

2014-01-01

59

Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

Martin Paul Evison

2000-06-01

60

Facial nerve rerouting in skull base surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial nerve rerouting techniques were developed to facilitate re-section of extensive tumors occupying the skull base. Facial nerve rerouting has its own limitations and risks, requiring microsurgical expertise, additional surgical time, and often some degree of facial nerve paresis. This article presents different degrees of anterior and posterior facial nerve rerouting, techniques of facial nerve rerouting, and a comprehensive review of outcomes. It then reviews anatomic and functional preservation of the facial nerve in acoustic neuroma resection, technical aspects of facial nerve dissection, intracranial facial nerve repair options, and outcomes for successful acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:16005726

Parhizkar, Nooshin; Hiltzik, David H; Selesnick, Samuel H

2005-08-01

61

Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a condition that is commonly encountered in clinical practice, but is rarely reported. It appears in childhood and its pathogenesis is still unknown. It has a benign course with resolution within a few months without aggressive treatment. Microbiological tests are negative and histological findings are nonspecific. It is possible that this condition is part of the spectrum of granulomatous rosacea in childhood. We present two cases in which diagnosis of IFAG was established and resolved without sequelae following topical antibiotic treatment. PMID:25557471

González Rodríguez, A J; Jordá Cuevas, E

2015-04-01

62

Facial cancer: radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred and six facial skin cancer treated by radiation therapy in 97 patients were studied. Recurrence rate was 9.4% for all tumors; 1.2% for basal cell carcinoma and 30.0% for squamous cell tumor. Excluding four severe cases of squamous cell carcinoma, the cure and cosmetic results were very good to excellent. Low daily doses and increased number of applications allowed better cosmetic results. Complications of radiation therapy in five cases (4.7%) were not significant. Radiation therapy should be considered for treatment of selected sites of the face as eyelids, nose and ears mainly if better cosmetic results are desired. (author)

63

Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression  

CERN Document Server

This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

Pickin, Andrew

2011-01-01

64

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%. The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

2003-10-01

65

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample compris [...] ed four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment.

Jesus Claudio, Gabana-Silveira; Laura Davison, Mangilli; Fernanda C., Sassi; Arnaldo Feitosa, Braga; Claudia Regina Furquim, Andrade.

2014-08-01

66

Paralisia facial bilateral / Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética. [...] Abstract in english A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology. [...

J., Fortes-Rego.

1976-03-01

67

Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey  

OpenAIRE

The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparam...

Sumathi, C. P.; Santhanam, T.; Mahadevi, M.

2013-01-01

68

Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed andevaluated.Key WordsArtificial Muscles, facial prosthetics, stroke rehabilitation,facial paralysis, computer vision, automated facialrecognition.

Fergal Coulter

2011-10-01

69

Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis  

OpenAIRE

BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film ac...

Fergal Coulter; Philip Breedon; Michael Vloeberghs

2011-01-01

70

Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior. Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior. Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil.Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal lifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction of the sagging cheek structures. This

O. M. Ramírez

2007-03-01

71

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

Zhihong Zeng

2006-08-01

72

Imaging of the facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

73

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

OpenAIRE

Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects o...

Theobald, Barry-john; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

74

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients’ cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are analyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and ident...

Joa?o Paulo Machado de Sousa and Jaime Eduardo Ceci?lio Hallak

2008-01-01

75

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

OpenAIRE

Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are...

Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Roisman, Glenn I.; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Huang, Thomas S.

2006-01-01

76

A REVIEW ON FACIAL NEURALGIAS  

OpenAIRE

Facial neuralgias are produced by a change in neurological structure or function. This type of neuropathic pain affects the mental health as well as quality of life of patients. There are different types of neuralgias affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. These unusual pains are linked to some possible mechanisms. Various diagnostic tests are done to diagnose the proper cause of facial neuralgia and according to it the medical and surgical treatment is done to provide relief to patient.

Gaurav Solanki

2012-01-01

77

A theoretical and experimental study on meridional-facial isomerization of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq?).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rationale behind the stereospecific synthesis of a facial isomer of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq3) is studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict the favourable influence of an H3O(+) ion on the distribution ratio between a meridional and a thermodynamically unstable facial isomer. PMID:25033089

Iwakura, I; Ebina, H; Komori-Orisaku, K; Koide, Y

2014-09-14

78

Medical facial surface scanner  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical, non-contact three-dimensional range surface digitizers are employed in the 360-degree examination of object surfaces, especially the heads and faces of individuals. The resultant 3- D surface data is suitable for computer graphics display and manipulation, for numerically controlled object replications, or for further processing such as surface measurement extraction. We employed a scanner with a basic active sensor element consisting of a synchronized pattern projector employing flashtubes that illuminate a surface, with a CID camera to detect, digitize, and transmit the sequence of 24 images (per camera) to a digital image processor for surface triangulation, calibration, and fusion into a single surface description of the headform. A major feature of this unit is its use of multiple (typically 6) stationary active sensor elements, with efficient calibration algorithms that achieve nearly seamless superposition of overlapping surface segments seen by individual cameras. The result is accurate and complete coverage of complex contoured surfaces. Application of this system to digitization of the human head in the planning and evaluation of facial plastic surgery is presented.

Vannier, Michael W.; Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Brunsden, Barry S.

1992-05-01

79

Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a static control. Overall, c...

Tardif, Carole; Laine?, France; Rodriguez, Me?lissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

80

Compound facial expressions of emotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

2014-04-15

81

Facial Expression Synthesis Based on Imitation  

OpenAIRE

It is an interesting and challenging problem to synthesise vivid facial expression images. In this paper, we propose a facial expression synthesis system which imitates a reference facial expression image according to the difference between shape feature vectors of the neutral image and expression image. To improve the result, two stages of postprocessing are involved. We focus on the facial expressions of happiness, sadness, and surprise. Experimental results show vivid and flexible results.

Yihjia Tsai; Hwei Jen Lin; Fu Wen Yang

2012-01-01

82

Emotion recognition using facial images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial emotion is vital path for human contact and also used in numerous real applications. Facial expression identification has in recent times become a hopeful investigate area.Their applications include human-computer interface, human emotion examination robot control, driver state surveillance and medical fields. This paper aims to perform emotion classification scheme to identify six dissimilar facial emotions, such as anger, fear, sad, happy, disgust and surprise by using JAFFE database. This was done by extracting patch based type from the image by using PCA. After patches are matched to the trained image. The scheme of patch harmonizing operations has been used to construct features for object identification and action categorization, which stay on vigorous whenthere are change in location, scale, and direction. The smallest value is chosen as the last feature for emotion categorization. The consequential distance characteristics are fed into the Random ForestClassifier to get accurate results for emotion recognition

Ramya.S

2013-04-01

83

Recurrent Idiopathic Facial Paralysis: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idiopathic facial paralysis is the mononeuropathy Multiple recurrences of idiopathic facial paralysis in a patient may be the sign or sympton of a serious illness. therefore; in recurrent cases, family history, systemic diseases and malignancy must be investigated. In this report, a case of recurrent idiopathic facial paralysis is presented.

Hale Hekim Balo?lu

2010-09-01

84

Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

Masuria B.L

1999-01-01

85

Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis  

OpenAIRE

A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

Masuria B.L; Batra A; Kothiwala R.K; Khuller R; Singhi M.K

1999-01-01

86

Texture and shape information fusion for facial expression and facial action unit recognition  

OpenAIRE

A novel method based on fusion of texture and shape information is proposed for facial expression and Facial Action Unit (FAU) recognition from video sequences. Regarding facial expression recognition, a subspace method based on Discriminant Non-negative Matrix Factorization (DNMF) is applied to the images, thus extracting the texture information. In order to extract the shape information, the system firstly extracts the deformed Candide facial grid that corresponds to the facial expression d...

Kotsia, I.; Zafeiriou, St; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

87

Facial aging: A clinical classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

Shiffman Melvin

2007-01-01

88

Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo Evaluation of facial aging related to cigarette smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de tabagismo. Os indivíduos tabagistas e não tabagistas foram avaliados de acordo com o tempo e a quantidade de cigarros fumados, o sexo, a cor da pele e a idade. RESULTADOS: A comparação quanto ao escore da fácies de tabagismo evidenciou que o grupo tabagista apresentou maior escore que o grupo não tabagista (p=0,021. Foram observadas diferenças significativas de escore na comparação entre as faixas etárias (p=0,004 e a cor (p BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular and lung diseases, and skin aging. OBJECTIVE:To compare the facial skin of smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: The survey included 77 patients aged 40-60 years and excluded those who had been submitted to esthetic facial treatment, who had been exposed to sun over 2 hours/day and who were alcoholic. There were 34 smokers and 43 nonsmokers. The skin alterations were evaluated and classified according to Model (smoker's face. The patients were assessed considering sex, race, age and pack-years of smoking. RESULTS: We compared the total score of smoker's face in the two groups: smokers and nonsmokers, the latter had less alterations of the skin (p=0.021. There were significant statistical differences as to age (p=0.004 race (p<0.01. No differences were observed regarding sex and pack-years of smoking. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that cigarette smoking (odds ratio (OR=3.49, race (OR=8.10 and age (OR=1.21 were independent factors for facial aging. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for facial aging. This finding could be useful in antismoking campaigns, especially those more interested in appearance than in internal damage.

Letícia Yumi Suehara

2006-02-01

89

Seis anos de atendimento em trauma facial: análise epidemiológica de 355 casos Six years of facial trauma care: an epidemiological analysis of 355 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traumas faciais são frequentes em emergências requerendo o diagnóstico de fraturas e lesões associadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar dados epidemiológicos de atendimento em trauma facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 335 prontuários de pacientes com trauma facial tratados pelo Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia, no período de Janeiro de 2002 a Dezembro de 2008. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade, gênero, etiologia, local anatômico da fratura, lesão associada, consumo de álcool, tratamento e hospitalização. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte longitudinal histórico. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes são homens adultos jovens (pFacial traumas are frequent in emergencies, and they require the diagnosis of fractures and associated lesions. AIM: To analyze epidemiological data concerning facial trauma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-five charts from patients with facial trauma treated by the Service of Otorhinolaryngology, from January 2002 to December 2008, were revised. The following data was collected: age, gender, etiology, anatomical localization of the fracture, associated injuries, alcohol consumption, treatment, and hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective historical longitudinal study. RESULTS: Most of the patients are young adult men (p<0.05 with a male:female ratio of 4:1(p<0.05. Interpersonal violence is the most prevalent cause of facial trauma (27.9%, followed by motor vehicle accidents (16.6% (p<0.05. The mandible is the most prevalent facial bone fractured (44.2%, followed by nasal fracture (18.9% (p<0.05. 41.1% of the patients consumed alcohol with a male:female ratio of 11.2:1 (p<0.05. Seventy-seven percent of the patients required surgical intervention (p<0.05 and 84.5% were hospitalized (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Young male adults are the most prevalent victims of facial trauma, and interpersonal violence is responsible for the majority of the facial injuries. Most of the cases of facial trauma are associated with the consumption of alcohol. Further studies will be necessary to provide a clear understanding of the trends in the etiology of facial trauma.

Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni Carvalho

2010-10-01

90

Facial Expression Recognition Based on MILBoost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, We use Adaboost to create MILBoost and propose a new MILBoost approach to automatically recognize the facial expression from video sequences by constructing the MILBoost methods. At first, we determine facial velocity information using optical flow technique, which is used to charaterize facial expression. Then visual words based on facial velocity is used to represent facial expression using Bag of Words. Final MILBoost model is used for facial expression recognition, in order to improve the recognition accuracy, the class label information was used for the learning of the MILBoost model. Experiments were performed on a facial expression dataset built by ourselves and evaluated the proposed method, the experiment results show that the average recognition accuracy is over 89.2%, which validates its effectiveness.

Shaoping Zhu

2014-09-01

91

Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

Matsuura Naomi

2009-09-01

92

Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

93

Epidemiologia do trauma facial / Epidemiology of facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. O [...] s dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78%) e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%), seguida de queda (26,2%), atropelamento (6,4%), esporte (5,4%), acidente de carro (4,2%), acidente de motocicleta (3,1%), impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%), acidente de trabalho (1,8%), ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%), inespecífica (1,2%). As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%), seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%), nasal (11,6%), zigoma (10,3%), dental (9,1%), órbita (4,9%) e maxila (0,6%). Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and ski [...] n color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78%) and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%), followed by fall (26.2%), run overs 6.4%), sports (5.4%), car accidents (4.2%), motorcycle accidents (3.1%), non-fall impacts (2.4%), occupational injuries (1.8%), gunshot wounds (1.2%), unspecific (1.2%). Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%), followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%), nasal bones (11.6%), zygoma (10.3%), tooth (9.1%), orbit (4.9%) and maxilla (0.6%). Associated injuries Epidemiologia do trauma facial occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

Marcelo, Wulkan; José Gustavo, Parreira Jr; Denise Aparecida, Botter.

2005-10-01

94

Epidemiologia do trauma facial Epidemiology of facial trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. Os dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78% e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%, seguida de queda (26,2%, atropelamento (6,4%, esporte (5,4%, acidente de carro (4,2%, acidente de motocicleta (3,1%, impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%, acidente de trabalho (1,8%, ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%, inespecífica (1,2%. As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%, seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%, Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%, nasal (11,6%, zigoma (10,3%, dental (9,1%, órbita (4,9% e maxila (0,6%. Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão.OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and skin color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78% and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%, followed by fall (26.2%, run overs 6.4%, sports (5.4%, car accidents (4.2%, motorcycle accidents (3.1%, non-fall impacts (2.4%, occupational injuries (1.8%, gunshot wounds (1.2%, unspecific (1.2%. Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%, followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%, Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%, nasal bones (11.6%, zygoma (10.3%, tooth (9.1%, orbit (4.9% and maxilla (0.6%. Associated injuries Epidemiologia do trauma facial occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

Marcelo Wulkan

2005-10-01

95

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

Science.gov (United States)

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

96

A real-time automated system for the recognition of human facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fully automated, multistage system for real-time recognition of facial expression is presented. The system uses facial motion to characterize monochrome frontal views of facial expressions and is able to operate effectively in cluttered and dynamic scenes, recognizing the six emotions universally associated with unique facial expressions, namely happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear, and anger. Faces are located using a spatial ratio template tracker algorithm. Optical flow of the face is subsequently determined using a real-time implementation of a robust gradient model. The expression recognition system then averages facial velocity information over identified regions of the face and cancels out rigid head motion by taking ratios of this averaged motion. The motion signatures produced are then classified using Support Vector Machines as either nonexpressive or as one of the six basic emotions. The completed system is demonstrated in two simple affective computing applications that respond in real-time to the facial expressions of the user, thereby providing the potential for improvements in the interaction between a computer user and technology. PMID:16468569

Anderson, Keith; McOwan, Peter W

2006-02-01

97

Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls, n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio. Results: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Carvalho, Bettina

2012-01-01

98

Avaliação comparativa entre agradabilidade facial e análise subjetiva do Padrão Facial Comparative evaluation among facial attractiveness and subjective analysis of Facial Pattern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar duas análises subjetivas faciais utilizadas para o diagnóstico ortodôntico, avaliação da agradabilidade facial e definição de Padrão Facial, e verificar a associação existente entre elas. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se 208 fotografias faciais padronizadas (104 laterais e 104 frontais de 104 indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação da agradabilidade por dois grupos distintos (Grupo " Ortodontia" e Grupo " Leigos" , que classificaram os indivíduos em " agradável" , " aceitável" ou " desagradável" . Os indivíduos também foram classificados quanto ao Padrão Facial por três examinadores calibrados, utilizando-se apenas a vista lateral. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: após a análise estatística, verificou-se que houve associação fortemente positiva entre a agradabilidade facial e o Padrão Facial para a norma lateral, porém não para a frontal, em que os indivíduos tenderam a ser bem classificados mesmo no Padrão II.AIM: To study two subjective facial analysis commonly used on orthodontic diagnosis and to verify the association between the evaluation of facial attractiveness and Facial Pattern definition. METHODS: Two hundred and eight standardized face photographs (104 in lateral view and 104 in frontal view of 104 randomly chosen individuals were used in the present study. They were classified as " pleasant" , " acceptable" and " not pleasant" by two distinct groups: " Lay people" and " Orthodontists" . The individuals were either classified according to their Facial Pattern using lateral view images. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After statistical analysis, it was noted a strong positive concordance between facial attractiveness in lateral view and Facial Pattern, however, frontal view attractiveness classification did not have good concordance with Facial Pattern, tending to have good attractiveness classification even in Facial Pattern II.

Olívia Morihisa

2009-12-01

99

Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angl...

Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

2011-01-01

100

Rinoplastia e assimetria facial: análise de fatores subjetivos e antropométricos no nariz caucasiano / Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Proporções antropométricas e simetria são consideradas determinantes de beleza. Tais parâmetros têm importância significativa em cirurgia plástica facial, notadamente na Rinoplastia. Sendo o nariz o órgão central da face, ele tem especial importância na determinação da simetria facial, t [...] anto através da percepção de um nariz torto quanto através da determinação do crescimento facial. A avaliação da presença de assimetrias faciais tem grande relevância no pré-operatório, tanto para planejamento cirúrgico quanto aconselhamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e documentar a presença de assimetria facial em pacientes com plano de Rinoplastia e correlacionar as medidas antropométricas com percepção de assimetria ou simetria facial, avaliando se há uma maior prevalência de assimetria facial entre esses pacientes em comparação com voluntários sem queixa nasal. MÉTODO: trabalho prospectivo, realizado através de comparação de fotografias, em pacientes com Pré-operatório de Rinoplastia e voluntários (controles), n=201, através de controle de medidas antropométricas tomadas de uma linha passando pelo centro da face, até: tragus, canto medial, canto lateral, margem alar, e comissura oral, de cada lado da face, por meio de testes estatísticos (teste Z e Odds ratio). RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes ou voluntários apresentou valores totalmente simétricos. Subjetivamente, 59% dos pacientes foram percebidos como assimétricos, contra 54%dos voluntários. Objetivamente, mais de 89% dos pesquisados tiveram medidas assimétricas. Os pacientes apresentaram RLMTr (Razão Linha Média Tragus) mais assimétrica que os voluntários, com diferença estatisticamente significativa. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÃO: assimetrias faciais são muito frequentes em pacientes que procuram Rinoplastia, portanto, especial atenção deve ser dada a estes aspectos, tanto para o planejamento cirúrgico, quanto para orientação aos pacientes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both th [...] rough the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. METHODS: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). RESULTS: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Bettina, Carvalho; Annelyse Christine, Ballin; Renata Vecentin, Becker; Cezar Augusto Sarraff, Berger; Johann G. G. Melcherts, Hurtado; Marcos, Mocellin.

2012-12-01

101

Treatments for unwanted facial hair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

Shapiro, J; Lui, H

102

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients' cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are a [...] nalyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

João Paulo Machado de, Sousa; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak.

2008-06-01

103

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients’ cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are analyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

Joa?o Paulo Machado de Sousa and Jaime Eduardo Ceci?lio Hallak

2008-01-01

104

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

Schimek, F.; Fahle, M.

1995-01-01

105

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images PMID:7696239

Schimek, F; Fahle, M

1995-01-01

106

Substance Use and Facial Injury  

OpenAIRE

Substance use is a major contributing factor to the interpersonal violence that accounts for a significant proportion of facial injuries among adults and adolescents; thus, violence is the main “pathway” through which substance use and injuries are linked. Beyond causality, substance use continues to influence recovery from the injury through its impact on the healing process (e.g., patient non-compliance, suppression of T-cell counts, susceptibility to bacterial colonization, and protein...

Murphy, Debra A.

2010-01-01

107

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

OpenAIRE

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions wer...

Giada Mancini; Pier Francesco Ferrari; Elisabetta Palagi

2013-01-01

108

Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements  

OpenAIRE

In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did no...

Kensaku Miki; Ryusuke Kakigi

2014-01-01

109

Idiopathic facial paralysis in children  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To evaluate pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated for Bell's palsy. Material and Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2011, pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated with the diagnosis of idiopathic facial paralysis were enrolled for this study. All the subjects' medical records were reviewed for demographic data, history of upper respiratory infection, family history, and severity of initial paralysis, treatment and outcomes. All subjects received high dos...

?brahim Say?n; Zahide Mine Yaz?c?; Ço?kun Yarar; ?brahim Erdim; Ferhat Demir; Fatma Tülin Kayhan

2012-01-01

110

Relative Facial Action Unit Detection  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a subject-independent facial action unit (AU) detection method by introducing the concept of relative AU detection, for scenarios where the neutral face is not provided. We propose a new classification objective function which analyzes the temporal neighborhood of the current frame to decide if the expression recently increased, decreased or showed no change. This approach is a significant change from the conventional absolute method which decides about A...

Khademi, Mahmoud; Morency, Louis-philippe

2014-01-01

111

Gamer's Facial Cloning for Online Interactive Games  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Virtual illustration of a human face is essential to enhance the mutual interaction in a cyber community. In this paper we propose a solution to solve two bottlenecks in facial analysis and synthesis for an interactive system of human face cloning for non-expert users of computer games. Tactical maneuvers of the gamer make single camera acquisition system unsuitable to analyze and track the face due to its large lateral movements. For an improved facial analysis system, we propose to acquire the facial images from multiple cameras and analyze them by multiobjective 2.5D Active Appearance Model (MOAAM. Facial morphological dissimilarities between a human face and an avatar make the facial synthesis quite complex. To successfully clone or retarget the gamer facial expressions and gestures on to an avatar, we introduce a simple mathematical link between their appearances. Results obtained validate the efficiency, accuracy and robustness achieved.

Abdul Sattar

2009-01-01

112

Markerless 3D facial motion capture system  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a novel markerless 3D facial motion capture system using only one common camera. This system is simple and easy to transfer facial expressions of a user's into virtual world. It has robustly tracking facial feature points associated with head movements. In addition, it estimates high accurate 3D points' locations. We designed novel approaches to the followings; Firstly, for precisely 3D head motion tracking, we applied 3D constraints using a 3D face model on conventional 2D feature points tracking approach, called Active Appearance Model (AAM). Secondly, for dealing with various expressions of a user's, we designed 2D face generic models from around 5000 images data and 3D shape data including symmetric and asymmetric facial expressions. Lastly, for accurately facial expression cloning, we invented a manifold space to successfully transfer 2D low dimensional feature points to 3D high dimensional points. The manifold space is defined by eleven facial expression bases.

Hwang, Youngkyoo; Kim, Jung-Bae; Feng, Xuetao; Bang, Won-Chul; Rhee, Taehyun; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, ChangYeong

2012-03-01

113

Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs). The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs) and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations ...

Madokoro, H.; Sato, K.

2012-01-01

114

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial ...

Si, Hariharan; Reddy Narender P; Kulkarni Saket S

2009-01-01

115

The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions  

OpenAIRE

The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include on...

Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bu?lthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

2012-01-01

116

Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation  

OpenAIRE

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hy...

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Ste?phane

2013-01-01

117

Analysis of facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: In order to provide an objective observational index for facial neuritis, the authors monitored the changes of facial far-infrared thermogram in patients with acute facial neuritis.Methods: A total of 23 patients with acute facial neuritis were enrolled from Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Chinese PLA General Hospital. Another 21 healthy participants were selected as the control group. Focal plane thermal imaging system (thermal sensitivity 0.05 ?) was applied to colle...

Zhang-ling Zhou

2011-01-01

118

Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV) of the statistical shape model (SSM) built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have bee...

Djamel Ait-Boudaoud; Lik-Kwan Shark; Matuszewski, Bogdan J.; Wei Quan

2009-01-01

119

Robust Automatic Facial Expression Detection Method  

OpenAIRE

Recently, the recognition of occluded facial expressions attract more and more people’s attention. Sparse representation based classification (SRC) method gives good performance on face recognition (FR) and facial expression recognition (FER), well-known for its robustness to occlusion. Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG) descriptors are very efficient to represent the shape information of different facial expressions and robust to various illumination. Since, this paper proposes a no...

Yan OuYang; Nong Sang

2013-01-01

120

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

OpenAIRE

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, ...

Shiqing Zhang; Xiaoming Zhao; Bicheng Lei

2012-01-01

121

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

OpenAIRE

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial ef...

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; Mcevoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge

2014-01-01

122

The identification of unfolding facial expressions  

OpenAIRE

We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s–1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Sal...

Schmidt, Susanna

2012-01-01

123

FACIAL TRAUMA AMONG PATIENTS WITH HEAD INJURIES.  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Facial trauma is without a doubt a most challenging area for any emergency physician. Despite many researches and advances in the understanding of multiple techniques; initial assessment and management of facial injuries in emergency and early stages remained a complex area for patient care. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of facial trauma among patients with head injuries that may help emergency department physicians to deliver accurate and q...

Shazia Yasir

2014-01-01

124

Extending the range of facial types  

OpenAIRE

We describe, in case study form, techniques to extend the range of facial types and movement using a parametric facial animation system originally developed to model and control synthetic 3D faces limited to a normal range of human shape and motion. These techniques have allowed us to create a single authoring system that can create and animate a wide range of facial types that range from realistic, stylized, cartoon-like, or a combination thereof, all from the same control system. Additional...

Dipaola, Steve

1991-01-01

125

Research on Dynamic Facial Expressions Recognition  

OpenAIRE

Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII) is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these ei...

Xiaoning Peng; Beiji Zou; Lijun Tang; Ping Luo

2009-01-01

126

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

127

Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

OpenAIRE

Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. Th...

Stel, Marie?lle; Den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

2008-01-01

128

The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

2010-01-01

129

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance...DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic...878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance...Identification. An external facial fracture...

2010-04-01

130

Cross-pose Facial Expression Recognition  

OpenAIRE

In real world facial expression recognition (FER) applications, it is not practical for a user to enroll his/her facial expressions under different pose angles. Therefore, a desirable property of a FER system would be to allow the user to enroll his/her facial expressions under a single pose, for example frontal, and be able to recognize them under different pose angles. In this paper, we address this problem and present a method to recognize six prototypic facial expressions of an individual...

Guney, Fatma; Arar, Nuri Murat; Fischer, Mika; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal

2013-01-01

131

The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:24680498

Brown, Jeffrey A

2014-04-01

132

Case of a completely absent facial artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a student course on gross anatomy dissection at Showa University School of Dentistry in 2005, we found a case of a unilateral absence of the facial artery in a 75-year-old Japanese male cadaver.In this case, the left facial artery was completely absent, and it was compensated by the transverse facial artery which had a larger than normal diameter. In addition, the ascending palatine artery formed a common trunk with the lingual artery and the branch of the submandibular gland arose directly from the position where the normal facial artery would usually be in the external carotid artery.

Ezure H

2011-04-01

133

Índices Faciales en Individuos Mapuche / Facial Index in Mapuche Individuals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El grupo étnico mapuche se distribuye principalmente en la IX Región de Chile, estando más aislados de centros urbanos aquellos individuos que viven en sectores del litoral de la Región. Numerosos aspectos, entre los que se destacan los étnicos determinan la forma de la cabeza y de la cara y por tan [...] to de sus índices. Se realizó un estudio antropométrico en 50 individuos adultos, de sexo masculino, del grupo étnico mapuche, de reducciones de la zona costera de la IX Región de Chile. En ellos se midieron diámetros faciales y se determinaron sus índices. El diámetro nasiognation promedio fue de 123,1 mm (DS 6,6), con límites superior de 147mm e inferior de 105mm. El diámetro nasioalveolar promedio fue de 67,6 mm (DS 4,1), con límites superior de 75mm e inferior 55mm. El índice facial total promedio fue de 85,82 (DS. 4,28), con máximo 100 y mínimo 75, determinando características mesoprosópicas con tendencia a la euriprosopía. El índice facial superior promedio fue de 47,29 (DS. 4,28), con máximo 54,7 y mínimo 38, con características euriónica y leve tendencia a mesial. Los datos anatómicos y antropológicos obtenidos, aportarán nuevos conocimientos a la Antropología Biológica y Física y a los profesionales del área de la Salud Abstract in english The mapuche ethnic group is mainly distributed in the IX Region of Chile, with those individuals living in areas of the region's sea shore being further isolated from urban centres. Numerous aspects, including those that are ethnic stand out, and determine the shape of the head and the face and thus [...] their indexes. An anthropometric investigation was realized in 50 male adult individuals, of the mapuche ethnic group, in reductions of the coastal area of the IX Region of Chile. Facial diameters were measured in them and their indexes were determined. The average nasiognation diameter was of 123,1 mm (DS 6,6), with superior limits of 147mm and inferior of 105mm. The average nasioalveolar diameter was of 67,6 mm (DS 4,1), with superior limits of 75mm and inferior 55mm. The total average facial index was of 85.82 (DS. 4.28), with a maximum 100 and minimum 75, determining mesoprosopic characteristics with a tendency toward euriprosopic. The average superior facial index was of 47.29 (DS. 4.28), with a maximum 54,7 and minimum38, with eurionic characteristics and a slight mesial tendency. The anatomical and anthropological information obtained, will contribute new knowledge to Biological and Physical Anthropology and to professionals in the health fields

Mariano, del Sol.

2006-12-01

134

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

135

Granuloma aséptico facial idiopático / Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El Granuloma Aséptico Facial Idiopático (GAFI) es un proceso dermatológico propio de la edad pediátrica, caracterizado por la presencia de un nódulo inflamatorio adquirido de larga evolución en la piel facial, sin dolor ni calor local. Su localización habitual es en la mejilla, en el triángulo que f [...] orma el ángulo externo del ojo, el lóbulo de la oreja y la comisura labial. Se han postulado varias hipótesis respecto a su etiología, como su relación con traumatismos sutiles o picaduras de insecto o bien se trate de un residuo embriológico o, la más aceptada en la actualidad, de una forma peculiar de manifestación de la rosácea en la infancia. Si bien en la literatura solo se han reportado 45 casos, algunos autores señalan que puede tratarse de un proceso poco conocido y no tan infrecuente en la edad infantil. Consideran así mismo que su apariencia clínica, localización y evolución características pueden ser suficientes para su diagnóstico, evitando así intervenciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas agresivas en una edad tan sensible al dolor, y con la posibilidad de secuelas cicatriciales en la cara. Presentamos un nuevo caso de GAFI, manejado de un modo conservador, tras ser diagnosticado a tenor de sus manifestaciones clínicas y evolutivas. Abstract in english The idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a cutaneous condition characteristic in the pediatric age which is characterized by an acquired inflammatory painless nodule of long-term evolution in the facial skin and presents no local heat. It usually appears on the cheeks, in the triangle forme [...] d by the external angle of the eye, the earlobe and the labial commissure. Several hypothesis have been postulated on its etiology: its appearance could be related to a slight injury or an insect bite or could be an embryological remnant. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that it could be a particular manifestation of rosacea in infants. Although only 45 cases have been reported in the literature, some authors point out that it could be a little known process and not so uncommon in the pediatric age. It is also considered that its clinical characteristic aspect, localization and evolution could be sufficient for correct diagnosis, thus avoiding invasive diagnostic interventions and aggressive therapies in such a sensitive age to pain and with the possibility to leave scars in the child's face. The present is a new case of IFAG handled in a conservative way after diagnosis based on its evolutional and clinical manifestations.

Luz Belén, Zambrano Centeno; Carlos, Gómez González; Mercedes, Rojo López; María Luisa, Alonso Pacheco.

2014-10-01

136

Epidemiology study of facial injuries during a 13 month of trauma registry in Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have recently noted a shift in the causative mechanism of facial injuries away from traffic accident to assaults. AIMS: Our study aimed to investigate patterns of facial injuries in trauma patients during 13 months study of trauma patients in six general hospitals in Tehran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trauma patients who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours and had sustained injuries within seven days from admission were included in the study. Of the 8000 trauma patients, four hundred (5% sustained facial injuries. RESULTS: Male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Among them, 53.3% were aged 11-30 years. Traffic accidents were by the far the commonest cause of injury. Motorcyclists who wore a helmet sustained facial fractures less often during traffic accident than those patients who did not wear helmet. Soft tissue injury and facial bone fracture comprised 43.3% and 40.8% of facial injuries, respectively. The majority of Soft tissue injuries (79% were located extra orally. The mandible and nasal bone were the most commonly fractured facial bones. Victims of assault sustained more severe injuries compared to those involved in falls and traffic accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Use of helmets by motorcyclists and the separation of pedestrians routes from motor vehicles could reduce the number of victims and consequently injuries due to road traffic accidents. For implementation of effective prevention programs for reduction of facial injuries due to assault, it seems to be necessary to conduct studies investigating causes and pattern of injuries resulting in assault.

Zargar Moosa

2004-03-01

137

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

138

Facial mimicry and the mirror neuron system: simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

OpenAIRE

Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry) of male and female av...

PeterWeyers; AntjeB MGerdes

2012-01-01

139

The effect of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective is to study the role of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further episodes and promoting facial nerve recovery of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. 24 cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy were involved in the study, among which 16 undergoing total facial nerve decompression were classified into the surgery group, and 8 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were included in the control group. The recurrence rate and facial nerve function recovery of the two groups were compared. The mean follow-up of surgery and control group was 4.9 years (range 3-7 years) and 5.0 years (range 3-8 years), respectively. Further attacks of facial palsy affected 1 of 16 cases (6.2 %) among surgery group in comparison to 4 of 8 cases (50 %) among control group, with statistical difference (p  0.05). In conclusion, total facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further episodes of facial palsy in idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, but ineffective to promote facial nerve recovery. PMID:24493560

Li, Yang; Li, Zhi; Yan, Cheng; Hui, Liu

2015-05-01

140

BILATERAL ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF FACE INVOLVING THE FACIAL AND TRANSVERSE FACIAL ARTERY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case-report whereby a bilateral variation in the arterial supply of face was seen. The facial artery which is the main artery of face was seen terminating in the lower part of the face, as the inferior labial artery and few other branches; the transverse facial artery, which supplements the facial artery normally, was seen to enlarge and take over the course of facial artery, giving the superior labial and lateral nasal branches. The small pre-masseteric branch arising from facial artery was seen only on right side of face. It was absent on left side. Accurate knowledge of the normal and variant arterial anatomy of the facial artery is important for vascular radiology and will provide an anatomical basis to assist surgeons in performing maxillo-facial surgeries successfully. The details of this variation and its clinical significance are discussed herein.

Vrushali S. Kolte

2014-03-01

141

Idiopathic facial paralysis in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated for Bell's palsy. Material and Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2011, pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated with the diagnosis of idiopathic facial paralysis were enrolled for this study. All the subjects' medical records were reviewed for demographic data, history of upper respiratory infection, family history, and severity of initial paralysis, treatment and outcomes. All subjects received high dose steroid therapy (methyl prednisolone 1mg/kg-in decreasing doses with medications for eye and gastric protection. Results: 61 subjects with 66 facial paralysis episode were evaluated. The mean age was 8.73±3.11 (range 2-14. Thirty seven (60% out of 61 subjects were male whereas remaining 24 (40% were female. Thirty seven (56.1% out of 66 episodes were seen on left side whereas remaining 29 (43.9% episodes were seen on left. 72.7% of the admissions were within first 24 hour. (mean 1,45±0.64, range 1-4 days. In five (8.2% cases family history was positive. In 19 (28. 8% cases upper respiratory infection history was positive. The initial facial paralysis grade was grade 2 in 3 (4.5%, grade 3 in 6 (9.11%, grade 4 in 16 (24.2%, grade 5 in 37 (56.1%, grade 6 in 4 (6.1% episodes. 56 (84.9% subjects were completely recovered at the end of 6 month. Eight (12.1% subjects were remained with grade 1, 2 subjects were remained with grade 2 paralysis. Conclusions: Our results indicate that Bell's palsy has a favorable prognosis. But even with steroid therapy some patients heal with sequelae.

?brahim Say?n

2012-01-01

142

Classification Algorithms Research on Facial Expression Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the reliability of facial expression recognition system, and reduce the chance of false positives caused by error, classification strategy is important in recognition process. In the process, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is improved. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is excellent when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

Ou, Jun

143

Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

2008-01-01

144

Training Individuals to Label Nonverbal Facial Cues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the effects of training high school students (N=56) to accurately label facial affects of happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and neutrality. The treatment period extended over three, one-hour group presentations. Found the experimental group significantly improved its ability to accurately label facial affect following…

Stickle, Fred E.; Pellegreno, Dominick

1982-01-01

145

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

OpenAIRE

We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE) syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

Nagdeve N; Mudkhedkar K

2009-01-01

146

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

Nagdeve N

2009-01-01

147

Bilateral facial synkinesis in leprosy  

OpenAIRE

Leprosy is an important cause of cranial nerve palsy in endemic areas where it may be seen in upto 17.6% patients. The authors herein describe a rare case of bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis with video documentation and modified blink reflex. A 35-year-old gentleman presented with numbness involving right half of his face for 8 months and abnormal stretching sensations over both sides of his nose for one and a half months. Sensory and motor involvement of the right trigeminal nerve w...

Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Jain, Amita; Gupta, Arvind; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Gyan Prakash

2012-01-01

148

Abscess secondary to facial snakebite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Costa Rica, approximately 700 snakebite cases occur each year, 5 to 10 of which result in death. At the Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, 6 to 10 cases are reported annually, more than half of these cases and nearly all deaths are result from Bothrops asper snakebite. This venomous snake, popularly known as the "terciopelo", most often attacks the lower or upper limbs and characteristically produces local tissue damage, which can be severe. The following is a report of the first case of a non-fatal and unusual facial bite caused by Bothrops asper in our country.

M. QUIROGA

2000-01-01

149

Depth Detection of Facial feature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main problem in computer vision is to calculate depth using two images.This paper aims in calculating the depth of facial feature(i.e nose,using left and right images. This left and right images are captured by left and right camera which are mounted horizontally separated by slight distance such that they are able to capture image from left and right camera .The extracted correspondent feature point(i.e nosefrom both left and right image is used and triangulation method is used to calculate 3D distance of nose.The triangulation method requires disparity map along with correspondence points.

Sushma.H.R

2013-07-01

150

Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV of the statistical shape model (SSM built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have been used for the testing. The experimental results show that the SSV not only controls the shape variations but also captures the expressive characteristic of the faces and can be used as a significant feature for facial expression recognition. Finally the paper suggests improvements of the SSV discriminatory characteristics by using 3D facial sequences rather than 3D stills.

Djamel Ait-Boudaoud

2009-01-01

151

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

Shiqing Zhang

2012-03-01

152

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

153

Navigation aided surgery for facial fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A navigation system that has been developed in neurosurgery has recently been applied in the maxillofacial region. We introduced a navigation system (Stealth Station, Medtronic) in the maxillofacial region. As preoperative preparation, CT scanning was performed with a slice of 1 mm. Navigation aided surgery was performed in 11 patients with facial fractures between April 2005 and July 2006. Navigation aided reduction of the bone segment was performed by comparing with the sound site on the screen. Facial symmetry was recovered in 10 of 11 cases. Facial asymmetry in 1 case (midfacial multiple fractures) remained, because the system did not work after the surgeon contacted the reference frame during the operation. The navigation system is useful for repairing facial fractures, especially for verifying facial symmetry. (author)

154

Amniotic membranes as dressings following facial dermabrasion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial dermabrasion produces a raw, painful, partial-thickness wound, quite similar to a split-thickness skin graft donor site. The various methods of dressing such wounds employing ointments, impregnated gauze, bulky absorptive dressings, xenografts, or allografts are time consuming, uncomfortable for the patient, and not infrequently characterized by localized purulence and delayed healing. Experience with amniotic membranes as biologic dressings, both experimental and clinical, prompted a trial of these membranes as a dressing following facial dermabrasion. Thirty-three patients undergoing facial dermabrasion were dressed with amniotic membranes following the procedures. The results following this dressing method were excellent. The biologic basis and the techniques of preparing and applying amniotic membranes as dressings following facial dermabrasion are presented. The advantages of amniotic membranes over the other presently employed dressing techniques following facial dermabrasion are discussed. PMID:7114763

Kucan, J O; Robson, M C; Parsons, R W

1982-06-01

155

Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of a facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main research effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face construction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and analyzes the facial components from a face image by an efficient technique. The Fuzzy model, designed in this paper, takes crisp value of width and height of a facial component and produces the crisp value of Shape for different facial components. This method is designed using Matlab 6.5 and Visual Basic 6.0 and tested with the facial components extracted from 200 male and female face images of different ages from different face databases.

Halder, S; Nasipuri, M; Basu, D K; Kundu, M

2010-01-01

156

Trends in the Pattern of Facial Fractures in Different Countries of the World / Tendencias en el Patrón de Fracturas Faciales en Diferentes Países del Mundo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los cambios en el patrón de las fracturas maxilofaciales entre los países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo en dos períodos de tiempo (1987-1999) y (2000-2007). Una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en PubMed se llevó a cabo entre las publicaciones de lesi [...] ones maxilofaciales publicados durante los últimos 20 años. Sólo 45 artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, y los textos completos de estos artículos fueron examinados a fondo. En cada uno de los estudios incluidos se registraron diferentes parámetros. Se calculó el porcentaje de "peso" de cada parámetro a través del número total de pacientes. La mandíbula fue el hueso facial más fracturado (57%). En todo el periodo evaluado, la media de edad de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue de 24,4 años y la incidencia de las fracturas faciales fue mayor en hombres (81,3%) que en mujeres. La razón hombre-mujer de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue mayor en los países en vías de desarrollo (5,1:1,0) que en los países desarrollados (3,7:1,0) en todo el período. Las lesiones relacionadas con accidentes de tránsito disminuyeron considerablemente en los países desarrollados, mientras que aumentó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. Sin embargo, las lesiones faciales relacionadas con asaltos aumentaron considerablemente en los países desarrollados y disminuyó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. El cuerpo de la mandíbula fue el sitio de fractura más común (27,2%). Se concluyó que las fracturas mandibulares son las lesiones más comunes en el tercio medio del esqueleto facial. La mayoría de los pacientes afectados por fracturas faciales en los diferentes países fueron hombres jóvenes. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999) and (2000-2007). A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injur [...] ies published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included studies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%). In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3%) than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0) than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0) in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%). It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.

Mohammad, Shayyab; Firas, Alsoleihat; Sukaina, Ryalat; Ameen, Khraisat.

2012-06-01

157

Medidas faciais antropométricas de adultos segundo tipo facial e sexo / Adult facial anthropometric measurements according to facial type and gender  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever medidas antropométricas faciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram comparados [...] os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo de face com sete medidas antropométricas faciais diretas: altura facial anterior- násio ao mentoniano; distância bizigomática- zigomático esquerdo ao direito; altura do terço facial inferior- subnasal ao mentoniano; altura da face média- násio ao estômio; altura do queixo- supramentoniano ao mentoniano; altura da face inferior- estômio ao mentoniano; e altura facial posterior- condílio ao gônio. RESULTADOS: para o sexo masculino, os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para os valores médios das medidas antropométricas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média e altura da face inferior. Para o sexo feminino, diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram encontradas nas medidas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média, altura da face inferior e altura facial posterior. CONCLUSÃO: houve dimorfismo sexual para todas as medidas antropométricas obtidas, as quais tiveram valores médios maiores para o sexo masculino quando comparados ao feminino. Os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para quatro medidas antropométricas do sexo masculino e cinco do feminino. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe anthropometric measurements in adults according to facial type and gender. METHODS: 105 Caucasian adults took part, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%) with ages between 20 and 40-year old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings f [...] rom the cephalometric analysis were compared for determining facial type with seven direct anthropometric measurements: anterior face height- nasion to menton; distance bizygomatique- zygion left to right; lower face height- subnasale to menton; middle face height- nasion to stomion; chin height- supramenton to menton; inferior face height- stomion to menton; and posterior face height- condylion to gonion. RESULTS: for male, the facial types classified by means of cephalometry had significant statistical differences for the average values of the anthropometric measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height and inferior face height. For female, significant statistical differences were found in the following measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height, inferior face height and posterior face height. CONCLUSION: there was sexual dimorphism for all collected anthropometric measurements. The male showed higher average values when compared with the female. The facial types classified by means of cephalometry showed significant statistical differences in four anthropometric measurements, for male and five for female.

Rossana Ribeiro, Ramires; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira; Irene Queiroz, Marchesan; Débora Martins, Cattoni; Marta Assumpção de, Andrada e Silva.

2011-04-01

158

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD, genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

Dallapiccola Bruno

2010-09-01

159

Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric and the Facial Index (photographs. RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa, made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias. RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa, feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários.

Luciana Flaquer Martins

2012-10-01

160

Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvim [...] ento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente) e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias). RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa), feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of [...] radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric) and the Facial Index (photographs). RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa), made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.

Luciana Flaquer, Martins; Julio Wilson, Vigorito.

2012-10-01

161

Making saturated facial images useful again  

Science.gov (United States)

Saturation here refers to electronic saturation of the camera sensors which produces clipped colors, and not the purity of color as in the hue-saturation and value scale. Saturated images are routinely discarded in image analysis yet there are situations when they cannot be avoided. This paper proposes two strategies to recover color information in facial images taken under non-ideal conditions to make them useful for further processing. The first assumes that the skin is matte and that there are parts of the image which are not clipped. Ratios between R, G and B values of unclipped pixels belonging to the same parts of the image may then be used to compute for lost channel values. The second approach uses color eigenfaces computed from our physics-based face database obtained under different illuminants and camera calibration conditions. Skin color is recovered by transforming the first few eigenface coefficients towards ideal condition values. Excellent color recovery for clipped images is achieved when these two techniques are combined and used on face images captured under daylight illuminant with a camera white balanced for incandescent light.

Soriano, Maricor N.; Marszalec, Elzbieta A.; Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta; Pietikaeinen, Matti

1999-09-01

162

Scavenging ratios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total 90Sr fallout is adjusted for dry deposition, and scavenging ratios are calculated at Seattle, New York, and Fayetteville, Ark. Stable-lead scavenging ratios are also presented for New York. These ratios show large scatter, but average values are generally inversely proportional to precipitation. Stable-lead ratios decrease more rapidly with precipitation than do those of 90Sr, a decrease reflecting a lesser availability of lead to the scavenging processes

163

Cerebral regulation of facial expressions of pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expression of affective states plays a key role in social interactions. Interestingly, however, individuals differ substantially in their level of expressiveness, ranging from high expressive to stoic individuals. Here, we investigate which brain mechanisms underlie the regulation of facial expressiveness to acute pain. Facial responses, pain ratings, and brain activity (BOLD-fMRI) evoked by noxious heat and warm (control) stimuli were recorded in 34 human volunteers with different degrees of facial expressiveness. Within-subject and between-subject variations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses were examined specifically in relation to facial responses. Pain expression was inversely related to frontostriatal activity, consistent with a role in downregulating facial displays. More detailed analyses of the peak activity in medial prefrontal cortex revealed negative BOLD responses to thermal stimuli, an effect generally associated with the default mode network. Given that this negative BOLD response was weaker in low expressive individuals during pain, it could reflect stronger engagement in, or reduced disengagement from, self-reflective processes in stoic individuals. The occurrence of facial expressions during pain was coupled with stronger primary motor activity in the face area and-interestingly-in areas involved in pain processing. In conclusion, these results indicate that spontaneous pain expression reflects activity within nociceptive pathways while stoicism involves the active suppression of expression, a manifestation of learned display rules governing emotional communication and possibly related to an increased self-reflective or introspective focus. PMID:21677157

Kunz, Miriam; Chen, Jen-I; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Rainville, Pierre

2011-06-15

164

Orbital abscess after facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta um caso de abscesso agudo em cavidade orbitária, após 2 dias de trauma facial, sem a presença de fratura óssea, ocorrido em uma mulher da raça negra com 20 anos de idade. Os sintomas se intensificaram nas últimas 24 h com o desenvolvimento de distúrbios visuais do tipo diplopia [...] e fotofobia. Durante exame clínico foi constatado a presença de febre, edema e eritema periorbitário, ptose, proptose e limitação de movimentação ocular para cima, baixo, lado direto e esquerdo. A tomografia computadorizada evidenciava proptose associada a edema considerável, dos tecidos moles no lado esquerdo da face, sem fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. A internação hospitalar e o início da antibioticoterapia endovenosa foram realizados, e o tratamento cirúrgico de incisão e drenagem do abscesso sob anestesia geral foi conduzido, sendo realizado por meio de incisão na pálpebra superior e inferior para acesso a cavidade orbitária e por acesso de Caldwell-Luc para o seio maxilar. No pós-operatório imediato foi observada rápida melhora dos sintomas inicialmente relatados pela paciente. Após 2 dias da intervenção cirúrgica foi observado melhora na movimentação ocular e na acuidade visual, retornando ao normal. No décimo segundo dia pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou melhora significativa com relação à ptose palpebral e a proptose, com adequado processo de cicatrização. Abstract in english This paper reports a rare case of acute severe orbital abscess manifested 2 days after a facial trauma without bone fracture in a 20-year-old Afro-American female. The symptoms worsened within the 24 h prior to hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. The [...] clinical findings at the first consultation included fever, periorbital swelling and redness, ptosis, proptosis and limitation of ocular movements upwards, downwards, to the right and to the left. Computed tomography scan showed proptosis with considerable soft tissue swelling on the left side and no fracture was evidenced in the facial skeleton, including the zygomatic-orbital complex. After hospital admission and antibiotic therapy intravenously the patient was conducted to the operation room and submitted to incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The orbit was approached thorough both eyelids and the maxillary sinus was reached only through the Caldwell-Luc approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. Visual acuity and ocular motility returned to the normal ranges within 2 days after the surgical intervention. After 12 postoperative days, the patient presented with significative improvement in the ptosis and proptosis, and acceptable scars.

Elis Cristina Sousa, Serra; Cassio Edvard, Sverzut; Alexandre Elias, Trivellato.

165

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos / Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à com [...] pressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Abstract in english Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression les [...] ion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p

Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi, Costa; Ciro Ferreira da, Silva; Gustavo Polacow, Korn; Paulo Roberto, Lazarini.

2006-12-01

166

Case of a completely absent facial artery  

OpenAIRE

In a student course on gross anatomy dissection at Showa University School of Dentistry in 2005, we found a case of a unilateral absence of the facial artery in a 75-year-old Japanese male cadaver.In this case, the left facial artery was completely absent, and it was compensated by the transverse facial artery which had a larger than normal diameter. In addition, the ascending palatine artery formed a common trunk with the lingual artery and the branch of the submandibular gland arose directl...

Ezure H; Mori R.; Ito J; Otsuka N

2011-01-01

167

Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one?s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

De Sousa Avinash

2010-01-01

168

Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of a facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main research effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face construction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and analyzes the facial components from a face image by an efficient technique. The Fuzzy model, designed in this paper, takes crisp value of width and height of a facial compone...

Halder, S.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, M.; Basu, D. K.; Kundu, M.

2010-01-01

169

Improved bound on facial parity edge coloring  

OpenAIRE

A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge connected plane graph is an edge coloring where no two consecutive edges of a facial walk of any face receive the same color. Additionally, for every face f and every color c either no edge or an odd number of edges incident to f are colored by c. Czap, Jendrol', Kardo\\v{s} and Sotak showed that every 2-edge connected plane graph admits a facial parity edge coloring with at most 20 colors. We improve this bound to 16 colors.

Luz?ar, Borut; S?krekovski, Riste

2013-01-01

170

A Novel Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Method Based on AAM  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes anovel method to recognize facial expression through ActiveAppearance Model (AAM)to extract facial regions based on Facial Action CodingSystem (FACS). Itis composed of three parts: extractionof facial regions based on AAM,extraction of facial featuresby Gabor wavelettransformation, and expressionrecognition through Support Vector Machines (SVMs).AAM has better performance thanother methodsin eliminations of the influenceof different facialregion size, head pose and lightin...

Li Wang; Ruifeng Li; Ke Wang

2014-01-01

171

Recognition of Asymmetric Facial Action Unit Activities and Intensities  

OpenAIRE

Most automatic facial expression analysis systems try to analyze emotion categories. However, psychologists argue that there is no straight forward way to classify emotions from facial expressions. Instead, they propose FACS (Facial Action Coding System), a de-facto standard for categorizing facial actions independent from emotional categories. We describe a system that recognizes asymmetric FACS Action Unit activities and intensities without the use of markers. Facial expression extraction i...

Fasel, B.; Luettin, Juergen

1999-01-01

172

A Comprehensive Study of Major Techniques of Facial Expression Recognition  

OpenAIRE

Facial Expression Recognition is one of thechallenging and active research topic in the recent years. FacialExpression Recognition System comprises the detection of face,facial feature extraction and classification of facial expressionfrom still images. This paper summarizes the major techniquesto recognize the facial expressions from still images. Thetechniques included in this paper are Principal ComponentAnalysis, Singular Value Decomposition, Neural Network,Cloud Model, Fuzzy Model and K-...

Tanvi Sheikh, Shikha Agrawal

2012-01-01

173

A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery  

OpenAIRE

According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle) and facial component (branches on the face).Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine...

Sharma P; Salwan S

2011-01-01

174

[Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems. PMID:22256658

Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

2011-12-01

175

An analysis of facial expression recognition under partial facial image occlusion  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, an analysis of the effect of partial occlusion on facial expression recognition is investigated. The classification from partially occluded images in one of the six basic facial expressions is performed using a method based on Gabor wavelets texture information extraction, a supervised image decomposition method based on Discriminant Non-negative Matrix Factorization and a shape-based method that exploits the geometrical displacement of certain facial features. We demonstrate h...

Kotsia, I.; Buciu, I.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

176

Facial Expression Recognition Using Angle-related Information From Facial Meshes  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we introduce a newmethod for facial expression recognition. In order to be able to recognize the six main facial expressions [1] we use a grid approach and therefore we establish our new feature space based on the angles that each grid’s edge form. This way we undertake several affine transformations such as translation, rotation and scaling which in other approaches are considered very harmful in the overall accuracy of a facial expression recognition algorithm. We will there...

Vretos, N.; Solachidis, V.; Somol, P.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

177

Intraparotid Facial Nerve Neurofibroma: an Uncommon Neoplasm / Neurofibroma Intraparotídeo del Nervio Facial: una Neoplasia Poco Frecuente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los neurofibromas intraparotídeos del nervio facial son una entidad poco frecuente, macroscópicamente e histopatológicamente diferentes de los comparativamente más frecuentes schwannomas. Se presenta un caso raro de un neurofibroma del nervio facial con extensión intraparotídea intratemporal en una [...] mujer de 48 años de edad. El tumor se extirpó quirúrgicamente con injerto del nervio facial. La electroneurografía puede llegar a ayudar en el diagnóstico preoperatorio. La resección del nervio facial debe ser realizada con mayor facilidad en un paciente con neurofibroma que en un paciente con schwannoma, sin embargo, la preservación del nervio facial con electroneurografía de seguimiento y tomografía computarizada sigue siendo una opción viable en pacientes con pequeños neurofibromas del nervio facial, cuando las pruebas eléctricas revelan mínima evidencia de degeneración neuronal progresiva. Una estrecha vigilancia, especialmente en los neurofibromas asociados con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen es fundamental debido al aumento del riesgo de degeneración sarcomatosa. Abstract in english Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibromas are a rare entity, and are grossly and histopathologically distinct from the comparatively more prevalent schwannomas. We report a rare case of an intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma with intratemporal extension in a 48-year-old female. The tumor was surgic [...] ally excised with cable grafting of the facial nerve. Electroneurography may eventually assist in the preoperative diagnosis. Facial nerve resection should be more readily contemplated in a patient with neurofibroma than in a patient with schwannoma; however, facial nerve preservation with serial follow-up electroneurography and computerized tomography remains a viable option in patients with small facial nerve neurofibromas when electrical testing reveals minimal evidence of progressive neural degeneration. Close monitoring, especially in neurofibromas associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease, is mandatory because of an increased risk of sarcomatous degeneration.

Ashwani, Sethi; Shamit, Chopra; J. C, Passey; A. K, Agarwal.

1054-10-01

178

Giant sialocele following facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Lesões na região parotídea e massetérica podem causar danos importantes secundariamente à injúrias de estruturas anatômicas nobres. A sialocele é observada como um aumento de volume facial associado a ruptura do ducto parotídeo devido a trauma. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso de sialocele [...] parotídea gigante traumática, por arma branca, em uma paciente de 40 anos de idade. Em virtude do insucesso de medidas conservadoras de tratamento, uma intervenção cirúrgica por meio de instalação de um dreno à vácuo foi proposta. Sob anestesia local, uma pequena incisão foi realizada adjacente ao ducto da papila parotídea, seguida de divulsão do plano muscular e drenagem de quantidade significativa de saliva. Um dreno à vácuo foi instalado e mantido por 15 dias objetivando formar um novo ducto salivar. Esta técnica se mostrou segura, efetiva e de baixo custo, proporcionando a completa resolução do caso; não sendo observada recidiva em acompanhamento de 28 meses. Abstract in english Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in th [...] e parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was selected. Under local anesthesia, a small incision was performed adjacent to parotid duct papilla, followed by muscular divulsion and draining of significant amount of saliva. An active vacuum suction drain was placed for 15 days, aiming to form a new salivary duct. This technique was shown to be a safe, effective and low-cost option, leading to complete resolution and no recurrence after 28 months of follow up.

Rui, Medeiros Júnior; Alípio Miguel da, Rocha Neto; Isaac Vieira, Queiroz; Antônio de Figueiredo, Cauby; Luiz Alcino Monteiro, Gueiros; Jair Carneiro, Leão.

179

Facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Lausanne, Switzerland : EURASIP, 2008, s. 1-5. [16th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO- 2008). Lausanne (CH), 25.08.2008-29.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ?R GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: commision EU(XE) FP6-507752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : facial expression * facial meshes * recognition * feature selection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/somol- facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes.pdf

Vretos, N.; Solachidis, V.; Somol, Petr; Pitas, I.

180

Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest, happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ?a? like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It?s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

Mahyar Hamedi

2011-01-01

181

Analysis of Patients with Facial Lacerations Repaired in the Emergency Room of a Provincial Hospital  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Facial laceration is the most common injury encountered in the emergency room in the plastic surgery field, and optimal treatment is important. However, few authors have investigated this injury in all age groups or performed follow-up visit after repair. In the present study, the medical records of patients with lacerations in the facial area and underwent primary repair in an emergency room over a 2-year period were reviewed and analyzed. Methods Medical records of 3,234 patients with lacerations in facial area and underwent primary repair in an emergency room between March 2011 and February 2013 were reviewed and identified. Results All the 3,234 patients were evaluated, whose ratio of men to women was 2.65 to 1. The forehead was the most common region affected and a slip down was the most common mechanism of injury. In terms of monthly distribution, May had the highest percentage. 1,566 patients received follow-up managements, and 58 patients experienced complications. The average days of follow-up were 9.8. Conclusions Proportion of male adolescents was significantly higher than in the other groups. Facial lacerations exhibit a 'T-shaped' facial distribution centered about the forehead. Careful management is necessary if a laceration involves or is located in the oral cavity. We were unable to long term follow-up most patients. Thus, it is necessary to encourage patients and give them proper education for follow-up in enough period. PMID:25606487

Lee, Joon Ho; Jeon, Myeong Su; Shin, Hea Kyeong; Seul, Jung Hyun

2015-01-01

182

Research on Dynamic Facial Expressions Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these eigen-sequences, and recognize six universal facial expressions: angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. And we developed an experimental system based on our algorithm. The experimental results show that the computing time and the error of vector quantization is reduced, while the classification efficiency is improved.

Xiaoning Peng

2009-04-01

183

Physical Aggression and Facial Expression Identification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social information processing theories suggest that aggressive individuals may exhibit hostile perceptual biases when interpreting other’s behaviour. This hypothesis was tested in the present study which investigated the effects of physical aggression on facial expression identification in a sample of healthy participants. Participants were asked to judge the expressions of faces presented to them and to complete a self-report measure of aggression. Relative to low physically aggressive participants, high physically aggressive participants were more likely to mistake non-angry facial expressions as being angry facial expressions (misattribution errors, supporting the idea of a hostile predisposition. These differences were not explained by gender, or response times. There were no differences in identifying angry expressions in general between aggression groups (misperceived errors. These findings add support to the idea that aggressive individuals exhibit hostile perceptual biases when interpreting facial expressions.

Alisdair James Gordon Taylor

2014-11-01

184

Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists  

OpenAIRE

Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage ...

Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

185

Facial Expression Driven Mobile Learning System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processing human facial expressions is a computer vision challenge in a mobile technology environment. On the other hand, facial expression is an effective tool in behavioral studies on learning environment. Since, mobile technologies possess educating potential for today’s generation, the introduction of behavior as a consideration for mobile user opens up many opportunities for the design and development of a mobile learning system that can cater personalized learning. This undertaking was concerned with the enhancement of learners’ learning engagement and the enrichment of learners’ benefits. The mobile learning system approximates the learners’ facial expressions. The facial expressions will be used to identify the learning moods that will then be used to match the appropriate learning materials and activities of the learners. These steps are done to achieve optimal experience in learning. Approximation of learners’ facial expressions, learning moods, and matching of learning materials and activities to the learners are done through the use of intelligent computing techniques. In order for the stated endeavors to be achieved this undertaking considered three (3 stages of actions. Stage one focused on identifying the requirements needed to design, develop and assess the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. The second stage focused on the actual design and development of a prototype for the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system and the third stage focused on the assessment of the prototype of the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. Assessment was done by pilot testing the mobile learning system prototype to a student sample from the researchers’ locality.

Jeffrey S. Ingosan

2014-02-01

186

Dynamic Facial Expression of Emotion Made Easy  

OpenAIRE

Facial emotion expression for virtual characters is used in a wide variety of areas. Often, the primary reason to use emotion expression is not to study emotion expression generation per se, but to use emotion expression in an application or research project. What is then needed is an easy to use and flexible, but also validated mechanism to do so. In this report we present such a mechanism. It enables developers to build virtual characters with dynamic affective facial expr...

Broekens, Joost; Qu, Chao; Brinkman, Willem-paul

2012-01-01

187

FACE DETECTION FROM POSE VARYING FACIAL IMAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Face Recognition it is important to detect the face in the image prior to any processing performed on the image. Usually facial image consists of background that is mostly of no use for recognition purpose. In this paper, we make use of skin-segmentation method in order to detect only face of the subject in the image. Experiments with facial image databases are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for face detection in any pose.

K. R. Singh

2012-05-01

188

Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI) environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusi...

Spiros Ioannou; George Caridakis; Kostas Karpouzis; Stefanos Kollias

2007-01-01

189

A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES  

OpenAIRE

Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - defi...

ANITHA C,; Venkatesha, M. K.; Suryanarayana Adiga, B.

2010-01-01

190

Explaining Facial Imitation: A Theoretical Model  

OpenAIRE

A long-standing puzzle in developmental psychology is how infants imitate gestures they cannot see themselves perform (facial gestures). Two critical issues are: (a) the metric infants use to detect cross-modal equivalences in human acts and (b) the process by which they correct their imitative errors. We address these issues in a detailed model of the mechanisms underlying facial imitation. The model can be extended to encompass other types of imitation. The model capitalizes on three new th...

Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

1997-01-01

191

Mugshot Identification from Manipulated Facial Images  

OpenAIRE

Editing on digital images is ubiquitous. Identification of deliberately modified facial images is a new challenge for face identification system. In this paper, we address the problem of identification of a face or person from heavily altered facial images. In this face identification problem, the input to the system is a manipulated or transformed face image and the system reports back the determined identity from a database of known individuals. Such a system can be useful...

And Lalitha Rangarajan, Chennamma H. R.

2012-01-01

192

Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages  

OpenAIRE

Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition o...

EevaAnitaElliott; ArthurMJacobs

2013-01-01

193

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding  

OpenAIRE

Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions.Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers’ age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and f...

MaraFölster; UrsulaHess

2014-01-01

194

Stereotactic Mesencephalotomy for Cancer - Related Facial Pain  

OpenAIRE

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive meas...

Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won; Son, Byung-chul

2014-01-01

195

Automatic Facial Spots and Acnes Detection System  

OpenAIRE

Recently medical cosmetic has attracted significant business opportunity. Micro cosmetic surgery usually involves invasive cosmetic procedures such as non-ablative laser procedure for skin rejuvenation. However, to select an appropriate treatment for skin relies on accurate preoperative evaluations. In this paper, an automatic facial skin defects detection and recognition method is proposed. The system first locates the facial region from the input image. Then, the shapes of faces were recog...

Chuan-Yu Chang; Heng-Yi Liao

2013-01-01

196

Management of the Midface During Facial Rejuvenation  

OpenAIRE

The endoscopic midface lift procedure has evolved from experience with postreduction soft tissue repair after facial fracture fixation. The procedure elevates and repositions midface soft tissue, which descends with facial aging; as well, it can correct periorbital congenital abnormalities, such as exorbitism and lateral canthal displacement. The procedure has been refined by the senior author to employ a temporal endoscopic approach alleviating the need for a lower eyelid incision. The plane...

Trussler, Andrew P.; Byrd, H. Steve

2009-01-01

197

Towards facial mimicry for a virtual human  

OpenAIRE

Mimicking others’ facial expressions is believed to be important in making virtual humans as more natural and believable. As result of an empirical study conducted with a virtual human a large face repertoire of about 6000 faces arranged in Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD-) space with respect to two dominance values (dominant vs. submissive) was obtained. Each face in the face repertoire consists of different intensities of the virtual human’s facial muscle actions called Action Units (AU...

Boukricha, Hana; Wachsmuth, Ipke

2009-01-01

198

Classifying chimpanzee facial expressions using muscle action.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categories of chimpanzee facial expressions using discriminant functions analyses. The ChimpFACS validated most existing expression categories (6 of 9) and, where the predicted group memberships were poor, the authors discuss potential problems with ChimpFACS and/or existing categorizations. The authors also report the prototypical movement configurations associated with these 6 expression categories. For all expressions, unique combinations of muscle movements were identified, and these are illustrated as peak intensity prototypical expression configurations. Finally, the authors suggest a potential homology between these prototypical chimpanzee expressions and human expressions based on structural similarities. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emotional communication by suggesting several structural homologies between the facial expressions of chimpanzees and humans and facilitating future research. PMID:17352572

Parr, Lisa A; Waller, Bridget M; Vick, Sarah J; Bard, Kim A

2007-02-01

199

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

200

Lightning Ratios  

Science.gov (United States)

Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.

201

The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation  

Science.gov (United States)

We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

2005-01-01

202

Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India  

CERN Document Server

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

2010-01-01

203

Reconstrução da estrutura facial por biomateriais: revisão de literatura / Facial structure reconstruction by biomaterials: literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A região facial apresenta um desafio único para o implante de biomateriais, porque o esforço de tração dos músculos dessa região produz carregamento variável em diferentes regiões. Este trabalho apresenta as causas do amplo uso de biomateriais na reconstrução facial, descrevendo as características, [...] as vantagens e as desvantagens de cada tipo específico de material para cada região da face. Abstract in english The facial region presents an unique challenge for implantable biomaterials because the pull of the facial muscles produces variable loading in different regions. This work presents the reasons of the wide use of biomaterial in facial reconstruction, pointing out the advantages and the disadvantages [...] of each specific material type for each face region.

Mário, Maia; Emília Silva, Klein; Tatiana Verastegui, Monje; Carlos, Pagliosa.

2010-09-01

204

Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 fa90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

205

Restorative interventions for HIV facial lipoatrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual. Plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures can restore lost facial volume. Both biodegradable and permanent filling agents have been investigated for HIV facial lipoatrophy. Biodegradable products offer a good safety profile, but maintenance of aesthetic benefits necessitates reinjection over time. Although permanent products offer longevity and lower treatment costs, adverse events should they occur can be serious and of long duration. Despite the substantial increase in options for soft-tissue augmentation in recent years, well-performed clinical studies in HIV-infected adults with facial lipoatrophy are scarce, and long-term clinical safety data are lacking. This review will summarize available efficacy and safety data of the biodegradable and permanent agents utilized for soft-tissue augmentation in this population. Difficulties associated with comparing treatment efficacy data, assessment of facial lipoatrophy presence and severity, and measurement of facial fat will be discussed. Available data indicate that in HIV-infected adults, most filling agents have short-term clinically safety, and can provide aesthetic improvement and improve well-being, social functioning and quality of life. However, well-designed studies with objectively assessed endpoints are needed to elucidate optimal treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:18615122

Carey, Dianne; Liew, Steven; Emery, Sean

2008-01-01

206

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda / Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação d [...] e patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman) e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman). O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável. Abstract in english Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this associati [...] on, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman) and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman). Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Fernando Kaoru, Yonamine; Juliane, Tuma; Rogério Fernandes Nunes da, Silva; Maria Claudia Mattos, Soares; José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa.

2009-04-01

207

The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

2012-01-01

208

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequência de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%, a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5% tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8% pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita.BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facial paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2% underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5% showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8% sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Kátia Torres Batista

2011-12-01

209

A Study of Techniques for Facial Detection and Expression Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions is an important component for human-machine interfaces. It has lot of attraction in research area since 1990's.Although humans recognize face without effort or delay, recognition by a machine is still a challenge. Some of its challenges are highly dynamic in their orientation, lightening, scale, facial expression and occlusion. Applications are in the fields like user authentication, person identification, video surveillance, information security, data privacy etc. The various approaches for facial recognition are categorized into two namely holistic based facial recognition and feature based facial recognition. Holistic based treat the image data as one entity without isolating different region in the face where as feature based methods identify certain points on the face such as eyes, nose and mouth etc. In this paper, facial expression recognition is analyzed with various methods of facial detection,facial feature extraction and classification.

G.Hemalatha

2014-04-01

210

Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expressions for Person Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new method for analyzing the dynamics of facial expressions to identify persons using Active Appearance Models and accurate facial feature point tracking. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor. However, the dynamics of facial expressions are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are automatically extracted using Active Appearance Models in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade based feature point tracking method. Next, a temporal interval is extracted from the beginning time to the ending time of facial expression changes. Finally, a feature vector is obtained. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using smile videos from the MMI Facial Expression Database.

Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

211

RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general.

Pointer Marie A

2012-06-01

212

Dento-facial proportions analysis of maxillary anterior teeth in Khuisf dental students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Shape and size of upper anterior teeth are important in dental and facial beauty. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between dental and facial indexes and to evaluate whether there is a golden ratio and its relationship with the proportions measured.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, digital images of 34 female and 30 male dental students were taken at maximum smile in a similar manner. Then the images were assessed with Photoshop CS5 and ACDSee computer programs and measurements were made with AutoCAD 2011 software. Data was analyzed with independent t-test and means were compared with a constant.Results: The entire variable means did not demonstrate any significant differences between males and females (p value > 0.05. The inter-pupillary to inter-canine distance ratio did not reveal any significant differences with the golden proportion of 1.618 between males and females (p value > 0.05. Only the ratios of inter-pupillary, inter-canthus and inter-zygomatic distances to maxillary central widths in females, and the ratios of inter-zygomatic and inter-alar distances to maxillary central widths in males were not significant.Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, it was concluded that dento-facial proportions are not significantly different between males and females and the golden ratio applies in the inter-pupillary to apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth proportion. Facial indices are appropriate measures to measure the apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth and can be used as a standard for Iranian dentists and surgeons. Key words: Anterior teeth, Dental position, Diastema, Proportion.

Nasim Esnaashari Esfahani

2011-01-01

213

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

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Full Text Available An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something about the human’s emotions and mood. This paper focuses on the novel Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm (HFGA and comparative analysis of Facial Geometry algorithm and HFGA for facial feature extraction and its use to classify facial expressions. Feed forward back propagation neural network (BPNN and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS are used as classifiers for expression classification and recognition. Experimentations are carried out using Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Experimental results shows that average recognition efficiency from 95.33% to 93.33% is achieved for 30 to 75 test samples using BPNN and 95.71% to 95.33% with ANFIS approach.

Sunanda P. Khandait

2013-03-01

214

An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic ratios and"nsizes, among Canadian and Isfahanian young adults, the results obtained from Canadian race, should not"nbe applied as a criteria for Iranian surgical and dental treatment plans. Due to the wide racial"ncombinations in Iran, more studies, with wider variations, should be conducted among different Iranian"nraces.

Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

2003-06-01

215

Facial Expression Recognition based on Affine Moment Invariants  

OpenAIRE

Facial Expression Recognition is rapidly becoming area of interest in computer science and human computer interaction because the most expressive way of displaying the emotions by human is through the facial expressions. In this paper, recognition of facial expression is studied with the help of several properties associated with the face itself. As facial expression changes, the curvatures on the face and properties of the objects such as, eyebrows, nose, lips and mouth area changes. We have...

Londhe, Renuka R.; Pawar, Vrushsen P.

2012-01-01

216

Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other proposed methods as shown in experiment results.

Dr.R.Parthasarathi

2011-01-01

217

Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks  

OpenAIRE

Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other p...

Parthasarathi, Dr R.; V.Lokeswar Reddy,; K.Vishnuthej,; Vishnu Vandan, G.

2011-01-01

218

Perceptually Valid Facial Expressions for Character-Based Applications  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses the problem of creating facial expression of mixed emotions in a perceptually valid way. The research has been done in the context of a “game-like” health and education applications aimed at studying social competency and facial expression awareness in autistic children as well as native language learning, but the results can be applied to many other applications such as games with need for dynamic facial expressions or tools for automating the creation of facial anim...

Dipaolo, Steve; Arya, Ali; Parush, Avi

2009-01-01

219

The Effects of Pose On Facial Expression Recognition  

OpenAIRE

Research into facial expression recognition has predominantly been based upon near frontal view data. However, a recent 3D facial expression database (BU-3DFE database) has allowed empirical investigation of facial expression recognition across pose. In this paper, we investigate the effects of pose from frontal to profile view on facial expression recognition. Experiments are carried out on 100 subjects with 5 yaw angles over 6 prototypical expressions. Expressions have 4 leve...

Moore, S.; Bowden, R.

2009-01-01

220

Variant position of the facial nerve in parotid gland  

OpenAIRE

The division of the parotid gland into superficial and deep lobes by facial nerve has an important implication in parotid gland neoplasm. This plane is used in superficial or total parotidectomy to avoid damage to the facial nerve.During routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy, we found variably located facial nerve in the parotid gland of the left side. The main trunk of the facial nerve was located between maxillary vein and superficial temporal vein. It was divided into temporofaci...

Rb, Astik; Uh, Dave; Ks, Gajendra

2011-01-01

221

Botulinum toxin treatment of synkinesia and hyperlacrimation after facial palsy  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES—To investigate the effects of injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX A) into the orbicularis oculi muscle and lacrimal gland in patients with aberrant regeneration after facial palsy (facial synkinesias and hyperlacrimation).?METHODS—The effect of the toxin injection (on average 75 mouse units of BTX A) into the orbicularis oculi muscle on facial synkinesias was assessed on a five point (0 to 4) scale in 10 patients with aberrant regeneration of facial ...

Boroojerdi, B.; Ferbert, A.; Schwarz, M.; Herath, H.; Noth, J.

1998-01-01

222

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice  

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Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3?/? mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2?/? (recombination activating gene-2-deficient mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3?/? mice, but not in CCR3?/? mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

Derek A Wainwright

2009-12-01

223

Facial Animation Based on Feature Points  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for synthesizing natural animation of facial expression with data from motion capture. The captured expression was transferred from the space of source performance to that of a 3D target face using an accurate mapping process in order to realize the reuse of motion data. The transferred animation was then applied to synthesize the expression of the target model through a framework of two-stage deformation. A local deformation technique preliminarily considered a set of neighbor feature points for every vertex and their impact on the vertex. Furthermore, the global deformation was exploited to ensure the smoothness of the whole facial mesh. The experimental results show our hybrid mesh deformation strategy was effective, which could animate different target face without complicated manual efforts required by most of facial animation approaches.

Beibei Li

2013-01-01

224

Manifold based methods in facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel method for facial expression recognition based on non-linear manifold techniques. The graph-based algorithms are designed to treat structure in data, and regularize accordingly. This same goal is shared by several other algorithms, from linear method principal components analysis (PCA) to modern variants such as Laplacian eigenmaps. In this paper we focus on manifold learning for dimensionality reduction and clustering using Laplacian eigenmaps for facial expression recognition. We evaluate the algorithm by using all the pixels and selected features respectively and compare the performance of the proposed non-linear manifold method with the previous linear manifold approach, and the non linear method produces higher recognition rate than the facial expression representation using linear methods.

Xie, Kun

2013-07-01

225

Robust Automatic Facial Expression Detection Method  

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Full Text Available Recently, the recognition of occluded facial expressions attract more and more people’s attention. Sparse representation based classification (SRC method gives good performance on face recognition (FR and facial expression recognition (FER, well-known for its robustness to occlusion. Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG descriptors are very efficient to represent the shape information of different facial expressions and robust to various illumination. Since, this paper proposes a novel method by using HOG descriptors conjunction with SRC framework for FER. Experiment results show that the proposed method gives better performance than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is not only robust to assigned occlusions, but also to random occlusions.

Yan OuYang

2013-07-01

226

Solitary Intraparotid Facial Nerve Plexiform Neurofibroma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solitary intraparotid facial nerve plexiform neurofibromas are extremely rare. These tumors arise from Schwann cells. The plexiform variant is recognized by tortuous and multinodular gross and microscopic lesions. It has a high risk of malignant transformation. We report a case of a solitary plexiform neurofibroma in a 5-year-old Italian male, who initially presented a right parotid mass of four-month duration. He had not pain, trismus, facial weakness or previous trauma. There was not familiar history of Von Recklinghausen’s disease. TC and MRI scans revealed a mass in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland. A partial parotidectomy was performed. Histopatological examination indicated plexiform neurofibroma. The incidence, presentation, diagnosis and surgical treatment of this lesion are discussed. In our case, the tumor could be readily separated from the main trunk, and facial movement was completely preserved owing to the rich neural network around the mass.

Massimo Mesolella

2014-09-01

227

Facial Reconstruction after a Complicated Gunshot Injury  

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Full Text Available Facial gunshot injuries are unusual and complicated clinical entities. Because of themechanism of injury, early aggressive primary reconstruction might not be ideal. Initial conservativemanagement followed by staged secondary reconstruction could be performed toobtain satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Reconstruction of the cranio-maxillofacialdeformities requires a multi-disciplinary approach, the same way as for patients withcleft lip/palate deformities. We present a male patient with severe facial gunshot injuries. Ateam approach revealed maxilla recession, dental malocclusion, a large oronasal fistula overhis hard palate, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and a stable psychosocial status. His mainconcern was facial appearance, which included the nose, lip, and scars. Staged reconstructionswere performed, consisting of orthognathic surgery, rhinoplasty, lip-switch flap, andrevisions of scars. A satisfactory outcome was obtained. The results indicated the importanceof preoperative evaluation and treatment planning for this uncommon problem.

Vanna Long

2002-08-01

228

Automatic Facial Spots and Acnes Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently medical cosmetic has attracted significant business opportunity. Micro cosmetic surgery usually involves invasive cosmetic procedures such as non-ablative laser procedure for skin rejuvenation. However, to select an appropriate treatment for skin relies on accurate preoperative evaluations. In this paper, an automatic facial skin defects detection and recognition method is proposed. The system first locates the facial region from the input image. Then, the shapes of faces were recognized using a contour descriptor. The facial features are extracted to define regions of interest and an image segment method is used to extract potential defect. A support-vector-machine-based classifier is then used to classify the potential defects into spots, acnes and normal skin. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

Chuan-Yu Chang

2013-01-01

229

Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in high-functioning individuals with ASD and controls to dynamic and static facial expressions of anger and happiness. Visual coding of facial muscle activity and the subjective impression ratings showed reduced congruent responses to dynamic expressions in the ASD group. Additionally, this decline was related to social dysfunction. These results suggest that impairment in overt facial mimicry in response to others' dynamic facial expressions may underlie difficulties in reciprocal social interaction among individuals with ASD. PMID:25374131

Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

2014-11-01

230

Objectifying Facial Expressivity Assessment of Parkinson's Patients: Preliminary Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as “facial masking,” a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed. PMID:25478003

Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

2014-01-01

231

A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of facial expression feature and the relationship between them based on cloud model, including the new method of facial expression synthesis with the uncertainty. It proposes the method of facial expression feature synthesis by cloud model, using the three numerical characteristics (Expectation, Entropy and Hyper Entropy as the features and concepts of facial expression with its fuzziness, randomness and certain relevance in them. Through such three numerical characteristics, it introduces the framework of facial expression synthesis and the detail procedures based on cloud model. It puts forward the synthesis method of facial expression and gives the concrete realization and the implementation process. The facial expressions after synthesis can express the different expressions for one person, and it can meet a variety of demands for facial expression. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective in facial expression synthesis.

Juebo Wu

2011-04-01

232

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: Report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma is a rare tumor. Case report: In this article we presented two cases of intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma. In two cases tumor presented with asymptomatic parotid mass that mimic pleomorphic adenoma. No preoperative facial nerve dysfunction in cases is detected. Diagnostic result and surgical management are discussed in this paper.  

Seyyed Basir Hashemi

2008-07-01

233

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

2006-01-01

234

PFAPA with facial swelling- a new association?  

Science.gov (United States)

PFAPA (periodic fever, apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) is a rare condition of unknown cause affecting children. Although the exact etiology is unknown, inflammatory, immunological or genetic causes have been suggested. The diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes of periodic fever. Although management is essentially symptomatic, single corticosteroid dose, tonsillectomy and Cimetidine has been shown to be associated with resolution of symptoms. Although abdominal pain and genital ulcers have been reported in association with PFAPA, unilateral transient facial swelling has not been previously reported. The authors present a hitherto unreported association of PFAPA with recurrent episodes of unilateral facial swelling. PMID:22528696

Khodaghalian, B; Tewary, K K; Narchi, H

2013-05-01

235

Facial presentation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP), an autosomal dominant genodermatosis possessing a pathognomonic cornoid lamella, is presented. Exclusively facial disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis is an unusual clinical presentation, although 15% of patients having the condition in the typical generalized form have facial lesions. There is no specific treatment. In selected cases, lesions may be excised, electrodesiccated, or sprayed with liquid nitrogen. Topical steroids and topical 5-fluorouracil have been reported to be beneficial in some instances. Sunscreens should be tried as a preventive measure, especially in family members of patients with known DSAP. PMID:2721409

Sawyer, R; Picou, K A

1989-01-01

236

Risk factors associated with facial fractures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of [...] residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a

Anne Margareth, Batista; Fernanda de Oliveira, Ferreira; Leandro Silva, Marques; Maria Letícia, Ramos-Jorge; Meire Coelho, Ferreira.

2012-04-01

237

Temporoparietal-occipital flap for facial reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight patients with an extensive facial defect of the masseter region were reconstructed with a temporoparietal- occipital rotation flap. This flap is vascularized by both the arteria auricularis posterior and the arteria occipitalis lateralis. These vessels have been sufficient to ensure viability of the entire flap. It is elevated and easily transposed to the masseter region because of the distensibility obtained from the posterior neck. This approach avoided the need for an unsightly skin graft at the site while providing tissue with hair follicles that blend well with the surrounding hair. This large flap offers cosmetic advantages over other techniques for coverage of facial defects in men. PMID:11252084

Moretti, E; Garcia, F G

2001-04-01

238

Facial bone scanning by emission tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A single-photon emission tomographic system was used to study the normal anatomy of the facial bones and the usefulness of emission computed tomography in evaluating diseases of the bones of the face. The examination was performed following routine bone scintigraphy and took an additional 20 to 30 min. The anatomy of the facial bones was well defined, with clear separation of deep and superficial structuress. Early experience with tumor, infection, bone grafts, and postirradiation osteonecrosis indicates that useful added diagnostic information can be obtained by this method

239

Orthognathic correction of dento-facial discrepancies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthognathic treatment is a process which involves orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery and is used to treat those dento-facial discrepancies which are outside the scope of conventional orthodontic treatment, for example severe Class II or Class III problems, anterior open bites and facial asymmetries. Patients who present with these severe problems may encounter a wide range of different problems ranging from functional problems (for example, difficulties biting and chewing) to self-consciousness in a wide range of work and social situations. This paper discusses the possible indications for orthognathic treatment and looks at the risks and benefits of treatment. The treatment pathway is also described. PMID:25686434

Cunningham, S J; Johal, A

2015-02-16

240

Prediction of Facial Nerve Function After Surgery for Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Use of a Facial Nerve Stimulator and Monitor  

OpenAIRE

A series of 18 patients undergoing surgery for cerebellopontine angle tumors is reported. Patients were grouped according to size of tumor (0 to 2.5 cm, 11 cases; more than 2.5 cm, 7 cases). In all, the facial nerve was identified and conductance assessed by monitoring the facial electromyographic response to facial nerve stimulation. Postoperative facial nerve function was graded clinically after 3 months according to the House scale. Tumor removal was complete in all cases. In patients with...

Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Watters, G.; Strong, A. J.; Walliker, J. R.; Gleeson, M. J.

1991-01-01

241

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-01-01

242

Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

243

Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group. PMID:22090764

Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

2011-07-01

244

Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players  

OpenAIRE

In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one's facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and sports performanc...

Tsujimura, Hikaru; Banissy, Michael J.

2013-01-01

245

A novel human--machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multi-channel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Frontalis and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passed through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean square features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down) is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. PMID:22124948

Mohammad Rezazadeh, Iman; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad; Hu, Huosheng; Hashemi Golpayegani, S Mohammad Reza

2011-12-01

246

Terminal Segment Surgical Anatomy of the Rat Facial Nerve: Implications for Facial Reanimation Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Rodent whisking behavior is supported by the buccal and mandibular branches of the facial nerve, a description of how these branches converge and contribute to whisker movement is lacking. Methods Eight rats underwent isolated transection of either the buccal or mandibular branch and subsequent opposite branch transection. Whisking function was analyzed following both transections. Anatomical measurements, and video recording of stimulation to individual branches, were taken from both facial nerves in 10 rats. Results Normal to near-normal whisking was demonstrated after isolated branch transection. Following transection of both branches whisking was eliminated. The buccal and mandibular branches form a convergence just proximal to the whisker-pad, named the “distal pes.” Distal to this convergence, we identified consistent anatomy that demonstrated cross-innervation. Conclusion The overlap of efferent supply to the whisker pad must be considered when studying facial nerve regeneration in the rat facial nerve model. PMID:22499096

Henstrom, Doug; Hadlock, Tessa; Lindsay, Robin; Knox, Christopher J.; Malo, Juan; Vakharia, Kalpesh T.; Heaton, James T.

2015-01-01

247

Freestyle facial perforator flaps-a safe reconstructive option for moderate-sized facial defects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Perforators are a constant anatomical finding in the facial area and any known flap can in theory be based on the first perforator located at the flap rotation axis. METHODS: A case series of single stage reconstruction of moderate sized facial defects using 21 perforator based local flaps in 19 patients from 2008-2013. RESULTS: A sufficient perforator was located in every case and the flap rotated along its axis (76 %) or advanced (24 %). Reconstruction was successfully achieved with a high self reported patient satisfaction. Two minor complications occurred early on in the series and corrective procedures were performed in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: The random facial perforator flap seems to be a good and reliable option for the reconstruction of facial subunits, especially the periorbital, nasal and periocular area with a minimal morbidity and a pleasing result in a one stage outpatient setting. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Jackson, Ian Thomas

2014-01-01

248

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

Ellies Maik

2007-08-01

249

A Facial Control Method Using Emotional Parameters in Sensibility Robot  

Science.gov (United States)

The “Ifbot” robot communicates with people by considering its own “emotions”. Ifbot has many facial expressions to communicate enjoyment. These are used to express its internal emotions, purposes, reactions caused by external stimulus, and entertainment such as singing songs. All these facial expressions are developed by designers manually. Using this approach, we must design all facial motions, if we want Ifbot to express them. It, however, is not realistic. We have therefore developed a system which convert Ifbot's emotions to its facial expressions automatically. In this paper, we propose a method for creating Ifbot's facial expressions from parameters, emotional parameters, which handle its internal emotions computationally.

Shibata, Hiroshi; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Kato, Shohei; Kunitachi, Tsutomu; Itoh, Hidenori

250

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

OpenAIRE

An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI) will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something abou...

Khandait, Sunanda P.; Thool, R. C.; Khandait, Prabhakar D.

2013-01-01

251

Shape analysis of local facial patches for 3D facial expression recognition  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we address the problem of 3D facial expression recognition. We propose a local geometric shape analysis of facial surfaces coupled with machine learning techniques for expression classification. A computation of the length of the geodesic path between corresponding patches, using a Riemannian framework, in a shape space provides a quantitative information about their similarities. These measures are then used as inputs to several classification methods. The experimental results ...

Maalej, Ahmed; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Daoudi, Mohamed; Srivastava, Anuj; Berretti, Stefano

2011-01-01

252

Modeling emotionnal facial expressions and their dynamics for realistic interactive facial animation on virtual characters  

OpenAIRE

In all computer-graphics applications, one stimulating task has been the integration of believable virtual characters. Above all other features of a character, its face is arguably the most important one since it concentrates the most essential channels of human communication. The road toward more realistic virtual characters inevitably goes through a better understanding and reproduction of natural facial expressiveness. In this work we focus on emotional facial expressions, which we believe...

Stoiber, Nicolas

2010-01-01

253

Hemiatrofia facial progressiva: registro de um caso Progressive facial hemiatrophy: report of a case  

OpenAIRE

Relato de caso de doença de Parry-Romberg, com hemi-hipotrofia esquerda de predomínio facial, epilepsia, afasia amnéstica, rebaixamento intelectual, hemiparesia e hemianestesia direitas e sindrome cerebelar. É enfatizada a raridade da atrofia cerebelar (apenas um caso na bibliografia consultada) e a correlação entre as anormalidades clínicas e a tomografia axial computadorizada de crânio.The authors report a case of Parry-Romberg disease with predominantly facial left atrophy, seizure...

José Geraldo Speciali; Luiz Antonio Lima Resende

1984-01-01

254

Investigation of internal radionuclide contamination from the analysis of nasal swabs and facial swipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nasal swabs and facial swipes have been used to screen potential internal radioactive contamination for decades. However, the ratio between the lung intake and the activity on a swab or a swipe varies according to the nature of the contaminant involved and the exposure conditions such as particle sizes of the contaminant and the humidity in the air. This paper reports the experimental results using stable La2O3 as an analog for actinide oxides, focusing on the most important parameters such as humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition at a fixed room temperature of 23 ± 2 deg C. The results showed that the effects of humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition vary more on orofacial swipe/lung deposition ratios compared to nasal swab/lung deposition ratios. The amounts on nasal swabs tended to show smaller change with respect to parameters such as plume velocity, humidity, and skin moisture. The amounts on orofacial swipes varied by a factor of 10-15 among the samples collected across all parameters. Such variability would be expected to be even greater in a real-world scenario with a larger range of physiological and environmental conditions. (author)

255

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo: elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial.PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients were evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles. CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Daniele Fontes Ferreira Bernardes

2010-02-01

256

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica / Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superf [...] ície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo): elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural). CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients we [...] re evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles). CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Daniele Fontes Ferreira, Bernardes; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento.

2010-02-01

257

Stereotactic mesencephalotomy for cancer - related facial pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won; Son, Byung-Chul

2014-07-01

258

Facial classification using artificial neural network techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in illumination condition, pose, facial expression and others are challenging task in recognizing face images. Solving these problems requires a feature extractor that can generate distinct features for each class of image as well as classifier that able to recognize and classify the face image precisely. This paper presents a facial recognition system using Artificial Neural network (ANN) techniques namely Radial basis function and Feed forward neural networks. Invariant continuous orthogonal moment that is Zernike moment (ZM) at order 2 to 12 is used to extract 47 features which are the inputs to the neural network. The experiments were carried out on the database face images from the AT&T Laboratories Cambridge University consisting of 40 distinct subjects of 10 non-similar images each. For some subjects, the images were taken at different times, varying the lighting, facial expressions (open/closed eyes, smiling/not smiling), facial details (with and without spectacles) and different face scale. From the experiments, Radial basis function outperforms feed forward in terms of percentage classification. However the classification error of feed forward neural network is below 5%.

Nor'aini, A. J.; Fatimah, Z.; Norzilah, R.

2011-10-01

259

O to Z flaps in facial reconstructions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Local flaps are the standard procedure to reconstruct facial defects. As it occurs in any surgical procedure, the incision should be planned so that scars are located in the minimum skin tension lines. We report two cases of O to Z flaps in the supra and infraciliary regions. One of them is a hatche [...] t flap.

Sara Alcántara, Luna; Manuel Perea, Cejudo; Francisco Manuel Ildefonso, Mendonça; Francisco M. Camacho, Martínez.

2015-04-01

260

Facial expression (mood recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases, from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection.

Hariharan SI

2009-08-01

261

Recognition of 3D facial expression from posed data  

Science.gov (United States)

Although recognition of facial expression in 3D facial images has been an active research area, most of the prior works are limited to using full frontal facial images. These techniques primarily project 3D facial image on 2D and manually select landmarks in 2D projection to extract relevant features. Face recognition in 2D images can be challenging due to unconstrained conditions such as head pose, occlusion, and resulting loss of data. Similarly, pose variation in 3D facial imaging can also result in loss of data. In most of the current 3D facial recognition works, when 3D posed face data are projected onto 2D, additional data loss may render 2D facial expression recognition even more challenging. In comparison, this work proposes novel feature extraction directly from the 3D facial posed images without the need of manual selection of landmarks or projection of images in 2D space. This feature is obtained as the angle between consecutive 3D normal vectors on the vertex points aligned either horizontally or vertically across the 3D facial image. Our facial expression recognition results show that the feature obtained from vertices aligned vertically across the face yields the best accuracy for classification with an average 87.8% area under the ROC. The results further suggest that the same feature outperforms its horizontal counterpart in recognizing facial expressions for pose variation between 35º - 50º with average accuracy of 80% - 60%, respectively.

Samad, Manar D.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

2013-05-01

262

Suitable models for face geometry normalization in facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, facial expression recognition has attracted much attention in machine vision research because of its various applications. Accordingly, many facial expression recognition systems have been proposed. However, the majority of existing systems suffer from a critical problem: geometric variability. It directly affects the performance of geometric feature-based facial expression recognition approaches. Furthermore, it is a crucial challenge in appearance feature-based techniques. This variability appears in both neutral faces and facial expressions. Appropriate face geometry normalization can improve the accuracy of each facial expression recognition system. Therefore, this paper proposes different geometric models or shapes for normalization. Face geometry normalization removes geometric variability of facial images and consequently, appearance feature extraction methods can be accurately utilized to represent facial images. Thus, some expression-based geometric models are proposed for facial image normalization. Next, local binary patterns and local phase quantization are used for appearance feature extraction. A combination of an effective geometric normalization with accurate appearance representations results in more than a 4% accuracy improvement compared to several state-of-the-arts in facial expression recognition. Moreover, utilizing the model of facial expressions which have larger mouth and eye region sizes gives higher accuracy due to the importance of these regions in facial expression.

Sadeghi, Hamid; Raie, Abolghasem A.

2015-01-01

263

Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expression Changes for Person Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new method for analyzing dynamics of facial expression changes to identify persons. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor because an input face image does not always contain the same facial expression as training images. However, the dynamics of facial expression changes are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are extracted using Active Appearance Models (AAMs) in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade (LK) based feature point tracking method. Next, the starting and ending frames of facial expression changes are extracted by differences in the facial feature points' position between two successive frames. Finally, a feature vector is obtained as the sequence of the 2D coordinate variations of facial feature points. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching (DP matching). We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using facial expression videos of the Facial Expressions and Emotions Database from Technical University of Munich (FEEDTUM database).

Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

264

Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dynamics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. The system automatically detects frontal faces in the video stream and coded each frame with respect to 20 Action units. The approach applies machine learning methods such as support vector machines and AdaBoost, to texture-based image representations. The output margin for the learned classifiers predicts action unit intensity. Frame-by-frame intensity measurements will enable investigations into facial expression dynamics which were previously intractable by human coding.

Marian Stewart Bartlett

2006-09-01

265

Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication. PMID:11708727

Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

2001-08-01

266

An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 frerapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However, the irradiated graft group had a greater proportion of patients with pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p = 0.007) and unfavorable type of nerve graft (p = 0.04). Although the irradiated graft cohort had more potentially negative prognostic factors, there was no difference in functional outcome (H-B Grade III or IV) between irradiated and unirradiated graft patients. H-B Grades III, IV, V, and VI were the best postoperative facial nerve functions achieved in 35%, 39%, 13%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The patient with preoperative radiotherapy never recovered any facial nerve function (H-B Grade VI). Median time to best facial nerve function after surgery was longer in the irradiated patients (13.1 vs. 10.8 months), but this was not statistically significant (p 0.10). Presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy (p = 0.005), duration of preoperative palsy (p = 0.003), and age greater than 60 years at the time of grafting (p = 0.04) were all negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve on univariate analysis. Analysis of age as a continuous variable (p = 0.12) and pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p 0.1) revealed a trend toward negative prognostic factors. Gender, number of previous operations in the parotid bed, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, and type of grafting procedure were not significant prognostic factors. Whether radiotherapy was delivered less than 6 weeks after nerve grafting or more than 6 weeks had no impact on achievement of a functional facial nerve. Conclusion: Negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve in our series include the presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy, and age greater than 60 years. Radiotherapy was not a negative prognostic factor. Comparing irradiated and unirradiated grafts revealed no difference in best facial nerve function achieved, despite the presence of a greater proportion of negative prognostic factors in the irradiated group. Therefore, planned postoperative rad

267

NON-INVASIVE 3D FACIAL ANALYSIS AND SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY DURING FUNCTIONAL PRE-ORTHODONTIC THERAPY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. Material and Methods: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. Results: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. Conclusions: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles. PMID:19936531

Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Grandi, Gaia; Mian, Fabrizio; Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

2009-01-01

268

Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches and extraoral (face morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

Gianluca M. Tartaglia

2009-10-01

269

Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could i [...] nduce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

Gianluca M., Tartaglia; Gaia, Grandi; Fabrizio, Mian; Chiarella, Sforza; Virgilio F., Ferrario.

2009-10-01

270

Avaliação dos fatores determinantes da estética do perfil facial / Evaluation of the determinants of facial profile aesthetics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da idade, do sexo, da relação oclusal sagital, do Padrão Facial e de 8 medidas do perfil facial sobre a estética do perfil. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas tabelas de contingência, o Teste Qui-quadrado e o coeficiente de Cramér para avaliar a possível associação entre a nota [...] dada por 32 avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 6 artistas) para a estética do perfil de 100 brasileiros - adultos, leucodermas, portadores de selamento labial passivo - e a idade, o sexo, a relação oclusal sagital, o Padrão Facial e as variáveis da análise facial numérica do perfil. RESULTADOS: não foi observada associação entre a idade, o sexo e a relação oclusal sagital e a estética do perfil facial. A associação foi observada entre a nota recebida para a estética do perfil e o Padrão Facial, o ângulo de convexidade facial e o ângulo do terço inferior da face. CONCLUSÃO: o Padrão Facial, definido na avaliação do perfil pela convexidade do perfil facial, e a projeção anterior do mento foram, entre os fatores avaliados, os determinantes para a estética do perfil facial. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of age, gender, sagittal occlusal relationship, facial pattern and 8 facial profile measures on profile aesthetics. METHODS: Contingency tables, chi-square test and Cramer's coefficient were used to evaluate the possible association between the scores assigned by [...] 32 examiners (14 orthodontists, 12 laypeople and 6 artists) to the aesthetics of the profile of 100 Brazilian Caucasian adults, all patients with lip seal competence, and age, gender, sagittal occlusal relationship, facial pattern and the variables of the numerical analysis of the facial profile. RESULTS: No association was found between age, gender and sagittal occlusal relationship and the aesthetics of facial profile. An association was observed between profile scores and facial pattern, facial convexity angle and lower face angle. CONCLUSIONS: Among the factors evaluated in this study, facial profile convexity and anterior chin projection were the key determinants of facial profile aesthetics.

Sílvia Augusta Braga, Reis; Jorge, Abrão; Cristiane Aparecida de Assis, Claro; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho.

2011-02-01

271

Anatomic study of full facial and scalp allografts without cutaneous facial scars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional reconstructive procedures for face and scalp reconstruction fall short of aesthetic and functional goals because of the unique quality and quantity of facial and scalp soft tissue. The purpose of this cadaver study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a flap design for full face and scalp composite tissue allotransplantation, without cutaneous facial scars. Six fresh human cadavers were dissected with sagittal scalp and mucosal incisions for full face and scalp harvest without cutaneous facial incisions. Sub-galeal and sub-SMAS dissection allowed for inclusion of the external carotid and internal jugular systems. Time of facial-scalp flap harvesting, length of the arterial and venous pedicles, length of sensory nerves (that were included in the facial flaps) and approximate surface area of the flaps were measured. Three of six flaps were transferred to recipient cadavers and the time of transfer was recorded. As a proof of concept, the external carotid arteries of one of six cadavers was flushed to remove clots and perfused with a radio-opaque latex polymer, Microfil (Flow Tech Inc.), to study flap perfusion by X-ray imaging. In the donor cadaver, the mean harvesting time of the total facial-scalp flap was 105 ± 19 minutes. The mean length of the supraorbital, infraorbital, mental and great auricular nerves were 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The mean length of the external carotid artery and external jugular vein were 8.7 ± 0.3 and 9.2 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. The approximate area of the harvested flap was 1063 ± 60 cm(2). In preparation for full face and scalp allotransplantation in humans, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of a full face and scalp flap without visible facial incisions. PMID:23647571

Bastidas, Nicholas; Runyan, Christopher M; Jones, Donna C; Taylor, Jesse A

2013-12-01

272

Event-related alpha suppression in response to facial motion.  

Science.gov (United States)

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J; Spencer, Janine V; O'Brien, Justin M D

2014-01-01

273

Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

Tomomi Okamura

2011-04-01

274

Técnicas de confección de prótesis faciales Techniques used for making of facial prostheses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las prótesis faciales constituyen parte integrante de la rehabilitación de pacientes que sufrieron daños en la cara, sea de origen patológica, traumática o congénita. Aunque el éxito del tratamiento con prótesis faciales está asociado con la capacidad artística del profesional en reproducir las estructuras perdidas, no se puede descuidar la buena adaptabilidad de las prótesis en cuanto a la asociación de materiales y técnicas empleadas para la confección de prótesis buco-maxilofaciales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, mediante la revisión de la literatura, mostrar los principales conceptos relacionados con las técnicas de confección de prótesis faciales y asociar nuestra experiencia clínica con el pronóstico de las prótesisFacial prostheses are a integral part of rehabilitation of patients underwent face damages, being of pathologic, traumatic or congenital origin. Although success of treatment with facial prostheses is associated with artistic ability of professional to reproduce lost structures, we can not to obviate the good adaptability of prostheses regards association of material and techniques used to make buccomaxillofacial prostheses.

Marcelo Coelho Goiato

2009-03-01

275

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes.BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. The evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

Lucila Leal Calais

2005-08-01

276

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular / Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço [...] de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes. Abstract in english BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. Th [...] e evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

Lucila Leal, Calais; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Luiz Roberto, Comerlatti.

2005-08-01

277

Classification of Facial Expression Using Transformed Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic identification of facial expressions structures the elementary nature of a variety of next generation computing devices together with sentimental computing expertise, intellectual tutoring methods, and patient sketch delicate wellness scrutinize methods etc. Therefore, we have proposed a facial expression recognition system that has the aptitude of incrementally learning and thus can learn all possible patterns of expressions that may be generated in feature. Proposed system consists of different phases including face detection, features extraction and classification. First of all, face detection has been performed by using Voila & Jones method which is robust and then transformed features has been extracted for classification using local window. Three types of features have been extracted using Discrete Cosine Transform, Haar Wavelet transform, and Gabor Wavelet. Then these features have been fused and used for classification. The results of proposed technique are compared using different quantitative measures with some of the existing techniques which show its performance.

M. Arfan Jaffar

2014-07-01

278

Inflammatory peripheral facial nerve palsy. An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In inflammatory peripheral facial nerve palsy pathologically intense, linear and smooth enhancement of the distal intrameatal nerve segment can always be observed on T1-w- SE- MR sequences. The other nerve segments often present with a pathological enhancement as well. On T2-w- SE sequences, a thickening of the distal intrameatal nerve segment can be observed. The pathological enhancement persists over weeks and months; even in patients with complete clinical recovery, a persistent enhancement of the distal intrameatal nerve segment can be demonstrated. No correlation can be established between the intensity of the enhancement, the clinical condition and the electrophysiological data on electroneurography. The persistent enhancement of the different nerve segments is due to a longlasting breakdown of the blood-peripheral nerve-barrier related to the process of degeneration and regeneration of the facial nerve in inflammatory palsy. (orig.)

279

Intensity-based registration and fusion of thermal and visual facial-images  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusion of images from different modalities provides information that cannot be obtained by viewing the images separately and consecutively. Automatic fusion of thermal and visual images is of great interest in defense and medical applications. In this study, we implemented automatic intensity-based illumination, translation and scale invariant registration of deformable objects in thermal and visual images by maximization of a similarity measure such as generalized correlation ratio. This method was originally used to register ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) successfully. In our current work, we propose a major modification to the original algorithm by investigating appropriate information content in the input data. The registration of facial thermal and visual images in this algorithm is achieved by maximization of the similarity measure between the input images in the appropriate image channel. The algorithm is tested using real facial images with illumination, scale, and translation variations and the results show acceptable accuracy.

Arslan, Musa Serdar; Elbakaray, Mohamed I.; Reza, Shamim; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

2012-10-01

280

Ensemble Approaches to Facial Action Unit Classification  

OpenAIRE

Facial action unit (au) classification is an approach to face expression recognition that decouples the recognition of expression from individual actions. In this paper, upper face aus are classified using an ensemble of MLP (Multi-layer perceptron) base classifiers with feature ranking based on PCA components. This approach is compared experimentally with other popular feature-ranking methods applied to Gabor features. Experimental results on Cohn-Kanade database demonstrate that the MLP ens...

Windeatt, T.; Dias, K.

2008-01-01

281

Análisis Facial, Dentario y Radiográfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women  

OpenAIRE

La estética y armonía facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepción y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estéticos por medio de cirugías para obtener una valoración positiva de sí mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la percepción, autoestima y deseo de cambio estético; y puntos antropométricos, cefalométricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 años ...

Claudio Huentequeo-Molina; Pablo Navarro; Bélgica Vásquez; Sergio Olate

2013-01-01

282

Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging  

OpenAIRE

Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the c...

Ge, Pi Eacute Rard; Hermanns-Lê T; Gaspard U; Piérard-Franchimont C

2014-01-01

283

Computer-enhanced emotion in facial expressions.  

OpenAIRE

Benson & Perrett's (1991 b) computer-based caricature procedure was used to alter the positions of anatomical landmarks in photographs of emotional facial expressions with respect to their locations in a reference norm face (e.g. a neutral expression). Exaggerating the differences between an expression and its norm produces caricatured images, whereas reducing the differences produces 'anti-caricatures'. Experiment 1 showed that caricatured (+50% different from neutral) expressions were recog...

Calder, A. J.; Young, A. W.; Rowland, D.; Perrett, D. I.

1997-01-01

284

Treatment of facial rejuvenation with fat restoration  

OpenAIRE

Seyed Reza MousaviSurgical Department, Shohada Medical, Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tajrish, Tehran, IranObjective: To improve the compensation for fat atrophy and making the face look young and improve the mental and emotional conditions of patients.Material and methods: Our study was done from April 2003 to March 2006 with an assessment and documentation of the degree of facial lipoatrophy.Results: We have very good results in 91% of patients with no important co...

Seyed Reza Mousavi

2010-01-01

285

Facial expression of pain: an evolutionary account.  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes that human expression of pain in the presence or absence of caregivers, and the detection of pain by observers, arises from evolved propensities. The function of pain is to demand attention and prioritise escape, recovery, and healing; where others can help achieve these goals, effective communication of pain is required. Evidence is reviewed of a distinct and specific facial expression of pain from infancy to old age, consistent across stimuli, and recognizable as pain by...

Williams, A. C.

2002-01-01

286

Automatic Facial Occlusion Detection and Removal  

OpenAIRE

In our daily life, we are faced with many occluded faces. The occlusion may be from different objects like sunglasses, mufflers, masks, scarves etc. Sometimes, this occlusion is used by the criminal persons to hide their identity from the surroundings. In this thesis, a technique is used to detect the facial occlusion automatically. After detecting the occluded areas, a method for image reconstruction called aPCA (asymmetrical Principal Component Analysis) is used to reconstruct the faces. Th...

Chaudhry, Naeem Ashfaq

2012-01-01

287

Facial paralysis rehabilitation: retraining selective muscle control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic facial paralysis can be improved with surgical techniques but alone will not restore full function. EMG sensory (bio) feedback can, however, facilitate rehabilitation. Four cases are described using a combined treatment technique of EMG, behavioural modification and specific action exercises. Retraining of eyelid control was also accomplished. Standardized evaluation methods are described. All four patients showed improvement, despite the failure of traditional retraining methods. PMID:7174215

Balliet, R; Shinn, J B; Bach-y-Rita, P

1982-01-01

288

Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion  

OpenAIRE

This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the “match” of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characteriz...

Kim Mey Chew; Rubita Sudirman; Ching Yee Yong

2012-01-01

289

Facial Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

The article deals with genetic algorithms and their application in face identification. The purpose of the research is to develop a free and open-source facial composite system using evolutionary algorithms, primarily processes of selection and breeding. The initial testing proved higher quality of the final composites and massive reduction in the composites processing time. System requirements were specified and future research orientation was proposed in order to improve the results.

Zahradníková, Barbora; Duchovi?ová, So?a; Schreiber, Peter

2014-12-01

290

Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo  

OpenAIRE

FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de ta...

Suehara Letícia Yumi; Simone Karine; Maia Marcus

2006-01-01

291

Repeated facial palsies after chlorocresol inhalation.  

OpenAIRE

A 42-year-old woman who experienced more than 50 attacks of left-sided facial palsies after exposure to chlorocresol was studied. Only muscles around the left side of the mouth were affected. On neurophysiological testing during chlorocresol provocation the only abnormality was a loss of motor units during maximal contraction of the left orbicularis oris muscle. This could be explained by a peripheral as well as a central effect. Extensive electrophysiological examination without chlorocresol...

Døssing, M.; Wulff, C. H.; Olsen, P. Z.

1986-01-01

292

Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition  

OpenAIRE

Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three ...

Jamal Ahmad Dargham; Ali Chekima; Ervin Gubin Moung

2012-01-01

293

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

OpenAIRE

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisom...

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

294

Fast Localization of Facial Landmark Points  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this work is to develop a method that can accurately estimate the positions of relevant facial landmarks in real-time on hardware with limited processing power, such as modern mobile devices. This is achieved with a sequence of estimators based on ensembles of regression trees. The trees use simple pixel intensity comparisons in their internal nodes and this makes them able to process image regions very fast. We test the developed system on several publ...

Markus?, Nenad; Frljak, Miroslav; Pandz?ic?, Igor S.; Ahlberg, Jo?rgen; Forchheimer, Robert

2014-01-01

295

Fact and Fiction About Facial Challenges  

OpenAIRE

The Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court have frequently insisted that “facial challenges” to the validity of statutes are and ought to be rare. Based partly on an empirical survey of all cases decided by the Court during six selected Terms, this Article reveals that assumption to be empirically false and normatively mistaken. Error on this point reflects broader confusions and misunderstandings. For example, it is not true that only a few especially stringent constitutional tests frame fac...

Fallon, Richard Henry

2011-01-01

296

Combining skin texture and facial structure for face identification  

Science.gov (United States)

Current face identification systems are not robust enough to accurately identify the same individual in different images with changes in head pose, facial expression, occlusion, length of hair, illumination, aging, etc. This is especially a problem for facial images that are captured using low resolution video cameras or webcams. This paper introduces a new technique for facial identification in low resolution images that combines facial structure with skin texture to accommodate changes in lighting and head pose. Experiments using this new technique show that combining facial structure features with skin texture features results in a facial identification system for low resolution images that is more robust to pose and illumination conditions than either technique used alone.

Manoni, R. E.; Canosa, R. L.

2012-03-01

297

The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

Fu-Chan Wei

2008-10-01

298

[Radiotherapy of neoplasms of the facial skin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotherapy--predominantly with soft x-rays--is, besides plastic surgery and cryosurgery, suitable for the treatment of facial malignancies for which operation would be undesirable in consideration of tumour size and the patient's general health, age and internal diseases. Operation should be preferred for smaller tumours that can be operated on with primary wound closure; tumours that grow into the mouth angle or into the cartilaginous folds of the ear; for patients under 50 years of age; for facial malignancies that have already caused a defect; for patients with nevoid basal cell epithelioma syndrome or xeroderma pigmentosum; for melanomas and sarcomas (except lentigo maligna). Optimal results are achieved by exact limitation of the irradiated area (with a safety margin) and a ray hardness that corresponds to the individual tumour thickness. Due to mechanical irritation, unusually high sun exposure, allergies, pyodermas and local treatment with corticosteroids ulceration may develop in the radioderma remaining after radiotherapy. Radiation-induced tumours occurring in radiodermas are extremely rare if irradiation was applied for a facial malignancy according to the rules and after the 50th year of age. PMID:3796158

Suter, L

1986-10-01

299

Nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.

Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant P.; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael J.

1997-05-01

300

Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusion technique, which provides MPEG-4-compatible features assorted with a confidence measure. This confidence measure is used to pinpoint cases where detection of individual features may be wrong and reduce their contribution to the training phase or their importance in deducing the observed facial expression, while the fusion process ensures that the final result regarding the features will be based on the extraction technique that performed better given the particular lighting or color conditions. Real data and results are presented, involving both extreme and intermediate expression/emotional states, obtained within the sensitive artificial listener HCI environment that was generated in the framework of related European projects.

Spiros Ioannou

2007-07-01

301

Interfacing Assessment Using Facial Expression Recognition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most important issues in gaming is deciding about the employed interfacing technology. Gamepad has traditionally been a popular interfacing technology for the gaming industry, but, recently motion controlled interfacing has been used widely in this industry. This is exactly the purpose of this paper to study whether the motion controlled interface is a feasible alternative to the gamepad, when evaluated from a user experience point of view. To do so, a custom game has been developed and 25 test subjects have been asked to play the game using both types of the interfaces. To evaluate the users experiences during the game, their hedonic and pragmatic quality are assessed using both subjective and objective evaluation methods in order to cross-validate the obtained results. An application of computer vision, facial expression recognition, has been used as a non-obtrusive objective and hedonic measure. While, the score obtained by the user during the game has been used as a pragmatic quality measure. The use of facial expression recognition has, to the best of our knowledge, not been used before to assess the hedonic quality of interfaces for games. The thorough experimental results show that the user experience of the motion controlled interface is significantly better than the gamepad interface, both in terms of hedonic and pragmatic quality. The facial expression recognition system proved to be a useful non-obtrusive way to objectively evaluate the hedonic quality of the interfacing technologies.

Albjerg Andersen, Rune; Nasrollahi, Kamal

2014-01-01

302

Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a early extratemporal reconstruction, b early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies.

Pantel Mira

2010-11-01

303

Psychophysical Measures of Sensitivity to Facial Expression of Emotion  

OpenAIRE

We report the development of two simple, objective, psychophysical measures of the ability to discriminate facial expressions of emotion that vary in intensity from a neutral facial expression and to discriminate between varying intensities of emotional facial expression. The stimuli were created by morphing photographs of models expressing four basic emotions, anger, disgust, happiness and sadness with neutral expressions. Psychometric functions were obtained for 15 healthy young adults usin...

MichelleMarneweck; AndreaMaryLoftus

2013-01-01

304

Facial Expression Recognition under Noisy Environment Using Gabor Filters  

OpenAIRE

Facial expression recognition is a major task concerning human-computer interaction issue. Plenty of techniques were proposed to recognize an expression either in still images or image sequences. However, most of them were applied for images recorded under controlled recording conditions. This paper aims at describing Gabor filters’ application to extract facial features required to classify facial expression when the images are disturbed by various noise levels. The experiments indicate a ...

Buciu, I.; Nafornita, I.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

305

Asymmetric facial expressions: revealing richer emotions for embodied conversational agents  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we propose a method to achieve effective facial emotional expressivity for embodied conversational agents by considering two types of asymmetry when exploiting the valence-arousal-dominance representation of emotions. Indeed, the asymmetry of facial expressions helps to convey complex emotional feelings such as conflicting and/or hidden emotions due to social conventions. To achieve such a higher degree of facial expression in a generic way, we propose a new model for mapping t...

Ahn, Junghyun; Gobron, Stephane; Thalmann, Daniel; Boulic, Ronan

2013-01-01

306

Facial Expression Recognition Using New Feature Extraction Algorithm  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a method for facial expression recognition. Facial feature vectors are generated from keypoint descriptors using Speeded-Up Robust Features. Each facial feature vector is then normalized and next the probability density function descriptor is generated. The distance between two probability density function descriptors is calculated using Kullback Leibler divergence. Mathematical equation is employed to select certain practicable probability density function descriptors for...

Huang, Hung-fu

2012-01-01

307

Selective Transfer Machine for Personalized Facial Action Unit Detection  

OpenAIRE

Automatic facial action unit (AFA) detection from video is a long-standing problem in facial expression analysis. Most approaches emphasize choices of features and classifiers. They neglect individual differences in target persons. People vary markedly in facial morphology (e.g., heavy versus delicate brows, smooth versus deeply etched wrinkles) and behavior. Individual differences can dramatically influence how well generic classifiers generalize to previously unseen persons. While a possibl...

Chu, Wen-sheng; La Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffery F.

2013-01-01

308

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

OpenAIRE

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well ...

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O’brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

309

Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students  

OpenAIRE

Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifyi...

G.Sofia,; Mohamed Sathik, Dr M.

2010-01-01

310

Injury to the Intratemporal Facial Nerve: Report of a Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injury to the intratemporal facial nerve is caused most commonly by temporal bone fractures resulting from trauma sustained in motor vehicle accidents. Most cases of facial paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture are caused by longitudinal fractures of this bone. We report a 13 year-old girl with paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture. After removal of the bone fragments, we observed that the continuity of the facial nerve was intact.

N Saki

2001-07-01

311

A Fuzzy Reasoning Model for Recognition of Facial Expressions  

OpenAIRE

En este artículo presentamos un sistema de razonamiento difuso capaz de reconocer y medir la intensidad de cualquier expresión facial prototípica o no prototípica. El modelo propuesto utiliza como entrada las deformaciones faciales codificadas ya sea en términos de AUs (Ekman FACS) o FAPs (MPEG-4) y provee reconocimiento de expresiones faciales utilizando una base de conocimiento la cual fue implementada utilizando el sistema de adquisición de conocimiento y editor de ontologías Proté...

Oleg Starostenko; Renan Contreras; Aquino, Vicente Alarc U. F. N.; Leticia Flores Pulido; Edguez Asomoza, Jorge Rodr U.; Oleg Sergiyenko; Vira Tyrsa

2011-01-01

312

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

OpenAIRE

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis ...

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

313

Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis  

OpenAIRE

The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paraly...

Vloeberghs, M.; Philip Breedon

2009-01-01

314

Biases in facial and vocal emotion recognition in chronic schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

There has been extensive research on impaired emotion recognition in schizophrenia in the facial and vocal modalities. The literature points to biases toward non-relevant emotions for emotional faces but few studies have examined biases in emotional recognition across different modalities (facial and vocal). In order to test emotion recognition biases, we exposed 23 patients with stabilized chronic schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls to emotional facial and vocal tasks asking them to rate e...

ThibautDondaine; JuliePéron; MarcVérin

2014-01-01

315

The facial expression of pain in patients with dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The facial expression of pain has emerged as an important pain indicator in demented patients, who have difficulties in providing self-report ratings. In a few clinical studies an increase of facial responses to pain was observed in demented patients compared to healthy controls. However, it had to be shown that this increase can be verified when using experimental methods, which also allows for testing whether the facial responses in demented patients are still typical for pain. We investigated facial responses in 42 demented patients and 54 aged-matched healthy controls to mechanically induced pain of various intensities. The face of the subject was videotaped during pressure stimulation and was later analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Besides facial responses we also assessed self-report ratings. Comparable to previous findings, we found that facial responses to noxious stimulation were significantly increased in demented patients compared to healthy controls. This increase was mainly due to an increase of pain-indicative facial responses in demented patients. Moreover, facial responses were closely related to the intensity of stimulation, especially in demented patients. Regarding self-report ratings, we found no significant group differences; however, the capacity to provide these self-report ratings was diminished in demented patients. The preserved pain typicalness of facial responses to noxious stimulation suggests that pain is reflected as validly in the facial responses of demented patients as it is in healthy individuals. Therefore, the facial expression of pain has the potential to serve as an alternative pain assessment tool in demented patients, even in patients who are verbally compromised. PMID:17949906

Kunz, Miriam; Scharmann, Siegfried; Hemmeter, Uli; Schepelmann, Karsten; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2007-12-15

316

Understanding chimpanzee facial expression: insights into the evolution of communication  

OpenAIRE

To understand the evolution of emotional communication, comparative research on facial expression similarities between humans and related species is essential. Chimpanzees display a complex, flexible facial expression repertoire with many physical and functional similarities to humans. This paper reviews what is known about these facial expression repertoires, discusses the importance of social organization in understanding the meaning of different expressions, and introduces a new coding sys...

Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.

2006-01-01

317

Categorical and dimensional perceptions in decoding emotional facial expressions  

OpenAIRE

We investigated whether categorical perception and dimensional perception can co-occur while decoding emotional facial expressions. In Experiment 1, facial continua with endpoints consisting of four basic emotions (i.e., happiness-fear and anger-disgust) were created by a morphing technique. Participants rated each facial stimulus using a categorical strategy and a dimensional strategy. The results show that the happiness–fear continuum was divided into two clusters based on valence, even w...

Fujimura, Tomomi; Matsuda, Yoshi-taka; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato; Okanoya, Kazuo

2011-01-01

318

Pathophysiological mechanisms of blindness in facial trauma: A review  

OpenAIRE

Blindness is a serious complication that can occur after facial trauma and may represent the loss of one of the most useful senses in the human relationship with the world—the sight. This study aims to review the pathophysiology of blindness related to facial trauma in order to identify the mechanisms by which it develops and to recognize the signs and symptoms required to establish proper diagnosis and treatment. Blindness following facial trauma may occur due to mechanisms that involve i...

André Luis Ribeiro Ribeiro; Adriana Maria Melo dos Reis; Driene Góes Ramalho; Sérgio de Melo Alves Júnior; João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro

2013-01-01

319

A man from San Juan: facial approximation within anthropology  

OpenAIRE

Dentro de la antropología y la identificación forense, la aproximación facial (también conocida como "reconstrucción facial") se presenta frecuentemente como un hecho consumado, con evidencia mínima de las investigaciones y los métodos usados para alcanzar los resultados. Este trabajo presenta un panorama detallado de la investigación y los métodos usados para realizar una aproximación facial grafica en 2D de un hombre prehistórico del valle de Jachal, provincia de San Juan, Argent...

Hayes, Susan

2011-01-01

320

Quantification of facial movements by surface laser scanning  

OpenAIRE

Quantification of facial mimic ability represents a need for comparative investigation in facial medicine and surgery. The aim of the current study was to develop a simple, noninvasive, repeatable three-dimensional method for measuring facial mobility in clinical and research setup. The faces of 20 healthy adult subjects (10 men and 10 women) and 12 primary school children (6 boys and 6 girls), without craniofacial pathologic injuries or previous treatments, were captured by a Cyberware 30...

Ramieri, Guglielmo; Verze, Laura; Quaranta, Federico; Nasi, Andrea; Vasino, Valentina

2011-01-01

321

French-speaking Children's Freely Produced Labels for Facial Expressions  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we investigated the labeling of facial expressions in French-speaking children. The participants were 137 French-speaking children, between the ages of 5 and 11 years, recruited from three elementary schools in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The facial expressions included expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants were shown one facial expression at a time, and asked to say what the stimulus person was feeling. Participants’ responses were ...

PierreGosselin

2014-01-01

322

A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis  

OpenAIRE

The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of f...

Juebo Wu; Hehua Chi; Lianhua Chi

2011-01-01

323

Dynamic facial expression recognition with a discrete choice model  

OpenAIRE

A generation of new models has been proposed to handle some complex human behaviors. These models account for the data ambiguity, and therefore extend the application field of the discrete choice modeling. The facial expression recognition (FER) is highly relevant in this context. We develop a dynamic facial expression recognition (DFER) framework based on discrete choice models (DCM). The DFER consists in modeling the choice of a person who has to label a video sequence representing a facial...

Robin, Thomas; Bierlairey, Michel; Cruz, Javier

2011-01-01

324

Deformidad Facial Asimétrica: Papel de la Hiperplasia Condilar / Asymmetric Facial Deformity: Role of Condylar Hyperplasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las deformidades dentofaciales (DDF) son conocidas y su diagnostico es cada vez mas frecuente; las DDF asimétricas son un grupo de enfermedades de complejo manejo debido a las condicionantes estéticas y funcionales comprometidas. La etiología es variada, aunque la hiperplasia condilar suele estar as [...] ociada en los pacientes adolescentes y adultos; su diagnostico se establece mediante análisis facial, estudio con medicina nuclear, tomografías computadorizadas y otros exámenes. La terapéutica mas aceptada hoy día consiste en la condilectomia parcial y la corrección de la deformidad facial basada en las necesidades estéticas y funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de esta revisión es determinar las condicionantes actuales asociadas al diagnostico y tratamiento de las DDF asimétricas y el papel que cumple la hiperplasia condilar en el desarrollo de estas alteraciones faciales. Abstract in english Dentofacial deformities (DDF) are know and the diagnosis is ever more executed; the asymmetric DDF are a group of disease with difficult management because of esthetic a functional conditions. The etiology is these conditions is varied, although the condylar hyperplasia is frequently in adolescent a [...] nd adult patients; the diagnosis is realized by facial analysis, nuclear medicine study and computed tomography and others. The more accepted therapy is related to partial condilectomy and facial deformity correction in relation to aesthetic and functional needs of patient. The aim of this review is to determine the current conditions associated to diagnosis and treatment of asymmetric DDF and the role of condylar hyperplasia in the development of these facial alterations.

Sergio, Olate; Marcio, de Moraes.

325

Desfiguramento facial adquirido: breve revisão narrativa / Acquired facial disfigurement: a brief narrative review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 2010, o Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Portugal (INE) indicou que anualmente se realizam cerca de 40 000 médias e grandes cirurgias reconstrutiva e estética. Apesar da sua etiologia, justifica-se uma maior dedicação na investigação de indivíduos que por trauma ou doença perderam a sua “iden [...] tidade” apresentando um desfiguramento facial. Pretende-se com o presente artigo apresentar uma breve contextualização que descreva o desenvolvimento sobre o desfiguramento facial adquirido causado pela doença (cancro cabeça e pescoço) ou originado pelo trauma (queimados, agressão, outros), recorrendo a literatura publicada em livros e artigos científicos, fazendo também referência a instrumentos validados para a população portuguesa que permitem avaliar o investimento da imagem corporal (ASI-R) e avaliar a autoconsciência da aparência (DAS-24). Referenciar as necessidades e questões psicossociais mais comuns, o tipo de intervenção, a importância do apoio social e quais as estratégias de coping mais frequentes no ajustamento ao desfiguramento facial adquirido. Abstract in english In 2010, the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE) pointed out that 40,000 medium and large reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries are performed annually. Regardless of its etiology, a stronger focus on investigating individuals that have lost their "identity" due to trauma or disease, thus featu [...] ring a facial disfigurement, is justified. The intention of this paper to present a brief context that describes the development of the acquired facial disfigurement caused by the disease (cancer of the head and neck) or originated by trauma (burns) using published literature in books and articles scientific, also making reference to instruments validated for the Portuguese population for assessing investment body image (ASI-R) and to evaluate the self-consciousness of appearance (DAS-24). Identify the need and psychosocial issues most common type of intervention, the importance of social support and coping strategies which frequently in adjustment to acquired facial disfigurement.

José Carlos da Silva, Mendes; Maria João, Figueiras.

2013-11-01

326

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à compressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL, quatro (BL e seis (CL semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression lesion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL, four (BL and six (CL weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p<0.05. RESULTS:There was partial functional recovery after two weeks, and complete recovery after five weeks. Qualitative analysis demonstrated a degenerative pattern in the AL group, with an increased tissue inflammatory process. Evident regeneration signs were observed in the BL group, and almost complete regeneration was seen in the CL group. Normal nerves (N had an average TD of 15705.59 and average PD of 21800.75. The BL group had an average TD of 10818.55 and an average PD of 15340.56. The CL group had an average TD of 13920.36 and an average PD of 16589.15. The BL group had an average TD of N equal to 68.88%, and the CL group had an average TD of N equal to 88,63% (statistically significant. N showed a significant higher PD than injured nerves. However, this was not statistically different between BL and CL subgroups. Nerve DT was a more reliable method than PD in this study.

Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi Costa

2006-12-01

327

Facial Expression Recognition Analysis with Muti-Scale Filter  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of filters is the key step of facial expression extraction. Frequency and orientation of the filters can simulate those of the human visual system, and they have the characteristics of being particularly appropriate for texture representation and discrimination. The paper presents the wavelet filter provided with 3 frequencies, 8 orientations. In according to actual demand, it can extract the feature of low quality facial expression image target, and have good robust for automatic facial expression recognition. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed filter achieved excellent average recognition rates, when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

Ou, Jun

328

Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right  

CERN Document Server

The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

Osipa, Jason

2010-01-01

329

Structural analysis of temporal patterns of facial actions: Measurement and implications for the study of emotion perception through facial expressions  

OpenAIRE

This thesis adresses the issue of the impact of the dynamic unfolding of facial actions on emotion perception. The theoretical section points to the limitations of previous reserach in studying emotion recognition from static photographs of prototypical facial displays. The importance of the dynamic features of naturally occuring expressions for emotional state attribution from facial cues is highlighted. The empirical section presents a new database of 200 short videos clips of spontaneous f...

With, Ste?phane

2010-01-01

330

The occurrence of phi in dento-facial beauty of fine art from antiquity through the Renaissance.  

Science.gov (United States)

External beauty is a complex construct that influences lives and may be impacted by dentists. Beauty is not easily quantified, but one cited anthropometric of beauty is the ratio phi, the number 1.618033(...). This study examined phi as a measure of female frontal facial beauty in classic Western art, using pre- Renaissance (N = 30), and Renaissance (N = 30) artwork. Four horizontal and five vertical ratios were determined in the works of art, which were then compared with the phi ratio. All horizontal ratios for both pre-Renaissance and Renaissance artwork were similar to each other, but did not contain the phi ratio (P Renaissance art-work did contain the phi ratio within their confidence intervals with the exception of the vertical ratio, "intereye point to soft tissue menton/ intereye point to stomion", that was found to be less than phi in the Renaissance group. The study provides evidence of the presence of the phi ratio in vertical aspect of females in artwork from pre-Renaissance through the Renaissance demonstrating consistent temporal preferences. Therefore, the phi ratio seems to be an important consideration in altering vertical facial dimensions in full mouth rehabilitation and reconstructive orthognathic surgery involving females. PMID:23150872

Wiener, R Constance; Wiener Pla, Regina M

2012-01-01

331

Guide of maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns Guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The guide for maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns has been developed on the basis of the results obtained in a retrospective descriptive study of a series of patients for facial burns, were treated in serving Burned Cienfuegos University General Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "between January 2005 and September 2007. The document describes the set of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, both general and local, to treat patients with facial burns depending on the extent and depth of burns, also describes some special considerations depending on their location in central facial structures (eyelids, flag ear, nose, mouth, neck. It took into account national guidelines and the Pan American Health Organization, were also consulted experts and specialists in the field. The guide was approved by the scientific council of the institution cited above.La guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales ha sido elaborada sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos en un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de una serie de pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario de Cienfuegos “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. El documento describe el conjunto de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos, tanto generales como locales, para tratar a los pacientes con quemaduras faciales según la extensión y profundidad de las quemaduras, además se describen algunas consideraciones especiales según su localización en estructuras centro faciales (párpados, pabellón auricular, nariz, boca, cuello. Se tuvieron en cuenta los lineamientos nacionales y de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, también fueron consultados expertos y especialistas en el tema. La guía fue aprobada por el consejo científico de la institución antes citada.

Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

2010-07-01

332

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica / Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e [...] divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They wer [...] e separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée, Mory; Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nizam, Pfeilsticker; Euro de Barros, Couto Junior; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

2013-04-01

333

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2013-04-01

334

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na Paralisia Facial Periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2012-01-01

335

Concordância dos ortodontistas no diagnóstico do padrão facial / Agreement among orthodontists regarding facial pattern diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância de ortodontistas treinados no diagnóstico do Padrão Facial, por meio da avaliação morfológica da face. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais de frente, perfil e sorriso de 105 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente entre pacientes que procuraram tratamento or [...] todôntico, as quais foram enviadas a ortodontistas treinados na classificação do Padrão Facial. A concordância intraexaminador, dos examinadores com o Padrão-Ouro e interexaminadores foi avaliada por meio do Índice Kappa. RESULTADOS: a concordância na avaliação intraexaminador foi quase perfeita, com Índice Kappa 0,85. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro foi moderada (Kappa 0,48), sendo mais alta no Padrão I (Kappa 0,62) e mais baixa no Padrão Face Curta (Kappa 0,33). A concordância entre os examinadores foi substancial (Kappa 0,61), mais alta que a concordância com o Padrão-Ouro em todos os Padrões. CONCLUSÃO: os critérios utilizados pelos examinadores para determinação do Padrão Facial foram os mesmos na primeira e na segunda avaliação. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro é moderada, e eles apresentam maior concordância entre si que com o Padrão-Ouro. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To assess agreement among orthodontists trained in facial pattern diagnosis through the morphological evaluation of the face. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken in front and side view, as well as photos of the smiles of 105 individuals randomly selected among patients seeking orthodont [...] ic treatment. The photos were sent to orthodontists trained in facial pattern classification. Intra-rater agreement, agreement between raters and the Gold Standard, as well as inter-rater agreement were assessed using the Kappa index. RESULTS: Intra-rater agreement was almost perfect, with Kappa index reaching 0.85. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate (Kappa = 0.48), higher for Pattern I (Kappa = 0.62) and lower for the short face pattern (Kappa = 0.33). Agreement between raters was significant (Kappa = 0.61) and even higher than agreement with the Gold Standard for all patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The criteria used by raters to determine the facial pattern were the same in the first and second evaluation. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate, with raters exhibiting greater agreement between them than with the Gold Standard.

Sílvia Augusta Braga, Reis; Jorge, Abrão; Cristiane Aparecida Assis, Claro; Renata Ferraz, Fornazari; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho.

2011-08-01

336

Concordância dos ortodontistas no diagnóstico do padrão facial Agreement among orthodontists regarding facial pattern diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância de ortodontistas treinados no diagnóstico do Padrão Facial, por meio da avaliação morfológica da face. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais de frente, perfil e sorriso de 105 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente entre pacientes que procuraram tratamento ortodôntico, as quais foram enviadas a ortodontistas treinados na classificação do Padrão Facial. A concordância intraexaminador, dos examinadores com o Padrão-Ouro e interexaminadores foi avaliada por meio do Índice Kappa. RESULTADOS: a concordância na avaliação intraexaminador foi quase perfeita, com Índice Kappa 0,85. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro foi moderada (Kappa 0,48, sendo mais alta no Padrão I (Kappa 0,62 e mais baixa no Padrão Face Curta (Kappa 0,33. A concordância entre os examinadores foi substancial (Kappa 0,61, mais alta que a concordância com o Padrão-Ouro em todos os Padrões. CONCLUSÃO: os critérios utilizados pelos examinadores para determinação do Padrão Facial foram os mesmos na primeira e na segunda avaliação. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro é moderada, e eles apresentam maior concordância entre si que com o Padrão-Ouro.OBJECTIVE To assess agreement among orthodontists trained in facial pattern diagnosis through the morphological evaluation of the face. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken in front and side view, as well as photos of the smiles of 105 individuals randomly selected among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The photos were sent to orthodontists trained in facial pattern classification. Intra-rater agreement, agreement between raters and the Gold Standard, as well as inter-rater agreement were assessed using the Kappa index. RESULTS: Intra-rater agreement was almost perfect, with Kappa index reaching 0.85. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate (Kappa = 0.48, higher for Pattern I (Kappa = 0.62 and lower for the short face pattern (Kappa = 0.33. Agreement between raters was significant (Kappa = 0.61 and even higher than agreement with the Gold Standard for all patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The criteria used by raters to determine the facial pattern were the same in the first and second evaluation. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate, with raters exhibiting greater agreement between them than with the Gold Standard.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

2011-08-01

337

Diplejia facial: variante regional del síndrome de Guillian-Barré / Facial diplejia: a regional variant of Guillian-Barré syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Diplejia facial es una manifestación clínica poco frecuente que puede presentarse como consecuencia de múltiples etiologías. Presentamos un paciente con una infección periodontal crónica que sufrió de forma brusca una parálisis facial inicialmente izquierda, que rápidamente se hizo bilateral. La apa [...] rición posterior de parestesias distales en extremidad superior derecha e hiporreflexia, junto con la disociación albúmino-citológica en el LCR, permitieron establecer el diagnóstico de variante regional del Síndrome de Guillian-Barré (SGB). La diplejia facial es idiopática en el 25% de casos, siendo la causa más frecuente. Sin embargo, existe un elevado porcentaje de casos secundarios a múltiples etiologías como el SGB donde es frecuente la afectación del nervio facial habitualmente asociado a otros trastornos motores siendo infrecuente la diplejia facial aislada. Concluimos la necesidad de sospecha clínica para realización de punción lumbar y RNM para descartar procesos neoplásicos y poder determinar la etiología responsable para establecer un adecuado abordaje terapéutico. Abstract in english Facial palsy is a uncommon clinical manifestation that it can be caused by different ethiologies. We show a patient with a chronic periodontal disease who presented a sudden facial palsy, initially in left-face but it becomes bilateral quickly. In few days he associated paresthesias in his right arm [...] and hiporreflexia. These clinical findings with albumin-citological dissociation, they had allowed to establish the diagnosis of regional variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (SGB). Facial diplejia is an idiopathic manifestation in 25% of patients, and this is the most common cause. However, facial diplejia can be secondary to many ethiologies as SGB. The affectation of facial nerve associated to other motor symptoms in SGB is frequent, but it is not frequent the presentation as facial diplejia alone. In conclusion, it is necessary a high clinical suspicion to do a lumbar punction (PL) and MRI to reject neoplasic pathologies and to obtain a diagnosis and an adequatted treatment.

G., Piñol Pipoll; P., Larrodé Pellicer; I., de la Puerta González-Miró; C., Tejero Juste; C., Iñiguez Martínez; S., Santos Lasaosa; E., Mostacero Miguel.

2007-01-01

338

Robust facial landmark detection for three-dimensional face segmentation and alignment  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional human faces have been applied in many fields, such as face animation, identity recognition, and facial plastic surgery. Segmenting and aligning 3-D faces from raw scanned data is the first vital step toward making these applications successful. However, the existence of artifacts, facial expressions, and noises poses many challenges to this problem. We propose an automatic and robust method to segment and align 3-D face surfaces by locating the nose tip and nose ridge. Taking a raw scanned surface as input, a novel feature-based moment analysis on scale spaces is presented to locate the nose tip accurately and robustly, which is then used to crop the face region. A technique called the geodesic Euclidean ratio is then developed to find the nose ridge. Each face is aligned based on the locations of nose tip and nose ridge. The proposed method is not only invariant to translations and rotations, but also robust in the presence of facial expressions and artifacts such as hair, clothing, other body parts, etc. Experimental results on two large 3-D face databases demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

Wu, Hai Shan; Chen, Yan Qiu

2010-07-01

339

Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

2010-01-01

340

Impaired facial emotion recognition and reduced amygdalar volume in schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural abnormalities of the amygdala and impaired facial emotion recognition have been reported in schizophrenia. Most studies demonstrated reduced amygdalar volumes in schizophrenia patients, and difficulty in recognizing negative facial emotions has also been reported. However, findings on the deficit in facial emotion recognition have been inconsistent, and the relationships between this impairment and amygdalar volume reduction remain unclear. In this study, we investigated these relationships by performing volumetric analysis of the amygdala and evaluation of facial emotion recognition performance in the same subjects with schizophrenia. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. We measured the volumes of the amygdalae with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3.0 Tesla. Additionally, we included a task that evaluated the subjects' ability to recognize the intensity of basic facial emotions. We found that impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia patients is emotion-specific (sadness, surprise, disgust, and anger). Moreover, the volume of each amygdala on either side of the brain was reduced. Finally, we found a correlation between left amygdalar volume and the recognition of sadness in facial expressions. This study demonstrated that amygdala dysfunction may contribute to impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. PMID:17728113

Namiki, Chihiro; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Hanakawa, Takashi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

2007-10-15

341

Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage. PMID:22237906

Santana, Sharlene E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E

2012-06-01

342

Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Rare Complication of Parotid Abscess  

OpenAIRE

Benign parotid neoplasm and inflammatory processes of the parotid resulting in facial paralysis are extremely rare. We report a 72-year-old Malay female with poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful right parotid swelling associated with right facial nerve palsy. The paralysis (Grade VI, House and Brackmann classification) remained after six months.

Sabir Husin Athar, Primuharsa Putra; Yahya, Zakinah; Mat Baki, Marina; Abdullah, Asma

2009-01-01

343

Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

2007-01-01

344

Simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry of male and female avatar characters. During Differentiation presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system.

PeterWeyers

2012-07-01

345

Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial

Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

2008-01-01

346

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions  

OpenAIRE

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fea...

WataruSato; YasutakaKubota

2014-01-01

347

Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

2006-01-01

348

Transient peripheral facial nerve paralysis after local anesthetic procedure  

OpenAIRE

Complications may arise after laser therapy of the face. The most common ones are bleeding and infections; facial nerve paresis or paralysis is rarely reported. We describe a case of a transient peripheral facial nerve paralysis after laser therapy of an epidermal verrucous nevus localized at the left preauricular area.

Rosmaninho, A.; Lobo, I.; Caetano, M.; Taipa, R.; Magalha?es, M.; Costa, V.; Selores, M.

2012-01-01

349

Letter: Transient peripheral facial nerve paralysis after local anesthetic procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complications may arise after laser therapy of the face. The most common ones are bleeding and infections; facial nerve paresis or paralysis is rarely reported. We describe a case of a transient peripheral facial nerve paralysis after laser therapy of an epidermal verrucous nevus localized at the left preauricular area. PMID:22559030

Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Lobo, Inês; Caetano, Mónica; Taipa, Ricardo; Magalhães, Marina; Costa, Virgílio; Selores, Manuela

2012-01-01

350

Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous studies show that candidates’ facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates’ attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from candidates’ faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties’ nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates’ attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantlythese relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties’ nomination strategies and candidates’ age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and electoral success is highly robust.

Laustsen, Lasse

2014-01-01

351

A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

Sharma P

2011-03-01

352

High-resolution Animation of Facial Dynamics  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a framework for performance-based animation and retargeting of high-resolution face models from motion capture. A novel method is introduced for learning a mapping between sparse 3D motion capture markers and dense high-resolution 3D scans of face shape and appearance. A high-resolution facial expression space is learnt from a set of 3D face scans as a person specific morphable model. Sparse 3D face points sampled at the motion capture marker positions are used to build a ...

Nadtoka, N.; Tena, Jr; Hilton, A.; Edge, J.

2007-01-01

353

Languages and interfaces for facial animation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

Magnenat-Thalmann, N. [Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

1995-05-01

354

Management strategy for facial arteriovenous malformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis; haemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolisation (super-selective followed by complete resection 24-48 hours later. We treated 20 patients with facial arteriovenous malformation by using this method. Most of the lesions (80% were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure related complications and cosmetic results were excellent.

Bhandari P

2008-01-01

355

Vemurafenib-induced bilateral facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Vemurafenib in August 2011, for treatment of melanoma with BRAF V600 mutation. It has shown improvement in the median overall survival of melanoma patients. The most common adverse effects of vermurafenib are arthralgia, rash, alopecia, photosensitivity and fatigue. Other infrequent and severe adverse reactions reported in patients include keratocanthomas, hypersensitivity, Stevens Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, uveitis, QT prolongation, and hepatotoxicity. We hereby present a case of bilateral facial palsy as an adverse effect of vemurafenib therapy, seen after six weeks of commencement of the drug. Complete resolution of the symptoms was seen when the patient was taken off vemurafenib. PMID:24823520

Shailesh, F N U; Singh, M; Tiwari, U; Hutchins, L F

2014-01-01

356

Facial Expression Recognition based on Independent Component Analysis  

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Full Text Available As an important part of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition, facial expression recognition has drawn much attention recently and numerous methods have been proposed. Feature extraction is the most important part which directly affects the final recognition results. Independent component analysis (ICA is a subspace analysis method, which is also a novel statistical technique in signal processing and machine learning that aims at finding linear projections of the data that maximize their mutual independence. In this paper, we introduce the basic theory of ICA algorithm in detail and then present the process of facial expression recognition based on ICA model. Finally, we use PCA and ICA algorithm to extract facial features, and then SVM classifier is used for facial expression recognition. Experimental results show ICA is a real effective facial expression recognition method and the recognition rate based on ICA is greater than based on PCA and 2DPCA

XiaoHui Guo

2013-08-01

357

Parameterized Facial Expression Synthesis Based on MPEG-4  

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Full Text Available In the framework of MPEG-4, one can include applications where virtual agents, utilizing both textual and multisensory data, including facial expressions and nonverbal speech help systems become accustomed to the actual feelings of the user. Applications of this technology are expected in educational environments, virtual collaborative workplaces, communities, and interactive entertainment. Facial animation has gained much interest within the MPEG-4 framework; with implementation details being an open research area (Tekalp, 1999. In this paper, we describe a method for enriching human computer interaction, focusing on analysis and synthesis of primary and intermediate facial expressions (Ekman and Friesen (1978. To achieve this goal, we utilize facial animation parameters (FAPs to model primary expressions and describe a rule-based technique for handling intermediate ones. A relation between FAPs and the activation parameter proposed in classical psychological studies is established, leading to parameterized facial expression analysis and synthesis notions, compatible with the MPEG-4 standard.

Amaryllis Raouzaiou

2002-10-01

358

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions  

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Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

WataruSato

2014-09-01

359

Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

360

Isolated facial hemihyperplasia: manifestation of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial asymmetry is a common finding in infants and can be the result of a number of distinctive conditions such as hemifacial microsomia, overgrowth syndromes, a soft tissue tumor, and a vascular malformation. However, overgrowth syndromes such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) typically manifest more extensive involvement; it rarely presents as isolated facial overgrowth.Here, we present a 7-year-old boy who presented with facial asymmetry. He was found to have isolated facial hemihyperplasia, involving his right cheek and teeth. No abnormalities were seen in the rest of his examination. The diagnosis of BWS was considered and was confirmed by detection of a methylation abnormality in H19 (DMR1). This case demonstrates that BWS should be considered, even with isolated facial involvement. This is important, as affected patients are predisposed to certain malignancies, especially in the first 5 to 8 years of life. Therefore, specialized surveillance is recommended as the part of management. PMID:18216702

Sathienkijkanchai, Achara; Prucka, Sandra K; Grant, John H; Robin, Nathaniel H

2008-01-01

361

Attentional Control and Interpretation of Facial Expression after Oxytocin Administration to Typically Developed Male Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficits in attentional-inhibitory control have been reported to correlate to anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior; therefore, inhibitory control appears to play an important role in prosocial behavior. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) exerts a prosocial effect (e.g., decreasing negative behaviors, such as aggression) on humans. However, it is unknown whether the positively valenced effect of OT on sociality is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In the present study, we hypothesized that OT enhances attentional-inhibitory control and that the positively valenced effect of OT on social cognition is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we tested this hypothesis using 20 healthy male volunteers. We considered a decrease in the hostility detection ratio, which reflects the positively valenced interpretation of other individuals’ facial expressions, to be an index of the positively valenced effects of OT (we reused the results of our previously published study). As a measure of attentional-inhibitory control, we employed a modified version of the flanker task (i.e., a shorter conflict duration indicated higher inhibitory control). These results failed to demonstrate any significant behavioral effects of OT (i.e., neither a positively valenced effect on facial cognition nor an effect on attentional-inhibitory control). However, the enhancement of attentional-inhibitory control after OT administration significantly correlated to the positively valenced effects on the interpretation of uncertain facial cognition (i.e., neutral and ambiguous facial expressions). PMID:25659131

Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Okumura, Eiichi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Furutani, Naoki; Ono, Yasuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

2015-01-01

362

Cephalic and Facial Indices Among Kosovo-Albanian Population / Índices Cefálico y Facial en la Población Kosovar-Albanesa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los índices cefálicos y faciales se utilizan para estimar las diferencias raciales y de sexo. Este estudio se llevó a cabo para establecer estándares para las variables y la distribución de los índices cefálicos y faciales en la población de Kosovo- Albanesa. Se examinaron 204 estudiantes de odontol [...] ogía (101 hombres y 103 mujeres entre 18 y 30 años). Se midieron cuatro variables craneofaciales básicas (longitud de la cabeza, ancho de la cabeza, altura facial morfológica y ancho facial) para obtener los índices cefálicos y faciales. Todas las variables medidas craneofaciales fueron considerablemente más altas en los hombres que en las mujeres (p Abstract in english Cephalic and facial indices are used to estimate the racial and sex differences. This study was carried out to establish standards for craniofacial variables and distribution of cephalic and facial indices in Kosovo - Albanian population. The study population consisted of 204 dental students (101 ma [...] les and 103 females, aged 18 to 30). Four basic craniofacial variables (head length, head breadth, morphological face height and face breadth) were measured to obtained cephalic and facial indices. All measured craniofacial variables are considerably higher in males than in females (p

Gloria, Staka; Metush, Disha; Fatmir, Dragidella.

2013-06-01

363

Relação entre cefalometria e análise facial na determinação do tipo de face / Relation between cephalometry and facial analysis on the facial type determination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar os achados cefalométricos com os da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias para classificar o tipo facial, segundo o sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particula [...] r de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte/MG. Os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo facial a partir do índice VERT de Ricketts foram comparados com a classificação da face realizada por meio da análise facial clínica baseada na observação de duas fotografias. Para essa análise, participaram três fonoaudiólogos especialistas em motricidade orofacial. RESULTADOS: não houve correspondência satisfatória ao se comparar as duas formas de classificação do tipo facial apresentadas neste estudo. A maioria dos indivíduos masculinos dolicofaciais foi classificada como face média a partir da análise facial, ou seja, quatro entre sete sujeitos (57,14%). Os 11 mesofaciais foram identificados como face média (N=5; 45,45%) ou curta (N=4; 36,36%) e os 16 braquifaciais como face média (N=9; 56,25%) ou curta (N=7; 43,75%). No sexo feminino, observou-se que 11 entre 20, ou seja, 55% dos indivíduos dolicofaciais foram apontados como face média. Dos 26 sujeitos mesofaciais, 16 (61,53%) também foram classificados como face média. Com relação aos 25 braquifaciais, 12 (48%) foram identificados como face curta e 11 (44%), como média. CONCLUSÃO: a classificação do tipo de face apenas a partir da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias não foi considerada confiável, se utilizada isoladamente, quando comparada à classificação obtida a partir da análise cefalométrica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to correlate the cephalometrical findings with the ones from facial analysis performed by means of photographs to classify facial type, according to the gender. METHODS: 105 leukoderm adults took part, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%) with ages between 20 and 40 years old, in a private [...] orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. The cephalometrics analysis findings for determining facial type from the Ricketts VERT index were compared with the facial classification performed by means of clinical facial analysis based on observation of two photographs. For this analysis, three Speech and Language Pathologists specialized in orofacial myology were involved. RESULTS: there was no satisfactory correspondence when comparing the two forms of facial type classification presented in this study. Most of the dolichofacial males were classified as medium face by means of facial analysis, meaning four among seven subjects (57.14%). The eleven mesofacial subjects were identified as medium face (N=5; 45.45%) or short (N=4; 36.36%) and the 16 braquifacial subjects as medium face (N=9; 56.25%) or short (N=7; 43.75%). With females, it was observed that 11 among 20, meaning 55% of the dolichofacial individuals were appointed as medium face. Among the 26 mesofacial subjects, 16 (61.53%) were also classified as medium face. Regarding the 25 braquifacial subjects, 12 (48%) were identified as short face and 11 (44%), as medium. CONCLUSION: facial type classification based only on facial analysis performed by means of photographs was not considered trustworthy, if used independently, when compared with cephalometrics analysis findings.

Rossana Ribeiro, Ramires; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira; Irene Queiroz, Marchesan; Débora Martins, Cattoni; Marta Assumpção de Andrada e, Silva.

364

Relação entre cefalometria e análise facial na determinação do tipo de face Relation between cephalometry and facial analysis on the facial type determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar os achados cefalométricos com os da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias para classificar o tipo facial, segundo o sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4% homens e 71 (67,6% mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte/MG. Os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo facial a partir do índice VERT de Ricketts foram comparados com a classificação da face realizada por meio da análise facial clínica baseada na observação de duas fotografias. Para essa análise, participaram três fonoaudiólogos especialistas em motricidade orofacial. RESULTADOS: não houve correspondência satisfatória ao se comparar as duas formas de classificação do tipo facial apresentadas neste estudo. A maioria dos indivíduos masculinos dolicofaciais foi classificada como face média a partir da análise facial, ou seja, quatro entre sete sujeitos (57,14%. Os 11 mesofaciais foram identificados como face média (N=5; 45,45% ou curta (N=4; 36,36% e os 16 braquifaciais como face média (N=9; 56,25% ou curta (N=7; 43,75%. No sexo feminino, observou-se que 11 entre 20, ou seja, 55% dos indivíduos dolicofaciais foram apontados como face média. Dos 26 sujeitos mesofaciais, 16 (61,53% também foram classificados como face média. Com relação aos 25 braquifaciais, 12 (48% foram identificados como face curta e 11 (44%, como média. CONCLUSÃO: a classificação do tipo de face apenas a partir da análise facial realizada por meio de fotografias não foi considerada confiável, se utilizada isoladamente, quando comparada à classificação obtida a partir da análise cefalométrica.PURPOSE: to correlate the cephalometrical findings with the ones from facial analysis performed by means of photographs to classify facial type, according to the gender. METHODS: 105 leukoderm adults took part, 34 male (32.4% and 71 female (67.6% with ages between 20 and 40 years old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. The cephalometrics analysis findings for determining facial type from the Ricketts VERT index were compared with the facial classification performed by means of clinical facial analysis based on observation of two photographs. For this analysis, three Speech and Language Pathologists specialized in orofacial myology were involved. RESULTS: there was no satisfactory correspondence when comparing the two forms of facial type classification presented in this study. Most of the dolichofacial males were classified as medium face by means of facial analysis, meaning four among seven subjects (57.14%. The eleven mesofacial subjects were identified as medium face (N=5; 45.45% or short (N=4; 36.36% and the 16 braquifacial subjects as medium face (N=9; 56.25% or short (N=7; 43.75%. With females, it was observed that 11 among 20, meaning 55% of the dolichofacial individuals were appointed as medium face. Among the 26 mesofacial subjects, 16 (61.53% were also classified as medium face. Regarding the 25 braquifacial subjects, 12 (48% were identified as short face and 11 (44%, as medium. CONCLUSION: facial type classification based only on facial analysis performed by means of photographs was not considered trustworthy, if used independently, when compared with cephalometrics analysis findings.

Rossana Ribeiro Ramires

2009-01-01

365

Colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery  

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Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la población chilena. La región facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposición a la radiación ultravioleta. El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuesta a la luz solar. Los tipos más frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cánceres cutáneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirúrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial. Material y método: Se analizaron 55 cirugías realizadas para colgajos cutáneos en 54 pacientes en 2 años (2009-2010 en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB de Concepción. Resultados: Presentación descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutáneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la resección de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, párpados, labios, mejilla y mentón. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus características más relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clínicos obtenidos con estas técnicas quirúrgicas, de fácil aplicación en un área clínica en que la estética es primordial, aplicando márgenes oncológicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La región facial permite la obtención de colgajos cutáneos con muy buena vascularización, delgados, con características muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mínima morbilidad. La biomecánica de la piel y su aplicación en la técnica quirúrgica es vital para el diseño y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un área de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estéticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstrucción, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron buenos considerando la localización y extensión de las lesiones tumorales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente.Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010, which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

Mario Gutiérrez A

2012-04-01

366

Colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial / Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El cáncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la población chilena. La región facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposición a la radiación ultravioleta. El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuest [...] a a la luz solar. Los tipos más frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cánceres cutáneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirúrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial. Material y método: Se analizaron 55 cirugías realizadas para colgajos cutáneos en 54 pacientes en 2 años (2009-2010) en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB) de Concepción. Resultados: Presentación descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutáneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la resección de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, párpados, labios, mejilla y mentón. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus características más relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clínicos obtenidos con estas técnicas quirúrgicas, de fácil aplicación en un área clínica en que la estética es primordial, aplicando márgenes oncológicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La región facial permite la obtención de colgajos cutáneos con muy buena vascularización, delgados, con características muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mínima morbilidad. La biomecánica de la piel y su aplicación en la técnica quirúrgica es vital para el diseño y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un área de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estéticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstrucción, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron buenos considerando la localización y extensión de las lesiones tumorales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente. Abstract in english Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency [...] are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010), which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

Mario, Gutiérrez A; Joaquín, Ulloa S; Patricio, Ulloa B.

2012-04-01

367

Locally nonlinear transformation for facial image superresolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction of a high-resolution face image, from a low-resolution observation based on a set of high- and low-resolution training image pairs, is an important problem for optical engineering applications. In this paper, we study this facial superresolution problem and propose a novel locally nonlinear transformation based approach. Multiple locally nonlinear transformation are utilized to approximate the global nonlinear connections between low resolution (LR)/high resolution (HR) images. LR/HR images are initially divided into multiple pairs of patches with the corresponding position information. As facial images are highly structured, patches at the same position spanned a subspace. Since the curse of dimensionality is avoided in these subspaces (patches in the same position), the Euclidean distance can express the intrinsic "radial" between samples in the same subspace. Therefore, multiple radial basis functions are utilized to approximate the nonlinear mapping between LR/HR pairs at each position from training examples. The proposed locally nonlinear transformation (LNT)-based reconstruction is achieved by applying the learned nonlinear transformation to each position patch of an LR input. The final SR results are obtained by refining the LNT reconstruction by the projection onto a convex sets algorithm using the consistency constraint. Extensive experiments on benchmark databases and real world images validate the superiority of the proposed method.

Zeng, Xiao; Huang, Hua

2013-02-01

368

Nongoitrous autoimmune thyroiditis with facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with nongoitrous, autoimmune thyroiditis and pituitary hyperplasia in a 13-year-old boy, who presented with sudden palsy on the left side of his face. Prednisolone and antiviral medication was administered. However, the facial palsy did not improve completely. The medications were replaced with thyroxine, and the facial palsy recovered. Endocrinological testing showed severe hypothyroidism as follows: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level >100 µIU/mL, T4 of 1.04 µg/dL, T3 of 0.31 ng/mL, and free T4 of 0.07 ng/dL. Level of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies was 1,933.39 IU/mL, and that of antithyroglobulin antibodies was 848.16 IU/mL. Level of TSH receptor antibodies was >40 IU/L. Bioassay result for TSH receptor stimulating antibodies was negative. Thyroid sonography revealed no increase in the size or vascularity of the bilateral gland. Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland. PMID:24904880

Lee, Hyung Jik; Kim, Jin Kyung

2013-12-01

369

Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future.

Kashyap Tadisina

2014-07-01

370

3D analysis of facial morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dense surface models can be used to analyze 3D facial morphology by establishing a correspondence of thousands of points across each 3D face image. The models provide dramatic visualizations of 3D face-shape variation with potential for training physicians to recognize the key components of particular syndromes. We demonstrate their use to visualize and recognize shape differences in a collection of 3D face images that includes 280 controls (2 weeks to 56 years of age), 90 individuals with Noonan syndrome (NS) (7 months to 56 years), and 60 individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 3 to 17 years of age). Ten-fold cross-validation testing of discrimination between the three groups was carried out on unseen test examples using five pattern recognition algorithms (nearest mean, C5.0 decision trees, neural networks, logistic regression, and support vector machines). For discriminating between individuals with NS and controls, the best average sensitivity and specificity levels were 92 and 93% for children, 83 and 94% for adults, and 88 and 94% for the children and adults combined. For individuals with VCFS and controls, the best results were 83 and 92%. In a comparison of individuals with NS and individuals with VCFS, a correct identification rate of 95% was achieved for both syndromes. This article contains supplementary material, which may be viewed at the American Journal of Medical Genetics website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0148-7299/suppmat/index.html. PMID:15098232

Hammond, Peter; Hutton, Tim J; Allanson, Judith E; Campbell, Linda E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Holden, Sean; Patton, Michael A; Shaw, Adam; Temple, I Karen; Trotter, Matthew; Murphy, Kieran C; Winter, Robin M

2004-05-01

371

Adults' responsiveness to children's facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of young children's (hereafter children's) facial expressions on adult responsiveness. In Study 1, 131 undergraduate students from a midsized university in the midwestern United States rated children's images and videos with smiling, crying, or neutral expressions on cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and participants' experienced distress. Looking times at images and videos along with perception of cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and experienced distress using 10-point Likert scales were measured. Videos of smiling children were rated as cuter and more likely to be adopted and were viewed for longer times compared with videos of crying children, which evoked more distress. In Study 2, we recorded responses from 101 of the same participants in an online survey measuring gender role identity, empathy, and perspective taking. Higher levels of femininity (as measured by Bem's Sex Role Inventory) predicted higher "likely to adopt" ratings for crying images. These findings indicate that adult perception of children and motivation to nurture are affected by both children's facial expressions and adult characteristics and build on existing literature to demonstrate that children may use expressions to manipulate the motivations of even non-kin adults to direct attention toward and perhaps nurture young children. PMID:25838165

Aradhye, Chinmay; Vonk, Jennifer; Arida, Danielle

2015-07-01

372

Fisioterapia na paralisia facial periférica: estudo retrospectivo / Physical therapy in peripheral facial paralysis: retrospective study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial periférica requer tratamento especializado. A fisioterapia tem como objetivo restabelecer a mímica facial. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e analisar os resultados da fisioterapia para indivíduos com paralisia facial periférica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Retrospectivo. MÉTODO: Foi re [...] alizado um estudo retrospectivo em um Hospital Universitário, com autorização do Serviço de Atendimento Médico e Estatístico, no período de 1999 a 2003. Os dados são apresentados em forma descritiva, com utilização de média e mediana para variáveis numéricas e freqüência para variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 23 prontuários durante quatro anos. Foi identificado o predomínio do sexo feminino e a média de idade foi de 32,3 anos (DP±16,5); 14 casos idiopáticas e cinco traumáticas; 12, com comprometimento motor total e 11, parcial; nos 12 casos com avaliação final, sete evoluíram para recuperação parcial e cinco para total. A fisioterapia utilizada foi cinesioterapia e orientações. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo os indivíduos são similares a outras populações. Foram tratados com cinesioterapia, como sugerido pela literatura científica e evoluíram com recuperação. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis requires specialized treatment. Physical therapy aims at reestablishing facial movements. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze physical therapy results for individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: A retrospec [...] tive study was carried out at the University Hospital, authorized by the Statistics and Medical File Services, from 1999 to 2003. Data are presented in descriptive form with mean and median values for numeric variables and frequency for categorical variables. RESULTS: Twenty-three files were analyzed during four years. Females predominated and the average age was of 32.3 years (SD±16.5); 14 idiopathic and five trauma cases; 12 with total motor deficit and 11 with partial motor deficit; in the 12 cases that underwent final evaluation, seven had partial and five had total recovery. The physical therapy program used was kinesiotherapy and patient education. CONCLUSION: In this study, individuals were similar to individuals in other populations. They were treated with kinesiotherapy, as suggested by the scientific literature and recovered.

Márcia Regina, Garanhani; Jefferson Rosa, Cardoso; Alessandra de Mello Guides, Capelli; Mara Claudia, Ribeiro.

2007-02-01

373

Characterization of facial burns from maxillofacial surgery. Cienfuegos 2005 - 2007 Caracterización de las quemaduras faciales desde la cirugía máxilo facial. Cienfuegos 2005 – 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A descriptive study and retrospective study with 87 patients for facial burns, were treated at the Burn Service of the Hospital General Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "Cienfuegos between January 2005 and September 2007. Objective: To characterize the care of patients with facial burns to help develop knowledge, attitudes and skills medical - surgery in the maxillofacial surgeon. Method: the source of information used were the records of patient care in the emergency department Burned Service and these data were selected that identified the patients as well as other related directly with facial burns. For each patient, more severe burning classified according to their size and depth. Results: In this study facial burns were more frequent in females aged 16 to 34 years, the most common cause of these lesions was in contact with boiling liquids as the predominant type skin burns, with extensions between 2 and 4% of the face area. In 44 patients affected centers facial structures, so predominant involvement of the ears. The priest most used in the facial region was the stop with silver sulfadiazine. Approximately 50% of patients were affected in the organs of sense, particularly in the ears, Conclusion: The traumatic facial burns are more severe conditions than any other location for the possible commitment to the airways.Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo con 87 pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. Objetivo: caracterizar la atención al paciente con quemaduras faciales para contribuir al desarrollo de conocimientos, actitudes y aptitudes médico – quirúrgicas en el cirujano máxilo facial. Método: la fuente de información utilizada fueron los registros de atención a pacientes en el cuerpo de guardia del Servicio de Quemados y de ellas se seleccionaron los datos que identificaron a los pacientes, así como otros relacionados directamente con las quemaduras faciales. Para cada paciente, se clasificó la quemadura más grave de acuerdo a su extensión y profundidad. Resultados: en este estudio las quemaduras faciales fueron más frecuentes en el sexo femenino, entre los 16 y los 34 años, la causa más frecuente de estas lesiones fue por contacto con líquidos hirvientes, por lo que predominaron las quemaduras dérmicas tipo A, con extensiones entre el 2 y el 4 % del área de la cara. En 44 pacientes se afectaron estructuras centros faciales, por lo que predominó la afectación de las orejas. La cura que más se realizó en la región facial fue la oclusiva con crema de sulfadiazina de plata. Aproximadamente en el 50 % de los pacientes hubo afectación en los órganos de los sentidos, particularmente en los oídos, Conclusión: Las quemaduras faciales constituyen afecciones traumáticas más graves que las de cualquier otra localización por el posible compromiso con las vías aéreas.

Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

2010-08-01

374

Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Facial Expressions in 6-7 Year Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old…

Deschamps, P. K. H.; Coppes, L.; Kenemans, J. L.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Matthys, W.

2015-01-01

375

Plastic surgery and the biometric e-passport: Implications for facial recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This correspondence comments on the challenges of plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery on the facial recognition algorithms employed by biometric passports. The limitations of facial recognition technology in patients who have undergone facial plastic surgery are also discussed. Finally, the advice of the UK HM passport office to people who undergo facial surgery is reported. PMID:25162924

Ologunde, Rele

2015-04-01

376

Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Effects of training on brain dynamics  

OpenAIRE

Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study,...

Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan G.; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M.; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S.

2014-01-01

377

Radial curve-based classification and localization of features for 3D facial expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel method to analyze facial expressions from 3D shape using radial curves and curve based geometric features. Curve based representation of 3D facial shape and corresponding geometric features overcome the curse of dimensionality providing a means for fast and automatic classification and comparison of 3D facial shapes. Our proposed curve based geometric features effectively capture local variations and classify facial expressions from 3D facial shapes. A multiclass feature selection technique is used to identify the most effective features that localize the effective regions of the face. Six basic facial expressions are classified using a publicly available 3D facial expression dataset.

Samad, Manar D.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

2014-06-01

378

Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifying the expressions of the students torecognize their comprehension from the facial expressions in static images containing the frontal view of the human face. Our goal is to categorize the facial expressions of the students in the given image into two basic emotional expression states – comprehensible, incomprehensible. One of the key action units in the face to expose expression is eye. In this paper, Facial expressions are identified from the expressions of the eyes. Our method consists of three steps, Edge detection, Eye extraction and Emotion recognition. Edge detection is performed through Prewitt operator. Extraction of eyes is performed using iterative search algorithm on the edge image. All the extracted information are combined together to form the feature vector. Finally, the features are given as an input for a BPN classifier and thus the facial expressions are being identified. The proposed method is tested on the Yale Face database.

G.Sofia,

2010-07-01

379

Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions.

Blanson, Nina

2011-01-01

380

Unilateral facial myokymia in a dog with an intracranial meningioma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 23-month-old castrated male Cavalier King Charles spaniel was evaluated because of a 6-month history of unusual rippling/undulating movements of the right facial muscles that were continuous and persisted during sleep. Neurological examination revealed narrowing of the right palpebral fissure and unilateral right-sided facial myokymia that was characterised by myokymic, and to a lesser degree, neuromyotonic discharges on concentric needle electromyographic examination. After persisting unchanged for almost 2.5 years from its onset, the facial myokymia gradually disappeared over a 6-month period concomitant with the emergence of a persistent ipsilateral facial paralysis and head tilt. At 5 years and 9 months after the first examination, signs of ipsilateral lacrimal, pharyngeal and laryngeal dysfunction became evident and the dog was euthanased. Postmortem examination identified a malignant (WHO grade III) meningioma in the right cerebellopontomedullary angle that compressed the ventrolateral cranial medulla, effaced the jugular foramen and internal acoustic meatus and extended into the facial canal of the petrous temporal bone. Novel findings were the unique observation of isolated unilateral facial myokymia preceding diagnosis of a meningioma affecting facial nerve function within the caudal cranial fossa and the remarkably long duration of neurological signs (75 months) attributable to the neoplasm. PMID:20726972

Holland, C T; Holland, J T; Rozmanec, M

2010-09-01

381

Facial Palsy in Kawasaki Syndrome; Review and a Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve palsy, a very rare complication of Kawasaki syndrome, has been reported in only 25 patents. None of the 25 previous reported cases with this complication was treated with IVIG. We treated a 24-month-old boy with bilateral coronary artery aneurysms due to Kawasaki syndrome. In our patient, whom we treated with Aspirin and IVIG, duration of disease was 7-9 days. He developed marked unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy on day 3 of illness. This treatment led to complete resolution of facial nerve palsy within 48 hours. Review of pervious cases demonstrates that children with Kawasaki–associated facial nerve palsy have more than twice the risk for coronary artery aneurysm (52% vs 25% as that of children without facial nerve palsy. Unexplained facial nerve palsy in young children with a prolonged febrile illness should provoke consideration of Kawasaki syndrome and Echocardiography to exclude coronary artery aneurysms. Although facial nerve palsy appears likely to be resolved in all patients surviving the acute phase of Kawasaki syndrome, treatment with IVIG appears to shorten considerably the time for full recovery and provides an important clue to the mechanism of neurological injury in this illness.

MH. Moradi Nejad

2003-07-01

382

Mirror book therapy for the treatment of idiopathic facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a retrospective chart review to determine the effectiveness of treating idiopathic facial palsy with mirror book therapy in conjunction with facial physical rehabilitation. We compared outcomes in 15 patients who underwent mirror book therapy in addition to standard therapy with those of 10 patients who underwent standard rehabilitation therapy without the mirror book. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups were rated according to the Facial Grading System (FGS), the Facial Disability Index-Physical (FDIP), and the Facial Disability Index-Social (FDIS). Patients in the mirror therapy group had a mean increase of 24.9 in FGS score, 22.0 in FDIP score, and 25.0 in FDIS score, all of which represented statistically significant improvements over their pretreatment scores. Those who did not receive mirror book therapy had mean increases of 20.8, 19.0, 14.6, respectively; these, too, represented significant improvements over baseline, and thus there was no statistically significant difference in improvement between the two groups. Nevertheless, our results show that patients who used mirror book therapy in addition to standard facial rehabilitation therapy experienced significant improvements in the treatment of idiopathic facial palsy. While further studies are necessary to determine if it has a definitive, statistically significant advantage over standard therapy, we recommend adding this therapy to the rehabilitation program in view of its ease of use, low cost, and lack of side effects. PMID:25255351

Barth, Jodi Maron; Stezar, Gincy L; Acierno, Gabriela C; Kim, Thomas J; Reilly, Michael J

2014-09-01

383

Rodent Facial Nerve Recovery After Selected Lesions and Repair Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Measuring rodent facial movements is a reliable method for studying recovery from facial nerve manipulation, and for examining the behavioral correlates of aberrant regeneration. We quantitatively compared recovery of vibrissal and ocular function following three types of clinically relevant nerve injury. Methods 178 adult rats underwent facial nerve manipulation and testing. In the experimental groups, the left facial nerve was either crushed, transected and repaired epineurially, or transected and the stumps suture-secured into a tube with a 2 mm gap between them. Facial recovery was measured for the ensuing 1–4 months. Data were analyzed for whisking recovery. Previously developed markers of co-contraction of the upper and midfacial zones (possible synkinesis markers) were also examined. Results Animals in the crush groups recovered nearly normal whisking parameters within 25 days. The distal branch crush group showed improved recovery over the main trunk crush group for several days during early recovery. By week 9, the transection/repair groups showed evidence of recovery that trended further upward throughout the study period. The entubulation groups followed a similar recovery pattern, though they did not maintain significant recovery levels by the study conclusion. Markers of potential synkinesis increased in selected groups following facial nerve injury. Conclusions Rodent vibrissial function recovers in a predictable fashion following manipulation. Generalized co-contraction of the upper and midfacial zones emerges following facial nerve manipulation, possibly related to aberrant regeneration, polyterminal axons, or hypersensitivity of the rodent to sensory stimuli following nerve manipulation. PMID:20048604

Hadlock, Tessa A.; Kowaleski, Jeffrey; Lo, David; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Heaton, James T.

2015-01-01

384

Sociality of facial expressions in immersive virtual environments: a facial EMG study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immersive virtual environment technology is increasingly used by psychologists as a tool for researching social influence in realistic, yet experimentally controllable, settings. The present study demonstrates the validity and reliability of facial electromyography as a marker of affect in immersive virtual environments and further shows that the mere presence of virtual humans is enough to elicit sociality effects on facial expressiveness. Participants viewed pleasant and unpleasant images in a virtual room either alone or with two virtual humans present. The patterns of smiling and frowning activity elicited by positive and negative stimuli in the virtual environment were the same as those found in laboratory settings. Moreover, when viewing positive stimuli, smiling activity was greater when two agents were present than in the alone condition. The results provide new psychophysiological evidence for the potency of social agents in immersive virtual environments. PMID:22652089

Philipp, Michael C; Storrs, Katherine R; Vanman, Eric J

2012-09-01

385

Sequential Clustering based Facial Feature Extraction Method for Automatic Creation of Facial Models from Orthogonal Views  

CERN Document Server

Multiview 3D face modeling has attracted increasing attention recently and has become one of the potential avenues in future video systems. We aim to make more reliable and robust automatic feature extraction and natural 3D feature construction from 2D features detected on a pair of frontal and profile view face images. We propose several heuristic algorithms to minimize possible errors introduced by prevalent nonperfect orthogonal condition and noncoherent luminance. In our approach, we first extract the 2D features that are visible to both cameras in both views. Then, we estimate the coordinates of the features in the hidden profile view based on the visible features extracted in the two orthogonal views. Finally, based on the coordinates of the extracted features, we deform a 3D generic model to perform the desired 3D clone modeling. Present study proves the scope of resulted facial models for practical applications like face recognition and facial animation.

Ghahari, Alireza

2009-01-01

386

The study of higher origin of facial artery and its surgical significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial artery plays a key role in blood supply of the face. Facial artery one of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery originates within the carotid triangle. Variation in the origin of the facial artery was observed on two sides out of 60 sides in 30 cadavers. Facial artery was observed originating at the level just below the maxillary artery within the parotid gland. Facial artery may originate as linguo-facial trunk or thyro-linguo-facial trunk. Other developmental variations have also been described in the literature like, agenesis of facial artery, enlarged facial artery, hypoplastic facial artery. Variability in situation may complicate the surgery. Therefore maxillofacial surgeon, plastic surgeons and head & neck surgeon should be aware of such variation. PMID:25621238

Mangalgiri, Ashutosh; Namdev, Laxmi Narayan; Mahore, Devendra; Kapre, Madan

2015-03-01

387

Influência do posicionamento sagital mandibular na estética facial Influence of mandibular sagittal position on facial esthetics  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do posicionamento sagital da mandíbula na determinação da atratividade facial. MÉTODOS: fotografias faciais de perfil foram tomadas de um homem negro e um branco, assim como de uma mulher negra e uma branca. Essas fotografias foram manipuladas no computador, utilizando o programa Adobe Photoshop CS2®, a fim de produzir, a partir de cada face original, um perfil reto, três simulando discrepâncias mandibulares por retrusão e três por protrusão. As 28 fo...

Marina Dórea de Almeida; Arthur Costa Rodrigues Farias; Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt

2010-01-01

388

Distinct Contributions to Facial Emotion Perception of Foveated versus Nonfoveated Facial Features  

OpenAIRE

Foveated stimuli receive visual processing that is quantitatively and qualitatively different from nonfoveated stimuli. At normal interpersonal distances, people move their eyes around another's face so that certain features receive foveal processing; on any given fixation, other features therefore project extrafoveally. Yet little is known about the processing of extrafoveally presented facial features, how informative those extrafoveally presented features are for face perception (e.g., for...

Atkinson, Ap; Smithson, He

2013-01-01

389

Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo Evaluation of facial aging related to cigarette smoking  

OpenAIRE

FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de ta...

Letícia Yumi Suehara; Karine Simone; Marcus Maia

2006-01-01

390

Avaliação da atresia maxilar associada ao tipo facial Evaluation of maxillary atresia associated with facial type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: associar a atresia maxilar aos tipos faciais, verificar o dimorfismo entre os gêneros masculino e feminino, bem como a correlação entre os gêneros e os tipos faciais. MÉTODOS: inicialmente, a amostra constou de 258 telerradiografias da cabeça, em norma lateral. Após aplicada a análise do Vert de Ricketts, foram excluídas 108 telerradiografias, por não satisfazerem o critério de seleção. Portanto, a amostra final foi de 150 telerradiografias e 150 modelos pertencentes a 150 indivíduos brancos na faixa etária de 14 anos a 18 anos e 11 meses, independentemente do tipo de má oclusão. A mesma foi dividida em: 50 mesofaciais; 50 braquifaciais e 50 dolicofaciais. Para os 150 modelos, aplicou-se a análise de Schwarz. RESULTADOS: a presença da atresia maxilar na amostra selecionada correspondeu a 64% nos dolicofaciais, 58% nos braquifaciais e 52% nos mesofaciais. CONCLUSÕES: não houve evidência de associação da atresia com o tipo facial. Quanto ao dimorfismo de gênero, foi proporcionalmente maior para o dolicofacial masculino enquanto o feminino não apresentou proporções diferentes.OBJECTIVES: To associate maxillary atresia with facial types, investigating whether dimorphism occurs between males and females and evaluating the percentage of such dimorphism according to gender and facial type. METHODS: Initially, the sample consisted of 258 lateral cephalometric radiographs. After analyzing Ricketts' VERT index, 108 radiographs were excluded for not meeting the selection criteria. Therefore, the sample consisted of 150 lateral cephalometric radiographs and 150 models of 150 Caucasian individuals aged 14 years to 18 years and 11 months, regardless of malocclusion type. The sample was divided into 50 mesofacials, 50 brachyfacials and 50 dolichofacials. The Schwarz's analysis was applied to all 150 models. RESULTS: The presence of maxillary atresia in the sample consisted of 64% in dolichofacials, 58% in brachyfacials and 52% in mesofacials. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence showing that atresia is in any way associated with facial type. Gender dimorphism was proportionally greater in dolichofacial males while females did not exhibit different proportions.

Marina Gomes Pedreira

2010-06-01

391

Avaliação da atresia maxilar associada ao tipo facial / Evaluation of maxillary atresia associated with facial type  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: associar a atresia maxilar aos tipos faciais, verificar o dimorfismo entre os gêneros masculino e feminino, bem como a correlação entre os gêneros e os tipos faciais. MÉTODOS: inicialmente, a amostra constou de 258 telerradiografias da cabeça, em norma lateral. Após aplicada a análise do [...] Vert de Ricketts, foram excluídas 108 telerradiografias, por não satisfazerem o critério de seleção. Portanto, a amostra final foi de 150 telerradiografias e 150 modelos pertencentes a 150 indivíduos brancos na faixa etária de 14 anos a 18 anos e 11 meses, independentemente do tipo de má oclusão. A mesma foi dividida em: 50 mesofaciais; 50 braquifaciais e 50 dolicofaciais. Para os 150 modelos, aplicou-se a análise de Schwarz. RESULTADOS: a presença da atresia maxilar na amostra selecionada correspondeu a 64% nos dolicofaciais, 58% nos braquifaciais e 52% nos mesofaciais. CONCLUSÕES: não houve evidência de associação da atresia com o tipo facial. Quanto ao dimorfismo de gênero, foi proporcionalmente maior para o dolicofacial masculino enquanto o feminino não apresentou proporções diferentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To associate maxillary atresia with facial types, investigating whether dimorphism occurs between males and females and evaluating the percentage of such dimorphism according to gender and facial type. METHODS: Initially, the sample consisted of 258 lateral cephalometric radiographs. Aft [...] er analyzing Ricketts' VERT index, 108 radiographs were excluded for not meeting the selection criteria. Therefore, the sample consisted of 150 lateral cephalometric radiographs and 150 models of 150 Caucasian individuals aged 14 years to 18 years and 11 months, regardless of malocclusion type. The sample was divided into 50 mesofacials, 50 brachyfacials and 50 dolichofacials. The Schwarz's analysis was applied to all 150 models. RESULTS: The presence of maxillary atresia in the sample consisted of 64% in dolichofacials, 58% in brachyfacials and 52% in mesofacials. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence showing that atresia is in any way associated with facial type. Gender dimorphism was proportionally greater in dolichofacial males while females did not exhibit different proportions.

Marina Gomes, Pedreira; Maria Helena Castro de, Almeida; Katia de Jesus Novello, Ferrer; Renato Castro de, Almeida.

2010-06-01

392

Functional connectivity between amygdala and facial regions involved in recognition of facial threat  

Science.gov (United States)

The recognition of threatening faces is important for making social judgments. For example, threatening facial features of defendants could affect the decisions of jurors during a trial. Previous neuroimaging studies using faces of members of the general public have identified a pivotal role of the amygdala in perceiving threat. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study used face photographs of male prisoners who had been convicted of first-degree murder (MUR) as threatening facial stimuli. We compared the subjective ratings of MUR faces with those of control (CON) faces and examined how they were related to brain activation, particularly, the modulation of the functional connectivity between the amygdala and other brain regions. The MUR faces were perceived to be more threatening than the CON faces. The bilateral amygdala was shown to respond to both MUR and CON faces, but subtraction analysis revealed no significant difference between the two. Functional connectivity analysis indicated that the extent of connectivity between the left amygdala and the face-related regions (i.e. the superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus) was correlated with the subjective threat rating for the faces. We have demonstrated that the functional connectivity is modulated by vigilance for threatening facial features. PMID:22156740

Harada, Tokiko; Ruffman, Ted; Sadato, Norihiro; Iidaka, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

393

Orientation Selectivity for Representing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a representation method of facial expression changes using Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART networks. Our method extracts orientation selectivity of Gabor wavelets on ART networks, which are unsupervised and self-organizing neural networks that contain a stability-plasticity tradeoff. The classification ability of ART is controlled by a parameter called the attentional vigilance parameter. However, the networks often produce redundant categories. The proposed method produces suitable vigilance parameters according to classification granularity using orientation selectivity. Moreover, the method can represent the appearance and disappearance of facial expression changes to detect dynamic, local, and topological feature changes from obtained whole facial images.

Hirokazu Madokoro

2012-09-01

394

Facial Expression Recognition using Neural Network –An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many face recognition systems the important part is face detection. The task of detecting face is complex due to its variability present across human faces including color, pose, expression, position and orientation. So using various modeling techniques it is convenient to recognize various facial expressions. In the field of image processing it is very interesting to recognize the human gesture by observing the different movement of eyes, mouth, nose, etc. Classification of face detection and token matching can be carried out any neural network for recognizing the facial expression. This paper reviews various techniques of facial expression recognition systems using MATLAB (neural network toolbox.

Pushpaja V. Saudagare

2012-03-01

395

Violent video game play impacts facial emotion recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent video game play. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Typically, happy faces are identified faster than angry faces (the happy-face advantage). Results indicated that playing a violent video game led to a reduction in the happy face advantage. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the current models of aggressive behavior. PMID:17593563

Kirsh, Steven J; Mounts, Jeffrey R W

2007-01-01

396

Course of the facial nerve in congenital ear deformities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aberrant pathways of the facial nerve through the temporal bone are related to the severity and type of congenital ear deformity. A facial nerve crossing the middle ear cavity with no bony covering cannot be shown by radiologic techniques but may be inferred from: (1) abnormalities of the first part of the facial nerve canal in the region of the geniculate ganglion, (2) absence of the Fallopian canal, (3) absence of the oval window, (4) absence of the pyramidal eminence, and (5) an exit foramen through the floor of the middle ear. Demonstration of these features is discussed with tomographic and histologic correlation in 2 cases, tomographic and surgical correlation in 31. (Auth.)

397

Caracterización de las quemaduras faciales desde la cirugía máxilo facial. Cienfuegos 2005 ? 2007 / Characterization of facial burns from maxillofacial surgery. Cienfuegos 2005 - 2007  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo con 87 pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario ?Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima? de Cienfuegos entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. O [...] bjetivo: caracterizar la atención al paciente con quemaduras faciales para contribuir al desarrollo de conocimientos, actitudes y aptitudes médico ? quirúrgicas en el cirujano máxilo facial. Método: la fuente de información utilizada fueron los registros de atención a pacientes en el cuerpo de guardia del Servicio de Quemados y de ellas se seleccionaron los datos que identificaron a los pacientes, así como otros relacionados directamente con las quemaduras faciales. Para cada paciente, se clasificó la quemadura más grave de acuerdo a su extensión y profundidad. Resultados: en este estudio las quemaduras faciales fueron más frecuentes en el sexo femenino, entre los 16 y los 34 años, la causa más frecuente de estas lesiones fue por contacto con líquidos hirvientes, por lo que predominaron las quemaduras dérmicas tipo A, con extensiones entre el 2 y el 4 % del área de la cara. En 44 pacientes se afectaron estructuras centros faciales, por lo que predominó la afectación de las orejas. La cura que más se realizó en la región facial fue la oclusiva con crema de sulfadiazina de plata. Aproximadamente en el 50 % de los pacientes hubo afectación en los órganos de los sentidos, particularmente en los oídos, Conclusión: Las quemaduras faciales constituyen afecciones traumáticas más graves que las de cualquier otra localización por el posible compromiso con las vías aéreas. Abstract in english Background: A descriptive study and retrospective study with 87 patients for facial burns, were treated at the Burn Service of the Hospital General Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "Cienfuegos between January 2005 and September 2007. Objective: To characterize the care of patients with fac [...] ial burns to help develop knowledge, attitudes and skills medical - surgery in the maxillofacial surgeon. Method: the source of information used were the records of patient care in the emergency department Burned Service and these data were selected that identified the patients as well as other related directly with facial burns. For each patient, more severe burning classified according to their size and depth. Results: In this study facial burns were more frequent in females aged 16 to 34 years, the most common cause of these lesions was in contact with boiling liquids as the predominant type skin burns, with extensions between 2 and 4% of the face area. In 44 patients affected centers facial structures, so predominant involvement of the ears. The priest most used in the facial region was the stop with silver sulfadiazine. Approximately 50% of patients were affected in the organs of sense, particularly in the ears, Conclusion: The traumatic facial burns are more severe conditions than any other location for the possible commitment to the airways.

Eduardo, Duarte Marrero; Patricia, Jiménez Beato.

2010-08-01

398

Spontaneous Facial Expression Recognition Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradients Descriptor  

OpenAIRE

Automatically detecting facial expressions has become an important research area. It plays a significant role in security, human-computer interaction and health-care. Yet, earlier work focuses on posed facial expression. In this paper, we propose a spontaneous facial expression recognition method based on effective feature extraction and facial expression recognition for Micro Expression analysis. In feature extraction we used histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) descriptor to extract facial...

Donia, Manar M. F.; Youssif, Aliaa A. A.; Atallah Hashad

2014-01-01

399

Imitation as a Communication Tool for Online Facial Expression Learning and Recognition  

OpenAIRE

We are interested in understanding how babies learn to recognize facial expressions without having a teaching signal allowing to associate a facial expression to a given abstract label (i.e the name of the facial expression 'sadness', 'happiness'...). Our starting point was a mathematical model showing that if the baby uses a sensory motor architecture for the recognition of the facial expression then the parents must imitate the baby facial expression to allow the on-line learning. In this p...

Boucenna, Sofiane; Gaussier, P.; Andry, P.; Hafemeister, L.

2010-01-01

400

Facial Expression Recognition In Videos Using A Novel Multi-class Support Vector Machines Variant  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, a novel class of Support Vector Machines (SVM) is introduced to deal with facial expression recognition. The proposed classier incorporates statistic information about the classes under examination into the classical SVM. The developed system performs facial expression recognition in facial videos. The grid tracking and deformation algorithm used tracks the Candide grid over time as the facial expression evolves, until the frame that corresponds to the greatest facial expressio...

Kotsia, I.; Nikolaidis, N.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

401

Atuação da fonoaudiologia na estética facial: relato de caso clínico / Speech therapy performance ih the facial aesthetics: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available TEMA: estética facial. PROCEDIMENTOS: por meio de anamnese e avaliação clínica, aplicou-se um protocolo de tratamento com manipulação funcional dos músculos mastigatórios faciais acompanhados de exercícios isométricos num total de 8 sessões semanais, durante 2 meses, sendo fotografados antes e após [...] o tratamento. O objetivo foi caracterizar as modificações faciais do ponto de vista qualitativo avaliadas clinicamente após tratamento Fonoaudiológico, num enfoque etiológico de caráter biomecânico. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma melhoria da simetria facial e funções relacionadas à biomecânica mandibular. CONCLUSÃO: sugere-se a importância da atuação fonoaudiológica no restabelecimento facial e funcional da motricidade oral com repercussões na diminuição das rugas, marcas de expressão e flacidez. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: aesthetics PROCEDURES: by means of a questionnaire and clinical evaluation, we applied a treatment protocol with functional manipulation of the masticatory muscles accompanied by facial isometric exercises for a total of 8 weekly sessions during 2 months, and we photographed before and a [...] fter treatment. This study aimed at featuring four facial changes in terms of quality, as assessed after treatment, under an etiological and biomechanical character focus. RESULTS: there was an improvement in facial symmetry and functions related to mandibular biomechanics. CONCLUSION: we suggest the importance of speech-language intervention in restoring facial and functional oral motor that influence the reduction of wrinkles, expression marks and flaccidity.

Carla Cristina Gonçalves dos, Santos; Maria Julia Pereira Coelho, Ferraz.

2011-08-01

402

Padronização das técnicas de secção do nervo facial e de avaliação da mímica facial em ratos / Standardization of techniques used in facial nerve section and facial movement evaluation in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Padronização da técnica de secção do nervo facial extratemporal em ratos e elaboração de uma escala de avaliação da mímica facial desses animais antes e após essa secção. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar foram anestesiados com xilasina e ketamina e submetidos à sec [...] ção do nervo facial próximo à sua emergência pelo forame mastóideo na pele. Todos os animais foram avaliados. Foram observados: fechamento ocular, reflexo de piscamento, movimentação e posicionamento das vibrissas, e foi elaborada uma escala de avaliação e graduação destes parâmetros. RESULTADOS: O tronco do nervo facial foi encontrado entre a margem tendinosa do músculo clavotrapézio e a cartilagem auricular. O tronco foi seccionado proximal à sua saída pelo forame mastóideo e os cotos foram suturados com nylon 9-0. Foi elaborada uma escala de avaliação e graduação da mímica facial independente para olho e vibrissa e a somatória dos parâmetros, como forma de avaliar a face paralisada. A ausência de piscamento e de fechamento ocular recebeu valor 1; a presença de contração do músculo orbicular, sem reflexo de piscamento, valor 2; fechamento ocular de 50% através de reflexo de piscamento, valor 3, o fechamento de 75%, valor 4. A presença de reflexo de piscamento com fechamento ocular completo recebeu valor 5. A ausência de movimento e posição posterior das vibrissas recebeu pontuação 1; tremor leve e posição posterior, pontuação 2; tremor maior e posição posterior, pontuação 3 e movimento normal com posição posterior, pontuação 4. A movimentação simétrica das vibrissas, com posição anterior recebeu pontuação 5. CONCLUSÃO: O rato apresenta anatomia que permite fácil acesso ao nervo facial extratemporal, possibilitando secção e sutura desse nervo de forma padronizada. Também foi possível estabelecer uma escala de avaliação e graduação da mímica facial dos ratos com paralisia facial a partir da observação clínica desses animais. Abstract in english AIM: standardization of the technique to section the extratemporal facial nerve in rats and creation of a scale to evaluate facial movements in these animals before and after surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. METHOD: twenty Wistar rats were anesthetized with ketamine xylazine and submitted to sec [...] tioning of the facial nerve near its emergence through the mastoid foramen. Eye closure and blinking reflex, vibrissae movement and positioning were observed in all animals and a scale to evaluate these parameters was then created. RESULTS: The facial nerve trunk was found between the tendinous margin of the clavotrapezius muscle and the auricular cartilage. The trunk was proximally sectioned as it exits the mastoid foramen and the stumps were sutured with a 9-0-nylon thread. An evaluation and graduation scale of facial movements, independent for eye and vibrissae, was elaborated, together with a sum of the parameters, as a means to evaluate facial palsy. Absence of eye blinking and closure scored 1; the presence of orbicular muscle contraction, without blinking reflex, scored 2; 50% of eye closure through blinking reflex, scored 3, 75% of closure scored 4. The presence of complete eye closure and blinking reflex scored 5. The absence of movement and posterior position of the vibrissae scored 1; slight shivering and posterior position scored 2; greater shivering and posterior position, scored 3 and normal movement with posterior position, scored 4; symmetrical movement of he vibrissae, with anterior position, scored 5. CONCLUSION: The rat anatomy allows easy access to the extratemporal facial nerve, allowing its sectioning and standardized suture. It was also possible to establish an evaluation and graduation scale of the rat facial movements with facial palsy based on the clinical observation of these animals.

Simone Damasceno de, Faria; José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa; Andrei, Borin; Ronaldo N., Toledo.

2006-06-01

403

Imaging symptomatics in recurrent facial nerve neuritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaining better insight into the etiology and pathogenesis of recurrent facial nerve neuritis requires the use of an appropriate imaging modality of examination. This is retrospective analysis of 106 patients with recurrent n. facialis neuritis, studied by conventional x-ray methods, including: segment roentgenography according to Schuller, Stenverse, Biezalski (in children), and hypocyloidal directly enlarged polytomography, with emphasis laid on their role in the diagnostic algorithm of study. Assessment is done of the Fallopian canal width and course, with a special reference to adjacent bony structures, having essential practical bearing on planning interventions for decompression of the nerve and chronic otomastoiditis treatment. In 30 % of the patients are observed inflammatory changes in the parafacial bony structures as an expression of inflammatory otogenic etiology of recurrent n. facialis neuritis, and in 7 % - eburneization of bony structures. The symptom of improved Fallopian canal visibility is documented in cases presenting chronic inflammatory processes involving parafacial cellular structures. (author)

404

Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

Verma Rajesh

2005-01-01

405

Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation

406

The labyrinthine portion of the facial canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variational radiographic anatomy of the labyrinthine portion of the facial canal was investigated in 200 plastic and silicone casts of unselected temporal bone specimens by means of multidirectional and computed tomography in different projections. The labyrinthine portion of the canal varied considerably in shape and size; in some specimens the cross-section was circular, but often the canal was crumpled and flattened in its passage above the cochlea. The medial part of the labyrinthine portion was narrowest, the lowest cross-sectional area being 0.5 mm2. In spite of optimal positioning of the specimen it was not always possible to reproduce the entire labyrinthine portion of the canal completely. Most difficult to reproduce were specimens with extremely small vertical diameters and marked caudal sloping of the canal. (orig.)

407

[Wrinkle fillers in cosmetic facial procedures].  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade cosmeticfacial procedures have become part of the professional work of both dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. A shift has taken place from invasive surgical treatment towards minimally invasive treatments. Besides the use ofbotulinum toxin type A, non-permanent wrinkle fillers can be an alternative to invasive surgical treatment. Since botulism was first described in the 18th century, the neurotoxin has continued to develop, as a result of which Botox, now available in synthetically produced form, can safely be employed in healthcare. The frequency with which patients visit dentists and maxillofacial surgeons offers the professional group the possibility to inform patients about cosmetic facial treatments and to carry them out according to diagnosis. PMID:24881255

Jaspers, G W C; Schepers, R H; Pijpe, J; Jansma, J

2014-05-01

408

Unwanted facial hair: affects, effects and solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many different disciplines, and the symposium offered the latest thinking in different aspects of the disorder. S.L. outlined the current concepts surrounding polycystic ovarian syndrome, and U.G. addressed the psychological aspects of UFH. J.S. described the current treatment options for UFH, followed by U.B.P.'s evidence-based therapy review. Finally, R.H. reviewed the latest trial results with Trichoscan, a method being investigated for assessing UFH removal. PMID:17684377

Blume-Peytavi, U; Gieler, U; Hoffmann, R; Lavery, S; Shapiro, J

2007-01-01

409

Susuks: charm needles in facial soft tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Susuks or charm needles are a form of talisman inserted and worn subcutaneously, in the face and other parts of the body, in the belief that they will enhance or preserve the wearer's beauty, youth, charisma, strength or health, or bring success in business. This mystic practice is found among some south-east Asian people, especially Malayan and Muslim females. Most susuk wearers are secretive about their hidden talismans, but these gold or silver needles are being discovered with increasing frequency now that radiographs are used more widely. An understanding of this practice and an awareness of its existence is important to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement of these patients. The practice of susuk wearing and its relevance to dentistry is discussed. Nine cases of facial susuk wearers are presented and previous reports are reviewed. PMID:2036281

Shanmuhasuntharam, P; Ghani, S H

1991-04-20

410

Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

Piérard GE

2014-04-01

411

Parálisis facial periférica. Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio tipo explicativo, longitudinal y aplicado en 120 pacientes con parálisis facial periférica de causa variable a los que se les realizó exploración y tratamiento quirúrgico. La investigación se llevó a cabo en el Hospital Militar Docente Clínico Quirúrgico «Dr. Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja» de la ciudad de Camagüey, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 1989 a enero de 2007. Los pacientes fueron remitidos a la consulta de Otorrinolaringología donde se definieron los criterios para la intervención quirúrgica y conducta según la lesión encontrada; después de operados fueron evaluados por un período de un año y se recogió la evolución de los signos clínicos, tiempo de recuperación, complicaciones, resultados y grado de satisfacción. Se encontró un predominio de las edades comprendidas entre 21 y 50 años, y una mejor evolución en los pacientes del sexo femenino. La causa más frecuente de parálisis facial periférica fueron la tipo Bell y la traumática con un 36.66 % del total, respectivamente. El edema del nervio se observó en el 58.33 %, y dentro de la localización traumática la lesión mastoidea en el ámbito de la segunda rodilla se observó en el 81.81 % de los pacientes. El abordaje mastoideo se utilizó en el 91.66 % de los pacientes. La oclusión del párpado y movilidad de la comisura labial fueron los signos con más rápida recuperación. Los resultados mostraron movilidad normal y paresia ligera en 76.76 % de los pacientes operados según los criterios de Jongkees, lo que demostró el valor funcional de la técnica. El grado de satisfacción fue excelente o bueno en el 96.66 % de los pacientes, lo que demuestra el valor inestimable que le confieren los pacientes a este resultado

Jorge Santana \\u00C1lvarez

2008-01-01

412

Cephalometric evaluation of the effect of third molar eruption on skeletal facial height  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The influence of third molar eruption on vertical facial growth has been evaluated less frequently by researchers. The aim of this study was cephalometric evaluation of the effect of third molar eruption on skeletal facial height.Materials and Methods: The subjects in this cross-sectional/analytical study consisted of thirty patients with four completely erupted third molars with proper occlusal relationships (group A and thirty patients without third molars (group B. All the subjects were 19?24 years of age and had Class I occlusal relationship. None of the subjects had received any orthodontic and surgical treatment. Cephalograms of subjects were traced carefully. The mean of parameters measured in both groups were compared by independent t-test (? = 0.05.Results: Means of Frankfort mandibular angle (FMA in groups A and B were 32.26 ± 5.82 and 27.20 ± 2.53 degrees, respectively, with significant differences between the two groups (p value = 0.001. Means of gonial angles in groups A and B were 123.86 ± 1.26 and 124.5 ± 4.88 degrees, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p value = 0.491. Regarding ANB and SNA angles, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (p value = 0.335 and (p value = 0.127, respectively. However, there were significant differences between the two groups in relation to SNB angle (p value = 0.05. There were significant differences in relation to posterior facial height: anterior facial height ratios and sella? nasion distances between the two groups (p value = 0.001. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in relation to nasion? menton distances (p value = 0.733.Conclusion: Craniofacial development in patients with completely erupted third molars is different from those with no third molars. Patients with third molars have larger FMA angles and greater posterior facial height (PFH. Eruption of third molars does not influence the gonial angle.Key words: Cephalometry, Third molar, Tooth eruption.

Mostafa Shahabi

2012-01-01

413

Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to ? – ? determined by the isoscaling (? (?) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

2014-11-01

414

Isotopic ratio, isotonic ratio, isobaric ratio and Shannon information uncertainty  

CERN Document Server

The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, which both are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to $\\beta-\\alpha$ determined by the isoscaling [$\\alpha$ ($\\beta$) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio].

Ma, Chun-Wang

2014-01-01

415

Evaluation of Variation in the Course of the Facial Nerve, Nerve Adhesion to Tumors, and Postoperative Facial Palsy in Acoustic Neuroma  

OpenAIRE

Objective?To investigate the variation in the course of the facial nerve (FN) in patients undergoing acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery, its adhesion to tumors, and the relationship between such adhesions and postoperative facial palsy.

Sameshima, Tetsuro; Morita, Akio; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Fukushima, Takanori; Friedman, Allan H.; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Mastronardi, Luciano

2012-01-01

416

The use of oxybutynin for treating facial hyperhidrosis / O uso da oxibutinina no tratamento da hiperidrose facial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: Hiperidrose facial é uma doença que pode levar os pacientes a sérios distúrbios emocionais. A simpatectomia torácica vídeo-assistida proporciona excelente resolução da hiperidrose facial, mas está associada a algumas complicações, sendo a mais freqüente e mais importante a hiperidrose c [...] ompensatória. Especialmente em pacientes submetidos à ressecção do segundo gânglio torácico, o risco de hiperidrose compensatória grave é maior, o que pode causar insatisfação com o procedimento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e a satisfação dos pacientes com o uso da oxibutinina em doses baixas para tratar a hiperidrose facial em uma série grande de pacientes. MÉTODOS: 25 pacientes com hiperidrose facial foram tratados com oxibutinina. Os pacientes foram submetidos a duas avaliações: antes e depois do tratamento. Estas foram usadas para avaliar a melhoria clínica e a qualidade de vida. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que mais de 75% dos pacientes evoluíram com melhora na hiperidrose facial, sendo que 52% deles apresentaram uma grande melhora. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento da hiperidrose facial com oxibutinina é uma boa alternativa à simpatectomia, visto que apresenta bons resultados e melhora a qualidade de vida, e os pacientes não correm o risco dos efeitos colaterais da simpatectomia Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Facial hyperhidrosis is a disease that may lead patients to serious emotional disturbances. Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy provides excellent resolution of facial hyperhidrosis, but is associated with certain complications. The most frequent and important complication is compensat [...] ory hyperhidrosis. Especially in patients who have undergone resection of the second thoracic ganglion, the risk of severe compensatory hyperhidrosis is higher, which may cause dissatisfaction with the procedure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of low doses of oxybutynin in treating facial hyperhidrosis as well as the level of patient satisfaction with its use. METHODS: 25 patients with facial hyperhidrosis were treated with oxybutynin. The patients underwent 2 evaluations: before and after treatment. These evaluations were used to assess the patients' clinical improvement and quality of life. RESULTS: We observed that more than 75% of the patients evolved with an improvement in facial hyperhidrosis, and 52% of them presented a great improvement. CONCLUSION: Treatment of facial hyperhidrosis with oxybutynin is a good alternative to sympathectomy, since it presents good results and improves quality of life, in addition to not exposing patients to the risk of experiencing the side effects of sympathectomy

Nelson, Wolosker; José Ribas Milanez de, Campos; Paulo, Kauffman; Marco Antonio, Munia; Samantha, Neves; Fábio Biscegli, Jatene; Pedro, Puech-Leão.

2011-06-01

417

Long-term results of high-density porous polyethylene implants in facial skeletal augmentation: An Indian perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: With the increasing emphasis on well-sculpted facial features, today there is a growing need for tools to augment the facial skeleton; either for cosmetic reasons or to re-contour deformities-congenital, post-traumatic and post-ablative. The limitations of autogenous materials has lead to evolution of numerous ?alloplasts?, of which, high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE seems to be a promising alternative. Aims: To evaluate the long term results of HDPE in facial skeletal augmentation in terms of achieving desired facial contour, patient satisfaction and complications. Settings: A tertiary care referral centre in a metropolitan set-up. Design: Case Series Materials and Methods: All patients undergoing HDPE implant insertion for facial skeletal augmentation between July 2001 and November 2009 were included in the study. A total of 70 HDPE implants were inserted in 44 patients. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon following standardized pre, intra and post-operative protocols. The results were evaluated with respect to improvement in facial contour desired and achieved, overall patient satisfaction and complications encountered. Results: The study included 44 patients with a male:female ratio of 1:1, a mean age of 25.09 years (14 to 58 years and a mean follow-up of 45.34 months (0.5 to 100 months. HDPE implants were used to augment the nasal dorsum, maxilla, malar eminence, chin, mandibular body and angle, orbital rim and frontal region. The overall recontouring afforded by the HDPE implants was good, with most patients reporting satisfactory results. There were seven complications (10%, including three cases of deviation (4.29%, three cases of exposure (4.29% and one case of sub-clinical infection (1.43%. None however necessitated implant removal. Nasal dorsal HDPE implants, especially those involving secondary surgery, suffered a much higher complication rate compared to other implants. Conclusions: HDPE is an alternative to autogenous grafts for facial skeletal augmentation with good long-term results and a low incidence of complications, provided there is adequate vascular soft tissue cover.

Deshpande Sanjeev

2010-01-01

418

Psychophysical measures of sensitivity to facial expression of emotion.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the development of two simple, objective, psychophysical measures of the ability to discriminate facial expressions of emotion that vary in intensity from a neutral facial expression and to discriminate between varying intensities of emotional facial expression. The stimuli were created by morphing photographs of models expressing four basic emotions, anger, disgust, happiness and sadness with neutral expressions. Psychometric functions were obtained for 15 healthy young adults using the Method of Constant Stimuli with a two-interval forced-choice procedure. Individual data points were fitted by Quick functions for each task and each emotion, allowing estimates of absolute thresholds and slopes. The tasks give objective and sensitive measures of the basic perceptual abilities required for perceiving and interpreting emotional facial expressions.

MichelleMarneweck

2013-02-01

419

Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons Retracción a largo plazo del árbol dendrítico de neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales por lesiones periféricas del nervio facial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Introduction. Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on postlesion functional recovery.
Objective. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characterized with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury.
Materials and methods. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery, and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis.
Results. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the fiveweek observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons
of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury.
Discussion. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the
physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

Introducción. Poco se sabe sobre las modificaciones morfológicas de las neuronas de la corteza motora tras lesiones en nervios periféricos, y de la implicancia de dichos cambios en la recuperación
funcional tras la lesión.
Objetivo. Caracterizar en ratas el efecto de la lesión del nervio facial sobre la morfología de las neuronas piramidales de la capa V de la corteza motora primaria contralateral.
Materiales y métodos. Se reconstruyeron neuronas piramidales teñidas con la técnica de Golgi-Cox, de animales control (sin lesión y animales con lesiones y sacrificados a distintos tiempos luego de la lesión. Se utilizaron cuatro grupos: sham (control, lesión 1S, lesión 3S y lesión 5S (animales con lesiones y evaluados 1, 3 y 5 semanas después de la lesión irreversible del nervio facial, respectivamente. Se evaluaron mediante el análisis de Sholl, las ramificaciones dendríticas de las células piramidales de la corteza motora contralateral a la lesión.
Resultados. Los animales con lesiones presentaron parálisis completa de las vibrisas mayores durante las cinco semanas de observación. Comparadas con neuronas de animales sin lesiones, las células piramidales córtico-faciales de los lesionados mostraron una disminución significativa de sus ramificaciones dendríticas. Esta disminución se mantuvo hasta cinco semanas después de la lesión.
Conclusiones. Las lesiones irreversibles de los axones de las motoneuronas del núcleo facial, provocan una retracción sostenida del árbol dendrítico en las neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales.
Esta reorganización morfológica cortical persistente podría ser el sustrato fisiopatológico de algunas de las secuelas funcionales que se observan en los pacientes con parálisis facial periférica.

Julieta Troncoso

2011-06-01

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Estimation of human emotions using thermal facial information  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, research on human emotion estimation using thermal infrared (IR) imagery has appealed to many researchers due to its invariance to visible illumination changes. Although infrared imagery is superior to visible imagery in its invariance to illumination changes and appearance differences, it has difficulties in handling transparent glasses in the thermal infrared spectrum. As a result, when using infrared imagery for the analysis of human facial information, the regions of eyeglasses are dark and eyes' thermal information is not given. We propose a temperature space method to correct eyeglasses' effect using the thermal facial information in the neighboring facial regions, and then use Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Eigen-space Method based on class-features (EMC), and PCA-EMC method to classify human emotions from the corrected thermal images. We collected the Kotani Thermal Facial Emotion (KTFE) database and performed the experiments, which show the improved accuracy rate in estimating human emotions.

Nguyen, Hung; Kotani, Kazunori; Chen, Fan; Le, Bac

2014-01-01