WorldWideScience
1

Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men). PMID:24754804

Alrajih, Shuaa; Ward, Jamie

2014-05-01

2

Facial Schwannoma  

OpenAIRE

Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the...

Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani; Zahra Ghassem Ahmad; Mansoureh Adel Ghahraman; Yashar Amidi

2005-01-01

3

Facial fractures.  

OpenAIRE

Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose.

Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

1994-01-01

4

Facial Schwannoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the presence of normal facial function is difficult. Case: A 19-year-old girl with all above symptoms in the right side except loss of taste is diagnosed having facial schwannoma with full examination, audiometric, and radiological tests. She underwent surgery. In follow-up facial function were mostly restored. Conclusion: The need for careful assessment of patients with Bell's palsy cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the negative results if still there is any suspicoin, total facial nerve exploration is necessary.

Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani

2005-06-01

5

Facial Plastic Surgery Today  

Science.gov (United States)

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... information on facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Facial Plastic Surgery Today features three articles on facial plastic surgery ...

6

Facial Cosmetic Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... to find out more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial Pain Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) disorders are ... to find out more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial Pain Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) disorders are ...

7

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that ...

8

Facial Prostheses  

Science.gov (United States)

... due to surgery to remove a tumor. An ear, eye, or the nose may be affected. In any case, this may affect the way you look or function. For many facial conditions, surgical reconstruction is the most natural way to restore appearance ...

9

Granuloma faciale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 40-year old woman presented with asymptomatic erythematous well-demarcated, infiltrated plaque of 8 cm x 7 cm in size on the right cheek for past four years. Histopathological study of skin biopsy revealed features of granuloma faciale. Oral dapsone and intralesional corticosteroid caused marked improvement.

Joshi Ketuman

1998-01-01

10

Facial reanimation with masseteric to facial nerve transfer: a three-dimensional longitudinal quantitative evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial paralysis is a severe pathological condition, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. The altered tone and mobility of the mimetic musculature provoke both functional and morphological deficits. In the present study, we longitudinally measured facial movements in 14 patients (21-69 years) affected by unilateral facial paralysis not lasting longer than 23 months. The patients were analyzed before and after surgical masseteric to facial nerve neurorrhaphy. Examinations were performed at least 3 months after they had clinically started to regain facial mimicry. The displacement of selected facial landmarks was measured using an optoelectronic three-dimensional motion analyzer during: maximum smile without clenching (pre- and postsurgery), maximum smile by clenching on their posterior teeth (only postsurgery), and spontaneous smile (recorded during the vision of a funny video in both examinations). Before facial surgery, in all smiles facial landmarks moved more in the healthy than in the paretic side; after surgery, the differences decreased for both reduction of the healthy-side motion, and increment of the paretic-side motion (motion ratio before 52%, after 87%, p facial movements that characterized the analyzed patients before surgery reduced after surgery, at least in those facial areas interested by the masseteric to facial nerve reanimation. PMID:24939829

Sforza, Chiarella; Tarabbia, Filippo; Mapelli, Andrea; Colombo, Valeria; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Annoni, Isabella; Biglioli, Federico

2014-10-01

11

Ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

2014-12-01

12

Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring in Posterior Fossa Surgery: Prognostic Value  

OpenAIRE

A retrospective study was done of 43 patients operated on for acoustic neuroma by a translabyrinthine approach with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. Direct stimulation of the facial nerve at the level of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and the internal auditory canal (IAC) permits the calculation of a R ratio that has a predictive value for postoperative facial function: R = R?/R?, where R? is the ratio of the minimal intensity (I) of stimulation capable of inducing a response a...

Berges, C.; Fraysse, B.; Yardeni, E.; Rugiu, G.

1993-01-01

13

Pediatric Facial Nerve Rehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial paralysis is a rare but severe condition in the pediatric population. Impaired facial movement has multiple causes and varied presentations, therefore individualized treatment plans are essential for optimal results. Advances in facial reanimation over the past 4 decades have given rise to new treatments designed to restore balance and function in pediatric patients with facial paralysis. This article provides a comprehensive review of pediatric facial rehabilitation and describes a zone-based approach to assessment and treatment of impaired facial movement. PMID:25444723

Banks, Caroline A; Hadlock, Tessa A

2014-11-01

14

[Horton's disease: facial manifestations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial manifestations due to giant cell arteritis are analysed about 102 cases. The whole facial vascular territories are involved, so we have many manifestations. Diagnosis depends on artery biopsy with Doppler aid. PMID:9036519

Lample, G D; Benateau, H; Agron, L; Letellier, P; Compere, J F

1996-12-01

15

Facial nerve schwannoma  

OpenAIRE

A study of 26 patients with facial nerve schwannomas treated at the University Hospital of Zurich was done. The general clinical features are described, but particular emphasis is placed on tumor histologic findings, recovery of facial function after grafting, and the nature of intracranial facial nerve schwannomas Presenting symptoms are stratified by tumor location, with facial dysfunction being commonest with intracranial tumors, neurotologic symptoms being associated with intracranial tum...

Dort, Joseph C.; Fisch, Ugo

1998-01-01

16

Facial Nerve Schwannomas  

OpenAIRE

A study of 26 patients with facial nerve schwannomas treated at the University Hospital of Zurich was done. The general clinical features are described, but particular emphasis is placed on tumor histologic findings, recovery of facial function after grafting, and the nature of intracranial facial nerve schwannomas Presenting symptoms are stratified by tumor location, with facial dysfunction being commonest with intracranial tumors, neurotologic symptoms being associated with intracranial tum...

Dort, Joseph C.; Fisch, Ugo

1991-01-01

17

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

Shah H

1997-01-01

18

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.  

OpenAIRE

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

Shah H; Kantharia C; Shenoy A

1997-01-01

19

Facial burns - our experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems - resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh; Martinaj, M

2013-01-01

20

Cosmetic Facial Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

Adamson, Peter A.

1987-01-01

21

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

22

PCA facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

23

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

OpenAIRE

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – res...

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

24

Intraoperative continuous monitoring of facial motor evoked potentials in acoustic neuroma surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preservation of facial nerve function is one of the primary objectives in acoustic neuroma surgery. We detail our method of continuous intraoperative facial motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring and present criteria for the preservation of facial nerve function to avoid postoperative facial nerve palsy. Our study population was comprised of 15 patients who did not (group 1), and 20 who did (group 2) undergo facial MEP monitoring during surgery to remove acoustic neuromas. In group 2, we continuously stimulated the facial motor cortex at 5- or 10-s intervals throughout surgery. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the contralateral orbicularis oculi- and orbicularis oris muscles. Optimal anode and cathode placement was at the facial motor cortex and the vertex, respectively. Postoperative facial palsy occurred in 8 of the 15 group 1 patients; in 2 it improved to grade II at 6 months after the operation. Of the 20 group 2 patients, 7 suffered postoperative facial palsy. At 6 months after the operation, their facial nerve function was normal. At the end of the operation, the ratio of the amplitude of the supramaximal EMG to the amplitude at the dural opening was 39.6 % in patients with- and 94.3 % in patients without transient postoperative facial palsy. Continuous facial MEP monitoring not only alerts to surgical invasion of the facial nerves but also helps to predict postoperative facial nerve function. To preserve a minimum amplitude ratio of 50 %, even transient postoperative facial palsy must be avoided. MEP monitoring is an additional useful modality for facial nerve monitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:25015389

Tokimura, Hiroshi; Sugata, Sei; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Yunoue, Shunji; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Arita, Kazunori

2014-10-01

25

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial expression database and Japanese Female Facial Expression database. The results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy

2012-01-01

26

Assessing pain by facial expression: Facial expression as nexus  

OpenAIRE

The experience of pain is often represented by changes in facial expression. Evidence of pain that is available from facial expression has been the subject of considerable scientific investigation. The present paper reviews the history of pain assessment via facial expression in the context of a model of pain expression as a nexus connecting internal experience with social influence. Evidence about the structure of facial expressions of pain across the lifespan is reviewed. Applications of fa...

Prkachin, Kenneth M.

2009-01-01

27

Facial Asymmetry Correction in Facial Palsy Patients with Silhouette Sutures  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: over the last few decades several techniques static and dynamics, have been performed to improve facial asymmetry and functionality alter suffering facial paralysis. Methods: we present a pilot study to show and evaluate the benefits of a new form of facial suspension, with Silhouette sutures. We performed two patients with total and complete facial palsy due to otical tuberculosis in one case and to parotid carcinoma in the other. Results: one year after surgery, both patients ...

Juan Fernando Fuentes; Lluisa Torrent; Ricard Palao; María Luisa Navarrete; Mireia González

2012-01-01

28

How I treat ... facial paralysis by hypoglosso-facial anastomosis  

OpenAIRE

Thirteen patients underwent a hypoglosso- or a spino-facial nerve anastomosis between 1990 and 1996. Facial palsy was the result of surgery in 12 cases and of radiosurgery in 1 case. The mean interval between facial palsy and anastomosis was 12 months. Facial nerve function is determined on the basis of clinical examination according to the classification of House-Brackmann and our own evaluation. According to House, 10 patients are classified grade III and 3 grade IV. Our evaluation defines ...

Courtmans, I.; Born, J. D.; Carlier, Alain; Hans, Pol

2002-01-01

29

[Therapy of facial pain].  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial pain is a rare and often misdiagnosed condition. The most common facial pain syndrome is trigeminal neuralgia (TG), which is characterized by paroxysms of excruciating, sharp, burning or lancinating pain. Most cases are caused by a vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve at its entry zone to the pons. Treatment strategies comprise medical treatment and surgical procedures. Anticonvulsants like carbamazepin or gabapentin are widely used for the treatment of TG. The decision on the individual drug therapy may depend on factors like pharmacokinetic properties and individual drug tolerability. In case of drug failure, surgical treatment options like microvascular decompression are available. Persistent idiopathic facial pain is a rare pain condition. Elaborate diagnostic investigations have to be performed since symptomatic causes may be overlooked. Antidepressant drugs like amitriptyline are the first-line drugs for the treatment of this condition. PMID:17924296

Schuh-Hofer, S; Arnold, G

2007-10-01

30

Facial parity edge colouring  

OpenAIRE

A facial parity edge colouring of a connected bridgeless plane graph is an edge colouring in which no two face-adjacent edges (consecutive edges of a facial walk of some face) receive the same colour, in addition, for each face ? and each colour c, either no edge or an odd number of edges incident with ? is coloured with c. From Vizing's theorem it follows that every 3-connected plane graph has a such colouring with at most ?* + 1 colours, where ?* is the size of the largest face. In this...

Czap, Ju?lius; Jendrol, Stanislav; Kardos?, Frantis?ek

2011-01-01

31

Computed tomography in facial trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

32

Paralisia facial periférica congênita familiar Familial congenital peripheral facial palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores referem 6 casos de paralisia facial periférica congênita que se sucederam em três gerações. O estudo genético sugere a atuação de um gen autosômico dominante. Na mesma família foram assinalados outras alterações congênitas (estrabismo, nistagmo. Um dos pacientes com paralisia facial (caso II-7 também apresentava micrognatia. Os pacientes com outras alterações congênitas não foram examinados adequadamente, não sendo possível, por isso, estbelecer relação etiológica entre esses achados e a paralisia facial.Six cases of congenital peripheral facial diplegia occurring in three generations are reported. The action of an autosomal dominant gene is suggested. In the same family were observed other congenital anomalies (strabismus, nistagmus. One of the patients with facial palsy had also micrognathy. Patients with other congenital anomalies but without facial palsy were examined not adequately; therefore it was impossible to correlate these findings with those concerning the facial palsy.

Ehrenfried O. Wittig

1968-03-01

33

Paralisia facial periférica congênita familiar / Familial congenital peripheral facial palsy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores referem 6 casos de paralisia facial periférica congênita que se sucederam em três gerações. O estudo genético sugere a atuação de um gen autosômico dominante. Na mesma família foram assinalados outras alterações congênitas (estrabismo, nistagmo). Um dos pacientes com paralisia facial (cas [...] o II-7) também apresentava micrognatia. Os pacientes com outras alterações congênitas não foram examinados adequadamente, não sendo possível, por isso, estbelecer relação etiológica entre esses achados e a paralisia facial. Abstract in english Six cases of congenital peripheral facial diplegia occurring in three generations are reported. The action of an autosomal dominant gene is suggested. In the same family were observed other congenital anomalies (strabismus, nistagmus). One of the patients with facial palsy had also micrognathy. Pati [...] ents with other congenital anomalies but without facial palsy were examined not adequately; therefore it was impossible to correlate these findings with those concerning the facial palsy.

Ehrenfried O., Wittig; Carlos Augusto, Moreira; Newton, Freire-Maia.

1968-03-01

34

Relaciones de Forma y Proporción del Incisivo Central Maxilar con Medidas Faciales, Línea Mediana Dentaria y Facial en Adultos / Relationships between Shape and Proportion of the Maxillary Central Incisor with Facial Measurements, Dental and Facial Midline in Adults  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio fue relacionar la forma y proporción del incisivo central maxilar (ICM) derecho con la forma facial y ubicación de las líneas medianas dentarias y facial. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal sobre una muestra por conveniencia constituida por 118 pacientes de ambos [...] sexos, con una edad promedio de 25,09±7,71 años, escogidos según criterios de inclusión. En cada caso, fueron medidos el largo y ancho del ICM derecho, proporción dentaria resultante entre estas medidas, líneas medianas dentarias en relación a la línea mediana facial. Estas medidas se correlacionaron con las medidas faciales para forma y clase facial. Los resultados revelaron que la forma dentaria más frecuente encontrada fue la ovoide; las medidas promedio de largo y ancho para el ICM fueron de 10,28±0,91 mm y 8,69±0,57 mm, respectivamente. En mujeres fue 9,98 mm y 8,55 mm, y en hombres de 10,62 mm y 8,86 mm. La proporción dentaria fue de un 85%. Se encontraron coincidencias de las líneas medianas dentarias maxilar, mandibular y facial sólo en un 18% de los casos, y los tipos de contornos gingivales más frecuentes fueron de tipo estético (97%). No hubo relación entre medidas dentarias y faciales para las distintas clases faciales (análisis de varianza, y pruebas de comparaciones múltiples de Scheffe), sin embargo, encontramos que en todas las clases faciales de ambos sexos, predominó el tipo mesofacial y la clase I facial (57%). No se puede establecer una correlación entre forma dentaria y forma facial de manera significativa, por lo que otros parámetros también deben ser tomados en cuenta. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to relate the shape and proportion of the right maxillary central incisor with facial shape and location of dental and facial median lines. Cross-sectional study on a convenience sample consisting of 118 patients of both sexes was performed, with an average age of 25.09 [...] ±7.71 years, selected according to inclusion criteria. In each case, were measured the length and width of right maxillary central incisor, tooth ratio resulting of these measures and medium tooth lines in relation to the midline. These measures were correlated with measures of facial shape and facial class. The results revealed that the most common tooth shape found was ovoid; average length and width for the maxillary central incisor were 10.28±0.91 mm and 8.69±0.57 mm, respectively; of 9.98 mm and 8.55 mm in women, and 10.62 mm and 8.86 mm in men. The dental proportion was 85%. Matches between the median lines of maxillary teeth, jaw and face were only found in 18% of cases, and the most common types of gingival contours were aesthetic (97%). There was no relationship between dental and facial for different facial types (analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests of Scheffe) measures, however, we found that all facial classes in both sexes, prevailed mesofacial and class I facial types (57%). Unable to establish a correlation between tooth shape and facial shape significantly, so other parameters should also be taken into account.

Benjamín, Weber; Ramón, Fuentes; Nerilda, García; Mario, Cantín.

1101-11-01

35

Facial Asymmetry Correction in Facial Palsy Patients with Silhouette Sutures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: over the last few decades several techniques static and dynamics, have been performed to improve facial asymmetry and functionality alter suffering facial paralysis. Methods: we present a pilot study to show and evaluate the benefits of a new form of facial suspension, with Silhouette sutures. We performed two patients with total and complete facial palsy due to otical tuberculosis in one case and to parotid carcinoma in the other. Results: one year after surgery, both patients have improved facial asymmetry, mastication and speech production which have lead to a higher self-esteem and major social interaction. Conclusions: static facial suspension with Silhouette sutures is a non invasive alternative to dynamic techniques in patients who don’t want or can’t undergo more complex surgeries.

Juan Fernando Fuentes

2012-01-01

36

Management of facial trauma in children: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender minds of young children and their parents. This case report documents the trauma and follow up care of a 4-year-old patient with maxillofacial injuries.

Das U

2006-09-01

37

Modified facial bipartition  

OpenAIRE

Orbital hypertelorism is a craniofacial abnormality that arises on its own or as part of a number of syndromes. It is not uncommon to find the condition in association with maxillary hypoplasia. This manuscript reports an uncommon case of Tessier 2, 12 with orbital hypertelorism and dentoskeletal maxillary prognathism. To correct the condition, the first stage procedure was a modification of facial bipartition, according to the need of the case, followed by correction of alar cleft by Denonvi...

Balaji, S. M.

2012-01-01

38

Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

Martin Paul Evison

2000-06-01

39

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão suprageniculada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial.The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Ricardo E. Bento

1985-09-01

40

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica / Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Uni [...] versidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão suprageniculada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial. Abstract in english The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clí [...] nicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Ricardo E., Bento; Eduardo A. S., Vellutini; Felix H., Pahl; A. J., Tedesco-Marchese; Gilberto S., Formigoni; Hector C., Navarro; A., Miniti.

1985-09-01

41

Compensation procedures for facial asymmetries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Why would a patient complain of "fuzzy and uncomfortable" vision with a variety of glasses? Perhaps because the practitioner has failed to take facial asymmetry into account. Methods of measuring facial asymmetry and optically correcting for it are discussed. PMID:7660306

Kozol, F

1995-01-01

42

Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression  

CERN Document Server

This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

Pickin, Andrew

2011-01-01

43

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial / Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A eti [...] opatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial) juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural) e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas. Abstract in english Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic) and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiolo [...] gy can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%). The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves) and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa; Andy de Oliveira, Vicente; Carlos E.C., Abreu; Simone F., Benbassat; Marcos L., Antunes; Flávia A., Barros.

2003-10-01

44

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample compris [...] ed four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment.

Jesus Claudio, Gabana-Silveira; Laura Davison, Mangilli; Fernanda C., Sassi; Arnaldo Feitosa, Braga; Claudia Regina Furquim, Andrade.

2014-08-01

45

Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed andevaluated.Key WordsArtificial Muscles, facial prosthetics, stroke rehabilitation,facial paralysis, computer vision, automated facialrecognition.

Fergal Coulter

2011-10-01

46

Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis  

OpenAIRE

BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film ac...

Fergal Coulter; Philip Breedon; Michael Vloeberghs

2011-01-01

47

Rehabilitation Strategies for Facial Nerve Injuries  

OpenAIRE

Many treatment techniques, including exercise, electrical stimulation, biofeedback, and neuromuscular retraining, have been described for the treatment of patients with facial paresis. The degree of nerve injury determines the recovery of the facial muscles. Patients with a Sunderland third-degree injury benefit most from therapy to maximize facial nerve function. Following a facial nerve palsy, many patients present with facial muscle weakness in addition to aberrant synkinetic movements. Th...

Novak, Christine B.

2004-01-01

48

Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature tracking, which usually detects and tracks prominent landmarks surrounding facial components (i.e., mouth, eyebrow, etc, captures the detailed face shape information; Second, facial actions recognition, i.e., recognize facial action units (AUs defined in FACS, try to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial  expression analysis attempts to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial expression analysis attempts to recognize facial expressions that represent the human emotion states. In this proposed algorithm initially detecting eye and mouth, features of eye and mouth are extracted using Gabor filter, (Local Binary Pattern LBP and PCA is used to reduce the dimensions of the features. Finally SVM is used to classification of expression and facial action units.

Vasanth P.C.

2015-03-01

49

Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior. Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior. Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil.Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal lifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction of the sagging cheek structures. This

O. M. Ramírez

2007-03-01

50

Imaging of the facial nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

2010-05-15

51

Imaging of the facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

52

Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" / "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz d [...] e lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior). Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior). Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog) se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil. Abstract in english Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal l [...] ifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the fa

O. M., Ramírez; A., Novo Torres; Ch. R., Volpe.

2007-03-01

53

Medical facial surface scanner  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical, non-contact three-dimensional range surface digitizers are employed in the 360-degree examination of object surfaces, especially the heads and faces of individuals. The resultant 3- D surface data is suitable for computer graphics display and manipulation, for numerically controlled object replications, or for further processing such as surface measurement extraction. We employed a scanner with a basic active sensor element consisting of a synchronized pattern projector employing flashtubes that illuminate a surface, with a CID camera to detect, digitize, and transmit the sequence of 24 images (per camera) to a digital image processor for surface triangulation, calibration, and fusion into a single surface description of the headform. A major feature of this unit is its use of multiple (typically 6) stationary active sensor elements, with efficient calibration algorithms that achieve nearly seamless superposition of overlapping surface segments seen by individual cameras. The result is accurate and complete coverage of complex contoured surfaces. Application of this system to digitization of the human head in the planning and evaluation of facial plastic surgery is presented.

Vannier, Michael W.; Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Brunsden, Barry S.

1992-05-01

54

Pregnancy and facial diplegia: A rare case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial paralysis is seen more commonly in the womenduring pregnancy compared to their peers. Facial diplegiais a more common condition than facial paralysis.In etiology, many reasons such as Moebius syndrome,Guillain-Barre syndrome, sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis,bilateral temporal bone fractures, Lyme diseaseand multiple sclerosis might be responsible. While facialparalysises are generally observed as idiopathically, asmall part of facial diplegias is idiopathic. Diagnosis of idiopathicfacial diplegia is possible only after an extensiveinvestigation. In this case, clinical follow-up and treatmentof pregnant women diagnosed as idiopathic facial diplegiawas evaluated.Key words: Pregnancy, facial diplegia, prednisolone

Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

2012-09-01

55

Facial neuroma masquerading as acoustic neuroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion. PMID:24775608

Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T

2014-10-01

56

A theoretical and experimental study on meridional-facial isomerization of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq?).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rationale behind the stereospecific synthesis of a facial isomer of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq3) is studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict the favourable influence of an H3O(+) ion on the distribution ratio between a meridional and a thermodynamically unstable facial isomer. PMID:25033089

Iwakura, I; Ebina, H; Komori-Orisaku, K; Koide, Y

2014-09-14

57

Facial skin care products and cosmetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health. PMID:25441474

Draelos, Zoe Diana

2014-01-01

58

Facial aging: A clinical classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

Shiffman Melvin

2007-01-01

59

Bilateral facial synkinesis in leprosy  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy is an important cause of cranial nerve palsy in endemic areas where it may be seen in upto 17.6% patients. The authors herein describe a rare case of bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis with video documentation and modified blink reflex. A 35-year-old gentleman presented with numbness involving right half of his face for 8 months and abnormal stretching sensations over both sides of his nose for one and a half months. Sensory and motor involvement of the right trigeminal nerve was detected along with bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis involving orbicularis oculi and nasalis. R1 and R2 responses consistent with mis-reinnervation were recorded on the left-side using orbicularis oculi and nasalis muscles. Skin biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli and sural nerve biopsy, the presence of granulomas. After 3 months of follow-up on WHO multi-drug therapy, an improvement in facial sensations was observed but without any change in facial synkinetic movements. PMID:22669019

Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Jain, Amita; Gupta, Arvind; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Gyan Prakash

2012-01-01

60

Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

Matsuura Naomi

2009-09-01

61

Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years. PMID:25336000

Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

2014-10-01

62

Effect of Different Occlusion on Facial Expressions Recognition  

OpenAIRE

Occlusions around facial parts complicate the task of recognizing facial expressions from their facial images. We propose facial expressions recognition method based on local facial regions, which provides better recognition rate in the presence of facial occlusions. Proposed method uses Uniform Local Binary pattern as a feature extractor, which extract discriminative features from some important parts of facial image. Feature vectors are classified using simplest classifier th...

Ankita Vyas; Ramchand Hablani

2014-01-01

63

Facial expression recognition on a people-dependent personal facial expression space (PFES)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a person-specific facial expression recognition method which is based on Personal Facial Expression Space (PFES) is presented. The multidimensional scaling maps facial images as points in lower dimensions in PFES. It reflects personality of facial expressions as it is based on the peak instant of facial expression images of a specific person. In constructing PFES for a person, his/her whole normalized facial image is considered as a single pattern without block segmentation and differences of 2-D DCT coefficients from neutral facial image of the same person are used as features. Therefore, in the early part of the paper, separation characteristics of facial expressions in the frequency domain are analyzed using a still facial image database which consists of neutral, smile, anger, surprise and sadness facial images for each of 60 Japanese males (300 facial images). Results show that facial expression categories are well separated in the low frequency domain. PFES is constructed using multidimensional scaling by taking these low frequency domain of differences of 2-D DCT coefficients as features. On the PFES, trajectory of a facial image sequence of a person can be calculated in real time. Based on this trajectory, facial expressions can be recognized. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method.

Chandrasiri, N. P.; Park, Min Chul; Naemura, Takeshi; Harashima, Hiroshi

2000-04-01

64

Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have differentclinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflectsthe flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protectedenvironments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performeda retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatricpopulation.Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years,with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. Thefollowing parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associatedinjuries, treatment and complications.Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girlswas 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years ofage (36.3%. The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the mostcommon type of fracture (69% and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%.Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%.Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea.Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shifttowards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these agegroups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpfulin further evaluation and management.

Sang Hun Kim

2012-11-01

65

Índices Faciales en Individuos Mapuche Facial Index in Mapuche Individuals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El grupo étnico mapuche se distribuye principalmente en la IX Región de Chile, estando más aislados de centros urbanos aquellos individuos que viven en sectores del litoral de la Región. Numerosos aspectos, entre los que se destacan los étnicos determinan la forma de la cabeza y de la cara y por tanto de sus índices. Se realizó un estudio antropométrico en 50 individuos adultos, de sexo masculino, del grupo étnico mapuche, de reducciones de la zona costera de la IX Región de Chile. En ellos se midieron diámetros faciales y se determinaron sus índices. El diámetro nasiognation promedio fue de 123,1 mm (DS 6,6, con límites superior de 147mm e inferior de 105mm. El diámetro nasioalveolar promedio fue de 67,6 mm (DS 4,1, con límites superior de 75mm e inferior 55mm. El índice facial total promedio fue de 85,82 (DS. 4,28, con máximo 100 y mínimo 75, determinando características mesoprosópicas con tendencia a la euriprosopía. El índice facial superior promedio fue de 47,29 (DS. 4,28, con máximo 54,7 y mínimo 38, con características euriónica y leve tendencia a mesial. Los datos anatómicos y antropológicos obtenidos, aportarán nuevos conocimientos a la Antropología Biológica y Física y a los profesionales del área de la SaludThe mapuche ethnic group is mainly distributed in the IX Region of Chile, with those individuals living in areas of the region's sea shore being further isolated from urban centres. Numerous aspects, including those that are ethnic stand out, and determine the shape of the head and the face and thus their indexes. An anthropometric investigation was realized in 50 male adult individuals, of the mapuche ethnic group, in reductions of the coastal area of the IX Region of Chile. Facial diameters were measured in them and their indexes were determined. The average nasiognation diameter was of 123,1 mm (DS 6,6, with superior limits of 147mm and inferior of 105mm. The average nasioalveolar diameter was of 67,6 mm (DS 4,1, with superior limits of 75mm and inferior 55mm. The total average facial index was of 85.82 (DS. 4.28, with a maximum 100 and minimum 75, determining mesoprosopic characteristics with a tendency toward euriprosopic. The average superior facial index was of 47.29 (DS. 4.28, with a maximum 54,7 and minimum38, with eurionic characteristics and a slight mesial tendency. The anatomical and anthropological information obtained, will contribute new knowledge to Biological and Physical Anthropology and to professionals in the health fields

Mariano del Sol

2006-12-01

66

Reconhecimento facial e autismo / Facial recognizing and autism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através da apresentação de quatro figuras com expressões faciais diversas, avaliamos a capacidade de reconhecimento de crianças autistas, comparando-as com crianças de inteligência normal e adultos normais. A comparação dos resultados obtidos foi realizada através do teste do qui-quadrado. As difere [...] nças observadas mostraram-se significativas, reforçando a idéia de que existe uma dificuldade da percepção das expressões faciais nas crianças autistas, o que interfere diretamente nos relacionamentos sociais. Abstract in english Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic childrens recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, s [...] howing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

FRANCISCO B., ASSUMPÇÃO JR; MARIA HELENA, SPROVIERI; EVELYN, KUCZYNSKI; VERA, FARINHA.

1999-12-01

67

Structural aging: the facial recurve concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous facial aging is responsible for the increasingly wrinkled and blotchy appearance of the skin, whereas aging of the facial structures is attributed primarily to gravity. This article purports to show, however, that the primary etiology of structural facial aging relates instead to repeated contractions of certain facial mimetic muscles, the age marker fascicules, whereas gravity only secondarily abets an aging process begun by these muscle contractions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed us to study the contrasts in the contour of the facial mimetic muscles and their associated deep and superficial fat pads in patients of different ages. The MRI model shows that the facial mimetic muscles in youth have a curvilinear contour presenting an anterior surface convexity. This curve reflects an underlying fat pad lying deep to these muscles, which acts as an effective mechanical sliding plane. The muscle's anterior surface convexity constitutes the key evidence supporting the authors' new aging theory. It is this youthful convexity that dictates a specific characteristic to the muscle contractions conveyed outwardly as youthful facial expression, a specificity of both direction and amplitude of facial mimetic movement. With age, the facial mimetic muscles (specifically, the age marker fascicules), as seen on MRI, gradually straighten and shorten. The authors relate this radiologic end point to multiple repeated muscle contractions over years that both expel underlying deep fat from beneath the muscle plane and increase the muscle resting tone. Hence, over time, structural aging becomes more evident as the facial appearance becomes more rigid. PMID:17380358

Le Louarn, Claude; Buthiau, Didier; Buis, Jacques

2007-01-01

68

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients' cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are a [...] nalyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

João Paulo Machado de, Sousa; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak.

2008-06-01

69

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients’ cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are analyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

Joa?o Paulo Machado de Sousa and Jaime Eduardo Ceci?lio Hallak

2008-01-01

70

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

OpenAIRE

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions wer...

Giada Mancini; Pier Francesco Ferrari; Elisabetta Palagi

2013-01-01

71

Age classification from facial images  

OpenAIRE

Information which we comprehend from faces plays an important role in interaction between humans. If computers would be capable of reliably recognizing information from faces, interaction with computers could be more user friendly. Despite the fact that the age of a person also plays an important role in the interaction between humans, age recognition was not extensively studied so far. For many applications it would be enough if computers could reliably classify facial images into a few age ...

Mlinar, Matija

2009-01-01

72

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

OpenAIRE

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels ...

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; Debruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

73

Survey about facial image quality  

OpenAIRE

The project "Two Dimensional Facial Image Quality (2DFIQ)" is the initiative of Fraunhofer IGD Darmstadt to propose a model to measure the quality of digital passport photos based on the specifications of the international standards ICAO/MRTD and ISO 19794-5. In the analysis and design phase of the project, some problems to assign a precedence and relevance of attributes occurred. Since these international standards play an important role in the maturation process of security assurance in som...

Gonzalez, Yuridia

2006-01-01

74

Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angl...

Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

2011-01-01

75

How is facial expression coded?  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

2015-01-01

76

Facial baroparesis caused by scuba diving.  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear. PMID:22953110

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-01-01

77

Rinoplastia e assimetria facial: análise de fatores subjetivos e antropométricos no nariz caucasiano / Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Proporções antropométricas e simetria são consideradas determinantes de beleza. Tais parâmetros têm importância significativa em cirurgia plástica facial, notadamente na Rinoplastia. Sendo o nariz o órgão central da face, ele tem especial importância na determinação da simetria facial, t [...] anto através da percepção de um nariz torto quanto através da determinação do crescimento facial. A avaliação da presença de assimetrias faciais tem grande relevância no pré-operatório, tanto para planejamento cirúrgico quanto aconselhamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e documentar a presença de assimetria facial em pacientes com plano de Rinoplastia e correlacionar as medidas antropométricas com percepção de assimetria ou simetria facial, avaliando se há uma maior prevalência de assimetria facial entre esses pacientes em comparação com voluntários sem queixa nasal. MÉTODO: trabalho prospectivo, realizado através de comparação de fotografias, em pacientes com Pré-operatório de Rinoplastia e voluntários (controles), n=201, através de controle de medidas antropométricas tomadas de uma linha passando pelo centro da face, até: tragus, canto medial, canto lateral, margem alar, e comissura oral, de cada lado da face, por meio de testes estatísticos (teste Z e Odds ratio). RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes ou voluntários apresentou valores totalmente simétricos. Subjetivamente, 59% dos pacientes foram percebidos como assimétricos, contra 54%dos voluntários. Objetivamente, mais de 89% dos pesquisados tiveram medidas assimétricas. Os pacientes apresentaram RLMTr (Razão Linha Média Tragus) mais assimétrica que os voluntários, com diferença estatisticamente significativa. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÃO: assimetrias faciais são muito frequentes em pacientes que procuram Rinoplastia, portanto, especial atenção deve ser dada a estes aspectos, tanto para o planejamento cirúrgico, quanto para orientação aos pacientes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both th [...] rough the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. METHODS: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). RESULTS: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Bettina, Carvalho; Annelyse Christine, Ballin; Renata Vecentin, Becker; Cezar Augusto Sarraff, Berger; Johann G. G. Melcherts, Hurtado; Marcos, Mocellin.

2012-12-01

78

Analysis of facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: In order to provide an objective observational index for facial neuritis, the authors monitored the changes of facial far-infrared thermogram in patients with acute facial neuritis.Methods: A total of 23 patients with acute facial neuritis were enrolled from Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Chinese PLA General Hospital. Another 21 healthy participants were selected as the control group. Focal plane thermal imaging system (thermal sensitivity 0.05 ?) was applied to colle...

Zhang-ling Zhou

2011-01-01

79

Total Facial Nerve Decompression for Severe Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of 10 Cases  

OpenAIRE

Management of traumatic facial nerve disorders is challenging. Facial nerve decompression is indicated if 90–95% loss of function is seen at the very early period on ENoG or if there is axonal degeneration on EMG lately with no sign of recovery. Middle cranial or translabyrinthine approach is selected depending on hearing. The aim of this study is to present retrospective review of 10 patients with sudden onset complete facial paralysis after trauma who underwent total facial nerve decompre...

Sertac Yetiser

2012-01-01

80

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

81

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid.

Mueller, W.; Bumb, P.

1986-11-01

82

A Review of Facial Nerve Anatomy  

OpenAIRE

An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is no...

Myckatyn, Terence M.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2004-01-01

83

Surgical Approaches to Facial Nerve Deficits  

OpenAIRE

The facial nerve is one of the most commonly injured cranial nerves. Once injured, the effects on form, function, and psyche are profound. We review the anatomy of the facial nerve from the brain stem to its terminal branches. We also discuss the physical exam findings of facial nerve injury at various levels. Finally, we describe various reconstructive options for reanimating the face and restoring both form and function.

Birgfeld, Craig; Neligan, Peter

2011-01-01

84

Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving  

OpenAIRE

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkab...

Daisuke Kamide; Takeshi Matsunobu; Akihiro Shiotani

2012-01-01

85

Facial actions as visual cues for personality  

OpenAIRE

What visual cues do human viewers use to assign personality characteristics to animated characters? While most facial animation systems associate facial actions to limited emotional states or speech content, the present paper explores the above question by relating the perception of personality to a wide variety of facial actions (e.g., head tilting/turning, and eyebrow raising) and emotional expressions (e.g., smiles and frowns). Animated characters exhibiting these actions and e...

Arya, Ali; Jefferies, Lisa; Enns, James T.; Dipaola, Steve

2006-01-01

86

Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans  

OpenAIRE

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900?...

Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Castro, Jose? Mari?a Bermu?dez; Martino?n-torres, Mari?a; O’higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L.; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G.

2013-01-01

87

Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management  

OpenAIRE

Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient histor...

You-Wei Cheong; Lun-Jou Lo

2011-01-01

88

TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

... TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain Submitted by ... 42 Daniel M. Laskin, D.D.S., M.S., Director Temporomandibular Joint and Facial Pain Research Center University of Illinois ...

89

Direct Facial-to-Hypoglossal Neurorrhaphy with Parotid Release  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Facial nerve paralysis or compromise can be caused by lesions of the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle and their treatment. When the facial nerve is transected or severely compromised and primary end-to-end repair is not possible, hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis remains the most popular method for accomplishing three main goals: restoring facial tone, restoring facial symmetry, and facilitating return of voluntary facial movement. Our objectives are to evaluate the surg...

Roland Jr, J. Thomas; Lin, Karen; Klausner, Lee M.; Miller, Philip J.

2006-01-01

90

Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion ierve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author)

91

Vitamin D3 potentiates myelination and recovery after facial nerve injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roles of vitamin D on the immune and nervous systems are increasingly recognized. Two previous studies demonstrated that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) induced functional recovery and increased myelination in a rat model of peroneal nerve transection. The current report assessed whether cholecalciferol was efficient in repairing transected rabbit facial nerves. Animals were randomized into two groups of rabbits with an unilateral facial nerve surgery: the vitamin D group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vitamin D3 (200 IU/kg/day), from day 1 post-surgery; the control group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vehicle (triglycerides). Contralateral unsectioned facial nerves from all experimental animals were used as controls for the histological study. The facial functional index was measured every week while the inner diameter of myelin sheath and the G ratio were quantified at the end of the 3 month experiment. The current report indicates that cholecalciferol significantly increases functional recovery and myelination, after 12 weeks of treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation in an animal model of facial paralysis. It paves further the way for clinical trials based on the administration of this steroid in individuals with injured facial nerves. PMID:25261104

Montava, Marion; Garcia, Stéphane; Mancini, Julien; Jammes, Yves; Courageot, Joël; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Feron, François

2014-09-27

92

BILATERAL ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF FACE INVOLVING THE FACIAL AND TRANSVERSE FACIAL ARTERY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case-report whereby a bilateral variation in the arterial supply of face was seen. The facial artery which is the main artery of face was seen terminating in the lower part of the face, as the inferior labial artery and few other branches; the transverse facial artery, which supplements the facial artery normally, was seen to enlarge and take over the course of facial artery, giving the superior labial and lateral nasal branches. The small pre-masseteric branch arising from facial artery was seen only on right side of face. It was absent on left side. Accurate knowledge of the normal and variant arterial anatomy of the facial artery is important for vascular radiology and will provide an anatomical basis to assist surgeons in performing maxillo-facial surgeries successfully. The details of this variation and its clinical significance are discussed herein.

Vrushali S. Kolte

2014-03-01

93

Granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 35-year-old man presented with a 7-year history of gradually enlarging plaques on his face and trunk. The first lesions had developed on both sides of the forehead and the left cheekbone (Figure 1). Four years later similar lesions appeared on his neck and back. He presented a histologic report of a biopsy specimen from a facial plaque performed 5 years earlier that was diagnostic for granuloma faciale. He had different treatments such as topical steroids and cryotherapy without improvement. The appearance of new lesions on his trunk and the gradual enlarging of the old lesions convinced the patient to seek further treatment. Physical examination revealed dusky, violaceous plaques and papules, 0.5 to 2 cm, well-circumscribed, slightly elevated, and located on the face and trunk, with mild pruritus (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Laboratory investigations, including complete blood cell count, VDRL test, antinuclear antibody test, biochemical parameters, and chest x-ray, did not reveal any abnormalities. A skin biopsy taken from the upper part of the back showed similar features to the facial lesion, detected 5 years before, revealing a dense, polymorphous infiltrate involving mid and deep dermis and displaying a diffuse and perivascular pattern (Figure 3A). A narrow grenz zone of normal collagen was consistently observed between dermal infiltrate and epidermis as well as around the pilosebaceous follicles (Figure 3A). The infiltrate mainly consisted of eosinophils and lymphocytes, but neutrophils (often displaying leukocytoclasis), macrophages, and plasma cells were also present (Figures 3B, 3C). Some mast cells were also identified by staining with toluidine blue (Figure 3D). Perivascular infiltrates were often seen, sometimes penetrating vessel walls and in association with leukocytoclasis. Hyalinization of vessel walls, extravasation of red blood cells around capillaries, and nuclear dust were also noted. The epidermis did not show any remarkable change except for slight acanthosis. A diagnosis of granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions was made, and a systemic therapy with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg twice daily for 6 weeks) was recommended.(1,2). PMID:17483662

Rossiello, Luigi; Palla, Marco; Aiello, Francesco Saviero; Baroni, Adone; Satriano, Rocco Alfredo

2007-01-01

94

Pathologic grooming behavior: facial dermatillomania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermatillomania is a pathologic grooming disorder characterized by repetitive, ritualistic, impulsive skin picking without an underlying dermatologic condition. It can lead to skin damage and distress and can affect patient function. This disorder has not received much attention in the literature, with few studies reporting treatment efficacy. Patients with dermatillomania typically present to primary care physicians and frequently are referred to dermatologists; only rarely do patients receive additional psychiatric consultation that may improve treatment efficacy and decrease morbidity. We provide a case report of long-standing facial dermatillomania and our multimodal treatment approach. PMID:21323095

Harris, Scott S; Kushon, Donald; Benedetto, Ernest

2011-01-01

95

Abscess secondary to facial snakebite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Costa Rica, approximately 700 snakebite cases occur each year, 5 to 10 of which result in death. At the Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, 6 to 10 cases are reported annually, more than half of these cases and nearly all deaths are result from Bothrops asper snakebite. This venomous snake, popularly known as the "terciopelo", most often attacks the lower or upper limbs and characteristically produces local tissue damage, which can be severe. The following is a report of the first case of a non-fatal and unusual facial bite caused by Bothrops asper in our country.

M. QUIROGA

2000-01-01

96

Abscess secondary to facial snakebite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Costa Rica, approximately 700 snakebite cases occur each year, 5 to 10 of which result in death. At the Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN), 6 to 10 cases are reported annually, more than half of these cases and nearly all deaths are result from Bothrops asper snakebite. This venomous snake, popular [...] ly known as the "terciopelo", most often attacks the lower or upper limbs and characteristically produces local tissue damage, which can be severe. The following is a report of the first case of a non-fatal and unusual facial bite caused by Bothrops asper in our country.

M., QUIROGA; M. L., AVILA-AGÜERO; I., FAINGEZICHT.

97

Complementary and integrative treatments: atypical facial pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an overview of atypical facial pain for the practicing otolaryngologist. Discussion includes the definition of persistent idiopathic facial pain and its pathophysiology, clinical features, demographics, lack of findings on physical examination, use of imaging modalities and consultations, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within the framework of an holistic approach. PMID:23764815

Nguyen, Chau T; Wang, Marilene B

2013-06-01

98

Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

99

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

100

A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, human–computer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

ANITHA C,

2010-10-01

101

Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

102

Localization of facial region in digital images  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

2011-06-01

103

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

Shiqing Zhang

2012-03-01

104

[Facial allografts and oral rehabilitation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of facial allografts is functional. On this account, oral rehabilitation is pivotal. Two types of cases are possible. Firstly, the indication of facial allograft concerns only the soft tissues. If so, dental care is similar to the one of patients with an organ transplant. Dental implants are a priori contraindicated. A possible indication has to be discussed with the multidisciplinary team. Secondly, the indication is the one of a mandibular and/or maxillary reconstruction. The objective will be a total reconstruction. It could be performed immediately with the allotransplantation of a toothed mandible or maxillar, if the local status permits it. To date, among patients who have benefited from a toothed allotransplant, no tooth has been lost. The first cases have been operated in 2009. If donor teeth cannot be conserved with the allotransplant, the oral rehabilitation will have to be done ideally with adjunctive prostheses. It is rarely possible, for example because of the lack of crests. In case of impossibility, an implant-based rehabilitation can be discussed. One case has been performed with basal implants (cortically anchored disk-design implants) with a five-year follow-up without loosing any loss of implant or infection. PMID:22867955

Meningaud, J-P; Donsimoni, J-M

2012-09-01

105

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

Science.gov (United States)

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (?5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation. PMID:22135150

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

106

Trends in the Pattern of Facial Fractures in Different Countries of the World Tendencias en el Patrón de Fracturas Faciales en Diferentes Países del Mundo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999 and (2000-2007. A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injuries published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included studies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%. In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3% than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0 than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0 in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%. It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los cambios en el patrón de las fracturas maxilofaciales entre los países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo en dos períodos de tiempo (1987-1999 y (2000-2007. Una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en PubMed se llevó a cabo entre las publicaciones de lesiones maxilofaciales publicados durante los últimos 20 años. Sólo 45 artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, y los textos completos de estos artículos fueron examinados a fondo. En cada uno de los estudios incluidos se registraron diferentes parámetros. Se calculó el porcentaje de "peso" de cada parámetro a través del número total de pacientes. La mandíbula fue el hueso facial más fracturado (57%. En todo el periodo evaluado, la media de edad de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue de 24,4 años y la incidencia de las fracturas faciales fue mayor en hombres (81,3% que en mujeres. La razón hombre-mujer de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue mayor en los países en vías de desarrollo (5,1:1,0 que en los países desarrollados (3,7:1,0 en todo el período. Las lesiones relacionadas con accidentes de tránsito disminuyeron considerablemente en los países desarrollados, mientras que aumentó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. Sin embargo, las lesiones faciales relacionadas con asaltos aumentaron considerablemente en los países desarrollados y disminuyó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. El cuerpo de la mandíbula fue el sitio de fractura más común (27,2%. Se concluyó que las fracturas mandibulares son las lesiones más comunes en el tercio medio del esqueleto facial. La mayoría de los pacientes afectados por fracturas faciales en los diferentes países fueron hombres jóvenes.

Mohammad Shayyab

2012-06-01

107

Trends in the Pattern of Facial Fractures in Different Countries of the World / Tendencias en el Patrón de Fracturas Faciales en Diferentes Países del Mundo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los cambios en el patrón de las fracturas maxilofaciales entre los países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo en dos períodos de tiempo (1987-1999) y (2000-2007). Una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en PubMed se llevó a cabo entre las publicaciones de lesi [...] ones maxilofaciales publicados durante los últimos 20 años. Sólo 45 artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, y los textos completos de estos artículos fueron examinados a fondo. En cada uno de los estudios incluidos se registraron diferentes parámetros. Se calculó el porcentaje de "peso" de cada parámetro a través del número total de pacientes. La mandíbula fue el hueso facial más fracturado (57%). En todo el periodo evaluado, la media de edad de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue de 24,4 años y la incidencia de las fracturas faciales fue mayor en hombres (81,3%) que en mujeres. La razón hombre-mujer de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue mayor en los países en vías de desarrollo (5,1:1,0) que en los países desarrollados (3,7:1,0) en todo el período. Las lesiones relacionadas con accidentes de tránsito disminuyeron considerablemente en los países desarrollados, mientras que aumentó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. Sin embargo, las lesiones faciales relacionadas con asaltos aumentaron considerablemente en los países desarrollados y disminuyó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. El cuerpo de la mandíbula fue el sitio de fractura más común (27,2%). Se concluyó que las fracturas mandibulares son las lesiones más comunes en el tercio medio del esqueleto facial. La mayoría de los pacientes afectados por fracturas faciales en los diferentes países fueron hombres jóvenes. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999) and (2000-2007). A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injur [...] ies published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included studies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%). In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3%) than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0) than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0) in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%). It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.

Mohammad, Shayyab; Firas, Alsoleihat; Sukaina, Ryalat; Ameen, Khraisat.

2012-06-01

108

Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric and the Facial Index (photographs. RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa, made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias. RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa, feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários.

Luciana Flaquer Martins

2012-10-01

109

Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvim [...] ento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente) e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias). RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa), feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of [...] radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric) and the Facial Index (photographs). RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa), made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.

Luciana Flaquer, Martins; Julio Wilson, Vigorito.

2012-10-01

110

Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than 10 weeks were, respectively, 68.6% and 77.4%.

H. Madokoro

2012-08-01

111

The identification of unfolding facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

2012-01-01

112

Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physicalexamination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging is helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. Components of soft tissue, dental and skeletal differences contributing to facialasymmetry are evaluated. Frequently dental malocclusion,canting of the occlusal level and midline shift are found.Management of facial asymmetry first aims at correcting theunderlying disorder. Orthognathic surgery is performed for the treatment of facial asymmetry combined with dental occlusal problems. A symmetrical facial midline, harmoniousfacial profile and dental occlusion are obtained from treatment. Additional surgical procedures may be required to increase or reduce the volume of skeletal and soft tissue components on both sides to achieve better symmetry

You-Wei Cheong

2011-08-01

113

Orbital abscess after facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta um caso de abscesso agudo em cavidade orbitária, após 2 dias de trauma facial, sem a presença de fratura óssea, ocorrido em uma mulher da raça negra com 20 anos de idade. Os sintomas se intensificaram nas últimas 24 h com o desenvolvimento de distúrbios visuais do tipo diplopia [...] e fotofobia. Durante exame clínico foi constatado a presença de febre, edema e eritema periorbitário, ptose, proptose e limitação de movimentação ocular para cima, baixo, lado direto e esquerdo. A tomografia computadorizada evidenciava proptose associada a edema considerável, dos tecidos moles no lado esquerdo da face, sem fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. A internação hospitalar e o início da antibioticoterapia endovenosa foram realizados, e o tratamento cirúrgico de incisão e drenagem do abscesso sob anestesia geral foi conduzido, sendo realizado por meio de incisão na pálpebra superior e inferior para acesso a cavidade orbitária e por acesso de Caldwell-Luc para o seio maxilar. No pós-operatório imediato foi observada rápida melhora dos sintomas inicialmente relatados pela paciente. Após 2 dias da intervenção cirúrgica foi observado melhora na movimentação ocular e na acuidade visual, retornando ao normal. No décimo segundo dia pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou melhora significativa com relação à ptose palpebral e a proptose, com adequado processo de cicatrização. Abstract in english This paper reports a rare case of acute severe orbital abscess manifested 2 days after a facial trauma without bone fracture in a 20-year-old Afro-American female. The symptoms worsened within the 24 h prior to hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. The [...] clinical findings at the first consultation included fever, periorbital swelling and redness, ptosis, proptosis and limitation of ocular movements upwards, downwards, to the right and to the left. Computed tomography scan showed proptosis with considerable soft tissue swelling on the left side and no fracture was evidenced in the facial skeleton, including the zygomatic-orbital complex. After hospital admission and antibiotic therapy intravenously the patient was conducted to the operation room and submitted to incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The orbit was approached thorough both eyelids and the maxillary sinus was reached only through the Caldwell-Luc approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. Visual acuity and ocular motility returned to the normal ranges within 2 days after the surgical intervention. After 12 postoperative days, the patient presented with significative improvement in the ptosis and proptosis, and acceptable scars.

Elis Cristina Sousa, Serra; Cassio Edvard, Sverzut; Alexandre Elias, Trivellato.

114

Software Antropmeter, una Nueva Herramienta para Análisis Facial Antropmeter Software, a New Tool for Facial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El análisis de las dimensiones y proporciones faciales es necesario en distintos ámbitos de la odontoestomatología y de la antropología física. En este informe presentamos el software Antropmeter, diseñado para realizar análisis de dimensiones y proporciones faciales, en base a fotografías estandarizadas, de fácil manejo por parte del clínico y de utilidad en análisis faciales estéticos y antropológicos.The dimensions and facial proportions analysis are necessary in different áreas of the odontostomatology and physical anthropology practice. In this report we present the Antropmeter software, designed to carry out analysis of dimensions and facial proportions, based on standardized pictures, of easy handling on the part of the clinical one and of utility in aesthetic and anthropological facial analysis.

Iván Suazo Galdames

2008-12-01

115

[A case of pontine supranuclear facial palsy].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 56-year-old hypertensive man suddenly developed difficulty in speaking and numbness in the right hand. On admission, he showed moderate right supranuclear facial palsy and right clumsy hand. Three weeks later, he was discharged with only right supranuclear facial palsy. MRI revealed a small infarction in the middle pons. The lesion was situated in the paramedian borderzone between the base and tegmentum. These findings suggest that supranuclear fibers to the facial nucleus descend as a separate bundle from the main pyramidal tract at the mid-pontine level. PMID:7994997

Isoe, K; Watanabe, Y; Tanaka, H; Saito, J; Fukada, M

1994-08-01

116

Computed tomography of the facial canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively.

Kiuchi, Sousuke (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan))

1983-02-01

117

Computed tomography of the facial canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively. (author)

118

3-facial colouring of plane graphs  

OpenAIRE

A plane graph is l-facially k-colourable if its vertices can be coloured with k colours such that any two distinct vertices on a facial segment of length at most l are coloured differently. We prove that every plane graph is 3-facially 11-colourable. As a consequence, we derive that every 2-connected plane graph with maximum face-size at most 7 is cyclically 11-colourable. These two bounds are for one off from those that are proposed by the (3l+1)-Conjecture and the Cyclic C...

Havet, Fre?de?ric; Sereni, Jean-se?bastien; Skrekovski, Riste

2008-01-01

119

Rapid facial mimicry in geladas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

120

Facial ulcer treated with olanzapine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 69-year-old woman presented with a nonhealing ulcer on her right cheek. On histological examination of a biopsy, no evidence of granuloma formation or malignancy was found, and the overall picture was felt to be consistent with dermatitis artefacta (DA). The patient was referred to a joint psychodermatology clinic, where treatment with risperidone was started. However, at follow-up the ulcer remained unchanged, and treatment was changed to olanzapine 2.5 mg twice daily. Within 10 months, the large facial ulcer, which had been refractory to treatment for several years, had completely healed. Anxiolytics, antidepressants and low-dose antipsychotics have been shown to be helpful in the management of DA. Successful treatment with olanzapine has been described. The good clinical response to olanzapine may be attributed to its anti-impulsive effect, antihistaminic properties and low risk of parkinsonian side-effects. PMID:23611260

Lowry, C L; Bewley, A; Taylor, R

2013-07-01

121

Facial and axillary apocrine chromhidrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apocrine chromhidrosis is a rare, chronic, idiopathic disorder, characterized by the excretion of pigmented sweat. A 26-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of dark blue secretions on bilateral malar cheeks. On examination, upon pressure on the cheeks, a dark blue fluid was expressed, which appeared to arise primarily from the follicle. The patient had not appreciated it, but on examination of her axillae, a very subtle blue coloring was observed. Histopathologic examination revealed apocrine glands in the deep reticular dermis. Bluish cytoplasmic granules were observed in the apocrine epithelium lining, which correspond to lipofuscin granules. The diagnosis of apocrine cromhidrosis was made. We began treatment with 20 percent aluminum chloride hexahydrate solution and capsaicin cream with poor tolerance. Finally, we treated with botulinum toxin type A with a successful response. We report a case of facial and axillary apocrine cromhidrosis with good response to botulinum toxin type A. PMID:22483524

Pérez Tato, Berta; Zamora Martínez, Elena; Sánchez Albisua, Begoña; Pérez González, Yosmar C; Polimón Olabarrieta, Isabel; Marinero Escobedo, Silvia; Fernández López, Paloma

2012-03-01

122

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

OpenAIRE

TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e ...

Lucila Leal Calais; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira Bento; Luiz Roberto Comerlatti

2005-01-01

123

Giant sialocele following facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Lesões na região parotídea e massetérica podem causar danos importantes secundariamente à injúrias de estruturas anatômicas nobres. A sialocele é observada como um aumento de volume facial associado a ruptura do ducto parotídeo devido a trauma. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso de sialocele [...] parotídea gigante traumática, por arma branca, em uma paciente de 40 anos de idade. Em virtude do insucesso de medidas conservadoras de tratamento, uma intervenção cirúrgica por meio de instalação de um dreno à vácuo foi proposta. Sob anestesia local, uma pequena incisão foi realizada adjacente ao ducto da papila parotídea, seguida de divulsão do plano muscular e drenagem de quantidade significativa de saliva. Um dreno à vácuo foi instalado e mantido por 15 dias objetivando formar um novo ducto salivar. Esta técnica se mostrou segura, efetiva e de baixo custo, proporcionando a completa resolução do caso; não sendo observada recidiva em acompanhamento de 28 meses. Abstract in english Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in th [...] e parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was selected. Under local anesthesia, a small incision was performed adjacent to parotid duct papilla, followed by muscular divulsion and draining of significant amount of saliva. An active vacuum suction drain was placed for 15 days, aiming to form a new salivary duct. This technique was shown to be a safe, effective and low-cost option, leading to complete resolution and no recurrence after 28 months of follow up.

Rui, Medeiros Júnior; Alípio Miguel da, Rocha Neto; Isaac Vieira, Queiroz; Antônio de Figueiredo, Cauby; Luiz Alcino Monteiro, Gueiros; Jair Carneiro, Leão.

124

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks.

Si, Hariharan; Reddy Narender P; Kulkarni Saket S

2009-01-01

125

Multiple recurrences of ipsilateral facial palsy in a patient with widening of the facial canal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The incidence of facial palsy (FP) is 6-12/100,000 in children, however only one in twenty experience recurrences. This report describes the clinical approach and diagnostic considerations in a child with multiple ipsilateral FP. The first occurrence of FP in conjunction with fever occurred at age 13 months, and was succeeded by more than 20 recurrences. Imaging revealed widening of the facial canal along with thickening of the facial nerve, allowing collateral inflammation and edema to induce pressure on the nerve. This is the first case describing the association between an abnormally widened facial canal and recurrent FP in childhood.

Andreassen, Christer Swan; Ovesen, Therese

2014-01-01

126

Facial cleft syndrome-A case report  

OpenAIRE

A rare case of facio-orbital anamoly having dermolipoma with posterior extension, lid notch, ectropion, assymetric hypertelorism and lipoma of corpus callosum is presented. The classification of the facial cleft deformities and the surgical management is highlighted.

Betharia S; Kumar Sushil

1990-01-01

127

Research on Dynamic Facial Expressions Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these eigen-sequences, and recognize six universal facial expressions: angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. And we developed an experimental system based on our algorithm. The experimental results show that the computing time and the error of vector quantization is reduced, while the classification efficiency is improved.

Xiaoning Peng

2009-04-01

128

Recurrent Facial Urticaria Following Herpes Simplex Labialis  

OpenAIRE

We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran

2012-01-01

129

[Persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The terms 'persistent idiopathic facial pain' (PIFP) and 'atypical odontalgia' (AO) are currently used as exclusion diagnoses for chronic toothache and chronic facial pain. Knowledge about these pain conditions in medical and dental practices is of crucial importance for the prevention of iatrogenic tissue damage by not-indicated invasive interventions, such as endodontic treatment and tooth extraction. In the present paper, etiology and pathogenesis, differential diagnostic criteria, and diagnostic approaches will be explained and relevant therapeutic principles will be outlined. PMID:23916270

Gaul, Charly; Ettlin, Dominik; Pfau, Doreen B

2013-01-01

130

A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF FACIAL FRACTURE ETIOLOGIES.  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Assessment of mechanism of injury and type and location of the facial injury. Material and Methods: The medical records of 276 patients with 216 facial fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Fracture patterns were classified based on the presence or absence of fractures of the orbit, zygoma, maxilla, mandible and nose. Results: The most common etiology of trauma was assault (42.6%) followed by car accident (23.1%), fall (16.2%), sports (5%), occupational (2%), and gunshot wound (0....

Elitsa Deliverska; Martin Rubiev

2012-01-01

131

Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results sho...

Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.; Spang, J.; Fatouros-bergman, H.

2012-01-01

132

Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (OFD-II) is characterized by frenulated tongue, midline cleft lip, high arched or cleft palate, micrognathia, syndactyly and polydactyly, bilateral reduplicated hallux, conductive hearing loss, choroidal coloboma and normal intelligence. There are nine forms of oro-facial-digital syndromes with different modes of inheritance. A young female with features of oro-facio-digital syndrome type-II is being reported. PMID:23777026

Kalyan, Meenakshi; Kanitkar, S; John, Robby; Gireesh, G; Bhate, Amit; Mithun, M

2012-10-01

133

Facial Affect Displays during Tutoring Sessions  

OpenAIRE

An emotionally intelligent tutoring system should be able to provide feedback to students, taking into account relevant aspects of the mental state of the student. Facial expressions, put in context, might provide some cues with respect to this state. We discuss the analysis of the facial expression displayed by students interacting with an Intelligent Tutoring System and our attempts to relate expression, situation and mental state building on the component process model...

Ghijsen, M.; Heylen, D. K. J.; Nijholt, A.; Akker, H. J. A. Op Den

2005-01-01

134

Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The a...

Chen, Henry H.; Neumeier, Anna T.; Davies, Brett W.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

2013-01-01

135

A BIONIC EYEBLINK: MANAGEMENT OF FACIAL PALSY  

OpenAIRE

This thesis highlights the current gold-standard surgical procedures for the rehabilitation of mimicry in individuals with facial paralysis and explores the potential application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) as a novel treatment restoring the face mimicry. Closed-loop facial pacing represents an innovative solution for prosthetically assisted movements. In particular, blinking is typically symmetrical, enabling healthy eye blink on one side of the face to serve as a trigger to p...

Frigerio, Alice

2013-01-01

136

Approaches to Grading Facial Nerve Function  

OpenAIRE

Systematic evaluation of facial nerve paralysis allows the clinician to determine objectively the severity of disability, record and communicate this information to colleagues, and evaluate response to therapy. An ideal grading system would be precisely calibrated—at once accurate, reliable, and conducive to use in both the clinic and the research laboratory. Developing such a system has proved difficult, however. The complexity of facial nerve anatomy allows tremendous variation in clinica...

Brenner, Michael J.; Neely, J. Gail

2004-01-01

137

Stereotactic Mesencephalotomy for Cancer - Related Facial Pain  

OpenAIRE

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive meas...

Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won; Son, Byung-chul

2014-01-01

138

Facial Expression Driven Mobile Learning System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processing human facial expressions is a computer vision challenge in a mobile technology environment. On the other hand, facial expression is an effective tool in behavioral studies on learning environment. Since, mobile technologies possess educating potential for today’s generation, the introduction of behavior as a consideration for mobile user opens up many opportunities for the design and development of a mobile learning system that can cater personalized learning. This undertaking was concerned with the enhancement of learners’ learning engagement and the enrichment of learners’ benefits. The mobile learning system approximates the learners’ facial expressions. The facial expressions will be used to identify the learning moods that will then be used to match the appropriate learning materials and activities of the learners. These steps are done to achieve optimal experience in learning. Approximation of learners’ facial expressions, learning moods, and matching of learning materials and activities to the learners are done through the use of intelligent computing techniques. In order for the stated endeavors to be achieved this undertaking considered three (3 stages of actions. Stage one focused on identifying the requirements needed to design, develop and assess the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. The second stage focused on the actual design and development of a prototype for the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system and the third stage focused on the assessment of the prototype of the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. Assessment was done by pilot testing the mobile learning system prototype to a student sample from the researchers’ locality.

Jeffrey S. Ingosan

2014-02-01

139

Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest, happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ?a? like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It?s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

Mahyar Hamedi

2011-01-01

140

Facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve palsy: a case report with literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

Gv, Sowmya; Bs, Manjunatha; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-08-01

141

Parálisis facial: ¿siempre parálisis de Bell? / Facial paralysis: always Bell's palsy?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La parálisis facial periférica es un motivo de consulta relativamente frecuente en Atención Primaria, afectando de forma similar a hombres y mujeres. La parálisis facial periférica más frecuente es la de causa idiopática o parálisis de Bell, en un 70% de los casos. Otras etiologías menos frecuentes [...] son los traumatismos, infección por virus o la posible causa neoplásica, ya sea por un tumor intracraneal o extracraneal. La sintomatología clínica más relevante es la afectación de la musculatura facial existiendo una recuperación completa hasta en el 80% de los casos. El tratamiento depende de la etiología, siendo el más aceptado para la parálisis de Bell el uso de corticoides. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven con parálisis facial refractaria al tratamiento en Atención Primaria. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis is a relatively common reason for primary care consultations, affecting males and females similarly. The most common peripheral facial paralysis is that of idiopathic origin or Bell's palsy, in 70% of cases. Other less frequent aetiologies are injuries, viral infections o [...] r a possible neoplastic cause, whether from an intra-cranial or extra-cranial tumour. The most important clinical symptom is that affecting the facial muscles, with a full recovery in up to 80% of cases. Treatment is dependent on aetiology, with the most widely accepted being that for Bell's palsy; the use of corticosteroids. We present the case of a young female patient with refractory facial paralysis under primary healthcare treatment.

Jonathan, Valdez González; Francisco José, Román Pérez; Beatriz, Ponce Moreno; Elena, Pérez Guerra; Vicente, Martín Díaz.

2013-10-01

142

Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

143

Equine-related facial fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Horseback riding is a common recreational activity that can cause injuries to both mounted and dismounted participants. This study examines the patterns of equine-related maxillofacial fractures presenting in a tertiary referral centre. Patients presenting over an 11-year period from 1996 to 2006 with equine-related maxillofacial fractures were identified through the trauma database. The extent of the injuries, surgical treatment and follow-up details were documented. 45 patients were identified, with an increasing incidence over the study period. 69% were male and 31% female. 31% of patients were 16-30 years of age. 73% of fractures were in the midfacial region. 67% of patients were actively treated, with 60% of these patients requiring internal fixation. 64% of patients were hospitalized. Equine-related maxillofacial fractures frequently involve a young and predominantly female population, compared with facial fractures due to other causes. Midfacial fractures were the most common site of injury. Alcohol was rarely implicated. A high proportion of patients required surgery and hospitalization. PMID:18583096

Lee, K H; Steenberg, L J

2008-11-01

144

Reconstrução da estrutura facial por biomateriais: revisão de literatura / Facial structure reconstruction by biomaterials: literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A região facial apresenta um desafio único para o implante de biomateriais, porque o esforço de tração dos músculos dessa região produz carregamento variável em diferentes regiões. Este trabalho apresenta as causas do amplo uso de biomateriais na reconstrução facial, descrevendo as características, [...] as vantagens e as desvantagens de cada tipo específico de material para cada região da face. Abstract in english The facial region presents an unique challenge for implantable biomaterials because the pull of the facial muscles produces variable loading in different regions. This work presents the reasons of the wide use of biomaterial in facial reconstruction, pointing out the advantages and the disadvantages [...] of each specific material type for each face region.

Mário, Maia; Emília Silva, Klein; Tatiana Verastegui, Monje; Carlos, Pagliosa.

2010-09-01

145

Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India  

CERN Document Server

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

2010-01-01

146

Restorative interventions for HIV facial lipoatrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual. Plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures can restore lost facial volume. Both biodegradable and permanent filling agents have been investigated for HIV facial lipoatrophy. Biodegradable products offer a good safety profile, but maintenance of aesthetic benefits necessitates reinjection over time. Although permanent products offer longevity and lower treatment costs, adverse events should they occur can be serious and of long duration. Despite the substantial increase in options for soft-tissue augmentation in recent years, well-performed clinical studies in HIV-infected adults with facial lipoatrophy are scarce, and long-term clinical safety data are lacking. This review will summarize available efficacy and safety data of the biodegradable and permanent agents utilized for soft-tissue augmentation in this population. Difficulties associated with comparing treatment efficacy data, assessment of facial lipoatrophy presence and severity, and measurement of facial fat will be discussed. Available data indicate that in HIV-infected adults, most filling agents have short-term clinically safety, and can provide aesthetic improvement and improve well-being, social functioning and quality of life. However, well-designed studies with objectively assessed endpoints are needed to elucidate optimal treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:18615122

Carey, Dianne; Liew, Steven; Emery, Sean

2008-01-01

147

Gamma Knife surgery for facial nerve schwannomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Object The aim of this study was to evaluate the tumor control rate and functional outcomes after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) among patients with a facial nerve schwannoma. Methods The authors reviewed the radiological data and clinical records for 14 patients who had consecutively undergone GKS for a facial nerve schwannoma. Before GKS, 12 patients had facial palsy, 7 patients had hearing disturbance, and 5 patients had undergone partial or subtotal tumor resection. The mean and median tumor volumes were 3707 mm(3) and 3000 mm(3), respectively (range 117-10,100 mm(3)). The mean tumor margin dose was 13.2 Gy (range 12-15 Gy), and the mean maximum tumor dose was 26.4 Gy (range 24-30 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 80.7 months (range 2-170 months). Results Control of tumor growth was achieved in all 12 (100%) patients who were followed up for longer than 2 years. After GKS, facial nerve function improved in 2 patients, remained unchanged in 9 patients, and worsened in 3 patients. All patients who had had serviceable hearing at the preliminary examination maintained their hearing at a useful level after GKS. Other than mild tinnitus reported by 3 patients, no other major complications developed. Conclusions GKS for facial nerve schwannomas resulted in excellent tumor control rates and functional outcomes. GKS might be a good primary treatment option for patients with a small- to medium-sized facial nerve schwannoma when facial nerve function and hearing are relatively preserved. PMID:25434945

Moon, Ju Hyung; Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho; Lee, Kyu Sung; Park, Yong Gou; Chang, Jong Hee

2014-12-01

148

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação de patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman. O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável.Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this association, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman. Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Fernando Kaoru Yonamine

2009-04-01

149

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda / Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação d [...] e patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman) e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman). O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável. Abstract in english Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this associati [...] on, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman) and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman). Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Fernando Kaoru, Yonamine; Juliane, Tuma; Rogério Fernandes Nunes da, Silva; Maria Claudia Mattos, Soares; José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa.

2009-04-01

150

Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 fa90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

151

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequência de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%, a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5% tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8% pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita.BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facial paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2% underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5% showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8% sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Kátia Torres Batista

2011-12-01

152

Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

Nicholas Lange

2013-07-01

153

Stability of facial affective expressions in schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature. PMID:22966449

Fatouros-Bergman, H; Spang, J; Merten, J; Preisler, G; Werbart, A

2012-01-01

154

Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects' facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response. PMID:17121065

Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith D; Berge, Cynthia A

2006-10-01

155

A Study of Techniques for Facial Detection and Expression Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions is an important component for human-machine interfaces. It has lot of attraction in research area since 1990's.Although humans recognize face without effort or delay, recognition by a machine is still a challenge. Some of its challenges are highly dynamic in their orientation, lightening, scale, facial expression and occlusion. Applications are in the fields like user authentication, person identification, video surveillance, information security, data privacy etc. The various approaches for facial recognition are categorized into two namely holistic based facial recognition and feature based facial recognition. Holistic based treat the image data as one entity without isolating different region in the face where as feature based methods identify certain points on the face such as eyes, nose and mouth etc. In this paper, facial expression recognition is analyzed with various methods of facial detection,facial feature extraction and classification.

G.Hemalatha

2014-04-01

156

Cross-Cultural Generality of Communication via Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

When facial expressions are studied at the system level, there is evidence for regular, rather general rules of affective meaning shared by all language culture communities, indicating the cross-cultural nature of communication via facial expressions. (Author/RB)

Saral, Tulsi B.

1972-01-01

157

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something about the human’s emotions and mood. This paper focuses on the novel Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm (HFGA and comparative analysis of Facial Geometry algorithm and HFGA for facial feature extraction and its use to classify facial expressions. Feed forward back propagation neural network (BPNN and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS are used as classifiers for expression classification and recognition. Experimentations are carried out using Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Experimental results shows that average recognition efficiency from 95.33% to 93.33% is achieved for 30 to 75 test samples using BPNN and 95.71% to 95.33% with ANFIS approach.

Sunanda P. Khandait

2013-03-01

158

Incidencia de las lesiones cutáneas malignas faciales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de las lesiones malignas de la piel facial en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey en los años 2000 y 2001. La información se obtuvo de 148 historias clínicas con el diagnóstico de lesiones malignas de la piel, de las cuales 42 correspondieron a lesiones de localización facial. La entidad que nos ocupa fue mayor en pacientes mayores de 50 años de edad, blancos, masculinos, con predominio en el tercio medio facial. Los principales tipos histológicos fueron: el carcinoma basocelular y el espinocelular, pero con mayor predominio en el primero. Se revisa el tema y se comparan nuestros resultados con los de otros autores.

Jorge Luis Zequeira Peña

2003-04-01

159

[Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis complicated with peripheral facial palsy].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of an acute febrile illness with liver dysfunction. A peripheral blood smear displayed atypical lymphocytes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis was diagnosed based on the detection of CMV-specific IgM and conventional CMV pp65 antigen. The physical examination on admission revealed signs of lower motor neuron right facial palsy. There were no significant cerebrospinal fluid findings, nor were there other neurological abnormalities. After receiving a short-course of oral corticosteroids, the patient gradually recovered from the facial paralysis. A one-month follow-up examination indicated that she had fully recovered neurologically, showing disappearance of CMV-DNA and a significant increase in the anti-CMV IgG titer. To our knowledge, there has been only one previous report describing CMV as the cause of an isolated facial palsy combined with CMV mononucleosis. PMID:24681941

Hirano, Taichi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

2014-03-01

160

Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

2009-02-01

161

Automatic Facial Spots and Acnes Detection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently medical cosmetic has attracted significant business opportunity. Micro cosmetic surgery usually involves invasive cosmetic procedures such as non-ablative laser procedure for skin rejuvenation. However, to select an appropriate treatment for skin relies on accurate preoperative evaluations. In this paper, an automatic facial skin defects detection and recognition method is proposed. The system first locates the facial region from the input image. Then, the shapes of faces were recognized using a contour descriptor. The facial features are extracted to define regions of interest and an image segment method is used to extract potential defect. A support-vector-machine-based classifier is then used to classify the potential defects into spots, acnes and normal skin. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

Chuan-Yu Chang

2013-01-01

162

Progressive facial hemiatrophy with associated osseous lesions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Progressive facial hemiatrophy (PFH) is a rare condition characterized by the slow, progressive appearance of a unilateral facial atrophy that affects the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle and bone. We report the case of a 60-year-old female patient whose cutaneous symptoms commenced in 1987 in the [...] form of a purplish erythema on the left side of her face and neck, which subsequently remitted giving rise to an indurated region in the left maxillary region. Since 1995 until the present day, she has developed facial hemiatrophy on the left side accompanied by progressive osseous reabsorption of the upper maxilla and left mandible with atrophy of soft tissue. The association of the onset of PFH with progressive osteolysis of the maxilla has not been previously reported in an adult patient.

Santiago, Gómez Diez; Lorena, Gallego López; María, López Escobar; Luis, Junquera Gutiérrez; Narciso, Pérez Oliva.

2007-12-01

163

Facial Animation Based on Feature Points  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for synthesizing natural animation of facial expression with data from motion capture. The captured expression was transferred from the space of source performance to that of a 3D target face using an accurate mapping process in order to realize the reuse of motion data. The transferred animation was then applied to synthesize the expression of the target model through a framework of two-stage deformation. A local deformation technique preliminarily considered a set of neighbor feature points for every vertex and their impact on the vertex. Furthermore, the global deformation was exploited to ensure the smoothness of the whole facial mesh. The experimental results show our hybrid mesh deformation strategy was effective, which could animate different target face without complicated manual efforts required by most of facial animation approaches.

Beibei Li

2013-01-01

164

Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks  

OpenAIRE

Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other p...

Parthasarathi, Dr R.; V.Lokeswar Reddy,; K.Vishnuthej,; Vishnu Vandan, G.

2011-01-01

165

The treatment of facial nerve palsy by static suspension methods  

OpenAIRE

After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be directed towards the following: restoration of normal function, normal facial appearance at rest, symmetry in voluntary movements as well as symmetry in involuntary and emotional movements. Static suspe...

Rasuli? Lukas G.; Stoji?i? Milan T.; Coli? Miodrag M.; Ron?evi? Radmilo P.; Jovanovi? Milan D.

2003-01-01

166

Genetic and phenotypic cues associated with facial attractiveness and health  

OpenAIRE

Facial attractiveness plays a crucial role in human mate choice, with individuals from both sexes using facial attractiveness cues to some degree when choosing a partner. Although some of the general facial attractiveness preferences have been studied in cross-cultural populations, most of the research focused specifically on Western populations. Most previous studies also approached facial attractiveness solely from a psychological point of view. One notable exception was a re...

Coetzee, Vinet

2008-01-01

167

Facial disability index (FDI): Adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To adapt to Spanish the facial disability index (FDI) described by VanSwearingen and Brach in 1995 and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with facial nerve paresis after parotidectomy. Study Design: The present study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and b) cross-sectional study of a control group of 79 Spanish-speaking patients who suffered facial paresis after superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve p...

Gonzalez-cardero, Eduardo; Infante-cossio, Pedro; Cayuela, Aurelio; Acosta-feria, Manuel; Gutierrez-perez, Jose-luis

2012-01-01

168

Automatic facial expression tracking for 4D range scans  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a fully automatic approach of spatio-temporal facial expression tracking for 4D range scans without any manual interventions (such as specifying landmarks). The approach consists of three steps: rigid registration, facial model reconstruction, and facial expression tracking. A Scaling Iterative Closest Points (SICP) algorithm is introduced to compute the optimal rigid registration between a template facial model and a range scan with consideration of the scale problem. A d...

Xiang, G.; Ju, X.; Holt, P.

2010-01-01

169

Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other proposed methods as shown in experiment results.

Dr.R.Parthasarathi

2011-01-01

170

RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general.

Pointer Marie A

2012-06-01

171

Dento-facial proportions analysis of maxillary anterior teeth in Khuisf dental students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Shape and size of upper anterior teeth are important in dental and facial beauty. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between dental and facial indexes and to evaluate whether there is a golden ratio and its relationship with the proportions measured.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, digital images of 34 female and 30 male dental students were taken at maximum smile in a similar manner. Then the images were assessed with Photoshop CS5 and ACDSee computer programs and measurements were made with AutoCAD 2011 software. Data was analyzed with independent t-test and means were compared with a constant.Results: The entire variable means did not demonstrate any significant differences between males and females (p value > 0.05. The inter-pupillary to inter-canine distance ratio did not reveal any significant differences with the golden proportion of 1.618 between males and females (p value > 0.05. Only the ratios of inter-pupillary, inter-canthus and inter-zygomatic distances to maxillary central widths in females, and the ratios of inter-zygomatic and inter-alar distances to maxillary central widths in males were not significant.Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, it was concluded that dento-facial proportions are not significantly different between males and females and the golden ratio applies in the inter-pupillary to apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth proportion. Facial indices are appropriate measures to measure the apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth and can be used as a standard for Iranian dentists and surgeons. Key words: Anterior teeth, Dental position, Diastema, Proportion.

Nasim Esnaashari Esfahani

2011-01-01

172

Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W.

2014-01-01

173

Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

J. Pavlovicova

2008-09-01

174

Objectifying Facial Expressivity Assessment of Parkinson's Patients: Preliminary Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as “facial masking,” a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed. PMID:25478003

Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

2014-01-01

175

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: Report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma is a rare tumor. Case report: In this article we presented two cases of intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma. In two cases tumor presented with asymptomatic parotid mass that mimic pleomorphic adenoma. No preoperative facial nerve dysfunction in cases is detected. Diagnostic result and surgical management are discussed in this paper.  

Seyyed Basir Hashemi

2008-07-01

176

A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of facial expression feature and the relationship between them based on cloud model, including the new method of facial expression synthesis with the uncertainty. It proposes the method of facial expression feature synthesis by cloud model, using the three numerical characteristics (Expectation, Entropy and Hyper Entropy as the features and concepts of facial expression with its fuzziness, randomness and certain relevance in them. Through such three numerical characteristics, it introduces the framework of facial expression synthesis and the detail procedures based on cloud model. It puts forward the synthesis method of facial expression and gives the concrete realization and the implementation process. The facial expressions after synthesis can express the different expressions for one person, and it can meet a variety of demands for facial expression. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective in facial expression synthesis.

Juebo Wu

2011-04-01

177

Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

Joseph B

2002-07-01

178

An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic ratios and"nsizes, among Canadian and Isfahanian young adults, the results obtained from Canadian race, should not"nbe applied as a criteria for Iranian surgical and dental treatment plans. Due to the wide racial"ncombinations in Iran, more studies, with wider variations, should be conducted among different Iranian"nraces.

Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

2003-06-01

179

Prediction of Facial Nerve Function After Surgery for Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Use of a Facial Nerve Stimulator and Monitor  

OpenAIRE

A series of 18 patients undergoing surgery for cerebellopontine angle tumors is reported. Patients were grouped according to size of tumor (0 to 2.5 cm, 11 cases; more than 2.5 cm, 7 cases). In all, the facial nerve was identified and conductance assessed by monitoring the facial electromyographic response to facial nerve stimulation. Postoperative facial nerve function was graded clinically after 3 months according to the House scale. Tumor removal was complete in all cases. In patients with...

Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Watters, G.; Strong, A. J.; Walliker, J. R.; Gleeson, M. J.

1991-01-01

180

Sex ratios  

OpenAIRE

Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so much variation in the ...

West, Sa; Reece, SE; Sheldon, Bc

2002-01-01

181

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-01-01

182

Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

183

Freestyle facial perforator flaps-a safe reconstructive option for moderate-sized facial defects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Perforators are a constant anatomical finding in the facial area and any known flap can in theory be based on the first perforator located at the flap rotation axis. METHODS: A case series of single stage reconstruction of moderate sized facial defects using 21 perforator based local flaps in 19 patients from 2008-2013. RESULTS: A sufficient perforator was located in every case and the flap rotated along its axis (76 %) or advanced (24 %). Reconstruction was successfully achieved with a high self reported patient satisfaction. Two minor complications occurred early on in the series and corrective procedures were performed in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: The random facial perforator flap seems to be a good and reliable option for the reconstruction of facial subunits, especially the periorbital, nasal and periocular area with a minimal morbidity and a pleasing result in a one stage outpatient setting. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Jackson, Ian Thomas

2014-01-01

184

[A case of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 42-year-old man presented with sensorineural hearing loss of acute onset, tinnitus, and vertigo. Physical examination revealed slight asymmetry in facial nerve functions and spontaneous nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal acoustic canal showed contrast enhancement consistent with edema-inflammation, being notable and diffuse in the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex, and minimal in the cochlea. Non-hydropic cochleovestibular syndrome was considered and the patient was treated with antiviral and corticosteroid medications. A week later, facial paralysis improved and the acute hearing loss reversed. On the twelfth day of presentation, he had no complaints other than mild imbalance on abrupt changes in movement. In this type of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms, it might be argued that varicella zoster virus reactivation occurs in the spiral and/or vestibular ganglion. PMID:18443402

Avci, Suat; Kansu, Leyla; Akkuzu, Babür; Ozgirgin, Nuri; Ozlüo?lu, Levent

2008-01-01

185

Analysis of facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In order to provide an objective observational index for facial neuritis, the authors monitored the changes of facial far-infrared thermogram in patients with acute facial neuritis.Methods: A total of 23 patients with acute facial neuritis were enrolled from Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Chinese PLA General Hospital. Another 21 healthy participants were selected as the control group. Focal plane thermal imaging system (thermal sensitivity 0.05 ? was applied to collect facial far-infrared thermogram. Temperature differences in the thermogram of both sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead of the same patient were compared separately and statistically and analyzed by software provided by the imaging system.Results: Results of far-infrared thermography of the patients displayed obvious temperature differences ranging from 0.01 to 0.26 ? between two sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead areas. In the control group, far-infrared thermogram showed that there were no obvious temperature differences between two sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead. There were significant differences in temperature difference in the four monitoring areas between the two groups (P<0.01. Among the 23 patients, there were 14 patients with congestive change, 7 with ischemic change and 2 with both congestive and ischemic changes.Conclusion: The facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis is characterized mainly by congestive changes. Far-infrared thermography can objectively reflect the changes of blood-supply status in patients with facial neuritis.

Zhang-ling Zhou

2011-11-01

186

Facial fuzz and funny findings. Facial hair causing otalgia and oropharyngeal pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three patients with referred otalgia and/or oropharyngeal pain due to ectopic facial hair found in either the external auditory canal or oropharynx were treated at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Disorders. In each of these patients, annoying symptoms were relieved by simple removal of the misplaced facial hair. Sensory nerve innervation of the external ear and oropharynx and their interrelationship in referred pain are described in detail following the case reports. PMID:2743548

Papay, F A; Levine, H L; Schiavone, W A

1989-05-01

187

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

OpenAIRE

An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI) will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something abou...

Khandait, Sunanda P.; Thool, R. C.; Khandait, Prabhakar D.

2013-01-01

188

Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group. PMID:22090764

Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

2011-07-01

189

Facial cleft syndrome-A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rare case of facio-orbital anamoly having dermolipoma with posterior extension, lid notch, ectropion, assymetric hypertelorism and lipoma of corpus callosum is presented. The classification of the facial cleft deformities and the surgical management is highlighted.

Betharia S

1990-01-01

190

Triophthalmia and facial clefting: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a Libyan boy with an unusual phenotype of multiple congenital anomalies, including triophthalmia, dolichocephaly, porencephaly, cleft lip/palate, facial asymmetry, micrognathia, and VSD. The reported phenotype is likely to represent a new entity of non-chromosomal syndromic triophthalmia. Other possibilities are discussed. PMID:9783717

Tayel, S M; Sabry, M A; Kader, N A; Farah, S; Al-Awadi, S A; Farag, T I

1998-10-01

191

Triophthalmia and facial clefting: a case report.  

OpenAIRE

We describe a Libyan boy with an unusual phenotype of multiple congenital anomalies, including triophthalmia, dolichocephaly, porencephaly, cleft lip/palate, facial asymmetry, micrognathia, and VSD. The reported phenotype is likely to represent a new entity of non-chromosomal syndromic triophthalmia. Other possibilities are discussed.

Tayel, S. M.; Sabry, M. A.; Kader, N. A.; Farah, S.; Al-awadi, S. A.; Farag, T. I.

1998-01-01

192

Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

Murphy, K. C.

2005-01-01

193

Stereotactic mesencephalotomy for cancer - related facial pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won; Son, Byung-Chul

2014-07-01

194

?-Facial Selectivity of Diels-Alder Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions for organic synthesis. In this chapter we review the studies of the ?-facial selectivity in the Diels-Alder reactions of the dienes having unsymmetrical ?-plane. The theories proposed as the origin of the selectivity are discussed.

Ishida, Masaru; Inagaki, Satoshi

195

An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults  

OpenAIRE

Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, w...

Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor; Dentist, Safari A.

2003-01-01

196

[Facial Disability Index and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale: Validation of the German Versions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A validated instrument to measure patient-related outcome and quality of life in facial palsy is not available in German language. Methods: 2 appropriate questionnaires, the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale and the Facial Disability Index (FDI) were translated and validated according to international guidelines. The internal consistency of both German versions was assessed. The results of FaCE and FDI were correlated with results of the SF-36, the House-Brackmann scale and the Stennert index. Results: 122 facial palsy patients with a median duration of 4.7 months were included. FaCE and FDI showed good to very good psychometric characteristics with Cronbach's alpha values between 0.667 and 0.907. Both questionnaires were able to distinguish different degrees of facial palsy. The comparison to the SF-36 shows the highest correlation with the subscale social function. Discussion: The German versions of the FDI and FaCE are valid and should now be applied more frequently to assess the disease-specific quality of life in patients with facial palsy. PMID:25089633

Volk, G F; Steigerwald, F; Vitek, P; Finkensieper, M; Kreysa, H; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2014-08-01

197

Facial expression (mood recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases, from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection.

Hariharan SI

2009-08-01

198

A novel human--machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multi-channel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Frontalis and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passed through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean square features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down) is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. PMID:22124948

Mohammad Rezazadeh, Iman; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad; Hu, Huosheng; Hashemi Golpayegani, S Mohammad Reza

2011-12-01

199

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo: elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial.PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients were evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles. CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Daniele Fontes Ferreira Bernardes

2010-02-01

200

Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dynamics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. The system automatically detects frontal faces in the video stream and coded each frame with respect to 20 Action units. The approach applies machine learning methods such as support vector machines and AdaBoost, to texture-based image representations. The output margin for the learned classifiers predicts action unit intensity. Frame-by-frame intensity measurements will enable investigations into facial expression dynamics which were previously intractable by human coding.

Marian Stewart Bartlett

2006-09-01

201

Investigation of internal radionuclide contamination from the analysis of nasal swabs and facial swipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nasal swabs and facial swipes have been used to screen potential internal radioactive contamination for decades. However, the ratio between the lung intake and the activity on a swab or a swipe varies according to the nature of the contaminant involved and the exposure conditions such as particle sizes of the contaminant and the humidity in the air. This paper reports the experimental results using stable La2O3 as an analog for actinide oxides, focusing on the most important parameters such as humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition at a fixed room temperature of 23 ± 2 deg C. The results showed that the effects of humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition vary more on orofacial swipe/lung deposition ratios compared to nasal swab/lung deposition ratios. The amounts on nasal swabs tended to show smaller change with respect to parameters such as plume velocity, humidity, and skin moisture. The amounts on orofacial swipes varied by a factor of 10-15 among the samples collected across all parameters. Such variability would be expected to be even greater in a real-world scenario with a larger range of physiological and environmental conditions. (author)

202

An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 frerapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However, the irradiated graft group had a greater proportion of patients with pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p = 0.007) and unfavorable type of nerve graft (p = 0.04). Although the irradiated graft cohort had more potentially negative prognostic factors, there was no difference in functional outcome (H-B Grade III or IV) between irradiated and unirradiated graft patients. H-B Grades III, IV, V, and VI were the best postoperative facial nerve functions achieved in 35%, 39%, 13%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The patient with preoperative radiotherapy never recovered any facial nerve function (H-B Grade VI). Median time to best facial nerve function after surgery was longer in the irradiated patients (13.1 vs. 10.8 months), but this was not statistically significant (p 0.10). Presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy (p = 0.005), duration of preoperative palsy (p = 0.003), and age greater than 60 years at the time of grafting (p = 0.04) were all negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve on univariate analysis. Analysis of age as a continuous variable (p = 0.12) and pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p 0.1) revealed a trend toward negative prognostic factors. Gender, number of previous operations in the parotid bed, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, and type of grafting procedure were not significant prognostic factors. Whether radiotherapy was delivered less than 6 weeks after nerve grafting or more than 6 weeks had no impact on achievement of a functional facial nerve. Conclusion: Negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve in our series include the presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy, and age greater than 60 years. Radiotherapy was not a negative prognostic factor. Comparing irradiated and unirradiated grafts revealed no difference in best facial nerve function achieved, despite the presence of a greater proportion of negative prognostic factors in the irradiated group. Therefore, planned postoperative rad

203

Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could i [...] nduce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

Gianluca M., Tartaglia; Gaia, Grandi; Fabrizio, Mian; Chiarella, Sforza; Virgilio F., Ferrario.

2009-10-01

204

MR findings of facial nerve on oblique sagittal MRI using TMJ surface coil: normal vs peripheral facial nerve palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the findings of normal facial nerve, as seen on oblique sagittal MRI using a TMJ (temporomandibular joint) surface coil, and then to evaluate abnormal findings of peripheral facial nerve palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of 20 patients with peripheral facial palsy and 50 normal facial nerves of 36 patients without facial palsy. All underwent oblique sagittal MRI using a T MJ surface coil. We analyzed the course, signal intensity, thickness, location, and degree of enhancement of the facial nerve. According to the angle made by the proximal parotid segment on the axis of the mastoid segment, course was classified as anterior angulation (obtuse and acute, or buckling), straight and posterior angulation. Among 50 normal facial nerves, 24 (48%) were straight, and 23 (46%) demonstrated anterior angulation; 34 (68%) showed iso signal intensity on T1W1. In the group of patients, course on the affected side was either straight (40%) or showed anterior angulation (55%), and signal intensity in 80% of cases was isointense. These findings were similar to those in the normal group, but in patients with post-traumatic or post-operative facial palsy, buckling, of course, appeared. In 12 of 18 facial palsy cases (66.6%) in which contrast materials were administered, a normal facial nerve of the opposite facial canal showed mild enhancement on more than one segment, but on the affected side the facial nerve showed diffuse enhancement in all 14 patients wi diffuse enhancement in all 14 patients with acute facial palsy. Eleven of these (79%) showed fair or marked enhancement on more than one segment, and in 12 (86%), mild enhancement of the proximal parotid segment was noted. Four of six chronic facial palsy cases (66.6%) showed atrophy of the facial nerve. When oblique sagittal MR images are obtained using a TMJ surface coil, enhancement of the proximal parotid segment of the facial nerve and fair or marked enhancement of at least one segment within the facial canal always suggests pathology of the facial nerve. The use of this modality, together with the coil, is, therefore, an effective complementary technique for the evaluation of a facial nerve. (author)

205

Paralisis de Bell: Parálisis Facial Idiopática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Parálisis de Bell, es una enfermedad benigna de la porción infratemporal del nervio facial, que consiste en la pérdida temporal de la función contráctil de la musculatura mímica de la cara, de causa desconocida, pero puede ser secundaria a un traumatismo, compresión o tumor. Este es un proceso au [...] tolimitante que no amenaza la vida del paciente y generalmente desaparece en un plazo de 1 a 3 semanas. Su rango de incidencia es de 23 por cada 100.000 personas por año. Esta alteración no tiene diferencia por sexo, en últimos estudios hay una incidencia entre los 20 y 35 años de edad, siendo mas frecuente en pacientes diabéticos e hipertensos que en la población normal. Se presenta indiferentemente en cualquiera de los lados de la cara y solo el 1 % en ambos lados simultáneamente. Se caracteriza por presentar el fenómeno de Bell, (Figura 1) (signo de parálisis facial periférica que se manifiesta por el movimiento ocular hacia arriba y afuera del globo acular, cuando el enfermo intenta cerrar el párpado), dolor facial o retroarticular, diagusia, hiperacusia y disminución del lagrimeo. 1, 2, 3. Abstract in english The paralysis of Bell, is an bening illness of the portion infratemporal of the facial nerve that consists on the temporary loss of the contractile function of the mimic musculature of the face, of unknown cause , but it can be secondary to a traumatism, compression or tumor. This is a process autol [...] imitante that she/he doesn´t threatren the life of the parient one and it generally disappears in a term from 1 to 3 weeks. Their range of incidence is of 23 for each 100.000 people per year. This alteration doesn´t have difference for sex, in last studies there is an incidence between the 20 and 35 years of age, being but it frecuents in diabetics patients and hipertensos that in the normal population. It is presented nonchalantly in anyone of the sides of the face and alone 1% in both sides simultaneously. It is characterized to present the phenomenon of Bell(Figura 1) (sign of outlying facial paralysis that one manifests for the ocular movement up and away from the ocular globe, when the sick person tries to close the lid), facial pain or retroarticular, diagusia, hiperagusia and decreaase of the shed I shed tears. 1, 2, 3.

José María, González H.

2001-01-01

206

Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

Masaru Abiko

2011-05-01

207

Relación entre la porciónextracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático: triángulo cigomático-facial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo.Determinar larelación entre la porción extracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático.Método. Estudiamos 4 cabezas cadavéricas (8 regiones parotídeas),fijadas en formol e inyectadas con silicona coloreada.Resultados. El nervio facial tiene 6 porciones. La extracraneanacomienza cuando [...] el nervio atraviesa el foramen estilomasteoideo y corre dentrode la parótida. Anterior al trago el nervio se ubica a 26,88 mm debajo del arcosuperior del arco cigamático. Desde ese punto el nervio toma una direcciónsuperoanterior, cruzando el cigoma 18,65 mm por delante del trago. Así dibujaun triángulo (cigomático-facial), con 3 puntos: a) sobre el borde superior delcigoma, a nivel del borde anterior del trago; b) 26 mm por debajo del punto a)y c) 18 mm por delante del punto a) podemos trazar un área de trabajo libre,sin riesgo de dañar el facial.Conclusión. El triángulo cigomaticofacial es un reparo útil paratrabajar debajo del arco cigomático con bajo riesgo de dañar al facial. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the relationship between the extracranialportion of the seventh nerve and the zygomatic arch.Method: We studied 4 cadaveric heads (8 parotid regions) formaline fixedand injected with coloured silicone. A surgical microscope was used to performthe disections. Measures were tak [...] en with a caliper.Results: The facial nerve has 6 portions. The extracranial portionstarts when the nerve traverses the stylomastoid foramen, running inside theparotid gland. Just anterior to the tragus, the nerve is located 26.88 mm belowthe superior edge of the zygomatic arch. From that point, the nerve takes asuperior and anterior direction, crossing the zygomatic arch 18.65 mm ahead ofthe tragus. Thus, drawing a triangle (zygomatic-facial triangle), with threepoints: a) over the superior edge of the zygomatic arch, at the level of theanterior border of the tragus, b) 26 mm below the point a, and c) 18 mm aheadthe point a, we can trace a safe area of working, without risk of damage of thefacial nerve.Conclusion: The zygomatic-facial triangle is a very useful landmark forto work below the zygomatic arch with a low risk of damage of the facial nerve.

Álvaro, Campero; Abraham, Campero; Rafael, Torino; Mariano, Socolovsky; Conrado, Rivadeneira.

2006-06-01

208

Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

2014-06-01

209

Automated Down syndrome detection using facial photographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Down syndrome, the most common single cause of human birth defects, produces alterations in physical growth and mental retardation; its early detection is crucial. Children with Down syndrome generally have distinctive facial characteristics, which brings an opportunity for the computer-aided diagnosis of Down syndrome using photographs of patients. In this study, we propose a novel strategy based on machine learning techniques to detect Down syndrome automatically. A modified constrained local model is used to locate facial landmarks. Then geometric features and texture features based on local binary patterns are extracted around each landmark. Finally, Down syndrome is detected using a variety of classifiers. The best performance achieved 94.6% accuracy, 93.3% precision and 95.5% recall by using support vector machine with radial basis function kernel. The results indicate that our method could assist in Down syndrome screening effectively in a simple, non-invasive way. PMID:24110526

Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Okada, Kazunori; Zand, Dina J; Sze, Raymond; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

2013-01-01

210

Facial transplantation: the first 9 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the first facial transplantation in 2005, 28 have been done worldwide with encouraging immunological, functional, psychological, and aesthetic outcomes. Unlike solid organ transplantation, which is potentially life-saving, facial transplantation is life-changing. This difference has generated ethical concerns about the exposure of otherwise young and healthy individuals to the sequelae of lifelong, high-dose, multidrug immunosuppression. Nevertheless, advances in immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive protocols, microsurgical techniques, and computer-aided surgical planning have enabled broader clinical application of this procedure to patients. Although episodes of acute skin rejection continue to pose a serious threat to face transplant recipients, all cases have been controlled with conventional immunosuppressive regimens, and no cases of chronic rejection have been reported. PMID:24783986

Khalifian, Saami; Brazio, Philip S; Mohan, Raja; Shaffer, Cynthia; Brandacher, Gerald; Barth, Rolf N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

2014-12-13

211

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes.BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. The evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

Lucila Leal Calais

2005-08-01

212

Management strategy for facial arteriovenous malformations  

OpenAIRE

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis; haemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolisation (super-selective) followed by complete resection 24-48 hours later. We treated 20 patients with facial arteriov...

Bhandari P; Sadhotra L; Bhargava P.; Bath A; Mukherjee M; Maurya Sanjay

2008-01-01

213

Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions  

OpenAIRE

Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp dema...

Yana Goncharova; Attia, Enas A. S.; Khawla Souid; Vasilenko, Inna V.

2013-01-01

214

Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders  

OpenAIRE

The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.Disorders primarily affect the protective skin ...

Rettinger, Gerhard; Scheithauer, Marc Oliver

2005-01-01

215

Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging  

OpenAIRE

Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the c...

Ge, Pi Eacute Rard; Hermanns-Lê T; Gaspard U; Piérard-Franchimont C

2014-01-01

216

Facial Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

The article deals with genetic algorithms and their application in face identification. The purpose of the research is to develop a free and open-source facial composite system using evolutionary algorithms, primarily processes of selection and breeding. The initial testing proved higher quality of the final composites and massive reduction in the composites processing time. System requirements were specified and future research orientation was proposed in order to improve the results.

Zahradníková, Barbora; Duchovi?ová, So?a; Schreiber, Peter

2014-12-01

217

Treatment of facial rejuvenation with fat restoration  

OpenAIRE

Seyed Reza MousaviSurgical Department, Shohada Medical, Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tajrish, Tehran, IranObjective: To improve the compensation for fat atrophy and making the face look young and improve the mental and emotional conditions of patients.Material and methods: Our study was done from April 2003 to March 2006 with an assessment and documentation of the degree of facial lipoatrophy.Results: We have very good results in 91% of patients with no important co...

Seyed Reza Mousavi

2010-01-01

218

Median Facial Cleft in Amniotic Band Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case.

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-01-01

219

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

220

Facial Animation Based on Feature Points  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a hybrid method for synthesizing natural animation of facial expression with data from motion capture. The captured expression was transferred from the space of source performance to that of a 3D target face using an accurate mapping process in order to realize the reuse of motion data. The transferred animation was then applied to synthesize the expression of the target model through a framework of two-stage deformation. A local deformation technique preliminarily cons...

Beibei Li; Qiang Zhang; Dongsheng Zhou; Xiaopeng Wei

2013-01-01

221

Automatic image assessment from facial attributes  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal consumer photography collections often contain photos captured by numerous devices stored both locally and via online services. The task of gathering, organizing, and assembling still and video assets in preparation for sharing with others can be quite challenging. Current commercial photobook applications are mostly manual-based requiring significant user interactions. To assist the consumer in organizing these assets, we propose an automatic method to assign a fitness score to each asset, whereby the top scoring assets are used for product creation. Our method uses cues extracted from analyzing pixel data, metadata embedded in the file, as well as ancillary tags or online comments. When a face occurs in an image, its features have a dominating influence on both aesthetic and compositional properties of the displayed image. As such, this paper will emphasize the contributions faces have on affecting the overall fitness score of an image. To understand consumer preference, we conducted a psychophysical study that spanned 27 judges, 5,598 faces, and 2,550 images. Preferences on a per-face and per-image basis were independently gathered to train our classifiers. We describe how to use machine learning techniques to merge differing facial attributes into a single classifier. Our novel methods of facial weighting, fusion of facial attributes, and dimensionality reduction produce stateof- the-art results suitable for commercial applications.

Ptucha, Raymond; Kloosterman, David; Mittelstaedt, Brian; Loui, Alexander

2013-03-01

222

Interfacing Assessment Using Facial Expression Recognition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most important issues in gaming is deciding about the employed interfacing technology. Gamepad has traditionally been a popular interfacing technology for the gaming industry, but, recently motion controlled interfacing has been used widely in this industry. This is exactly the purpose of this paper to study whether the motion controlled interface is a feasible alternative to the gamepad, when evaluated from a user experience point of view. To do so, a custom game has been developed and 25 test subjects have been asked to play the game using both types of the interfaces. To evaluate the users experiences during the game, their hedonic and pragmatic quality are assessed using both subjective and objective evaluation methods in order to cross-validate the obtained results. An application of computer vision, facial expression recognition, has been used as a non-obtrusive objective and hedonic measure. While, the score obtained by the user during the game has been used as a pragmatic quality measure. The use of facial expression recognition has, to the best of our knowledge, not been used before to assess the hedonic quality of interfaces for games. The thorough experimental results show that the user experience of the motion controlled interface is significantly better than the gamepad interface, both in terms of hedonic and pragmatic quality. The facial expression recognition system proved to be a useful non-obtrusive way to objectively evaluate the hedonic quality of the interfacing technologies.

Albjerg Andersen, Rune; Nasrollahi, Kamal

2014-01-01

223

Quantifying facial expression recognition across viewing conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions are key to social interactions and to assessment of potential danger in various situations. Therefore, our brains must be able to recognize facial expressions when they are transformed in biologically plausible ways. We used synthetic happy, sad, angry and fearful faces to determine the amount of geometric change required to recognize these emotions during brief presentations. Five-alternative forced choice conditions involving central viewing, peripheral viewing and inversion were used to study recognition among the four emotions. Two-alternative forced choice was used to study affect discrimination when spatial frequency information in the stimulus was modified. The results show an emotion and task-dependent pattern of detection. Facial expressions presented with low peak frequencies are much harder to discriminate from neutral than faces defined by either mid or high peak frequencies. Peripheral presentation of faces also makes recognition much more difficult, except for happy faces. Differences between fearful detection and recognition tasks are probably due to common confusions with sadness when recognizing fear from among other emotions. These findings further support the idea that these emotions are processed separately from each other. PMID:16364393

Goren, Deborah; Wilson, Hugh R

2006-04-01

224

Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusion technique, which provides MPEG-4-compatible features assorted with a confidence measure. This confidence measure is used to pinpoint cases where detection of individual features may be wrong and reduce their contribution to the training phase or their importance in deducing the observed facial expression, while the fusion process ensures that the final result regarding the features will be based on the extraction technique that performed better given the particular lighting or color conditions. Real data and results are presented, involving both extreme and intermediate expression/emotional states, obtained within the sensitive artificial listener HCI environment that was generated in the framework of related European projects.

Spiros Ioannou

2007-07-01

225

Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. PMID:25244638

Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-12-01

226

The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

Fu-Chan Wei

2008-10-01

227

[Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma facial with extra facial presentation, the same pathology?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis is a rare fibro inflammatory lesion of unknown etiology which occurs usually in the upper respiratory tract mucosa of middle-aged adults. The histologic features show an eosinophilic vasculitis and an angiocentric fibrosis with onion-skin pattern. Firstly described as a mucosal variant of the granuloma facial, which is a rare cutaneous vasculitis with eosinophils, it is considerated by some authors as separated entities. Four cases have been described in the orbit and three of them were in fact an extension of a sinusal lesion. We report the first case affecting a 69-years-old male patient who showed an isolated orbital involvement in association with granuloma facial, extra facial. This observation illustrates the relationship between these two pathologies and consolidates the first hypothesis of a single disease with cutaneous or mucosal involvement. PMID:21736992

Depaepe, Lauriane; Chouvet, Brigitte; Claudy, Alain; Thomas, Luc; Berger, Françoise; Balme, Brigitte

2011-06-01

228

Analysis and Simulation on Recognition Algorithm for Dynamic Facial Images  

OpenAIRE

In order to realize the recognition for dynamic facial images, the paper builds a dynamic matching model. First, this paper introduces a dynamic feature extraction algorithm of feature constraint optimization which can effectively extract the 2D dynamic facial features. Then, the paper analyzes the neurons mathematical model comprehensive expressing neurons operational mechanism and applies the model to dynamic facial feature expression. Finally, we study the learning rule...

Hongyan Zhang; Shengwei Fan

2013-01-01

229

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

OpenAIRE

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis ...

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

230

Injury to the Intratemporal Facial Nerve: Report of a Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Injury to the intratemporal facial nerve is caused most commonly by temporal bone fractures resulting from trauma sustained in motor vehicle accidents. Most cases of facial paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture are caused by longitudinal fractures of this bone. We report a 13 year-old girl with paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture. After removal of the bone fragments, we observed that the continuity of the facial nerve was intact.

N Saki

2001-07-01

231

Intradural Facial Nerve Schwannoma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Problems  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To define characteristics of intradural facial schwannoma (FS) and discuss management strategies. Method: Retrospective review of clinical charts. Results: Six patients were diagnosed, based on surgical findings, as having intradural FS. None of the patients complained initially of facial weakness, but all showed severe disturbance of hearing function assessed on admission. FS was suspected in four of our six patients because of imaging findings or facial palsy caused by a small t...

Kohmura, Eiji; Aihara, Hideo; Miyake, Shigeru; Fujita, Atsushi

2007-01-01

232

Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis  

OpenAIRE

The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paraly...

Vloeberghs, M.; Philip Breedon

2009-01-01

233

Fundus Obliteration and Facial Nerve Outcome in Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery  

OpenAIRE

The major objectives in vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have evolved from reducing mortality to functional preservation of the facial nerve and hearing. Absence of fluid between the lateral end of the VS and the internal auditory canal fundus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appeared to have a negative influence on hearing outcome. Our goal was to study the prognostic significance of fundus obliteration on facial nerve function after VS surgery in patients with clinically normal facial ...

Rompaey, Vincent; Dinther, Joost; Zarowski, Andrzej; Offeciers, Erwin; Somers, Thomas

2011-01-01

234

Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa  

OpenAIRE

Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. ...

Masaru Abiko; Tomomi Okamura; Takanori Sakakura; Shigeki Nakano; Norio Ikeda; Takafumi Nishizaki

2011-01-01

235

Proximal and distal Facial nerve exploration during superficial parotidectomy  

OpenAIRE

One of the most technique sensitive surgeries in the maxillofacial region is the parotid gland surgery owing to the close relation between the gland and the extra-cranial course of facial nerve. Facial nerve is generally located by means of a proximal surgical identification technique aimed at identifying the facial nerve at its point of exit from the stylomastoid foramen to its entry into the posteromedial surface of parotid gland. There are reports in the literature on distal nerve identifi...

Sharma, Rohit; Sirohi, D.

2010-01-01

236

Understanding chimpanzee facial expression: insights into the evolution of communication  

OpenAIRE

To understand the evolution of emotional communication, comparative research on facial expression similarities between humans and related species is essential. Chimpanzees display a complex, flexible facial expression repertoire with many physical and functional similarities to humans. This paper reviews what is known about these facial expression repertoires, discusses the importance of social organization in understanding the meaning of different expressions, and introduces a new coding sys...

Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.

2006-01-01

237

Facial Feature Extraction in Frontal Views using Biometric Analogies  

OpenAIRE

Face detection and facial feature extraction are considered to be key requirements in many applications, such as access control systems, model-based video coding, content-based video browsing and retrieval. Thus, accurate face localization and facial feature extraction are most desirable. A face detection and facial feature extraction in frontal views algorithm is described in this paper. The algorithm is based on principles described in [1] but extends the work by considering: a) the mirror-...

Tsekeridou, S.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

238

Primary tumor of the facial nerve: Diagnosis and management  

OpenAIRE

Benign primary tumors of facial nerve are rare, difficult to diagnose due to their subtle and variable clinical manifestations and these are usually misdiagnosed as idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. A case of facial nerve sehwannoma in internal auditory meatus presenting as a tumor indistinguishable from acoustic neuroma clinically is presented here. Difficalties in patient assessment, inadequacy of diagnostic techniques presently available and surgical technique of the removal of the tumor ...

Pampori, Rafiq Ahmad; Ahmad, Asif; Ahmad, Manzoor

2002-01-01

239

Facial Gesture Recognition Using Correlation And Mahalanobis Distance  

OpenAIRE

Augmenting human computer interaction with automated analysis and synthesis of facial expressions is a goal towards which much research effort has been devoted recently. Facial gesture recognition is one of the important component of natural human-machine interfaces; it may also be used in behavioural science, security systems and in clinical practice. Although humans recognise facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine i...

Supriya Kapoor; Shruti Khanna; Rahul Bhatia

2010-01-01

240

Padronização das técnicas de secção do nervo facial e de avaliação da mímica facial em ratos Standardization of techniques used in facial nerve section and facial movement evaluation in rats  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVOS: Padronização da técnica de secção do nervo facial extratemporal em ratos e elaboração de uma escala de avaliação da mímica facial desses animais antes e após essa secção. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar foram anestesiados com xilasina e ketamina e submetidos à secção do nervo facial próximo à sua emergência pelo forame mastóideo na pele. Todos os animais foram avaliados. Foram observados: fechamento ocular, reflexo de piscamento, movime...

Simone Damasceno de Faria; José Ricardo Gurgel Testa; Andrei Borin; Toledo, Ronaldo N.

2006-01-01

241

Desfiguramento facial adquirido: breve revisão narrativa / Acquired facial disfigurement: a brief narrative review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 2010, o Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Portugal (INE) indicou que anualmente se realizam cerca de 40 000 médias e grandes cirurgias reconstrutiva e estética. Apesar da sua etiologia, justifica-se uma maior dedicação na investigação de indivíduos que por trauma ou doença perderam a sua “iden [...] tidade” apresentando um desfiguramento facial. Pretende-se com o presente artigo apresentar uma breve contextualização que descreva o desenvolvimento sobre o desfiguramento facial adquirido causado pela doença (cancro cabeça e pescoço) ou originado pelo trauma (queimados, agressão, outros), recorrendo a literatura publicada em livros e artigos científicos, fazendo também referência a instrumentos validados para a população portuguesa que permitem avaliar o investimento da imagem corporal (ASI-R) e avaliar a autoconsciência da aparência (DAS-24). Referenciar as necessidades e questões psicossociais mais comuns, o tipo de intervenção, a importância do apoio social e quais as estratégias de coping mais frequentes no ajustamento ao desfiguramento facial adquirido. Abstract in english In 2010, the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE) pointed out that 40,000 medium and large reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries are performed annually. Regardless of its etiology, a stronger focus on investigating individuals that have lost their "identity" due to trauma or disease, thus featu [...] ring a facial disfigurement, is justified. The intention of this paper to present a brief context that describes the development of the acquired facial disfigurement caused by the disease (cancer of the head and neck) or originated by trauma (burns) using published literature in books and articles scientific, also making reference to instruments validated for the Portuguese population for assessing investment body image (ASI-R) and to evaluate the self-consciousness of appearance (DAS-24). Identify the need and psychosocial issues most common type of intervention, the importance of social support and coping strategies which frequently in adjustment to acquired facial disfigurement.

José Carlos da Silva, Mendes; Maria João, Figueiras.

2013-11-01

242

Paralisia facial periférica e gestação: abordagem e tratamento / Facial palsy and pregnancy: management and treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar o grau da paralisia facial periférica de gestantes e puérperas no momento da admissão e na alta e avaliar outros fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, com análise dos prontuários de gestantes e puérperas atendidas no ambulatório de paralisia facial, em um [...] período de 12 meses, com aplicação de protocolo padronizado de avaliação das pacientes e da escala de House-Brackmann na primeira consulta e na data da alta. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 6 pacientes, com média de idade de 22,6 anos. Cinco casos foram classificados com estadiamento IV e um com II na escala de House-Brackmann, sendo que duas eram puérperas e quatro gestantes. Todas evoluíram com melhora na escala de House-Brackmann. CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia de Bell tem bom prognóstico mesmo em gestantes e puérperas, sendo importante realizar tratamento adequado para diminuir as sequelas neste grupo apontado como mais susceptível à paralisia facial periférica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To compare the degree of peripheral facial palsy of pregnant women and puerperae at admission and at discharge and to evaluate related factors. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, with analysis of medical records of pregnant and postpartum women with facial palsy, over a period o [...] f 12 months, with application of a standardized protocol for patient evaluation and of the House-Brackmann scale on the occasion of the first visit and at discharge. RESULTS: Six patients were identified, mean age of 22.6 years. Five cases were classified as stage IV and one as stage II on the House-Brackmann scale, being two of them puerperae and four pregnant. All showed improvement on the House-Brackmann scale. CONCLUSION: The Bell's palsy has a good prognosis even in pregnant and postpartum women, being important to perform the correct treatment to reduce the sequelae in this group identified as more susceptible to peripheral facial palsy.

Maria Augusta Aliperti, Ferreira; Milena, Lavori; Guilherme Machado de, Carvalho; Alexandre Caixeta, Guimarães; Vanessa Golçalves, Silva; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

2013-08-01

243

Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India  

OpenAIRE

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric fac...

Thorat, S. B.; Nayak, S. K.; Dandale, Jyoti P.

2010-01-01

244

Facial nerve motor evoked potentials during skull base surgery to monitor facial nerve function using the threshold-level method  

OpenAIRE

Object During surgeries that put the facial nerve at risk for injury, its function can be continuously monitored by transcranial facial nerve motor evoked potentials (FNMEPs) in facial nerve target muscles. Despite their advantages, FNMEPs are not yet widely used. While most authors use a 50% reduction in FNMEP response amplitudes as a warning criterion, in this paper the authors' approach was to keep the response amplitude constant by increasing the stimulation intensity and to establish a w...

Sarnthein, J.; Hejrati, N.; Neidert, M. C.; Huber, A. M.; Krayenbu?hl, N.

2013-01-01

245

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguin...

Daniele Fontes Ferreira Bernardes; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira Bento

2010-01-01

246

Silent intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma associated with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A rare presentation  

OpenAIRE

Facial palsy is a common manifestation of intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma. Review of English literature describes intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma presenting as vertigo, tinnitus (without facial palsy) which were diagnosed on CT scan or MRI of temporal bone. We are presenting two cases of asymptomatic facial nerve schwannoma without facial palsy presenting only as Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM), which were diagnosed incidentally during surgery.

Phaniendra, V.; Pratinidhi, Santosh K.; Renuka, I. V.

2007-01-01

247

Guide of maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns Guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The guide for maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns has been developed on the basis of the results obtained in a retrospective descriptive study of a series of patients for facial burns, were treated in serving Burned Cienfuegos University General Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "between January 2005 and September 2007. The document describes the set of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, both general and local, to treat patients with facial burns depending on the extent and depth of burns, also describes some special considerations depending on their location in central facial structures (eyelids, flag ear, nose, mouth, neck. It took into account national guidelines and the Pan American Health Organization, were also consulted experts and specialists in the field. The guide was approved by the scientific council of the institution cited above.La guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales ha sido elaborada sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos en un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de una serie de pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario de Cienfuegos “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. El documento describe el conjunto de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos, tanto generales como locales, para tratar a los pacientes con quemaduras faciales según la extensión y profundidad de las quemaduras, además se describen algunas consideraciones especiales según su localización en estructuras centro faciales (párpados, pabellón auricular, nariz, boca, cuello. Se tuvieron en cuenta los lineamientos nacionales y de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, también fueron consultados expertos y especialistas en el tema. La guía fue aprobada por el consejo científico de la institución antes citada.

Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

2010-07-01

248

[Human cervico-facial morphogenesis. Evaluation of acquired data and current outlook. (Part 1: facial morphogenesis)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The embryonic development of the face has been studied in many reviews, this work purposes only to clear up some points which remain obscure concerning cervico-facial morphogenesis. In the first part of this study only the facial development, properly speaking, is considered, although it cannot be separate of cervical development to which a second study will be reserved. In the present study we recall the particular aspects of the neurulation in the cephalic area, then the establishment of the facial processes. Then we approach among other things the way to consider the maxillary process with regard to the other facial processes. After is considered constitution and natured of the prechordal plate which has been diversely explained. Finally, the modelling of the face is evocated, in which the dissociation between the olfactive and buccal spheres is pointed out, with the disparition of the muzzle, as it is established in the haplorhinae, a class of primates in which the human being is involved. This phenomenon raises different questions, in particular about the relation of this disposition with the nasoseptal center, the medial part of the nasodorsal center. PMID:9737912

Onolfo, J P; Leperchey, F; Barbet, J P

1997-06-01

249

Concordância dos ortodontistas no diagnóstico do padrão facial / Agreement among orthodontists regarding facial pattern diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância de ortodontistas treinados no diagnóstico do Padrão Facial, por meio da avaliação morfológica da face. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais de frente, perfil e sorriso de 105 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente entre pacientes que procuraram tratamento or [...] todôntico, as quais foram enviadas a ortodontistas treinados na classificação do Padrão Facial. A concordância intraexaminador, dos examinadores com o Padrão-Ouro e interexaminadores foi avaliada por meio do Índice Kappa. RESULTADOS: a concordância na avaliação intraexaminador foi quase perfeita, com Índice Kappa 0,85. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro foi moderada (Kappa 0,48), sendo mais alta no Padrão I (Kappa 0,62) e mais baixa no Padrão Face Curta (Kappa 0,33). A concordância entre os examinadores foi substancial (Kappa 0,61), mais alta que a concordância com o Padrão-Ouro em todos os Padrões. CONCLUSÃO: os critérios utilizados pelos examinadores para determinação do Padrão Facial foram os mesmos na primeira e na segunda avaliação. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro é moderada, e eles apresentam maior concordância entre si que com o Padrão-Ouro. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To assess agreement among orthodontists trained in facial pattern diagnosis through the morphological evaluation of the face. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken in front and side view, as well as photos of the smiles of 105 individuals randomly selected among patients seeking orthodont [...] ic treatment. The photos were sent to orthodontists trained in facial pattern classification. Intra-rater agreement, agreement between raters and the Gold Standard, as well as inter-rater agreement were assessed using the Kappa index. RESULTS: Intra-rater agreement was almost perfect, with Kappa index reaching 0.85. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate (Kappa = 0.48), higher for Pattern I (Kappa = 0.62) and lower for the short face pattern (Kappa = 0.33). Agreement between raters was significant (Kappa = 0.61) and even higher than agreement with the Gold Standard for all patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The criteria used by raters to determine the facial pattern were the same in the first and second evaluation. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate, with raters exhibiting greater agreement between them than with the Gold Standard.

Sílvia Augusta Braga, Reis; Jorge, Abrão; Cristiane Aparecida Assis, Claro; Renata Ferraz, Fornazari; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho.

2011-08-01

250

Concordância dos ortodontistas no diagnóstico do padrão facial Agreement among orthodontists regarding facial pattern diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância de ortodontistas treinados no diagnóstico do Padrão Facial, por meio da avaliação morfológica da face. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais de frente, perfil e sorriso de 105 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente entre pacientes que procuraram tratamento ortodôntico, as quais foram enviadas a ortodontistas treinados na classificação do Padrão Facial. A concordância intraexaminador, dos examinadores com o Padrão-Ouro e interexaminadores foi avaliada por meio do Índice Kappa. RESULTADOS: a concordância na avaliação intraexaminador foi quase perfeita, com Índice Kappa 0,85. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro foi moderada (Kappa 0,48, sendo mais alta no Padrão I (Kappa 0,62 e mais baixa no Padrão Face Curta (Kappa 0,33. A concordância entre os examinadores foi substancial (Kappa 0,61, mais alta que a concordância com o Padrão-Ouro em todos os Padrões. CONCLUSÃO: os critérios utilizados pelos examinadores para determinação do Padrão Facial foram os mesmos na primeira e na segunda avaliação. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro é moderada, e eles apresentam maior concordância entre si que com o Padrão-Ouro.OBJECTIVE To assess agreement among orthodontists trained in facial pattern diagnosis through the morphological evaluation of the face. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken in front and side view, as well as photos of the smiles of 105 individuals randomly selected among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The photos were sent to orthodontists trained in facial pattern classification. Intra-rater agreement, agreement between raters and the Gold Standard, as well as inter-rater agreement were assessed using the Kappa index. RESULTS: Intra-rater agreement was almost perfect, with Kappa index reaching 0.85. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate (Kappa = 0.48, higher for Pattern I (Kappa = 0.62 and lower for the short face pattern (Kappa = 0.33. Agreement between raters was significant (Kappa = 0.61 and even higher than agreement with the Gold Standard for all patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The criteria used by raters to determine the facial pattern were the same in the first and second evaluation. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate, with raters exhibiting greater agreement between them than with the Gold Standard.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

2011-08-01

251

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na Paralisia Facial Periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2012-01-01

252

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica / Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e [...] divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They wer [...] e separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée, Mory; Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nizam, Pfeilsticker; Euro de Barros, Couto Junior; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

2013-04-01

253

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2013-04-01

254

Management strategy for facial arteriovenous malformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis; haemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolisation (super-selective followed by complete resection 24-48 hours later. We treated 20 patients with facial arteriovenous malformation by using this method. Most of the lesions (80% were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure related complications and cosmetic results were excellent.

Bhandari P

2008-01-01

255

Facial expression recognition using constructive neural networks  

Science.gov (United States)

The computer-based recognition of facial expressions has been an active area of research for quite a long time. The ultimate goal is to realize intelligent and transparent communications between human beings and machines. The neural network (NN) based recognition methods have been found to be particularly promising, since NN is capable of implementing mapping from the feature space of face images to the facial expression space. However, finding a proper network size has always been a frustrating and time consuming experience for NN developers. In this paper, we propose to use the constructive one-hidden-layer feed forward neural networks (OHL-FNNs) to overcome this problem. The constructive OHL-FNN will obtain in a systematic way a proper network size which is required by the complexity of the problem being considered. Furthermore, the computational cost involved in network training can be considerably reduced when compared to standard back- propagation (BP) based FNNs. In our proposed technique, the 2-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is applied over the entire difference face image for extracting relevant features for recognition purpose. The lower- frequency 2-D DCT coefficients obtained are then used to train a constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive learning process to reduce the network size without sacrificing the performance of the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having 5 facial expression images (neutral, smile, anger, sadness, and surprise). Images of 40 men are used for network training, and the remaining images are used for generalization and testing. Confusion matrices calculated in both network training and testing for 4 facial expressions (smile, anger, sadness, and surprise) are used to evaluate the performance of the trained network. By extensive simulations it is shown that when compared with the BP-based method, the proposed technique constructs OHL- FNN with significantly smaller number of hidden units and weights, and simultaneously yielding improved recognition performance.

Ma, Liying; Khorasani, Khashayar

2001-08-01

256

Facial parity edge colouring of plane pseudographs  

OpenAIRE

A facial parity edge colouring of a connected bridgeless plane graph is such an edge colouring in which no two face-adjacent edges receive the same colour and, in addition, for each face f and each colour c, either no edge or an odd number of edges incident with f is coloured with c. Let ??p(G) denote the minimum number of colours used in such a colouring of G. In this paper we prove that ??p(G) ? 20 for any 2-edge-connected plane graph G. In the case when G is a 3-edge-connected plan...

Czap, Ju?lius; Jendrol, Stanislav; Kardos?, Frantis?ek; Sota?k, Roman

2012-01-01

257

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica / Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superf [...] ície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo): elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural). CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients we [...] re evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles). CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Daniele Fontes Ferreira, Bernardes; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento.

2010-02-01

258

Diplejia facial: variante regional del síndrome de Guillian-Barré / Facial diplejia: a regional variant of Guillian-Barré syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Diplejia facial es una manifestación clínica poco frecuente que puede presentarse como consecuencia de múltiples etiologías. Presentamos un paciente con una infección periodontal crónica que sufrió de forma brusca una parálisis facial inicialmente izquierda, que rápidamente se hizo bilateral. La apa [...] rición posterior de parestesias distales en extremidad superior derecha e hiporreflexia, junto con la disociación albúmino-citológica en el LCR, permitieron establecer el diagnóstico de variante regional del Síndrome de Guillian-Barré (SGB). La diplejia facial es idiopática en el 25% de casos, siendo la causa más frecuente. Sin embargo, existe un elevado porcentaje de casos secundarios a múltiples etiologías como el SGB donde es frecuente la afectación del nervio facial habitualmente asociado a otros trastornos motores siendo infrecuente la diplejia facial aislada. Concluimos la necesidad de sospecha clínica para realización de punción lumbar y RNM para descartar procesos neoplásicos y poder determinar la etiología responsable para establecer un adecuado abordaje terapéutico. Abstract in english Facial palsy is a uncommon clinical manifestation that it can be caused by different ethiologies. We show a patient with a chronic periodontal disease who presented a sudden facial palsy, initially in left-face but it becomes bilateral quickly. In few days he associated paresthesias in his right arm [...] and hiporreflexia. These clinical findings with albumin-citological dissociation, they had allowed to establish the diagnosis of regional variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (SGB). Facial diplejia is an idiopathic manifestation in 25% of patients, and this is the most common cause. However, facial diplejia can be secondary to many ethiologies as SGB. The affectation of facial nerve associated to other motor symptoms in SGB is frequent, but it is not frequent the presentation as facial diplejia alone. In conclusion, it is necessary a high clinical suspicion to do a lumbar punction (PL) and MRI to reject neoplasic pathologies and to obtain a diagnosis and an adequatted treatment.

G., Piñol Pipoll; P., Larrodé Pellicer; I., de la Puerta González-Miró; C., Tejero Juste; C., Iñiguez Martínez; S., Santos Lasaosa; E., Mostacero Miguel.

2007-01-01

259

A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

Sharma P

2011-03-01

260

Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

2010-01-01

261

Assessment of dental and facial aesthetics in adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) is currently widely used for clinical, as well as epidemiological purposes. The Aesthetic Component (AC) of this index focuses on dental aesthetics and does not include facial aesthetics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether dental aesthetics as measured by the AC of the IOTN correlates with facial aesthetics. Facial attractiveness of 69 males and 75 females was scored on facial photographs at two different ages (11-13 years and 14-16 years). Scoring of the AC of the IOTN was undertaken on the dental casts. Increments between the observations at the two ages were calculated. To assess the association between scores of dental and facial aesthetics, correlation coefficients were calculated. There was a highly significant influence of orthodontic treatment on facial and dental aesthetic scores in the group which was not treated orthodontically at the first observation, but was treated orthodontically at the second observation. No correlation, however, was found between the increments in the facial aesthetic score and those in the dental aesthetic score. The results indicate that facial and dental aesthetics are influenced by different factors, and both should be evaluated when judging dentofacial aesthetics. PMID:9753821

al Yami, E A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Van 't Hof, M A

1998-08-01

262

Facial Nerve Outcome after Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Our Experience*  

OpenAIRE

In this study we evaluate the postoperative facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery and analyze the factors that cause it. We included 97 consecutive patients undergoing surgical excision of sporadic unilateral VS. Patient and tumor characteristics, surgical approaches, facial nerve function, extent of tumor removal, perioperative complications are all analyzed through standardized systems. Four different surgical approaches are used: translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthin...

Rinaldi, Vittorio; Casale, Manuele; Bressi, Federica; Potena, Massimiliano; Vesperini, Emanuela; Franco, Antonio; Silvestri, Sergio; Zini, Carlo; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

2012-01-01

263

Protection of Facial Nerves During Acoustic Neuroma Surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to summarize the experience about the protection of the facial nerve in surgery for acoustic neuroma surgery with the aim to improve the retention of facial nerve function and the quality of life. Forty-two patients with acoustic neuroma were recruited from the year 2010 to 2013. Using microsurgical techniques, the tumors were resected through the suboccipital approach over the posterior edge of the sigmoid sinus, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring of the facial nerve function was performed. The House-Brackmann (H-B) grading was used to evaluate the facial nerve function evaluation postoperatively. Total tumor resection was achieved in 32 cases, and partial resection in 10 cases, without any intraoperative deaths. Also facial nerves were retained in 35 of 42 cases (83.33 %). One week after surgery, the facial nerve H-B grading was grade I in 8 cases, grade II in 15 cases, grade III in 12 cases, grade IV in 6 cases, and grade V in 1 case. The key to improved protection of the facial nerve during acoustic neuroma surgery includes a complete understanding of the anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle, proper use of microsurgical techniques, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring of the status of facial nerve functions to avoid damage to the nerves. PMID:25420533

Xing, Hong-Shun; Wang, Shou-Xian; Wang, Zhe; Cao, Pei-Cheng; Ma, Yong-Qian; Wang, Zeng-Wu

2014-11-25

264

Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

2006-01-01

265

Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

Shprintzen, Robert J.

2008-01-01

266

Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous studies show that candidates’ facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates’ attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from candidates’ faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties’ nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates’ attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantlythese relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties’ nomination strategies and candidates’ age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and electoral success is highly robust.

Laustsen, Lasse

2014-01-01

267

Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Rare Complication of Parotid Abscess  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign parotid neoplasm and inflammatory processes of the parotid resulting in facial paralysis are extremely rare. We report a 72-year-old Malay female with poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful right parotid swelling associated with right facial nerve palsy. The paralysis (Grade VI, House and Brackmann classification) remained after six months. PMID:22589657

Sabir Husin Athar, Primuharsa Putra; Yahya, Zakinah; Mat Baki, Marina; Abdullah, Asma

2009-01-01

268

The application of orthopantomography in the diagnosis of facial traumas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty patients with facial trauma were examined for diagnostic of possible fractures, using the Orthopantomography. Fifteen fractures of the mandibula, associated fractures of other facial bones and dental pathologies were detected. The method is accurate, less time-consuming, and without patient's disconfort. (Author)

269

Application of orthopantomography in the diagnosis of facial traumas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fifty patients with facial trauma were examined for diagnostic of possible fractures, using the Orthopantomography. Fifteen fractures of the mandibula, associated fractures of other facial bones and dental pathologies were detected. The method is accurate, less time-consuming, and without patient's disconfort.

Contrera, J.D.; de Paula e Silva, D.; Caprecci, T.C. (Hospital da Beneficiencia Portuguesa, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)); Contrera, M.G.D. (Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto (Brazil))

270

Delayed presentation of traumatic facial nerve (CN VII) paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial nerve paralysis (Cranial Nerve VII, CN VII) can be a disfiguring disorder with profound impact upon the patient. The etiology of facial nerve paralysis may be congenital, iatrogenic, or result from neoplasm, infection, trauma, or toxic exposure. In the emergency department, the most common cause of unilateral facial paralysis is Bell's palsy, also known as idiopathic facial paralysis (IFP). We report a case of delayed presentation of unilateral facial nerve paralysis 3 days after sustaining a traumatic head injury. Re-evaluation and imaging of this patient revealed a full facial paralysis and temporal bone fracture extending into the facial canal. Because cranial nerve injuries occur in approximately 5-10% of head-injured patients, a good history and physical examination is important to differentiate IFP from another etiology. Newer generation high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans are commonly demonstrating these fractures. An understanding of this complication, appropriate patient follow-up, and early involvement of the Otolaryngologist is important in management of these patients. The mechanism as well as the timing of facial nerve paralysis will determine the proper evaluation, consultation, and management for the patient. Patients with total or immediate paralysis as well as those with poorly prognostic audiogram results are good candidates for surgical repair. PMID:16243199

Napoli, Anthony M; Panagos, Peter

2005-11-01

271

A Comprehensive Study of Major Techniques of Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial Expression Recognition is one of thechallenging and active research topic in the recent years. FacialExpression Recognition System comprises the detection of face,facial feature extraction and classification of facial expressionfrom still images. This paper summarizes the major techniquesto recognize the facial expressions from still images. Thetechniques included in this paper are Principal ComponentAnalysis, Singular Value Decomposition, Neural Network,Cloud Model, Fuzzy Model and K-Means ClusteringAlgorithm. The performance of these techniques is good enoughand almost effective also except fuzzy model. Fuzzy model doesnot classify the expressions exactly. The main purpose of thisresearch work is to present the major techniques of automaticfacial expression recognition in a single view.

Tanvi Sheikh, Shikha Agrawal

2012-10-01

272

Facial Expression Recognition based on Independent Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an important part of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition, facial expression recognition has drawn much attention recently and numerous methods have been proposed. Feature extraction is the most important part which directly affects the final recognition results. Independent component analysis (ICA is a subspace analysis method, which is also a novel statistical technique in signal processing and machine learning that aims at finding linear projections of the data that maximize their mutual independence. In this paper, we introduce the basic theory of ICA algorithm in detail and then present the process of facial expression recognition based on ICA model. Finally, we use PCA and ICA algorithm to extract facial features, and then SVM classifier is used for facial expression recognition. Experimental results show ICA is a real effective facial expression recognition method and the recognition rate based on ICA is greater than based on PCA and 2DPCA

XiaoHui Guo

2013-08-01

273

The treatment of facial nerve palsy by static suspension methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be directed towards the following: restoration of normal function, normal facial appearance at rest, symmetry in voluntary movements as well as symmetry in involuntary and emotional movements. Static suspension methods were used in our study. All patients had unilateral complete facial nerve palsy but one female patient who experienced the palsy of frontal branch of n.facialis. This method was successfully used to lift the eyebrow, the lid and to improve lagophthalmus on the paralytic side, then the angle and paralytic part of the lip, to reinforce buccal wall of oral cavity as well as to reconstruct new nasolabial fold. The results were satisfactory and permanent.

Rasuli? Lukas G.

2003-01-01

274

Facial features in children with idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed whether there is a recognisable pattern of facial morphology in photographs of a series of 62 children with idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV). Photographs were scored for a number of facial characteristics by a research team comprising orthopaedic surgeons and clinical geneticists, to identify a subgroup of children with idiopathic CTEV, who shared characteristic facial features. Seven children were identified as having a "CTEV face". There was good correlation between the "CTEV face" and the individual facial features. Repeatability of the assessment was good, and there was good correlation between the geneticists and the orthopaedic surgeons, suggesting that no special training in dysmorphology is required to identify the "CT EV face". There is a subgroup of children with idiopathic CTEV who can be reliably identified by their facial characteristics. The significance of this finding is unclear but it may be of use in clinical genetic studies, and studies of the aetiology of CTEV. PMID:19358400

Chesney, David; Miedzbroska, Zosia; Barker, Simon; Deans, John; Haites, Neva; Maffulli, Nicola

2009-02-01

275

Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

276

Nongoitrous autoimmune thyroiditis with facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with nongoitrous, autoimmune thyroiditis and pituitary hyperplasia in a 13-year-old boy, who presented with sudden palsy on the left side of his face. Prednisolone and antiviral medication was administered. However, the facial palsy did not improve completely. The medications were replaced with thyroxine, and the facial palsy recovered. Endocrinological testing showed severe hypothyroidism as follows: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level >100 µIU/mL, T4 of 1.04 µg/dL, T3 of 0.31 ng/mL, and free T4 of 0.07 ng/dL. Level of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies was 1,933.39 IU/mL, and that of antithyroglobulin antibodies was 848.16 IU/mL. Level of TSH receptor antibodies was >40 IU/L. Bioassay result for TSH receptor stimulating antibodies was negative. Thyroid sonography revealed no increase in the size or vascularity of the bilateral gland. Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland. PMID:24904880

Lee, Hyung Jik; Kim, Jin Kyung

2013-12-01

277

Facial firework injury: a case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future. PMID:25035740

Tadisina, Kashyap K; Abcarian, Ariane; Omi, Ellen

2014-07-01

278

Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

2005-03-01

279

Pathology Case Study: Left Facial Numbness  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 56-year-old woman developed left facial numbness, followed by right peripheral facial weakness, left hand weakness, and left side hearing loss and tinnitus. The patientâÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. Results from a cranial magnetic resonance (MR) scan along with a microscopic description and images of a sural nerve biopsy are provided here to help aid in understanding the diagnosis. The âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section contains the attending doctorâÂÂs notes on the patient with commentary, and a detailed pathology. References are also included in this section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

Heyman, Rock A.; Lacomis, David

2009-07-22

280

[Facial and eye pain - Neurological differential diagnosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Head and facial pain are common in neurological practice and the pain often arises in the orbit or is referred into the eye. This is due to the autonomic innervation of the eye and orbit. There are acute and chronic pain syndromes. This review gives an overview of the differential diagnosis and treatment. Idiopathic headache syndromes, such as migraine and cluster headache are the most frequent and are often debilitating conditions. Trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias (SUNCT and SUNA) have to be taken into account, as well as trigeminal neuralgia. Trigemino-autonomic headache after eye operations can be puzzling and often responds well to triptans. Every new facial pain not fitting these categories must be considered symptomatic and a thorough investigation is mandatory including magnetic resonance imaging. Infiltrative and neoplastic conditions frequently lead to orbital pain. As a differential diagnosis Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and Raeder syndrome are inflammatory conditions sometimes mimicking neoplasms. Infections, such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus are extremely painful and require rapid therapy. It is important to consider carotid artery dissection as a cause for acute eye and neck pain in conjunction with Horner's syndrome and bear in mind that vascular oculomotor palsy is often painful. All of the above named conditions should be diagnosed by a neurologist with special experience in pain syndromes and many require an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:22130681

Kastrup, O; Diener, H-C; Gaul, C

2011-12-01

281

Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locateopographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

282

Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future.

Kashyap Tadisina

2014-07-01

283

Mandibular facial talon cusp: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Talon cusp is a supernumerary structure projecting from the dento-enamel junction to a variable distance towards the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. Studies have shown that it consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Hyperactivity of the enamel organ during morphodifferentiation has been attributed to its formation. Most previous reports have been made concerning the occurrence of this structure on primary and permanent teeth and mostly on the palatal aspect. Only few have been reported on the facial aspect of the teeth. When it occurs, the effects are mainly aesthetic and functional and so early detection and treatment is essential in its management to avoid complications. Case presentation An unusual case of talon cusp on the facial aspect of a mandibular central incisor is reported. Its presence resulted in attrition of the opposing tooth. Reduction of the cusp and topical application of fluoride gel was initiated. Conclusion The management and treatment outcome of talon cusp depends on the size, presenting complications and patient cooperation.

Oredugba Folakemi A

2005-12-01

284

Botulinum toxin injection for facial wrinkles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Botulinum toxin injection for treatment of facial wrinkles is the most frequently performed cosmetic procedure in the United States, and it is one of the most common entry procedures for clinicians seeking to incorporate aesthetic treatments into their practice. Treatment of frown lines and crow's feet, which are the cosmetic indications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and horizontal forehead lines, offers predictable results, has few adverse effects, and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Wrinkles are formed by dermal atrophy and repetitive contraction of underlying facial musculature. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Injection of small quantities of botulinum toxin into specific overactive muscles causes localized muscle relaxation that smooths the overlying skin and reduces wrinkles. Botulinum toxin effects take about two weeks to fully develop and last three to four months. Dynamic wrinkles, seen during muscle contraction, yield more dramatic results than static wrinkles, which are visible at rest. Botulinum toxin injection is contraindicated in persons with keloidal scarring, neuromuscular disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis), allergies to constituents of botulinum toxin products, and body dysmorphic disorder. Minor bruising can occur with botulinum toxin injection. Temporary blepharoptosis and eyebrow ptosis are rare complications that are technique-dependent; incidence declines as injector skill improves. PMID:25077722

Small, Rebecca

2014-08-01

285

Colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial / Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El cáncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la población chilena. La región facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposición a la radiación ultravioleta. El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuest [...] a a la luz solar. Los tipos más frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cánceres cutáneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirúrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial. Material y método: Se analizaron 55 cirugías realizadas para colgajos cutáneos en 54 pacientes en 2 años (2009-2010) en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB) de Concepción. Resultados: Presentación descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutáneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la resección de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, párpados, labios, mejilla y mentón. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus características más relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clínicos obtenidos con estas técnicas quirúrgicas, de fácil aplicación en un área clínica en que la estética es primordial, aplicando márgenes oncológicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La región facial permite la obtención de colgajos cutáneos con muy buena vascularización, delgados, con características muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mínima morbilidad. La biomecánica de la piel y su aplicación en la técnica quirúrgica es vital para el diseño y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un área de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estéticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstrucción, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron buenos considerando la localización y extensión de las lesiones tumorales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente. Abstract in english Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency [...] are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010), which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

Mario, Gutiérrez A; Joaquín, Ulloa S; Patricio, Ulloa B.

2012-04-01

286

Colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la población chilena. La región facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposición a la radiación ultravioleta. El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuesta a la luz solar. Los tipos más frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cánceres cutáneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirúrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial. Material y método: Se analizaron 55 cirugías realizadas para colgajos cutáneos en 54 pacientes en 2 años (2009-2010 en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB de Concepción. Resultados: Presentación descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutáneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la resección de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, párpados, labios, mejilla y mentón. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus características más relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clínicos obtenidos con estas técnicas quirúrgicas, de fácil aplicación en un área clínica en que la estética es primordial, aplicando márgenes oncológicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La región facial permite la obtención de colgajos cutáneos con muy buena vascularización, delgados, con características muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mínima morbilidad. La biomecánica de la piel y su aplicación en la técnica quirúrgica es vital para el diseño y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un área de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estéticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstrucción, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron buenos considerando la localización y extensión de las lesiones tumorales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente.Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010, which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

Mario Gutiérrez A

2012-04-01

287

Fisioterapia na paralisia facial periférica: estudo retrospectivo / Physical therapy in peripheral facial paralysis: retrospective study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial periférica requer tratamento especializado. A fisioterapia tem como objetivo restabelecer a mímica facial. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e analisar os resultados da fisioterapia para indivíduos com paralisia facial periférica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Retrospectivo. MÉTODO: Foi re [...] alizado um estudo retrospectivo em um Hospital Universitário, com autorização do Serviço de Atendimento Médico e Estatístico, no período de 1999 a 2003. Os dados são apresentados em forma descritiva, com utilização de média e mediana para variáveis numéricas e freqüência para variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 23 prontuários durante quatro anos. Foi identificado o predomínio do sexo feminino e a média de idade foi de 32,3 anos (DP±16,5); 14 casos idiopáticas e cinco traumáticas; 12, com comprometimento motor total e 11, parcial; nos 12 casos com avaliação final, sete evoluíram para recuperação parcial e cinco para total. A fisioterapia utilizada foi cinesioterapia e orientações. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo os indivíduos são similares a outras populações. Foram tratados com cinesioterapia, como sugerido pela literatura científica e evoluíram com recuperação. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis requires specialized treatment. Physical therapy aims at reestablishing facial movements. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze physical therapy results for individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: A retrospec [...] tive study was carried out at the University Hospital, authorized by the Statistics and Medical File Services, from 1999 to 2003. Data are presented in descriptive form with mean and median values for numeric variables and frequency for categorical variables. RESULTS: Twenty-three files were analyzed during four years. Females predominated and the average age was of 32.3 years (SD±16.5); 14 idiopathic and five trauma cases; 12 with total motor deficit and 11 with partial motor deficit; in the 12 cases that underwent final evaluation, seven had partial and five had total recovery. The physical therapy program used was kinesiotherapy and patient education. CONCLUSION: In this study, individuals were similar to individuals in other populations. They were treated with kinesiotherapy, as suggested by the scientific literature and recovered.

Márcia Regina, Garanhani; Jefferson Rosa, Cardoso; Alessandra de Mello Guides, Capelli; Mara Claudia, Ribeiro.

2007-02-01

288

Fisioterapia na paralisia facial periférica: estudo retrospectivo Physical therapy in peripheral facial paralysis: retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica requer tratamento especializado. A fisioterapia tem como objetivo restabelecer a mímica facial. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e analisar os resultados da fisioterapia para indivíduos com paralisia facial periférica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Retrospectivo. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em um Hospital Universitário, com autorização do Serviço de Atendimento Médico e Estatístico, no período de 1999 a 2003. Os dados são apresentados em forma descritiva, com utilização de média e mediana para variáveis numéricas e freqüência para variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 23 prontuários durante quatro anos. Foi identificado o predomínio do sexo feminino e a média de idade foi de 32,3 anos (DP±16,5; 14 casos idiopáticas e cinco traumáticas; 12, com comprometimento motor total e 11, parcial; nos 12 casos com avaliação final, sete evoluíram para recuperação parcial e cinco para total. A fisioterapia utilizada foi cinesioterapia e orientações. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo os indivíduos são similares a outras populações. Foram tratados com cinesioterapia, como sugerido pela literatura científica e evoluíram com recuperação.Peripheral facial paralysis requires specialized treatment. Physical therapy aims at reestablishing facial movements. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze physical therapy results for individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: A retrospective study was carried out at the University Hospital, authorized by the Statistics and Medical File Services, from 1999 to 2003. Data are presented in descriptive form with mean and median values for numeric variables and frequency for categorical variables. RESULTS: Twenty-three files were analyzed during four years. Females predominated and the average age was of 32.3 years (SD±16.5; 14 idiopathic and five trauma cases; 12 with total motor deficit and 11 with partial motor deficit; in the 12 cases that underwent final evaluation, seven had partial and five had total recovery. The physical therapy program used was kinesiotherapy and patient education. CONCLUSION: In this study, individuals were similar to individuals in other populations. They were treated with kinesiotherapy, as suggested by the scientific literature and recovered.

Márcia Regina Garanhani

2007-02-01

289

Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial reanimation procedure after an FN injury. PMID:25454640

Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

2014-10-12

290

Influência do posicionamento sagital mandibular na estética facial Influence of mandibular sagittal position on facial esthetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do posicionamento sagital da mandíbula na determinação da atratividade facial. MÉTODOS: fotografias faciais de perfil foram tomadas de um homem negro e um branco, assim como de uma mulher negra e uma branca. Essas fotografias foram manipuladas no computador, utilizando o programa Adobe Photoshop CS2®, a fim de produzir, a partir de cada face original, um perfil reto, três simulando discrepâncias mandibulares por retrusão e três por protrusão. As 28 fotografias foram avaliadas por ortodontistas (n = 20, cirurgiões bucomaxilofaciais (n = 20, artistas plásticos (n = 20 e leigos (n = 20. A análise descritiva foi realizada a partir do cálculo da média e desvio-padrão em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: para as faces do homem negro, bem como para as faces femininas, o perfil reto foi o mais aceito. Para o homem branco, a face considerada mais agradável apresentava um perfil levemente côncavo, com a mandíbula mais proeminente. Nesse, analisando-se as simulações de discrepâncias esqueléticas, houve predileção pela protrusão mandibular, em detrimento da retrusão. Contudo, para as faces femininas, os perfis côncavos foram mais rejeitados do que os convexos. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados demonstraram concordância entre os grupos de avaliadores na escolha dos perfis mais atrativos. Para as faces masculinas, o perfil reto e a face levemente côncava apresentaram-se mais atrativos, já as faces femininas que foram consideradas mais atrativas possuíam o perfil reto.OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of mandibular sagittal position in the determination of facial attractiveness. METHODS: Facial profile photographs were taken of an Afro-descendant man and a Caucasian man, as well as an Afro-descendant woman and a Caucasian woman. These photos were manipulated on the computer using Adobe Photoshop® CS2 to produce-from each original face-a straight profile, three simulating retrusion and three protrusion mandibular discrepancies. In all, 28 photographs were evaluated by orthodontists (n = 20, oral maxillofacial surgeons (n = 20, plastic artists (n = 20 and laypersons (n = 20. The descriptive analysis was performed by calculating the mean and standard deviation for each group. RESULTS: The straight facial profile was met with greater acceptance by Afro-descendant male faces and female faces. Caucasian males found a lightly concave facial profile with a more prominent mandible to be the most pleasant. After an analysis of skeletal discrepancies simulations, Caucasian males also showed a preference for mandibular protrusion versus retrusion. Females, however, preferred convex over concave profiles. CONCLUSION: The results showed agreement between groups of evaluators in selecting the most attractive profiles. Regarding male faces, a straight profile with a slightly concave face seemed more attractive and a straight facial profile was also greatly valued.

Marina Dórea de Almeida

2010-04-01

291

Characterization of facial burns from maxillofacial surgery. Cienfuegos 2005 - 2007 Caracterización de las quemaduras faciales desde la cirugía máxilo facial. Cienfuegos 2005 – 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A descriptive study and retrospective study with 87 patients for facial burns, were treated at the Burn Service of the Hospital General Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "Cienfuegos between January 2005 and September 2007. Objective: To characterize the care of patients with facial burns to help develop knowledge, attitudes and skills medical - surgery in the maxillofacial surgeon. Method: the source of information used were the records of patient care in the emergency department Burned Service and these data were selected that identified the patients as well as other related directly with facial burns. For each patient, more severe burning classified according to their size and depth. Results: In this study facial burns were more frequent in females aged 16 to 34 years, the most common cause of these lesions was in contact with boiling liquids as the predominant type skin burns, with extensions between 2 and 4% of the face area. In 44 patients affected centers facial structures, so predominant involvement of the ears. The priest most used in the facial region was the stop with silver sulfadiazine. Approximately 50% of patients were affected in the organs of sense, particularly in the ears, Conclusion: The traumatic facial burns are more severe conditions than any other location for the possible commitment to the airways.Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo con 87 pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. Objetivo: caracterizar la atención al paciente con quemaduras faciales para contribuir al desarrollo de conocimientos, actitudes y aptitudes médico – quirúrgicas en el cirujano máxilo facial. Método: la fuente de información utilizada fueron los registros de atención a pacientes en el cuerpo de guardia del Servicio de Quemados y de ellas se seleccionaron los datos que identificaron a los pacientes, así como otros relacionados directamente con las quemaduras faciales. Para cada paciente, se clasificó la quemadura más grave de acuerdo a su extensión y profundidad. Resultados: en este estudio las quemaduras faciales fueron más frecuentes en el sexo femenino, entre los 16 y los 34 años, la causa más frecuente de estas lesiones fue por contacto con líquidos hirvientes, por lo que predominaron las quemaduras dérmicas tipo A, con extensiones entre el 2 y el 4 % del área de la cara. En 44 pacientes se afectaron estructuras centros faciales, por lo que predominó la afectación de las orejas. La cura que más se realizó en la región facial fue la oclusiva con crema de sulfadiazina de plata. Aproximadamente en el 50 % de los pacientes hubo afectación en los órganos de los sentidos, particularmente en los oídos, Conclusión: Las quemaduras faciales constituyen afecciones traumáticas más graves que las de cualquier otra localización por el posible compromiso con las vías aéreas.

Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

2010-08-01

292

Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Facial Expressions in 6-7 Year Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old…

Deschamps, P. K. H.; Coppes, L.; Kenemans, J. L.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Matthys, W.

2015-01-01

293

Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Effects of training on brain dynamics  

OpenAIRE

Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study,...

Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan G.; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M.; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S.

2014-01-01

294

[Treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and facial synkinesis with botulinum toxin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Involuntary facial movements are caused by various diseases. This article describes three of these diseases: blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis. The different etiologies, clinical symptoms and diagnosis are discussed. A common therapeutic approach for these three diseases is presented. Involuntary facial movements can be reduced or even completely suppressed by local injections of botulinum toxin. PMID:22669435

Winterhoff, J; Laskawi, R

2012-06-01

295

Osteomas múltiples faciales asociados a síndrome de Gardner / Facial multiple osteomas associated with Gardner syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los osteomas faciales son una de las manifestaciones extracolónicas del síndrome de Gardner que pueden preceder la aparición de los pólipos intestinales. La ubicación más frecuente es en la región mandibular, aunque pueden afectar otros huesos de la cara. Pese a ser lesiones benignas pueden crecer d [...] e manera exagerada y requerir tratamiento quirúrgico. Se describe el caso de una mujer de 16 años que presentó osteomas múltiples en la cara. Abstract in english The facial osteomas are one of the extracolonic manifestations of Gardner syndrome that may precede the appearance of intestinal polyps. The most common location is in the mandibular region but may affect other bones of the face. Despite being benign lesions can grow in an exaggerated manner and req [...] uire surgical treatment. We describe a woman of 16 who presented a multiple osteomas of the face.

Juan Pablo, Restrepo; María del Pilar, Molina.

2012-07-01

296

Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifying the expressions of the students torecognize their comprehension from the facial expressions in static images containing the frontal view of the human face. Our goal is to categorize the facial expressions of the students in the given image into two basic emotional expression states – comprehensible, incomprehensible. One of the key action units in the face to expose expression is eye. In this paper, Facial expressions are identified from the expressions of the eyes. Our method consists of three steps, Edge detection, Eye extraction and Emotion recognition. Edge detection is performed through Prewitt operator. Extraction of eyes is performed using iterative search algorithm on the edge image. All the extracted information are combined together to form the feature vector. Finally, the features are given as an input for a BPN classifier and thus the facial expressions are being identified. The proposed method is tested on the Yale Face database.

G.Sofia,

2010-07-01

297

Mirror book therapy for the treatment of idiopathic facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a retrospective chart review to determine the effectiveness of treating idiopathic facial palsy with mirror book therapy in conjunction with facial physical rehabilitation. We compared outcomes in 15 patients who underwent mirror book therapy in addition to standard therapy with those of 10 patients who underwent standard rehabilitation therapy without the mirror book. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups were rated according to the Facial Grading System (FGS), the Facial Disability Index-Physical (FDIP), and the Facial Disability Index-Social (FDIS). Patients in the mirror therapy group had a mean increase of 24.9 in FGS score, 22.0 in FDIP score, and 25.0 in FDIS score, all of which represented statistically significant improvements over their pretreatment scores. Those who did not receive mirror book therapy had mean increases of 20.8, 19.0, 14.6, respectively; these, too, represented significant improvements over baseline, and thus there was no statistically significant difference in improvement between the two groups. Nevertheless, our results show that patients who used mirror book therapy in addition to standard facial rehabilitation therapy experienced significant improvements in the treatment of idiopathic facial palsy. While further studies are necessary to determine if it has a definitive, statistically significant advantage over standard therapy, we recommend adding this therapy to the rehabilitation program in view of its ease of use, low cost, and lack of side effects. PMID:25255351

Barth, Jodi Maron; Stezar, Gincy L; Acierno, Gabriela C; Kim, Thomas J; Reilly, Michael J

2014-09-01

298

A primary cilia-dependent etiology for midline facial disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human faces exhibit enormous variation. When pathological conditions are superimposed on normal variation, a nearly unbroken series of facial morphologies is produced. When viewed in full, this spectrum ranges from cyclopia and hypotelorism to hypertelorism and facial duplications. Decreased Hedgehog pathway activity causes holoprosencephaly and hypotelorism. Here, we show that excessive Hedgehog activity, caused by truncating the primary cilia on cranial neural crest cells, causes hypertelorism and frontonasal dysplasia (FND). Elimination of the intraflagellar transport protein Kif3a leads to excessive Hedgehog responsiveness in facial mesenchyme, which is accompanied by broader expression domains of Gli1, Ptc and Shh, and reduced expression domains of Gli3. Furthermore, broader domains of Gli1 expression correspond to areas of enhanced neural crest cell proliferation in the facial prominences of Kif3a conditional knockouts. Avian Talpid embryos that lack primary cilia exhibit similar molecular changes and similar facial phenotypes. Collectively, these data support our hypothesis that a severe narrowing of the facial midline and excessive expansion of the facial midline are both attributable to disruptions in Hedgehog pathway activity. These data also raise the possibility that genes encoding ciliary proteins are candidates for human conditions of hypertelorism and FNDs. PMID:20106874

Brugmann, Samantha A; Allen, Nancy C; James, Aaron W; Mekonnen, Zesemayat; Madan, Elena; Helms, Jill A

2010-04-15

299

Facial Palsy in Kawasaki Syndrome; Review and a Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve palsy, a very rare complication of Kawasaki syndrome, has been reported in only 25 patents. None of the 25 previous reported cases with this complication was treated with IVIG. We treated a 24-month-old boy with bilateral coronary artery aneurysms due to Kawasaki syndrome. In our patient, whom we treated with Aspirin and IVIG, duration of disease was 7-9 days. He developed marked unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy on day 3 of illness. This treatment led to complete resolution of facial nerve palsy within 48 hours. Review of pervious cases demonstrates that children with Kawasaki–associated facial nerve palsy have more than twice the risk for coronary artery aneurysm (52% vs 25% as that of children without facial nerve palsy. Unexplained facial nerve palsy in young children with a prolonged febrile illness should provoke consideration of Kawasaki syndrome and Echocardiography to exclude coronary artery aneurysms. Although facial nerve palsy appears likely to be resolved in all patients surviving the acute phase of Kawasaki syndrome, treatment with IVIG appears to shorten considerably the time for full recovery and provides an important clue to the mechanism of neurological injury in this illness.

MH. Moradi Nejad

2003-07-01

300

Prevalencia de fracturas faciales vinculadas con el deporte Prevalence of facial fractures linked to sports practice  

OpenAIRE

Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en 57 pacientes con fracturas faciales adquiridas durante la actividad deportiva, los cuales fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Provincial "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, en el quinquenio 1992-1996. Este tipo de lesión representó el 6,2 % del total de tratadas en dicho período. En los atletas que jugaban con pelota y practicaban técnicas de combate hubo la mayor prevalencia de estas lesiones,...

José Manuel Díaz Fernández; Manuel Kindelán Lusson; Maximiliano Freddy Gámez Rodríguez

2004-01-01

301

Fascitis nodular en región facial en edades pediátricas Nodular fasciitis present in facial area in children  

OpenAIRE

Propósito: Presentar 3 casos de fascitisnodular de región facial. Método: Se realizó un estudio de los pacientes que comprendió examen físico, análisis de laboratorio y radiológico. Se describió la conducta quirúrgica o médica realizada en cada caso y su diagnóstico anatomopatológico. Resultados: Se mostró el método científico como única vía de llegar al diagnóstico certero, a pesar de enfrentar el reto de diagnosticar una entidad nosológica inusual en la cirugía maxilofa...

Dadonim Vila Morales; Ernesto Sánchez Cabrales

2009-01-01

302

Histopathologic and functional effects of facial nerve following electrical stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to investigate the functional and histopathologic changes in facial nerve due to the application of various violent and numerous electrical stimuli to the facial nerve. The study was carried out with Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 300 g. The facial nerves of the subjects were located and stimulated with electrical stimulator. Then five groups were created with 18 subjects in each group: Group 1, 1 milliampere (mA) electrical stimulus applied; Group 2, 2 mA electrical stimulus applied; Group 3, 3 mA electrical stimulus applied; Group 4, 4 mA electrical stimulus applied; Group 5, 5 mA electrical stimulus applied. All groups were divided into three sub-groups, each consisting of six subjects. The facial nerves of the subjects in first sub-group were stimulated 10 times, in second sub-group were stimulated 20 times and those in third sub-group were stimulated 30 times. The functions of the facial nerves were evaluated on first day, first week and first month, respectively. The facial nerves with branches were dissected from the surrounding tissues carefully. These specimens were investigated by light microscope about axonal degeneration, macrovacuolization and vascular congestion. Loss of facial functions was not observed in the subjects during follow-up process. There was no significant difference between groups regarding axonal degeneration, macrovacuolization and vascular congestion (P > 0.05). While less axonal degeneration was observed in group which was stimulated 10 times, more axonal degeneration was observed in groups which were stimulated 20 and 30 times (P macrovacuolization and vascular congestion were observed more in 1-day groups (P < 0.05). Consequently, lesser violence and lesser number of electrical stimulus application to the facial nerve appears to be an important criterion for not damaging the facial nerve in patients in whom stimulators have been used. PMID:19784664

Sapmaz, Emrah; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Alpay, Hayrettin Cengiz; Akpolat, Nusret; Keles, Erol; Karlidag, Turgut; Orhan, Israfil; Yalcin, Sinasi

2010-04-01

303

The study of higher origin of facial artery and its surgical significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial artery plays a key role in blood supply of the face. Facial artery one of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery originates within the carotid triangle. Variation in the origin of the facial artery was observed on two sides out of 60 sides in 30 cadavers. Facial artery was observed originating at the level just below the maxillary artery within the parotid gland. Facial artery may originate as linguo-facial trunk or thyro-linguo-facial trunk. Other developmental variations have also been described in the literature like, agenesis of facial artery, enlarged facial artery, hypoplastic facial artery. Variability in situation may complicate the surgery. Therefore maxillofacial surgeon, plastic surgeons and head & neck surgeon should be aware of such variation. PMID:25621238

Mangalgiri, Ashutosh; Namdev, Laxmi Narayan; Mahore, Devendra; Kapre, Madan

2015-03-01

304

Caracterización de las quemaduras faciales desde la cirugía máxilo facial. Cienfuegos 2005 ? 2007 / Characterization of facial burns from maxillofacial surgery. Cienfuegos 2005 - 2007  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo con 87 pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario ?Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima? de Cienfuegos entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. O [...] bjetivo: caracterizar la atención al paciente con quemaduras faciales para contribuir al desarrollo de conocimientos, actitudes y aptitudes médico ? quirúrgicas en el cirujano máxilo facial. Método: la fuente de información utilizada fueron los registros de atención a pacientes en el cuerpo de guardia del Servicio de Quemados y de ellas se seleccionaron los datos que identificaron a los pacientes, así como otros relacionados directamente con las quemaduras faciales. Para cada paciente, se clasificó la quemadura más grave de acuerdo a su extensión y profundidad. Resultados: en este estudio las quemaduras faciales fueron más frecuentes en el sexo femenino, entre los 16 y los 34 años, la causa más frecuente de estas lesiones fue por contacto con líquidos hirvientes, por lo que predominaron las quemaduras dérmicas tipo A, con extensiones entre el 2 y el 4 % del área de la cara. En 44 pacientes se afectaron estructuras centros faciales, por lo que predominó la afectación de las orejas. La cura que más se realizó en la región facial fue la oclusiva con crema de sulfadiazina de plata. Aproximadamente en el 50 % de los pacientes hubo afectación en los órganos de los sentidos, particularmente en los oídos, Conclusión: Las quemaduras faciales constituyen afecciones traumáticas más graves que las de cualquier otra localización por el posible compromiso con las vías aéreas. Abstract in english Background: A descriptive study and retrospective study with 87 patients for facial burns, were treated at the Burn Service of the Hospital General Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "Cienfuegos between January 2005 and September 2007. Objective: To characterize the care of patients with fac [...] ial burns to help develop knowledge, attitudes and skills medical - surgery in the maxillofacial surgeon. Method: the source of information used were the records of patient care in the emergency department Burned Service and these data were selected that identified the patients as well as other related directly with facial burns. For each patient, more severe burning classified according to their size and depth. Results: In this study facial burns were more frequent in females aged 16 to 34 years, the most common cause of these lesions was in contact with boiling liquids as the predominant type skin burns, with extensions between 2 and 4% of the face area. In 44 patients affected centers facial structures, so predominant involvement of the ears. The priest most used in the facial region was the stop with silver sulfadiazine. Approximately 50% of patients were affected in the organs of sense, particularly in the ears, Conclusion: The traumatic facial burns are more severe conditions than any other location for the possible commitment to the airways.

Eduardo, Duarte Marrero; Patricia, Jiménez Beato.

2010-08-01

305

Foreign body resulting in chronic otomastoiditis and facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of a foreign body in the ear of 5-year-old girl child. She presented with features of chronic suppurative otitis media with facial nerve palsy. On exploration exuberant granulation was found in attic and middle ear. A foreign body (seed) was found buried within the granulation tissue which was removed. Bony facial canal was dehiscent in the tympanic segment. She had recovery of facial nerve function. The case is being reported to increase awareness among otolaryngologist and to consider foreign body as a differential diagnosis in cases of complicated CSOM; especially in children. PMID:25500549

Verma, Roshan Kumar; Gupta, Bhumika; Panda, Naresh K

2015-02-01

306

Orientation Selectivity for Representing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a representation method of facial expression changes using Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART networks. Our method extracts orientation selectivity of Gabor wavelets on ART networks, which are unsupervised and self-organizing neural networks that contain a stability-plasticity tradeoff. The classification ability of ART is controlled by a parameter called the attentional vigilance parameter. However, the networks often produce redundant categories. The proposed method produces suitable vigilance parameters according to classification granularity using orientation selectivity. Moreover, the method can represent the appearance and disappearance of facial expression changes to detect dynamic, local, and topological feature changes from obtained whole facial images.

Hirokazu Madokoro

2012-09-01

307

Ultraestrutura do nervo facial intratemporal em pacientes com paralisia facial idiopática: estudo de evidências de infecção viral / Intratemporal facial nerve ultrastructure in patients with idiopathic facial paralysis: viral infection evidence study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A etiologia da paralisia facial periférica idiopática (PFPI) ainda é uma incógnita, no entanto, alguns autores aventam a possibilidade de ser uma infecção viral. OBJETIVO: Analisar a ultraestrutura do nervo facial procurando evidências virais que possam nos fornecer dados etiológicos. MATERIAL E MÉT [...] ODO: Foram estudados 20 pacientes com PFP, com graus de moderado a severo, de ambos os sexos, entre 18-60 anos, provenientes de Ambulatório de Distúrbios do Nervo Facial. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: Estudo, onze pacientes com PFPI e Controle, nove pacientes com Paralisia Facial Periférica Traumática ou Tumoral. Foram estudados fragmentos de bainha do nervo facial ou fragmentos de seus cotos, que durante a cirurgia de reparação do nervo facial, seriam desprezados ou encaminhados para estudo anatomopatológico. O tecido foi fixado em glutaraldeído 2% e analisado em Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão. RESULTADO: Observamos no grupo estudo atividade celular intensa de reparação com aumento de fibras colágenas, fibroblastos com organelas desenvolvidas, isentos de partículas virais. No grupo controle esta atividade de reparação não foi evidente, mas também não foram observadas partículas virais. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontradas partículas virais, no entanto, houve evidências de intensa atividade de reparação ou infecção viral. Abstract in english The etiology of idiopathic peripheral facial palsy (IPFP) is still uncertain; however, some authors suggest the possibility of a viral infection. AIM: to analyze the ultrastructure of the facial nerve seeking viral evidences that might provide etiological data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 20 pa [...] tients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP), with moderate to severe FP, of both genders, between 18-60 years of age, from the Clinic of Facial Nerve Disorders. The patients were broken down into two groups - Study: eleven patients with IPFP and Control: nine patients with trauma or tumor-related PFP. The fragments were obtained from the facial nerve sheath or from fragments of its stumps - which would be discarded or sent to pathology exam during the facial nerve repair surgery. The removed tissue was fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde, and studied under Electronic Transmission Microscopy. RESULTS: In the study group we observed an intense repair cellular activity by increased collagen fibers, fibroblasts containing developed organelles, free of viral particles. In the control group this repair activity was not evident, but no viral particles were observed. CONCLUSION: There were no viral particles, and there were evidences of intense activity of repair or viral infection.

Rosangela Aló Maluza, Florez; Raquel, Lang; Adriano Mora, Veridiano; Renato de Oliveira, Zanini; Pedro Luiz, Calió; Ricardo dos Santos, Simões; José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa.

2010-10-01

308

Ultraestrutura do nervo facial intratemporal em pacientes com paralisia facial idiopática: estudo de evidências de infecção viral Intratemporal facial nerve ultrastructure in patients with idiopathic facial paralysis: viral infection evidence study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A etiologia da paralisia facial periférica idiopática (PFPI ainda é uma incógnita, no entanto, alguns autores aventam a possibilidade de ser uma infecção viral. OBJETIVO: Analisar a ultraestrutura do nervo facial procurando evidências virais que possam nos fornecer dados etiológicos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 20 pacientes com PFP, com graus de moderado a severo, de ambos os sexos, entre 18-60 anos, provenientes de Ambulatório de Distúrbios do Nervo Facial. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: Estudo, onze pacientes com PFPI e Controle, nove pacientes com Paralisia Facial Periférica Traumática ou Tumoral. Foram estudados fragmentos de bainha do nervo facial ou fragmentos de seus cotos, que durante a cirurgia de reparação do nervo facial, seriam desprezados ou encaminhados para estudo anatomopatológico. O tecido foi fixado em glutaraldeído 2% e analisado em Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão. RESULTADO: Observamos no grupo estudo atividade celular intensa de reparação com aumento de fibras colágenas, fibroblastos com organelas desenvolvidas, isentos de partículas virais. No grupo controle esta atividade de reparação não foi evidente, mas também não foram observadas partículas virais. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontradas partículas virais, no entanto, houve evidências de intensa atividade de reparação ou infecção viral.The etiology of idiopathic peripheral facial palsy (IPFP is still uncertain; however, some authors suggest the possibility of a viral infection. AIM: to analyze the ultrastructure of the facial nerve seeking viral evidences that might provide etiological data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 20 patients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP, with moderate to severe FP, of both genders, between 18-60 years of age, from the Clinic of Facial Nerve Disorders. The patients were broken down into two groups - Study: eleven patients with IPFP and Control: nine patients with trauma or tumor-related PFP. The fragments were obtained from the facial nerve sheath or from fragments of its stumps - which would be discarded or sent to pathology exam during the facial nerve repair surgery. The removed tissue was fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde, and studied under Electronic Transmission Microscopy. RESULTS: In the study group we observed an intense repair cellular activity by increased collagen fibers, fibroblasts containing developed organelles, free of viral particles. In the control group this repair activity was not evident, but no viral particles were observed. CONCLUSION: There were no viral particles, and there were evidences of intense activity of repair or viral infection.

Rosangela Aló Maluza Florez

2010-10-01

309

Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic disorder, peripheral neuropathy, disturbed behavior, acanthocytosis and the atrophy of caudate nuclei was suggestive of a diagnosis of ChAc. To our knowledge no similar cases of facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc) were found in a review of the literature. PMID:25332750

Samia, Younes; Yosra, Cherif; Foued, Bellazreg; Mouna, Aissi; Olfa, Berriche; Jihed, Souissi; Hammadi, Braham; Mahbouba, Frih-Ayed; Amel, Letaief; Habib, Sfar Mohamed

2014-01-01

310

Pneumocephalus due to Compressed Air Injury without Facial Bone Fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pneumocephalus without a facial bone fracture or sinus disease is rare. A possible cause of pneumocephalus is high-pressure air applied into the orbit may cause without any evidence of a facial fracture. The mechanism behind pneumocephalus may be secondary to a blast of air from the orbit to the intracranial space with a degree of pressure. We report a case of compressed air injury induced by disseminated pneumocephalus in the absence of a facial bone fracture detected on multidetector computed tomography. After 5 days, a follow-up indicated that the pneumocephalus was almost completely resolved without visual loss.

311

Brief Pain Inventory-Facial minimum clinically important difference.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECT Neurosurgeons are frequently the primary physicians measuring pain relief in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Unfortunately, the measurement of pain can be complex. The Brief Pain Inventory-Facial (BPI-Facial) is a reliable and validated multidimensional tool that consists of 18 questions. It measures 3 domains of pain: 1) pain intensity (worst and average pain intensity), 2) interference with general activities of daily living (ADL), and 3) face-specific pain interference. The objective of this paper is to determine the patient-reported minimum clinically important difference (MCID) using the BPI-Facial. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of 234 patients with TN seen in a single neurosurgeon's office. Patients completed baseline and 1-month follow-up BPI-Facial questionnaires. The MCID was calculated using an anchor-based approach in which the defined anchor was the 7-point patient global impression of change (PGIC). Two statistical methods were employed: mean change score and optimal cutoff point. RESULTS Using the mean change score method, the investigators calculated the MCID for the 3 domains of the BPIFacial: 44% and 30% improvement in pain intensity at its worst and average, respectively, 54% improvement in interference with general ADL, and 63% improvement in interference with facial ADL. Using the optimal cutoff point method, they also calculated the MCID for the 3 domains of the BPI-Facial: 57% and 28% improvement in pain intensity at its worst and average, respectively, 75% improvement in interference with general ADL, and 62% improvement in interference with facial ADL. CONCLUSIONS The BPI-Facial is a multidimensional pain scale that measures 3 domains of pain. Although 2 statistical methods were used to calculate the MCID, the optimal cutoff point method was the superior one because it used data from the majority of subjects included in this study. A 57% improvement in pain intensity at its worst and a 28% improvement in pain intensity at its average were the MCIDs for patients with facial pain. A greater improvement was needed to achieve the MCID for interference with general and facial ADL. A 75% improvement in interference with general ADL and a 62% improvement in interference with facial ADL were needed to achieve an MCID. While pain intensity is easier to measure, pain's interference with ADL may be more important for patient outcomes when designing or evaluating interventions in the field of TN. The BPI-Facial is a useful instrument to measure changes in multidimensional aspects of pain in patients with TN. PMID:25361481

Sandhu, Sukhmeet K; Halpern, Casey H; Vakhshori, Venus; Mirsaeedi-Farahani, Keyvan; Farrar, John T; Lee, John Y K

2015-01-01

312

Intra-parotid neurofibroma of facial nerve : A case report  

OpenAIRE

A 45-year-old male presented with a painless slowly growing mass in the region of the left parotid gland over a period of 4 years. The swelling was nontender, measuring 8cm*6cm and it was hard in consistency. Facial function was normal. At surgery, a bulky, lobular tumor was found in the parotid gland. Identification of the facial nerve was not possible and eventually the mass, which was seen to be incorporating one of the peripheral branches of the nerve, was identified as a facial nerve tum...

Amit Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan

2013-01-01

313

Facial nerve palsy: Providing eye comfort and cosmesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of facial nerve palsy (FNP may lead to dramatic change in the patient?s facial function, expression, and emotions. The ophthalmologist may play an important role in the initial evaluation, and the long-term management of patients with new-onset of FNP. In patients with expected temporary facial weakness, no efforts should be wasted to ensure proper corneal protection. Patients with permanent functional deficit may require combination of surgical procedures tailored to the patient?s clinical findings that may require good eye comfort and cosmesis.

Alsuhaibani Adel

2010-01-01

314

Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paralysis of the mouth corner is a very disabling bothfunctionally and cosmetically, speech and swallowing are hampered and the patient loses saliva, with presents a social problem.

M Vloeberghs

2009-11-01

315

Dynamic evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography video  

Science.gov (United States)

Several visual assessment methods have been proposed for evaluating facial nerve function. They are of value clinically, but they have drawbacks when objective, quantitative, and reproducible assessment is required. To solve these problems, we used moire topography, which helps visualize information in three dimensions. We previously reported that one could evaluate the severity of facial palsy by observing characteristic patterns of the moire strips produced by facial movement. Accordingly, we developed a new form of the dynamic evaluation by recording the dynamic changes in moire strip patterns on the face on a videotape.

Yuen, Koji; Inokuchi, Ikuo; Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Masuda, Yu

1994-02-01

316

Three-Dimensional Facial Adaptation for MPEG-4 Talking Heads  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies a new method for three-dimensional (3D) facial model adaptation and its integration into a text-to-speech (TTS) system. The 3D facial adaptation requires a set of two orthogonal views of the user?s face with a number of feature points located on both views. Based on the correspondences of the feature points? positions, a generic face model is deformed nonrigidly treating every facial part as a separate entity. A cylindrical texture map is then built from...

Sarris Nikos; Grammalidis Nikos; Deligianni Fani; Strintzis Michael G

2002-01-01

317

Course of the facial nerve in congenital ear deformities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aberrant pathways of the facial nerve through the temporal bone are related to the severity and type of congenital ear deformity. A facial nerve crossing the middle ear cavity with no bony covering cannot be shown by radiologic techniques but may be inferred from: (1) abnormalities of the first part of the facial nerve canal in the region of the geniculate ganglion, (2) absence of the Fallopian canal, (3) absence of the oval window, (4) absence of the pyramidal eminence, and (5) an exit foramen through the floor of the middle ear. Demonstration of these features is discussed with tomographic and histologic correlation in 2 cases, tomographic and surgical correlation in 31. (Auth.)

318

Bilateral Facial Paralysis In Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome is a rare, idiopathic non caseating granulomatous condition characterized by a classic triad of recurrent facial/labial swelling, fissured tongue and recurrent facial palsy. Different therapeutic regimens have been attempted but with limited success. We report a 47-year-old woman with recurrent lip swelling, lingua plicata and recurrent peripheral facial nerve palsy on both sides who benefited from a short course of oral steroids. Literature on various aspects of the disease is reviewed and discussed.

Ashraf V.V

2005-01-01

319

High resolution computed tomography of the facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate demonstration of normal and pathologic anatomies of the facial nerve was investigated using high resolution computed tomography, CT/T 8800. In the preliminary experiment, coronal and horizontal scannings were made of dry bone, infusing yttrium oxide (Y2O3) into the Fallopian canal and painting the stapes with yttrium oxide. Visualization of the Fallopian canal on coronal scanning was better demonstrated than on horizontal scanning. In the presence of a disease suspected to be facial neurinoma, high resolution CT has some merit in demonstrating bone changes in the Fallopian canal, and this target imaging is an effective means of studying patients with facial nerve disorders. (author)

320

Granuloma faciale effectively treated with topical pimecrolimus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare skin disorder with a chronic-relapsing course. Cutaneous lesions affect predominantly the face of middle-aged Caucasian men with characteristic reddish papules, nodules, or plaques; however, various atypical cases with unusual morphology or extra facial involvement have been reported (1-3). Despite many treatment options, both surgical and medical, GF remains therapeutically resistant and even if effective treatment is achieved, the condition often recurs. A 60-year-old woman was referred to our department with skin lesions that appeared in spring of 2008 and were resistant to topical antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment. There were no other subjective complains except for aggravation from sun exposure. Clinical examination revealed four erythematous plaques localized symmetrically on both sides of the nose, on the right cheek, and between the eyebrows (Fig. 1a). A wide range of differential diagnoses were taken into consideration, including: cutaneous lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, polymorphic light eruption, Jessner-Kanof lymphocytic infiltration, and erythema fixum. Hematological and biochemical blood investigations were within normal ranges, and the serology for Treponema (T.) pallidum and Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the ANA test were negative. The histologic evaluation revealed diffuse hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and a dense perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the upper dermis, demarcated from the epidermis by a highly demonstrative Grenz zone. Polymorphous infiltrate of lymphocyte, neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells was seen around the small- and middle-sized vessels in the papillary dermis (Fig. 1b). The patient was treated with chloroquine 250 mg po bid. and topical betamethasone valerate cream for three months. The lack of significant therapeutic response led us to switch treatment to topical 1% pimecrolimus cream, applied twice daily for a period of three months. A follow-up visit after six months showed visual improvement of highly satisfying cosmetic outcome (Fig. 2). Granuloma faciale is a rare skin disease of unknown etiology. The first case was reported by Wigley in 1945 as "eosinophilic granuloma", and was later named granuloma faciale by Pincus (4). A spectrum of exogenic and endogenic factors such as actinic exposure, trauma, allergy (1), an Arthus-like reaction, or light irradiation (5) have been suspected to trigger the disease. GF has been typically described in middle-aged white men, though it can occur in any gender, race, or age group. Our case features GF changes in a middle-aged woman, which is a relatively rare phenomenon. GF clinical presentation is characterized with variously colored papules, nodules, or plaques, commonly elevated and soft. These lesions have a well-defined border and may vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters, as in our patient. Lesions are situated almost exclusively on the face (2,3), but may rarely appear on the trunk, scalp, and extremities which has been termed extrafacial GF (1). GF lesions are generally symptomless but some patients may complain of tender itching, stinging, or burning sensations. Histological findings play a crucial role in confirming the clinical diagnosis. A Grenz zone of uninvolved dermis located beneath the epidermis and a polymorphous infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and occasionally mast cells are the most characteristic indications. Sometimes, leukocytoclastic vasculitis can be observed, although this is often referred to as an epiphenomenon. With the chronification of the process lesions may show considerable storiform fibrosis (7). Even the pathophysiology of GF is unknown; more recent theories suggested that a proliferation of unknown T-cell lymphocytes cause IL-5 production and eosinophil hemotaxis to the lesional skin (6). Recently, Cesinaro at al. reported a significant number of GF cases associated with an abnormal content of IgG4 plasma cells, proposing that GF might represent a localized form of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases. This

Dourmishev, Lyubomir; Ouzounova-Raykova, Vessela; Broshtilova, Valentina; Miteva, Lyubka

2014-12-01

321

Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation

322

Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

Verma Rajesh

2005-01-01

323

Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network for Facial Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Autoassociative artificial neural networks have been used in many different computer vision applications. However, it is difficult to define the most suitable neural network architecture because this definition is based on previous knowledge and depends on the problem domain. To address this problem, we propose a constructive autoassociative neural network called CANet (Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network). CANet integrates the concepts of receptive fields and autoassociative memory in a dynamic architecture that changes the configuration of the receptive fields by adding new neurons in the hidden layer, while a pruning algorithm removes neurons from the output layer. Neurons in the CANet output layer present lateral inhibitory connections that improve the recognition rate. Experiments in face recognition and facial expression recognition show that the CANet outperforms other methods presented in the literature. PMID:25542018

Fernandes, Bruno J. T.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.; Ren, Tsang I.

2014-01-01

324

Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

Piérard GE

2014-04-01

325

Padronização das técnicas de secção do nervo facial e de avaliação da mímica facial em ratos Standardization of techniques used in facial nerve section and facial movement evaluation in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Padronização da técnica de secção do nervo facial extratemporal em ratos e elaboração de uma escala de avaliação da mímica facial desses animais antes e após essa secção. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar foram anestesiados com xilasina e ketamina e submetidos à secção do nervo facial próximo à sua emergência pelo forame mastóideo na pele. Todos os animais foram avaliados. Foram observados: fechamento ocular, reflexo de piscamento, movimentação e posicionamento das vibrissas, e foi elaborada uma escala de avaliação e graduação destes parâmetros. RESULTADOS: O tronco do nervo facial foi encontrado entre a margem tendinosa do músculo clavotrapézio e a cartilagem auricular. O tronco foi seccionado proximal à sua saída pelo forame mastóideo e os cotos foram suturados com nylon 9-0. Foi elaborada uma escala de avaliação e graduação da mímica facial independente para olho e vibrissa e a somatória dos parâmetros, como forma de avaliar a face paralisada. A ausência de piscamento e de fechamento ocular recebeu valor 1; a presença de contração do músculo orbicular, sem reflexo de piscamento, valor 2; fechamento ocular de 50% através de reflexo de piscamento, valor 3, o fechamento de 75%, valor 4. A presença de reflexo de piscamento com fechamento ocular completo recebeu valor 5. A ausência de movimento e posição posterior das vibrissas recebeu pontuação 1; tremor leve e posição posterior, pontuação 2; tremor maior e posição posterior, pontuação 3 e movimento normal com posição posterior, pontuação 4. A movimentação simétrica das vibrissas, com posição anterior recebeu pontuação 5. CONCLUSÃO: O rato apresenta anatomia que permite fácil acesso ao nervo facial extratemporal, possibilitando secção e sutura desse nervo de forma padronizada. Também foi possível estabelecer uma escala de avaliação e graduação da mímica facial dos ratos com paralisia facial a partir da observação clínica desses animais.AIM: standardization of the technique to section the extratemporal facial nerve in rats and creation of a scale to evaluate facial movements in these animals before and after surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. METHOD: twenty Wistar rats were anesthetized with ketamine xylazine and submitted to sectioning of the facial nerve near its emergence through the mastoid foramen. Eye closure and blinking reflex, vibrissae movement and positioning were observed in all animals and a scale to evaluate these parameters was then created. RESULTS: The facial nerve trunk was found between the tendinous margin of the clavotrapezius muscle and the auricular cartilage. The trunk was proximally sectioned as it exits the mastoid foramen and the stumps were sutured with a 9-0-nylon thread. An evaluation and graduation scale of facial movements, independent for eye and vibrissae, was elaborated, together with a sum of the parameters, as a means to evaluate facial palsy. Absence of eye blinking and closure scored 1; the presence of orbicular muscle contraction, without blinking reflex, scored 2; 50% of eye closure through blinking reflex, scored 3, 75% of closure scored 4. The presence of complete eye closure and blinking reflex scored 5. The absence of movement and posterior position of the vibrissae scored 1; slight shivering and posterior position scored 2; greater shivering and posterior position, scored 3 and normal movement with posterior position, scored 4; symmetrical movement of he vibrissae, with anterior position, scored 5. CONCLUSION: The rat anatomy allows easy access to the extratemporal facial nerve, allowing its sectioning and standardized suture. It was also possible to establish an evaluation and graduation scale of the rat facial movements with facial palsy based on the clinical observation of these animals.

Simone Damasceno de Faria

2006-06-01

326

ENDOGENOUS T CELL MEMORY ELICTED BY PRIOR FACIAL MOTOR NEURON INJURY: RELATION TO NEUROREGENERATION  

OpenAIRE

We tested the hypotheses that prior injury to the facial motor nucleus (FMN) would elicit a more robust T cell response in the opposite FMN when the contralateral facial nerve was injured later in life, and that this would result in improved neuroregeneration. Measures of T cell, neuronal and microglial status were compared in sensitized mice (right facial nerve transection followed by contralateral facial nerve transection 9.5 weeks later) and naïve mice (sham surgery of the right facial ne...

Ha, Grace K.; Huang, Zhi; Petitto, John M.

2007-01-01

327

Técnicas de moldagem da máscara facial / Moulage of facial mask techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Encontram-se descritas na literatura várias técnicas para moldagem da máscara facial com o intuito de obtenção de modelos para confecção de próteses bucomaxilofaciais. OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar duas técnicas de moldagem, a técnica convencional e a técnica convencion [...] al modificada, ressaltando suas vantagens e desvantagens. TÉCNICA: A primeira técnica consiste na deposição do material de moldagem na região de interesse e, posteriormente, na adição da camada de reforço com gesso tipo II. A modificação da técnica convencional inicia?se com a realização de um alívio com algodão nos tecidos faciais a serem moldados, a aplicação de uma camada de gesso tipo II para a construção prévia da camada de reforço e, após sua cristalização, a aplicação do material de moldagem sobre a área a ser moldada, seguida de sua contenção por meio da máscara de gesso. CONCLUSÃO: A escolha da técnica de moldagem e dos materiais utilizados dependerá da habilidade do profissional. O importante é realizar uma moldagem que produza um modelo facial sem distorções para o sucesso da prótese. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: There are described in the literature several techniques for shaping the face mask in order to develop models for fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe two techniques used for facial moulage, the conventional technique and conventional techni [...] que with modification, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. CASE REPORT: In the first technique, the impression material is deposited over the region of interest and then a reinforcement layer of plaster type II is putting to cover the impression material. The modification of the conventional technique begins with a relief with cotton over the facial tissue, applying a layer of plaster type II in order to construct the reinforcement layer and, after its crystallization, the application of impression material over the area to be molded, followed by its plaster mask contention. CONCLUSION: The choice of impression technique and materials used will depend on the ability of the professional. The important thing is to make a moulage in order to get an accurate facial cast for the prosthesis' success.

Luana Maria Martins de, Aquino; Milene de, Oliveira; Ana Paula Varela Brown, Martins; Célia Marisa Rizzatti, Barbosa.

2012-12-01

328

Perdas auditivas em paralisia facial periférica após cirurgia de descompressão Hearing loss in peripheral facial palsy after decompression surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial pode resultar de uma variedade de etiologias, sendo a mais comum a idiopática. A avaliação e o tratamento são particularmente complexos. O tratamento da paralisia facial aguda pode envolver cirurgia de descompressão do nervo facial. Qualquer estrutura perto do trajeto do nervo facial está em risco durante a cirurgia de descompressão via transmastoidea. OBJETIVO: Estudo retrospectivo que irá avaliar a perda auditiva após descompressão via transmastoidea e a evolução do grau de paralisia nos casos idiopáticos dos últimos 15 anos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionados prontuários de 33 pacientes submetidos à descompressão do nervo facial via transmastoidea nos últimos 15 anos e avaliou-se a perda auditiva e a paralisia facial. RESULTADOS: Observou-se alta porcentagem (61% dos pacientes com algum grau de perda auditiva após o procedimento e, em todos os casos, houve melhora da paralisia. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento cirúrgico não é isento de riscos. Indicações, riscos e benefícios devem ser esclarecidos aos pacientes por meio de consentimento informado.Facial paralysis can result from a variety of etiologies; the most common is the idiopathic type. Evaluation and treatment are particularly complex. The treatment of acute facial paralysis may require facial nerve decompression surgery. Any structure near the path of the facial nerve is at risk during transmastoid decompression surgery. AIM: This is a retrospective study, carried out in order to evaluate hearing loss after transmastoid decompression and how idiopathic cases evolved in terms of their degree of paralysis in the last 15 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected the charts from 33 patients submitted to transmastoid facial nerve decompression in the past 15 years and we assessed their hearing loss and facial paralysis. RESULTS: There was a high percentage (61% of patients with some degree of hearing loss after the procedure and in all cases there was improvement in the paralysis. DISCUSSION: The values obtained are similar to those reported in the literature. One possible explanation for this hearing loss is the vibration transmission by drilling near the ossicular chain. CONCLUSION: The surgical procedure is not risk free; indications, risks and benefits should be explained to patients through an informed consent form.

Alexandre Augusto Kroskinsque Palombo

2012-06-01

329

The use of oxybutynin for treating facial hyperhidrosis / O uso da oxibutinina no tratamento da hiperidrose facial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: Hiperidrose facial é uma doença que pode levar os pacientes a sérios distúrbios emocionais. A simpatectomia torácica vídeo-assistida proporciona excelente resolução da hiperidrose facial, mas está associada a algumas complicações, sendo a mais freqüente e mais importante a hiperidrose c [...] ompensatória. Especialmente em pacientes submetidos à ressecção do segundo gânglio torácico, o risco de hiperidrose compensatória grave é maior, o que pode causar insatisfação com o procedimento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e a satisfação dos pacientes com o uso da oxibutinina em doses baixas para tratar a hiperidrose facial em uma série grande de pacientes. MÉTODOS: 25 pacientes com hiperidrose facial foram tratados com oxibutinina. Os pacientes foram submetidos a duas avaliações: antes e depois do tratamento. Estas foram usadas para avaliar a melhoria clínica e a qualidade de vida. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que mais de 75% dos pacientes evoluíram com melhora na hiperidrose facial, sendo que 52% deles apresentaram uma grande melhora. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento da hiperidrose facial com oxibutinina é uma boa alternativa à simpatectomia, visto que apresenta bons resultados e melhora a qualidade de vida, e os pacientes não correm o risco dos efeitos colaterais da simpatectomia Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Facial hyperhidrosis is a disease that may lead patients to serious emotional disturbances. Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy provides excellent resolution of facial hyperhidrosis, but is associated with certain complications. The most frequent and important complication is compensat [...] ory hyperhidrosis. Especially in patients who have undergone resection of the second thoracic ganglion, the risk of severe compensatory hyperhidrosis is higher, which may cause dissatisfaction with the procedure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of low doses of oxybutynin in treating facial hyperhidrosis as well as the level of patient satisfaction with its use. METHODS: 25 patients with facial hyperhidrosis were treated with oxybutynin. The patients underwent 2 evaluations: before and after treatment. These evaluations were used to assess the patients' clinical improvement and quality of life. RESULTS: We observed that more than 75% of the patients evolved with an improvement in facial hyperhidrosis, and 52% of them presented a great improvement. CONCLUSION: Treatment of facial hyperhidrosis with oxybutynin is a good alternative to sympathectomy, since it presents good results and improves quality of life, in addition to not exposing patients to the risk of experiencing the side effects of sympathectomy

Nelson, Wolosker; José Ribas Milanez de, Campos; Paulo, Kauffman; Marco Antonio, Munia; Samantha, Neves; Fábio Biscegli, Jatene; Pedro, Puech-Leão.

2011-06-01

330

The use of oxybutynin for treating facial hyperhidrosis O uso da oxibutinina no tratamento da hiperidrose facial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facial hyperhidrosis is a disease that may lead patients to serious emotional disturbances. Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy provides excellent resolution of facial hyperhidrosis, but is associated with certain complications. The most frequent and important complication is compensatory hyperhidrosis. Especially in patients who have undergone resection of the second thoracic ganglion, the risk of severe compensatory hyperhidrosis is higher, which may cause dissatisfaction with the procedure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of low doses of oxybutynin in treating facial hyperhidrosis as well as the level of patient satisfaction with its use. METHODS: 25 patients with facial hyperhidrosis were treated with oxybutynin. The patients underwent 2 evaluations: before and after treatment. These evaluations were used to assess the patients' clinical improvement and quality of life. RESULTS: We observed that more than 75% of the patients evolved with an improvement in facial hyperhidrosis, and 52% of them presented a great improvement. CONCLUSION: Treatment of facial hyperhidrosis with oxybutynin is a good alternative to sympathectomy, since it presents good results and improves quality of life, in addition to not exposing patients to the risk of experiencing the side effects of sympathectomyFUNDAMENTOS: Hiperidrose facial é uma doença que pode levar os pacientes a sérios distúrbios emocionais. A simpatectomia torácica vídeo-assistida proporciona excelente resolução da hiperidrose facial, mas está associada a algumas complicações, sendo a mais freqüente e mais importante a hiperidrose compensatória. Especialmente em pacientes submetidos à ressecção do segundo gânglio torácico, o risco de hiperidrose compensatória grave é maior, o que pode causar insatisfação com o procedimento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e a satisfação dos pacientes com o uso da oxibutinina em doses baixas para tratar a hiperidrose facial em uma série grande de pacientes. MÉTODOS: 25 pacientes com hiperidrose facial foram tratados com oxibutinina. Os pacientes foram submetidos a duas avaliações: antes e depois do tratamento. Estas foram usadas para avaliar a melhoria clínica e a qualidade de vida. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que mais de 75% dos pacientes evoluíram com melhora na hiperidrose facial, sendo que 52% deles apresentaram uma grande melhora. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento da hiperidrose facial com oxibutinina é uma boa alternativa à simpatectomia, visto que apresenta bons resultados e melhora a qualidade de vida, e os pacientes não correm o risco dos efeitos colaterais da simpatectomia

Nelson Wolosker

2011-06-01

331

Evaluation of Variation in the Course of the Facial Nerve, Nerve Adhesion to Tumors, and Postoperative Facial Palsy in Acoustic Neuroma  

OpenAIRE

Objective?To investigate the variation in the course of the facial nerve (FN) in patients undergoing acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery, its adhesion to tumors, and the relationship between such adhesions and postoperative facial palsy.

Sameshima, Tetsuro; Morita, Akio; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Fukushima, Takanori; Friedman, Allan H.; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Mastronardi, Luciano

2012-01-01

332

Cephalometric evaluation of the effect of third molar eruption on skeletal facial height  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The influence of third molar eruption on vertical facial growth has been evaluated less frequently by researchers. The aim of this study was cephalometric evaluation of the effect of third molar eruption on skeletal facial height.Materials and Methods: The subjects in this cross-sectional/analytical study consisted of thirty patients with four completely erupted third molars with proper occlusal relationships (group A and thirty patients without third molars (group B. All the subjects were 19?24 years of age and had Class I occlusal relationship. None of the subjects had received any orthodontic and surgical treatment. Cephalograms of subjects were traced carefully. The mean of parameters measured in both groups were compared by independent t-test (? = 0.05.Results: Means of Frankfort mandibular angle (FMA in groups A and B were 32.26 ± 5.82 and 27.20 ± 2.53 degrees, respectively, with significant differences between the two groups (p value = 0.001. Means of gonial angles in groups A and B were 123.86 ± 1.26 and 124.5 ± 4.88 degrees, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p value = 0.491. Regarding ANB and SNA angles, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (p value = 0.335 and (p value = 0.127, respectively. However, there were significant differences between the two groups in relation to SNB angle (p value = 0.05. There were significant differences in relation to posterior facial height: anterior facial height ratios and sella? nasion distances between the two groups (p value = 0.001. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in relation to nasion? menton distances (p value = 0.733.Conclusion: Craniofacial development in patients with completely erupted third molars is different from those with no third molars. Patients with third molars have larger FMA angles and greater posterior facial height (PFH. Eruption of third molars does not influence the gonial angle.Key words: Cephalometry, Third molar, Tooth eruption.

Mostafa Shahabi

2012-01-01

333

Facial dysmorphism: a marker of autosomal dominant cranial diabetes insipidus.  

OpenAIRE

We report a family with autosomal dominant cranial diabetes insipidus in which a characteristic facial appearance of hypertelorism, broad and prominent nasal bridge, short nose, and long philtrum is seen in affected members.

Laing, R. B.; Dean, J. C.; Pearson, D. W.; Johnston, A. W.

1991-01-01

334

Análisis de la personalidad del paciente con deformidad facial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La deformidad facial se presenta como asimetrías, hipoplasias, excesos de crecimiento y fisuras faciales, entre otras, así como también con sín - dromes de cabeza y cuello donde existen alteraciones de las estructuras faciales que pueden presentarse con fisuras o hendiduras del rostro. Material y métodos: se realizó análisis de la personalidad a una muestra de pacientes con deformidades faciales del Servicio de Cirugía Maxi - lofacial del Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre. Se estudiaron pacientes en protocolo de cirugía ortognática utilizando el Inventario Multifásico de la Personalidad Minnesota 2 (MMPI2; no se encontró una desviación importante en los resultados de los análisis ni ninguna psicopatología. Resultado: existe una correlación en la dificultad de adaptación de los pacientes hacia un cambio en la forma de percibir su autoimagen.

Mois\\u00E9s El\\u00ED Guerra-Delgado

2014-01-01

335

Parental consent to cosmetic facial surgery in Down's syndrome  

OpenAIRE

It is suggested that the practice of attempting to normalise children with Down's syndrome by subjecting them to major facial plastic surgery has no therapeutic benefit, and should be seen as mutilating surgery comparable to female circumcision.

Jones, R.

2000-01-01

336

Facial features influence the categorization of female sexual orientation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social categorization is a rapid and automatic process, and people rely on various facial cues to accurately categorize each other into social groups. Recently, studies have demonstrated that people integrate different cues to arrive at accurate impressions of others' sexual orientations. The amount of perceptual information available to perceivers could affect these categorizations, however. Here, we found that, as visual information decreased from full faces to internal facial features to just pairs of eyes, so did the accuracy of judging women's sexual orientation. Yet and still, accuracy remained significantly greater than chance across all conditions. More important, however, participants' response bias varied significantly depending on the facial feature judged. Perceivers were significantly more likely to consider that a target may be lesbian as they viewed less of the faces. Thus, although facial features may be continuously integrated in person construal, they can differentially affect how people see each other. PMID:24494440

Tskhay, Konstantin O; Feriozzo, Melissa M; Rule, Nicholas O

2013-01-01

337

Enfisema subcutáneo facial autoinducido con la finalidad de conseguir deformidad facial y evitar reconocimiento legal / Self-induced facial subcutaneous emphysema with the achieving facial deformity and prevent legal recognition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El enfisema facial subcutáneo se presenta en ocasiones en el marco de procedimientos odontológicos, traumatismos o cirugía. No es habitual que este enfisema sea auto-provocado por el paciente. Se informan tres casos de enfisema facial autoprovocado en reclusos con la intención de deformar la cara y [...] evitar ser reconocidos por testigos en el juzgado. Abstract in english Facial subcutaneous emphysema may occur in the context of dental procedures, trauma or surgery. It is unusual that this emphysema is self-caused by the patient. We report three cases of facial emphysema produced by inmates in the prison with intent to disfigure the face and avoid being recognized by [...] witnesses in court.

A.F., Bedoya; M.J., Leal; N., Lleopart; P.A., Martínez-Carpio; M.T., Marrón.

2011-09-01

338

Enfisema subcutáneo facial autoinducido con la finalidad de conseguir deformidad facial y evitar reconocimiento legal Self-induced facial subcutaneous emphysema with the achieving facial deformity and prevent legal recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El enfisema facial subcutáneo se presenta en ocasiones en el marco de procedimientos odontológicos, traumatismos o cirugía. No es habitual que este enfisema sea auto-provocado por el paciente. Se informan tres casos de enfisema facial autoprovocado en reclusos con la intención de deformar la cara y evitar ser reconocidos por testigos en el juzgado.Facial subcutaneous emphysema may occur in the context of dental procedures, trauma or surgery. It is unusual that this emphysema is self-caused by the patient. We report three cases of facial emphysema produced by inmates in the prison with intent to disfigure the face and avoid being recognized by witnesses in court.

A.F. Bedoya

2011-09-01

339

Inhalation of a denture fragment complicating facial trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of facial trauma is presented, which was complicated by a denture fragment lodged in the larynx. This potentially life threatening event caused minor symptoms only. Its diagnosis and management are reported. PMID:3203093

Ong, T K; Lancer, J M; Brook, I M

1988-12-01

340

Analysis and Simulation on Recognition Algorithm for Dynamic Facial Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to realize the recognition for dynamic facial images, the paper builds a dynamic matching model. First, this paper introduces a dynamic feature extraction algorithm of feature constraint optimization which can effectively extract the 2D dynamic facial features. Then, the paper analyzes the neurons mathematical model comprehensive expressing neurons operational mechanism and applies the model to dynamic facial feature expression. Finally, we study the learning rules how BP algorithm directs neural network, establish a corresponding mathematical model, and then use facial feature dynamic rules making dynamic features to be learned quickly and complete the recognition by the error compensation. The experiment results show that the model has a higher precision of geometric feature extraction for dynamic two-dimensional face images and better recognizes characteristic with error within 0.035mm which meets the requirements of stable, reliable, high precision and anti-interference ability etc.

Hongyan Zhang

2013-11-01

341

Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood. PMID:25548886

Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

342

Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles  

OpenAIRE

A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

Bhat, Shreedhar; Maitra, Uday

2008-01-01

343

Retracción a largo plazo del árbol dendrítico de neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales por lesiones periféricas del nervio facial / Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Poco se sabe sobre las modificaciones morfológicas de las neuronas de la corteza motora tras lesiones en nervios periféricos, y de la implicancia de dichos cambios en la recuperación funcional tras la lesión. Objetivo. Caracterizar en ratas el efecto de la lesión del nervio facial sobr [...] e la morfología de las neuronas piramidales de la capa V de la corteza motora primaria contralateral. Materiales y métodos. Se reconstruyeron neuronas piramidales teñidas con la técnica de Golgi-Cox, de animales control (sin lesión) y animales con lesiones y sacrificados a distintos tiempos luego de la lesión. Se utilizaron cuatro grupos: sham (control), lesión 1S, lesión 3S y lesión 5S (animales con lesiones y evaluados 1, 3 y 5 semanas después de la lesión irreversible del nervio facial, respectivamente). Se evaluaron mediante el análisis de Sholl, las ramificaciones dendríticas de las células piramidales de la corteza motora contralateral a la lesión. Resultados. Los animales con lesiones presentaron parálisis completa de las vibrisas mayores durante las cinco semanas de observación. Comparadas con neuronas de animales sin lesiones, las células piramidales córtico-faciales de los lesionados mostraron una disminución significativa de sus ramificaciones dendríticas. Esta disminución se mantuvo hasta cinco semanas después de la lesión. Conclusiones. Las lesiones irreversibles de los axones de las motoneuronas del núcleo facial, provocan una retracción sostenida del árbol dendrítico en las neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales. Esta reorganización morfológica cortical persistente podría ser el sustrato fisiopatológico de algunas de las secuelas funcionales que se observan en los pacientes con parálisis facial periférica. Abstract in english Introduction. Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on post lesion functional recovery. Objective. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characteriz [...] ed with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury. Materials and methods. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery), and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial) neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis. Results. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the fiveweek observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury. Discussion. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

Diana, Urrego; Alejandro, Múnera; Julieta, Troncoso.

2011-12-01

344

Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons Retracción a largo plazo del árbol dendrítico de neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales por lesiones periféricas del nervio facial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Introduction. Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on postlesion functional recovery.
Objective. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characterized with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury.
Materials and methods. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery, and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis.
Results. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the fiveweek observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons
of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury.
Discussion. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the
physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

Introducción. Poco se sabe sobre las modificaciones morfológicas de las neuronas de la corteza motora tras lesiones en nervios periféricos, y de la implicancia de dichos cambios en la recuperación
funcional tras la lesión.
Objetivo. Caracterizar en ratas el efecto de la lesión del nervio facial sobre la morfología de las neuronas piramidales de la capa V de la corteza motora primaria contralateral.
Materiales y métodos. Se reconstruyeron neuronas piramidales teñidas con la técnica de Golgi-Cox, de animales control (sin lesión y animales con lesiones y sacrificados a distintos tiempos luego de la lesión. Se utilizaron cuatro grupos: sham (control, lesión 1S, lesión 3S y lesión 5S (animales con lesiones y evaluados 1, 3 y 5 semanas después de la lesión irreversible del nervio facial, respectivamente. Se evaluaron mediante el análisis de Sholl, las ramificaciones dendríticas de las células piramidales de la corteza motora contralateral a la lesión.
Resultados. Los animales con lesiones presentaron parálisis completa de las vibrisas mayores durante las cinco semanas de observación. Comparadas con neuronas de animales sin lesiones, las células piramidales córtico-faciales de los lesionados mostraron una disminución significativa de sus ramificaciones dendríticas. Esta disminución se mantuvo hasta cinco semanas después de la lesión.
Conclusiones. Las lesiones irreversibles de los axones de las motoneuronas del núcleo facial, provocan una retracción sostenida del árbol dendrítico en las neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales.
Esta reorganización morfológica cortical persistente podría ser el sustrato fisiopatológico de algunas de las secuelas funcionales que se observan en los pacientes con parálisis facial periférica.

Julieta Troncoso

2011-06-01

345

[Oro-facial-digital syndrome type I: phenotypic variable expression].  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1; OMIM #311200) is a developmental disorder transmitted as an X-linked dominant condition with embryonic male lethality. It is associated with malformation of the oral cavity, face, and digits. Furthermore, it is characterized by the presence of milia, hypotrichosis and polycystic kidney disease. We present two cases with clinical diagnosis of oral-facial-digital syndrome type I with some phenotypic variability between them. PMID:25362921

Boldrini, María Pía; Giovo, María Elsa; Bogado, Claudia

2014-12-01

346

Evolution and Trends in Reconstructive Facial Surgery: An Update  

OpenAIRE

Surgical correction of congenital and acquired facial deformities has transcended the primitive era of using non biologic materials to current attempts at own face growing through biotechnology. A summative account of this trend is still lacking in the literature. The objective of this article is to present an update on current knowledge in the strides to achieve functionally and aesthetically perfect facial reconstruction. It highlights the impact of advancements in 3D imaging, stereolithogr...

Akadiri, Oladimeji A.

2012-01-01

347

A primary cilia-dependent etiology for midline facial disorders  

OpenAIRE

Human faces exhibit enormous variation. When pathological conditions are superimposed on normal variation, a nearly unbroken series of facial morphologies is produced. When viewed in full, this spectrum ranges from cyclopia and hypotelorism to hypertelorism and facial duplications. Decreased Hedgehog pathway activity causes holoprosencephaly and hypotelorism. Here, we show that excessive Hedgehog activity, caused by truncating the primary cilia on cranial neural crest cells, causes hypertelor...

Brugmann, Samantha A.; Allen, Nancy C.; James, Aaron W.; Mekonnen, Zesemayat; Madan, Elena; Helms, Jill A.

2010-01-01

348

Facial Expression Recognition Based on WAPA and OEPA Fastica  

OpenAIRE

Face is one of the most important biometric traits for its uniqueness and robustness. For this reason researchers from many diversified fields, like: security, psychology, image processing, and computer vision, started to do research on face detection as well as facial expression recognition. Subspace learning methods work very good for recognizing same facial features. Among subspace learning techniques PCA, ICA, NMF are the most prominent topics. In this work, our main focus is on Indepe...

Humayra Binte Ali; Powers, David M. W.

2014-01-01

349

Application of data fusion in computer facial recognition  

OpenAIRE

The recognition rate of single recognition method is inefficiency in computer facial recognition. We proposed a new confluent facial recognition method using data fusion technology, a variety of recognition algorithm are combined to form the fusion-based face recognition system to improve the recognition rate in many ways. Data fusion considers three levels of data fusion, feature level fusion and decision level fusion. And the data layer uses a simple weighted average algorithm, which is eas...

Wang Ai Qiang; Han Min

2013-01-01

350

Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: a case report  

OpenAIRE

We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic disorder, peripheral neuropathy, disturbed behavior, acanthocytosis and the atrophy of caudate nuclei was suggestive of a diagnosis of ChAc. To our knowledge no similar cases...

Samia, Younes; Yosra, Cherif; Foued, Bellazreg; Mouna, Aissi; Olfa, Berriche; Jihed, Souissi; Hammadi, Braham; Mahbouba, Frih-ayed; Amel, Letaief; Habib, Sfar Mohamed

2014-01-01

351

Pathophysiological mechanisms of blindness in facial trauma: A review  

OpenAIRE

Blindness is a serious complication that can occur after facial trauma and may represent the loss of one of the most useful senses in the human relationship with the world—the sight. This study aims to review the pathophysiology of blindness related to facial trauma in order to identify the mechanisms by which it develops and to recognize the signs and symptoms required to establish proper diagnosis and treatment. Blindn...

André Luis Ribeiro Ribeiro; Adriana Maria Melo dos Reis; Driene Góes Ramalho; Sérgio de Melo Alves Júnior; João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro

2013-01-01

352

Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects  

OpenAIRE

Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral impl...

Federspil, Philipp A.

2009-01-01

353

Automatic facial expression recognition: a discrete choice approach  

OpenAIRE

Automatic facial expression recognition finds applications in various fields where human-machine interactions are involved. We propose a framework based on discrete choice models, where we try to forecast how a human person would evaluate the facial expression, choosing the most appropriate label among a given list. After having applied the framework successfully on static images, we investigate the possibility to apply it on video sequences.

Bierlaire, Michel

2009-01-01

354

Safely navigating around the facial nerve in three dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much literature discusses the anatomy and injury of the facial nerve branches, the fascial plane of the nerves, particularly where they transition from one plane to another, is rarely emphasized and information is often contradictory. This article describes in three-dimensional, accurate surgical terms where the facial nerve branches are located and how they can be protected during dissection above and below the superficial musculoaponeurotic system-platysma plane. PMID:18922299

Owsley, John Q; Agarwal, Cori A

2008-10-01

355

Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

356

Facial infiltrating lipomatosis: A case report and review of literature  

OpenAIRE

Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face has been described as a congenital disorder in which mature lipocytes invade adjacent tissues in the facial region. The presentation is always unilateral with hypertrophy of hard and soft structures on the affected side of the face. We present a case of a 27-year-old female who reported with a complaint of recurrent unilateral facial swelling with history of two previous resections, the histopathology or details of these surgeries were not available. The p...

Singh, Karan; Sen, Pinaki; Musgrove, Brian T.; Thakker, Nalin

2011-01-01

357

Facial Nerve Neuroma: Surgical Concept and Functional Results  

OpenAIRE

This study reviewed the management and outcomes of 11 facial nerve neuromas treated in our institution during the past two decades with particular emphasis on surgical concepts and functional outcomes. All patients underwent complete surgical resection of their tumor. Eight patients (73%) were followed on an outpatient basis. A retrospective chart review for pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological data was performed. All facial neuromas were multisegment tumors. All segments of the f...

Minovi, Amir; Vosschulte, Regina; Hofmann, Erich; Draf, Wolfgang; Bockmu?hl, Ulrike

2004-01-01

358

Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

OpenAIRE

A magnetic stimulator was used for direct transcutaneous stimulation of the intracranial portion of the facial nerve in 15 normal subjects and in patients with Bell's palsy, demyelinating neuropathy, traumatic facial palsy and pontine glioma. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) thus elicited in the orbicularis oris muscle of controls were of similar amplitude but longer latency (1.3 SD 0.15 ms) compared with CMAPs produced by conventional electrical stimulation at the stylomastoid foram...

Schriefer, T. N.; Mills, K. R.; Murray, N. M.; Hess, C. W.

1988-01-01

359

Paralisia Facial: Técnicas de Reconstrução Neuro-Muscular  

OpenAIRE

Several surgical procedures have been proposed through the years for the treatment of facial paralysis. The multiplicity and diversity of techniques portray the complexity and challenge represented by this pathology. Two basic dynamic options are available: -Reconstruction of nerve continuity through direct micro suture, with interposition grafts or nerve transpositions. -Regional muscular transposition, most often using the temporalis. Facial reanimation with the temporalis transfer has with...

Gomez, Mm; Pereira, H.; Gomes Da Silva, A.; Rego, Jm; Almeida, Ma

1998-01-01

360

Intratemporal Hemangiomas Involving the Facial Nerve: Diagnosis and Management  

OpenAIRE

Intratemporal vascular tumors involving the facial nerve are rare benign lesions. Because of their variable clinical features, they are often misdiagnosed preoperatively. This study presents a series of 21 patients with such lesions managed from 1977 to 1994. Facial nerve dysfunction was the most common complaint, present in 60% of the cases, followed by hearing loss, present in 40% of cases. High-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium, and a high index of ...

Bhatia, Sanjaya; Karmarkar, Sandeep; Calabrese, V.; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdelkader; Russo, Alessandra; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

1995-01-01

361

Turkish Presidential Elections TRT Publicity Speech Facial Expression Analysis  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, facial expressions of the three Turkish presidential candidates Demirtas, Erdogan and Ihsanoglu (in alphabetical order) are analyzed during the publicity speeches featured at TRT (Turkish Radio and Television) on 03.08.2014. FaceReader is used for the analysis where 3D modeling of the face is achieved using the active appearance models (AAM). Over 500 landmark points are tracked and analyzed for obtaining the facial expressions during the whole speech. All sou...

Tasli, H. Emrah; Ivan, Paul

2014-01-01

362

Speech therapy in peripheral facial palsy: an orofacial myofunctional approach  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To delineate the contributions of speech therapy in the rehabilitation of peripheral facial palsy, describing the role of orofacial myofunctional approach in this process. Methods: A literature review of published articles since 1995, held from March to December 2008, based on the characterization of peripheral facial palsy and its relation with speechlanguage disorders related to orofacial disorders in mobility, speech and chewing, among others. The review prioritized scientific j...

Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Júnior

2009-01-01

363

Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classification in Perceptual Color Space  

OpenAIRE

Facial expression analysis is an important area of Human Robot Interaction (HRI) because facialexpressions represent human emotions. Here, a new facial expression recognition system is introduced whichuses tensor concept. Here perceptual color space is used instead of RGB color space since it cannot work wellwith illumination and pose variations. Also for classification purpose SVM classifier is used. Theexperimental results are compared using accuracy and the proposed method shows significan...

R?, Ms Aswathy

2013-01-01

364

Faciale angiofibromer ved tuberøs sklerose behandlet med sirolimussalve  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a five-year-old boy with facial angiofibromas associated to tuberous sclerosis successfully treated with topical sirolimus 0.4% applied three times a week for six months. After six months we observed a nearly complete resolution of facial angiofibromas. The blood levels of sirolimus remained under a detectable limit and no side-effects were observed. Topically applied sirolimus seems to be a safe and effective alternative to surgery or laser therapy.

Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Bygum, Anette

2013-01-01

365

High resolution computed tomography for peripheral facial nerve paralysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High resolution computer tomographic examinations of the petrous bones were performed on 19 patients with confirmed peripheral facial nerve paralysis. High resolution CT provides accurate information regarding the extent, and usually regarding the type, of pathological process; this can be accurately localised with a view to possible surgical treatments. The examination also differentiates this from idiopathic paresis, which showed no radiological changes. Destruction of the petrous bone, without facial nerve symptoms, makes early suitable treatment mandatory. (orig.)

366

ROI Segmentation for Feature Extraction from Human Facial Images  

OpenAIRE

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is the biggest goal of computer vision researchers. Features form the different facial images are able to provide a very deep knowledge about the activities performed by the different facial movements. In this paper we presented a technique for feature extraction from various regions of interest with the help of Skin color segmentation technique, Thresholding, knowledge based technique for face recognition.

Surbhi; Vishal Arora

2012-01-01

367

Design of Facial Impact Protection Gear for Cyclists  

OpenAIRE

The concept of facial impact protection mask for cyclists is proposed in response to increased participation in cycling and the need for injury prevention. The research aims to develop an approach for design of facial impact protection gear to reduce the risk of severe injury. Impact test equipment and procedure, face surrogate and protection material performance criteria are developed. Three groups of protective materials – rigid crushable, semi rigid, and soft cushion foams are tested and...

Igor Sbarski; Pio Iovenitti; Sanga Monthatipkul

2012-01-01

368

Long-term results of high-density porous polyethylene implants in facial skeletal augmentation: An Indian perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: With the increasing emphasis on well-sculpted facial features, today there is a growing need for tools to augment the facial skeleton; either for cosmetic reasons or to re-contour deformities-congenital, post-traumatic and post-ablative. The limitations of autogenous materials has lead to evolution of numerous ?alloplasts?, of which, high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE seems to be a promising alternative. Aims: To evaluate the long term results of HDPE in facial skeletal augmentation in terms of achieving desired facial contour, patient satisfaction and complications. Settings: A tertiary care referral centre in a metropolitan set-up. Design: Case Series Materials and Methods: All patients undergoing HDPE implant insertion for facial skeletal augmentation between July 2001 and November 2009 were included in the study. A total of 70 HDPE implants were inserted in 44 patients. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon following standardized pre, intra and post-operative protocols. The results were evaluated with respect to improvement in facial contour desired and achieved, overall patient satisfaction and complications encountered. Results: The study included 44 patients with a male:female ratio of 1:1, a mean age of 25.09 years (14 to 58 years and a mean follow-up of 45.34 months (0.5 to 100 months. HDPE implants were used to augment the nasal dorsum, maxilla, malar eminence, chin, mandibular body and angle, orbital rim and frontal region. The overall recontouring afforded by the HDPE implants was good, with most patients reporting satisfactory results. There were seven complications (10%, including three cases of deviation (4.29%, three cases of exposure (4.29% and one case of sub-clinical infection (1.43%. None however necessitated implant removal. Nasal dorsal HDPE implants, especially those involving secondary surgery, suffered a much higher complication rate compared to other implants. Conclusions: HDPE is an alternative to autogenous grafts for facial skeletal augmentation with good long-term results and a low incidence of complications, provided there is adequate vascular soft tissue cover.

Deshpande Sanjeev

2010-01-01

369

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACIAL ARTERY AND SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

S.V.Venugopal,

2014-09-01

370

Facial Expression Recognition Based on WAPA and OEPA Fastica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face is one of the most important biometric traits for its uniqueness and robustness. For this reason researchers from many diversified fields, like: security, psychology, image processing, and computer vision, started to do research on face detection as well as facial expression recognition. Subspace learning methods work very good for recognizing same facial features. Among subspace learning techniques PCA, ICA, NMF are the most prominent topics. In this work, our main focus is on Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Among several architectures of ICA,we used here FastICA and LS-ICA algorithm. We applied Fast-ICA on whole faces and on different facial parts to analyze the influence of different parts for basic facial expressions. Our extended algorithm WAPA-FastICA and OEPA-FastICA are discussed in proposed algorithm section. Locally Salient ICA is implemented on whole face by using 8x8 windows to find the more prominent facial features for facial expression. The experiment shows our proposed OEPA-FastICA and WAPA-FastICA outperform the existing prevalent Whole-FastICA and LS-ICA methods.

Humayra Binte Ali

2014-06-01

371

Disección anatómica de la musculatura mímica facial: revisión iconográfica de apoyo a los tratamientos complementarios en rejuvenecimiento facial / Anatomical dissection of the mimic facial musculature: iconographic review as a support to the complementary treatments in facial rejuvenation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A la hora de valorar las múltiples técnicas empleadas en el rejuvenecimiento facial y centrándonos de manera particular en aquellos procedimientos mínimamente invasivos complementarios a las intervenciones habituales en Cirugía Plástica-Estética, cobra especial relevancia el conocimiento exhaustivo [...] de las estructuras musculares implicadas en la mímica facial. A tal efecto, se ha realizado un estudio anatómico en cadáveres frescos, en los que se han disecado las principales estructuras referidas. Se presenta un resumen iconográfico de los músculos faciales implicados, haciendo hincapié en su anatomía descriptiva y funcional, así como un recuerdo de las principales áreas problemáticas por alguna circunstancia especial (presencia de un nervio sensitivo o motor). Abstract in english To value the multiple technologies involved in facial rejuvenation and focusing in those minimally invasive complementary procedures to the usual Plastic and Aesthetic Surgeries, it´s very important the exhaustive knowledge of the muscular structures involved in the facial movements. To such an effe [...] ct, an anatomical study has been realized in fresh corpses, dissecting the principal above-mentioned structures. We present an iconographic summary of the facial implied muscles, emphasizing in his descriptive and functional anatomy, as well as a recollection of the principal problematic areas for some special circumstance (presence of a sensory or motor nerve).

C., Casado Sánchez; J.R., Martínez Méndez; S., Álvarez García-Peñuela; J., Bonastre Juliá; F., Clascá Cabré; C., Casado Pérez.

2011-03-01

372

Speech therapy in peripheral facial palsy: an orofacial myofunctional approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To delineate the contributions of speech therapy in the rehabilitation of peripheral facial palsy, describing the role of orofacial myofunctional approach in this process. Methods: A literature review of published articles since 1995, held from March to December 2008, based on the characterization of peripheral facial palsy and its relation with speechlanguage disorders related to orofacial disorders in mobility, speech and chewing, among others. The review prioritized scientific journal articles and specific chapters from the studied period. As inclusion criteria, the literature should contain data on peripheral facial palsy, quotes on the changes in the stomatognathic system and on orofacial miofunctional approach. We excluded studies that addressed central paralysis, congenital palsy and those of non idiopathic causes. Results: The literature has addressed the contribution of speech therapy in the rehabilitation of facial symmetry, with improvement in the retention of liquids and soft foods during chewing and swallowing. The orofacial myofunctional approach contextualized the role of speech therapy in the improvement of the coordination of speech articulation and in the gain of oral control during chewing and swallowing Conclusion: Speech therapy in peripheral facial palsy contributed and was outlined by applying the orofacial myofunctional approach in the reestablishment of facial symmetry, from the work directed to the functions of the stomatognathic system, including oralfacial exercises and training of chewing in association with the training of the joint. There is a need for a greater number of publications in this specific area for speech therapy professional.

Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Júnior

2009-12-01

373

Voluntary control of facial musculature in Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aside from being measured in the context of producing facial expressions of emotion, the ability to voluntarily control a range of facial muscles in Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been systematically measured. We used in three enrollment phases an adaptation of the Upper and Lower Face Apraxia test, a measure of the ability to make voluntary movements of the upper and lower face in PD patients and healthy controls. Errors were scored due to (1) pauses prior to movement initiation, (2) loss of individuation, (3) impoverished movement, (4) no movement at all, or (5) content errors (likened to ideational apraxia errors). The results show impaired voluntary control of facial musculature in most but not all with PD (with large effect sizes) which correlated positively and highly with disease severity. Errors by PD patients were predominantly due to impoverished movement and individuation loss whereas those made by controls were predominantly due to individuation loss. Patients committed more errors than controls due to impoverishment and no movement, with negligible differences between groups in other errors. In summary, similarly to spontaneous and voluntary emotional expressions, voluntary non-emotional facial movements are impoverished in PD; impoverishment of all movement types will likely contribute to the mask-like facial appearance that is seen with disease progression. These findings also illustrate the utility of an adapted Face Apraxia test as a practical and sensitive measure of voluntary facial musculature control in PD. The test can be used to supplement clinical observations and as a research tool. PMID:25467144

Marneweck, Michelle; Hammond, Geoff

2014-11-01

374

Mandibular Branch of the Facial Nerve in Wistar Rats: New Experimental Model to Assess Facial Nerve Regeneration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar ra [...] ts to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Raquel, Salomone; Silvia Bona do, Nascimento; Ricardo Jose Rodriguez, Ferreira; Ciro Ferreira da, Silva; Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi, Costa.

2014-09-01

375

Caracterização funcional da mímica facial na paralisia facial em trauma de face: relato de caso clínico / Functional characterization of facial mimicry in facial paralysis of face trauma: a clinical case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA: mímica facial na paralisia facial ocasionada por trauma de face. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo de caso da mímica facial de um paciente com paralisia facial periférica no lado direito com sequelas decorrente de trauma por projétil de arma de fogo, adulto jovem do sexo masculino, comerciante autônomo. F [...] oi realizada análise documental e fotográfica por meio de anamnese, avaliação e escala de graduação de da paralisia facial House e Brackmann. RESULTADOS: na avaliação da paralisia facial em repouso encontrou-se no lado direito (lesado): desvio de comissura labial, desvio de filtro, narina mais elevada e olho mais aberto. Em movimento, ainda no lado da lesão, observou-se: abolição de rugas frontais, incompetência no fechamento ocular natural e fechamento completo ao forçar, ausência de elevação de narina, rima naso-labial mais pronunciada, protrusão labial desviada para este lado, pouca retração labial, eversão de lábio inferior, comissura labial elevada, desvio de filtro, reduzida capacidade de inflar bochechas. O paciente apresentou sincinesia de olho/lábios e contratura com hipertonia de frontal, prócero, levantador da asa do nariz, risório, zigomático maior, zigomático menor, levantador do lábio superior, depressor do lábio inferior, mentual no lado da lesão e a fratura ocorreu em côndilo direito e o paciente referiu dor orofacial ao dormir e ao mastigar no lado comprometido. CONCLUSÃO: a lesão do nervo facial associada ao trauma de face provocou a alteração da mímica facial no lado direito o que gerou desfiguramento e distúrbios da mastigação. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: facial mimicry in the paralysis of the face that occurs because of a trauma in the face. PROCEDURES: case study of facial mimicry of a patient with peripheral facial paralysis, on the right side of the face, with sequels that happened because of a trauma because of a fire gun projectile; [...] a young man, a self-employed trader. A documental and photographical analysis was held through the anamnesis and graduation scale of House and Brackmann's facial paralysis. RESULTS: in the evaluation of the facial paralysis, in a resting state, we found on the right side (the injured one): diversion of lip commissure, diversion of the filter, more elevated nostril and more open eye. In movement, yet on the side of the injury, it was observed: elimination of frontal wrinkles , incompetence in the ocular closure and in the complete closure , absence of elevation of the nostril , a more pronounced nasolip rhyme, lip protrusion diverged to this side , little lip retraction , destruction of the inferior lip , elevated lip commissure , diversion of the filter, reduced capacity of inflating the cheeks. The patient presented synkinesia of eyes / lips and contraction with hypertonia of frontal, procerus, lifter of the nose's wing, risorius, higher zygomatic, lower zygomatic, lifter of superior lip, depressive of inferior lip, mentalis on the side of the lesion and the fracture happened on the right condyle and the patient reported orofacial pain when sleeping and chewing on the injured side. CONCLUSION: the lesion of the facial nerve that was associated with the face trauma provoked the alteration of the facial mimicry on the right side and generated disfiguration and disturbances in the chewing act.

Leila Bonfim de, Jesus; Daniele Fontes Ferreira, Bernardes.

2012-10-01

376

Caracterização funcional da mímica facial na paralisia facial em trauma de face: relato de caso clínico Functional characterization of facial mimicry in facial paralysis of face trauma: a clinical case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: mímica facial na paralisia facial ocasionada por trauma de face. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo de caso da mímica facial de um paciente com paralisia facial periférica no lado direito com sequelas decorrente de trauma por projétil de arma de fogo, adulto jovem do sexo masculino, comerciante autônomo. Foi realizada análise documental e fotográfica por meio de anamnese, avaliação e escala de graduação de da paralisia facial House e Brackmann. RESULTADOS: na avaliação da paralisia facial em repouso encontrou-se no lado direito (lesado: desvio de comissura labial, desvio de filtro, narina mais elevada e olho mais aberto. Em movimento, ainda no lado da lesão, observou-se: abolição de rugas frontais, incompetência no fechamento ocular natural e fechamento completo ao forçar, ausência de elevação de narina, rima naso-labial mais pronunciada, protrusão labial desviada para este lado, pouca retração labial, eversão de lábio inferior, comissura labial elevada, desvio de filtro, reduzida capacidade de inflar bochechas. O paciente apresentou sincinesia de olho/lábios e contratura com hipertonia de frontal, prócero, levantador da asa do nariz, risório, zigomático maior, zigomático menor, levantador do lábio superior, depressor do lábio inferior, mentual no lado da lesão e a fratura ocorreu em côndilo direito e o paciente referiu dor orofacial ao dormir e ao mastigar no lado comprometido. CONCLUSÃO: a lesão do nervo facial associada ao trauma de face provocou a alteração da mímica facial no lado direito o que gerou desfiguramento e distúrbios da mastigação.BACKGROUND: facial mimicry in the paralysis of the face that occurs because of a trauma in the face. PROCEDURES: case study of facial mimicry of a patient with peripheral facial paralysis, on the right side of the face, with sequels that happened because of a trauma because of a fire gun projectile; a young man, a self-employed trader. A documental and photographical analysis was held through the anamnesis and graduation scale of House and Brackmann's facial paralysis. RESULTS: in the evaluation of the facial paralysis, in a resting state, we found on the right side (the injured one: diversion of lip commissure, diversion of the filter, more elevated nostril and more open eye. In movement, yet on the side of the injury, it was observed: elimination of frontal wrinkles , incompetence in the ocular closure and in the complete closure , absence of elevation of the nostril , a more pronounced nasolip rhyme, lip protrusion diverged to this side , little lip retraction , destruction of the inferior lip , elevated lip commissure , diversion of the filter, reduced capacity of inflating the cheeks. The patient presented synkinesia of eyes / lips and contraction with hypertonia of frontal, procerus, lifter of the nose's wing, risorius, higher zygomatic, lower zygomatic, lifter of superior lip, depressive of inferior lip, mentalis on the side of the lesion and the fracture happened on the right condyle and the patient reported orofacial pain when sleeping and chewing on the injured side. CONCLUSION: the lesion of the facial nerve that was associated with the face trauma provoked the alteration of the facial mimicry on the right side and generated disfiguration and disturbances in the chewing act.

Leila Bonfim de Jesus

2012-10-01

377

Perdas auditivas em paralisia facial periférica após cirurgia de descompressão / Hearing loss in peripheral facial palsy after decompression surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial pode resultar de uma variedade de etiologias, sendo a mais comum a idiopática. A avaliação e o tratamento são particularmente complexos. O tratamento da paralisia facial aguda pode envolver cirurgia de descompressão do nervo facial. Qualquer estrutura perto do trajeto do nervo fac [...] ial está em risco durante a cirurgia de descompressão via transmastoidea. OBJETIVO: Estudo retrospectivo que irá avaliar a perda auditiva após descompressão via transmastoidea e a evolução do grau de paralisia nos casos idiopáticos dos últimos 15 anos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionados prontuários de 33 pacientes submetidos à descompressão do nervo facial via transmastoidea nos últimos 15 anos e avaliou-se a perda auditiva e a paralisia facial. RESULTADOS: Observou-se alta porcentagem (61%) dos pacientes com algum grau de perda auditiva após o procedimento e, em todos os casos, houve melhora da paralisia. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento cirúrgico não é isento de riscos. Indicações, riscos e benefícios devem ser esclarecidos aos pacientes por meio de consentimento informado. Abstract in english Facial paralysis can result from a variety of etiologies; the most common is the idiopathic type. Evaluation and treatment are particularly complex. The treatment of acute facial paralysis may require facial nerve decompression surgery. Any structure near the path of the facial nerve is at risk duri [...] ng transmastoid decompression surgery. AIM: This is a retrospective study, carried out in order to evaluate hearing loss after transmastoid decompression and how idiopathic cases evolved in terms of their degree of paralysis in the last 15 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected the charts from 33 patients submitted to transmastoid facial nerve decompression in the past 15 years and we assessed their hearing loss and facial paralysis. RESULTS: There was a high percentage (61%) of patients with some degree of hearing loss after the procedure and in all cases there was improvement in the paralysis. DISCUSSION: The values obtained are similar to those reported in the literature. One possible explanation for this hearing loss is the vibration transmission by drilling near the ossicular chain. CONCLUSION: The surgical procedure is not risk free; indications, risks and benefits should be explained to patients through an informed consent form.

Alexandre Augusto Kroskinsque, Palombo; Andre Fernando, Shibukawa; Flavia, Barros; José Ricardo G., Testa.

2012-06-01

378

A Fuzzy Reasoning Model for Recognition of Facial Expressions / Un modelo de razonamiento difuso para reconocimiento de expresiones faciales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este artículo presentamos un sistema de razonamiento difuso capaz de reconocer y medir la intensidad de cualquier expresión facial prototípica o no prototípica. El modelo propuesto utiliza como entrada las deformaciones faciales codificadas ya sea en términos de AUs (Ekman FACS) o FAPs (MPEG-4) y [...] provee reconocimiento de expresiones faciales utilizando una base de conocimiento la cual fue implementada utilizando el sistema de adquisición de conocimiento y editor de ontologías Protégé. Esta base de conocimiento permite, además de la creación de modelos de características faciales obtenidos a partir de parámetros geométricos y codificados en términos de AUs y FAPs, también la definición de las reglas requeridas para la clasificación de las expresiones. En este artículo también se presenta un framework diseñado para codificación de las variables de entrada al clasificador difuso basado en los resultados obtenidos del análisis estadístico de las emociones expresadas en grabaciones de video en base estándar de caras creada por Cohn-Kanade y Pantic. El sistema propuesto fue evaluado con el propósito de analizar su capacidad de detección, indexado, clasificación e interpretación de expresiones faciales. Abstract in english In this paper we present a fuzzy reasoning model and a designed system for Recognition of Facial Expressions, which can measure and recognize the intensity of basic or non-prototypical emotions. The proposed model operates with encoded facial deformations described in terms of either Ekman's Action [...] Units (AUs) or Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) of MPEG-4 standard and provides recognition of facial expression using a knowledge base implemented on knowledge acquisition and ontology editor Protégé. It allows modeling of facial features obtained from geometric parameters coded by AUs - FAPs and from a set of rules required for classification of measured expressions. This paper also presents a designed framework for fuzzyfication of input variables of a fuzzy classifier based on statistical analysis of emotions expressed in video records of standard Cohn-Kanade's and Pantic's MMI face databases. The proposed system designed according to developed model has been tested in order to evaluate its capability for detection, indexing, classifying, and interpretation of facial expressions.

Oleg, Starostenko; Renan, Contreras; Vicente, Alarcón Aquino; Leticia, Flores Pulido; Jorge, Rodríguez Asomoza; Oleg, Sergiyenko; Vira, Tyrsa.

2011-12-01

379

Influência do posicionamento sagital mandibular na estética facial / Influence of mandibular sagittal position on facial esthetics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do posicionamento sagital da mandíbula na determinação da atratividade facial. MÉTODOS: fotografias faciais de perfil foram tomadas de um homem negro e um branco, assim como de uma mulher negra e uma branca. Essas fotografias foram manipuladas no computador, utilizando [...] o programa Adobe Photoshop CS2®, a fim de produzir, a partir de cada face original, um perfil reto, três simulando discrepâncias mandibulares por retrusão e três por protrusão. As 28 fotografias foram avaliadas por ortodontistas (n = 20), cirurgiões bucomaxilofaciais (n = 20), artistas plásticos (n = 20) e leigos (n = 20). A análise descritiva foi realizada a partir do cálculo da média e desvio-padrão em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: para as faces do homem negro, bem como para as faces femininas, o perfil reto foi o mais aceito. Para o homem branco, a face considerada mais agradável apresentava um perfil levemente côncavo, com a mandíbula mais proeminente. Nesse, analisando-se as simulações de discrepâncias esqueléticas, houve predileção pela protrusão mandibular, em detrimento da retrusão. Contudo, para as faces femininas, os perfis côncavos foram mais rejeitados do que os convexos. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados demonstraram concordância entre os grupos de avaliadores na escolha dos perfis mais atrativos. Para as faces masculinas, o perfil reto e a face levemente côncava apresentaram-se mais atrativos, já as faces femininas que foram consideradas mais atrativas possuíam o perfil reto. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of mandibular sagittal position in the determination of facial attractiveness. METHODS: Facial profile photographs were taken of an Afro-descendant man and a Caucasian man, as well as an Afro-descendant woman and a Caucasian woman. These photos were manipulated o [...] n the computer using Adobe Photoshop® CS2 to produce-from each original face-a straight profile, three simulating retrusion and three protrusion mandibular discrepancies. In all, 28 photographs were evaluated by orthodontists (n = 20), oral maxillofacial surgeons (n = 20), plastic artists (n = 20) and laypersons (n = 20). The descriptive analysis was performed by calculating the mean and standard deviation for each group. RESULTS: The straight facial profile was met with greater acceptance by Afro-descendant male faces and female faces. Caucasian males found a lightly concave facial profile with a more prominent mandible to be the most pleasant. After an analysis of skeletal discrepancies simulations, Caucasian males also showed a preference for mandibular protrusion versus retrusion. Females, however, preferred convex over concave profiles. CONCLUSION: The results showed agreement between groups of evaluators in selecting the most attractive profiles. Regarding male faces, a straight profile with a slightly concave face seemed more attractive and a straight facial profile was also greatly valued.

Marina Dórea de, Almeida; Arthur Costa Rodrigues, Farias; Marcos Alan Vieira, Bittencourt.

2010-04-01

380

Celulitis facial en niños con criterio de hospitalización / Children with facial cellulitis and hospitalization criterion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la celulitis facial puede convertirse en un grave riesgo vital cuando no se tiene en cuenta el tratamiento adecuado. Constituye un problema de salud en la población de edades pediátricas, pues es la segunda causa más frecuente de ingreso hospitalario en la cirugía maxilofacial, luego d [...] e los traumatismos maxilofaciales. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento y el manejo terapéutico por la Atención Primaria de Salud en los municipios de Playa, Marianao y Lisa de La Habana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo en 53 pacientes que fueron ingresados en el Servicio de Cirugía Máxilo Facial del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Juan Manuel Márquez", desde enero de 2001 a enero de 2007. Resultados: hubo ausencia de significación estadística entre sexos y entre los grupos de edades. La media de la edad fue de 8 años, con una desviación estándar de 4. La celulitis más frecuente fue la odontógena (60,4 %). El 60,3 % de los pacientes fueron mal manejados por la atención primaria. Los grupos dentarios más afectados sugieren que las acciones preventivas deben encaminarse mayormente a la población con dentición temporal y mixta. Conclusiones: hubo mayor representación del sexo masculino y del grupo de 1 a 5 años. El tipo de celulitis facial predominante fue la odontógena. En más de la mitad de los casos el tratamiento antimicrobiano aplicado en la atención primaria de salud fue inadecuado. Al momento del ingreso predominó la evaluación clínica severa. Abstract in english Introduction: facial cellulitis can become a serious vital risk when doctors don't keep in mind the appropriate treatment. It constitutes a health problem in pediatric population, because it is the second more frequent cause of hospital admittance in the Maxillofacial Surgery Service, followed by ma [...] xillofacial traumatisms. Objective: to understand facial cellulitis behavior and to describe the therapeutic handling in Primary Health Care (PHC) in Playa, Marianao, and Lisa municipalities in Havana. Method: a retrospective observational study was performed on 53 patients who were admitted to the Maxillofacial Surgery Pediatric Teaching Hospital "Juan Manuel Marquez", from January 2001 to January 2007. Results: there was no statistical significance between genders and age groups, the mean age was 8 years with a standard deviation of 4. The most frequent was odontogenic cellulitis (60.4 %). 60.3 % of patients were poorly handled by the primary care service. The most affected dental groups suggest that preventive measures should be directed mostly to people with temporary and mixed teething Conclusions: there was higher representation in male patients and the 1 to 5 age group. Odontogenic facial cellulitis was the predominant type. Antimicrobial treatment was inadequate in more than half of cases at the primary health care. At admission severe clinical evaluation prevailed.

Dadonim, Vila Morales; María Elena, Fernández Collazo; Rebeca, González-Longoria Concepción.

2013-09-01

381

Diferential diagnosis in atypical facial pain: a clinical study Diagnóstico diferencial em dor facial atípica: estudo clínico  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVE: To evaluate a sample of patients with atypical facial pain (AFP) in comparison to patients with symptomatic facial pain (SFP). METHOD: 41 patients with previous diagnostic of AFP were submitted to a standardized evaluation protocol, by a multidisciplinary pain team. RESULTS: 21 (51.2%) were considered AFP and 20 (48.8%) (SFP) received the following diagnosis: 8 (40.0%) had temporomandibular disorders (TMD); 3 (15.0%) had TMD associated to systemic disease (fibromyalgia, systemic ery...

José Cláudio Marinho Nóbrega; Silvia Regina Dowgan Tesseroli de Siqueira; José Tadeu Tesseroli de Siqueira; Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

2007-01-01

382

Prevalence of nasal mucosal contact points in patients with facial pain compared with patients without facial pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cohort of 973 consecutive attendants at a rhinology clinic was studied prospectively and divided into patients without facial pain (n = 566, 58 per cent) and patients with facial pain (n = 407, 42 per cent). The prevalence of nasal mucosal contact points was the same in both groups, being four per cent in patients with nasal contact points without facial pain and four per cent in patients with facial pain. A contact point is defined as when contact remains after topical decongestion. Of the 18 patients with facial pain, nine had a spur contacting the lateral nasal wall and nine had a middle turbinate contacting the septum. These 18 patients were followed up for a mean of two years and two months. In the light of their treatment and response the following diagnoses were made: five had tension-type headache, six had midfacial segment pain, one had migraine, two had cluster headache and four had purulent nasal disease. Of the four with unilateral symptoms, two had a contact point on the contralateral side. Eleven of these 18 patients responded to medical treatment for tension-type headache or midfacial segment pain, migraine and cluster headache, three patients were better after surgery for coexisting purulent nasal disease and one patient had a spur removed surgically and remained better at 2 years follow-up, whereas three patients were no better after the same procedure. The results demonstrate that the prevalence of nasal contact points in patients with facial pain is the same as in those within pain. Surgery undertaken to remove mucosal contact points for facial pain is usually unnecessary as the aetiology of this facial pain appears to be a more central processes. PMID:11535142

Abu-Bakra, M; Jones, N S

2001-08-01

383

T cell memory in the injured facial motor nucleus: Relation to functional recovery following facial nerve crush  

OpenAIRE

T cells have the ability to mount a memory response to a previously encountered antigen such that re-exposure to the antigen results in a response that is greater in magnitude and function. Following facial nerve transection, T cells have been shown to traffic to injured motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) and may have the ability to promote neuronal survival and functional recovery. Previously, we demonstrated that early exposure to neuronal injury on one side of the brain during...

Ha, Grace K.; Pastrana, Marlon; Huang, Zhi; Petitto, John M.

2008-01-01

384

The use of oxybutynin for treating facial hyperhidrosis O uso da oxibutinina no tratamento da hiperidrose facial  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Facial hyperhidrosis is a disease that may lead patients to serious emotional disturbances. Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy provides excellent resolution of facial hyperhidrosis, but is associated with certain complications. The most frequent and important complication is compensatory hyperhidrosis. Especially in patients who have undergone resection of the second thoracic ganglion, the risk of severe compensatory hyperhidrosis is higher, which may cause dissatisfaction with...

Nelson Wolosker; José Ribas Milanez de Campos; Paulo Kauffman; Marco Antonio Munia; Samantha Neves; Fábio Biscegli Jatene; Pedro Puech-Leão

2011-01-01

385

Utilización de polialcamida en cirugía reconstructiva y estética facial / Use of polyalkylimide in facial reconstructive and cosmetic surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo y aplicación de biomateriales no reabsorbibles (poliaquilamida) en pacientes con defectos faciales de diversa etiología. Material y métodos. Empleamos poliaquilamida (Bio-Alcamid®) en un total de catorce pacientes. Cuatro pacientes presentaban di [...] stintos grados de lipodistrofia facial secundaria a tratamientos antiretrovirales. Otros cuatro, consultaron porque deseaban mejorar el aspecto de su perfil labial. Tres pacientes habían sido sometidos con anterioridad a exéresis oncológicas, y otros dos mostraban defectos faciales derivados de traumatismos. Finalmente, un paciente presentaba un defecto nasal, secuela de una rinoplastia previa. Resultados. Todos los pacientes mostraron un índice muy elevado de satisfacción. No se registraron complicaciones graves. Queremos señalar la estabilidad y durabilidad del implante. Conclusiones. La seguridad y sencillez de esta técnica asociada al alto grado de satisfacción manifestado por los pacientes, animan al empleo de estas sustancias en la corrección de defectos faciales de diversa etiología. Abstract in english Objectives. To report our experience with the management and application of nonresorbible biomaterials (polyalkylimide) in patients with facial defects of diverse origin. Material and methods. Polyalkylimide (Bio-Alcamid®) was used in fourteen patients. Four patients had different grades of facial l [...] ipodystrophy secondary to antiretroviral treatment. Four patients sought to improve their labial profile. Three patients had previously undergone oncological excision and two had traumatic facial defects. Finally, one patient had a nasal defect due to rhinoplasty. Results. All patients were very satisfied. No serious complications occurred. Implants were stable and durable. Conclusions. The safety and simplicity of this technique, and the high degree of patient satisfaction, encourage the use of these substances to correct facial defects of diverse etiology.

M., Cuesta Gil; A., Valverde Carrasco; B., Duarte Ruiz; F., Riba García; M., Castrillo Tambay; V. del, Pino.

2007-12-01

386

Utilización de polialcamida en cirugía reconstructiva y estética facial Use of polyalkylimide in facial reconstructive and cosmetic surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos. Presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo y aplicación de biomateriales no reabsorbibles (poliaquilamida en pacientes con defectos faciales de diversa etiología. Material y métodos. Empleamos poliaquilamida (Bio-Alcamid® en un total de catorce pacientes. Cuatro pacientes presentaban distintos grados de lipodistrofia facial secundaria a tratamientos antiretrovirales. Otros cuatro, consultaron porque deseaban mejorar el aspecto de su perfil labial. Tres pacientes habían sido sometidos con anterioridad a exéresis oncológicas, y otros dos mostraban defectos faciales derivados de traumatismos. Finalmente, un paciente presentaba un defecto nasal, secuela de una rinoplastia previa. Resultados. Todos los pacientes mostraron un índice muy elevado de satisfacción. No se registraron complicaciones graves. Queremos señalar la estabilidad y durabilidad del implante. Conclusiones. La seguridad y sencillez de esta técnica asociada al alto grado de satisfacción manifestado por los pacientes, animan al empleo de estas sustancias en la corrección de defectos faciales de diversa etiología.Objectives. To report our experience with the management and application of nonresorbible biomaterials (polyalkylimide in patients with facial defects of diverse origin. Material and methods. Polyalkylimide (Bio-Alcamid® was used in fourteen patients. Four patients had different grades of facial lipodystrophy secondary to antiretroviral treatment. Four patients sought to improve their labial profile. Three patients had previously undergone oncological excision and two had traumatic facial defects. Finally, one patient had a nasal defect due to rhinoplasty. Results. All patients were very satisfied. No serious complications occurred. Implants were stable and durable. Conclusions. The safety and simplicity of this technique, and the high degree of patient satisfaction, encourage the use of these substances to correct facial defects of diverse etiology.

M. Cuesta Gil

2007-12-01

387

Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the “match” of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized by a single colour. The approaches used in this experiment for analysis are psychology disciplines and colours engineering. These seven emotions are being matched by the subjects with their perceptions and feeling. Then, 12 male and 12 female data are randomly chosen from among the previous data to make a colour perception comparison between genders. The successes or failures in running of this test depend on the possibility of subjects to propose their every single colour for each expression. The result will translate into number and percentage as a guide for colours designers and psychology field.

Kim Mey Chew

2012-08-01

388

Evaluation of facial features on particle inhalation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical investigations of particle inhalability and contaminant exposure have used simple geometrical surrogates for a breathing human form, but the effect of eliminating facial features has not been investigated. In this work, the velocity field and particle aspiration associated with two differently shaped mannequins were investigated to determine if an elliptical form was sufficient to represent the complexity of fluid flow associated with an inhaling human. Laser Doppler anemometry was used to measure velocity, and both optical sizing and gravimetric analysis were used to measure particle aspiration from an aerosol source. All tests were performed with continuous inhalation through the mouth, with the mannequin facing the 0.3 m s(-1) freestream. Although limitations in the laser Doppler optics prevented velocity measurements at distances elliptical form. Thus, the simplified elliptical cylinder does not sufficiently characterize the fluid dynamics near the mouth of an inhaling human form at these limited test conditions. Future CFD and numerical simulations to investigate human aspiration of particles should incorporate the complex features of the human face to investigate adequately particle aspiration in low velocity environments. PMID:15734830

Anthony, T Renée; Flynn, Michael R; Eisner, Alfred

2005-03-01

389

Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the match of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized by a single colour. The approaches used in this experiment for analysis are psychology disciplines and colours engineering. These seven emotions are being matched by the subjects with their perceptions and feeling. Then, 12 male and 12 female data are randomly chosen from among the previous data to make a colour perception comparison between genders. The successes or failures in running of this test depend on the possibility of subjects to propose their every single colour for each expression. The result will translate into number and percentage as a guide for colours designers and psychology field.

Rubita Sudirman

2012-12-01

390

The study on transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport information of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in facial nerve is studied using 125I-BDNF or 131I-BDNF. After one lateral facial nerve trunk of adult rabbit is transected, a silicone chamber is inserted between the stumps, and labelled compounds are administered into the chamber. Bilateral facial nerve trunk and facial nerve motor neurone of brain-stem of rabbits are collected and counted respectively, and imaged at coronary position of head in live rabbit. The results show that BDNF has a retrograde transport in facial nerve, and the transport of 131I-BDNF is marked restrained by BDNF in facial nerve

391

An Improved Method of feature extraction technique for Facial Expression Recognition using Adaboost Neural Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research is comparative study of different feature extraction techniques for facial expression recognition & develops a algorithm, for feature extraction using AdaBoost classifier to reduce the generalization error and improve performance by getting the high recognition rate. For facial feature extraction, I will follow 2 different techniques: Discrete Cosine Transform, Wavelet Transform. Upon extraction of the facial expression information the feature vector is given to facial expression classifier. An Adaboost-based classifier is be designed to deal with varies of facial expressions which are to be recognized and for the facial expression recognition JAFFE database is used.

Aruna Bhadu

2012-06-01

392

Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o objetivo desse estudo foi obter os valores médios de normalidade das alturas faciais anterior e posterior de 30 jovens mestiços nipo-brasileiros, descendentes de xantodermas e leucodermas, com oclusão normal, com idade média de 14 anos, e verificar a presença ou ausência de dimorfism [...] o entre os sexos. MÉTODOS: elaborou-se um estudo cefalométrico com as mensurações advindas das análises de Wylie e Johnson, Siriwat e Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield e Horn. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram a presença de dimorfismo entre os sexos para as variáveis AFAT, AFAI, AFA, AFPT e AFPS. CONCLUSÕES: um padrão cefalométrico específico, das alturas faciais anterior e posterior, para os jovens mestiços nipo-brasileiros com oclusão normal, descendentes de xantodermas e leucodermas, foi apresentado e um dimorfismo entre os sexos para cinco das treze variáveis avaliadas foi verificado nessa faixa etária média. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, [...] Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range.

Fabiano Paiva, Vieira; Arnaldo, Pinzan; Guilherme, Janson; Thais Maria Freire, Fernandes; Renata Carvalho, Sathler; Rafael Pinelli, Henriques.

2014-10-01

393

Influence of female 2D:4D ratio on attractiveness of male vocal and facial masculinity  

OpenAIRE

When females are judging attractiveness of a potential mate, research indicates that degree of masculinity and femininity of a male signals his suitability for a short- or longterm relationship. Masculine males are of high genetic quality and it is evident, that for short-term relationships and copulation at peak fertility, when ‘good genes’ are crucial, more masculine males are deemed most attractive Though they do not possess significantly healthy genes, the positive pers...

Shaw, Fionna

2009-01-01

394

Mandibular range of motion in patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy / Amplitude mandibular em pacientes com paralisia facial periférica idiopática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Na atuação fonoaudiológica na paralisia facial, medidas quantitativas da face têm sido cada vez mais utilizadas para avaliação, diagnóstico, prognóstico e planejamento terapêutico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de alterações de amplitude mandibular na paralisia facial periférica de origem. MATERIA [...] L E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Cinquenta e seis indivíduos foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 com 28 pacientes com paralisia facial idiopática (6 homens e 22 mulheres), 14 com comprometimento à direita e 14 à esquerda e tempo de duração da paralisia entre 6 e 12 meses; G2 composto por 28 indivíduos saudáveis pareados por idade e sexo ao G1. Para avaliação da amplitude mandibular, foi utilizado um paquímetro digital, sendo realizadas as seguintes medidas: 1) linha média; 2) abertura oral máxima; 3) lateralização da mandíbula para direita; 4) lateralização da mandíbula para esquerda; 5) protrusão mandibular; 6) trespasse horizontal. RESULTADOS: Foi observada diferença média significante entre os grupos para a abertura oral máxima, lateralização para esquerda e protrusão mandibular. G1 apresentou resultados menores que G2. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes acometidos por paralisia facial apresentam redução significante na amplitude mandibular. Os resultados apoiam a sugestão de que sejam incorporadas às avaliações clínicas da paralisia facial as provas de funcionalidade da articulação têmporo-mandibular. Abstract in english Regarding orofacial motor assessment in facial paralysis, quantitative measurements of the face are being used to establish diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning. AIM: To assess the prevalence of changes in mandibular range of motion in individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. MATERIALS A [...] ND METHODS: Prospective study. We had 56 volunteers, divided in two groups: G1 made up of 28 individuals with idiopathic facial paralysis (6 males and 22 females); 14 with manifestations on the right side of the face and 14 on the left side; time of onset varied between 6-12 months; G2 with 28 healthy individuals paired by age and gender to G1. In order to assess mandibular range of motion, a digital caliper was used. The following measurements were made: 1) middle line; 2) maximum oral opening; 3) lateralization to the right; 4) lateralization to the left; 5) protrusion; 6) horizontal overlap. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for maximum oral opening, lateralization to the left and protrusion. G1 presented smaller measurement values than G2. CONCLUSION: Patients with facial paralysis present significant reduction of mandibular range of motion. The results support the suggestion of incorporating functional evaluation of the temporomandibular joint to the existing facial paralysis clinical assessment protocols.

Fernanda Chiarion, Sassi; Laura Davison, Mangilli; Michele Conceição, Poluca; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Claudia Regina Furquim de, Andrade.

2011-04-01

395

Fascitis nodular en región facial en edades pediátricas / Nodular fasciitis present in facial area in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Propósito: Presentar 3 casos de fascitisnodular de región facial. Método: Se realizó un estudio de los pacientes que comprendió examen físico, análisis de laboratorio y radiológico. Se describió la conducta quirúrgica o médica realizada en cada caso y su diagnóstico anatomopatológico. Resultados: Se [...] mostró el método científico como única vía de llegar al diagnóstico certero, a pesar de enfrentar el reto de diagnosticar una entidad nosológica inusual en la cirugía maxilofacial. Se discutió la evolución de cada paciente y la literatura consultada. Conclusiones: Resulta muy útil la presentación de estos casos, pues esta tumoración presenta una localización muy poco frecuente en cara y su rápido crecimiento y evolución clínica son habitualmente difíciles de interpretar. Abstract in english Aim: To present 3 cases of nodular fasciitis in facial area. Method: A study was carried out in patients including physical examination, laboratory and radiologic analysis. Surgical or medical behavior was described present in each case with an anatomical and the pathological diagnosis was made. Res [...] ults: Scientific method was the only route to achieve an accurate diagnosis despite the challenge of diagnosing an uncommon disease entity in maxillofacial surgery. In each patient the course was discussed as well as a literature review. Conclusions: The presentation of these cases is very essential since this tumor has a not much location in the face and its fast developmental and clinical course are often difficult to interpret.

Dadonim, Vila Morales; Ernesto, Sánchez Cabrales.

2009-09-01

396

Fascitis nodular en región facial en edades pediátricas Nodular fasciitis present in facial area in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propósito: Presentar 3 casos de fascitisnodular de región facial. Método: Se realizó un estudio de los pacientes que comprendió examen físico, análisis de laboratorio y radiológico. Se describió la conducta quirúrgica o médica realizada en cada caso y su diagnóstico anatomopatológico. Resultados: Se mostró el método científico como única vía de llegar al diagnóstico certero, a pesar de enfrentar el reto de diagnosticar una entidad nosológica inusual en la cirugía maxilofacial. Se discutió la evolución de cada paciente y la literatura consultada. Conclusiones: Resulta muy útil la presentación de estos casos, pues esta tumoración presenta una localización muy poco frecuente en cara y su rápido crecimiento y evolución clínica son habitualmente difíciles de interpretar.Aim: To present 3 cases of nodular fasciitis in facial area. Method: A study was carried out in patients including physical examination, laboratory and radiologic analysis. Surgical or medical behavior was described present in each case with an anatomical and the pathological diagnosis was made. Results: Scientific method was the only route to achieve an accurate diagnosis despite the challenge of diagnosing an uncommon disease entity in maxillofacial surgery. In each patient the course was discussed as well as a literature review. Conclusions: The presentation of these cases is very essential since this tumor has a not much location in the face and its fast developmental and clinical course are often difficult to interpret.

Dadonim Vila Morales

2009-09-01

397

Nose Tip Region Detection in 3D Facial Model across Large Pose Variation and Facial Expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detecting nose tip location has become an important task in face analysis. However, for a 3D face model with presence of large rotation variation, detecting nose tip location is certainly a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a method to detect nose tip region in large rotation variation based on the geometrical shape of a nose. Nose region has always been considered as the most protuberant part of a face. Based on convex points of face surface, we use morphological approach to obtain nose tip region candidates consist of highest point density. For each point of each region candidate, a signature is generated and evaluated with trained nose tip tolerance band for matching purpose. The region that contains the point which scores the most is chosen as the final nose tip region. This method can handle large rotation variation, facial expression, combination of all rotations (yaw, pitch and roll and large non-facial outliers. Combination of two databases has been used; UPMFace and GavabDB as training data set and test data set. The experimental results show that 95.19% nose tip region over 1300 3D face models were correctly detected.

Laili Hayati Anuar

2010-07-01

398

Use of calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse® for facial augmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patricio F JacovellaHospital de Clinicas, University of Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: Radiesse® (Bioform Inc, USA is a sterile, latex-free, non-pyrogenic, semi-solid, cohesive subdermal, injectable implant, whose principal component is synthetic calcium hydroxylapatite, a biocompatible material with over 20 years of use in medicine. The semi-solid nature of the product is created by suspending calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres of 25–45 microns diameter in a gel carrier of carboxymethylcellulose. The product has FDA approval for esthetic facial augmentation in the US. Such approval includes the long-lasting correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and folds and the treatment of facial fat loss due to immunodeficiency virus infection. Diverse facial regions can be injected in order to ameliorate or enhance some features: glabellar lines, subdermal support of the brows, malar and buccal fat pads, tear troughs, nasolabial folds, nose, lips, perioral region, marionette lines, oral commisures and chin among others, as well as saucerized acne scars. Other medical indications include nipple projection for nipple areolar reconstruction, urinary incontinence, vesicoureteral reflux, vocal cord augmentation, and use as a radiographic tissue marker. The average lasting result is from 12 to 18 months. Radiesse can be considered an effective soft-tissue filler for overall longevity, biocompatibility, and low rate of side effects.Keywords: hydroxylapatite, facial augmentation, Radiesse

Patricio F Jacovella

2008-03-01

399

Unseen facial and bodily expressions trigger fast emotional reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spontaneous tendency to synchronize our facial expressions with those of others is often termed emotional contagion. It is unclear, however, whether emotional contagion depends on visual awareness of the eliciting stimulus and which processes underlie the unfolding of expressive reactions in the observer. It has been suggested either that emotional contagion is driven by motor imitation (i.e., mimicry), or that it is one observable aspect of the emotional state arising when we see the corresponding emotion in others. Emotional contagion reactions to different classes of consciously seen and "unseen" stimuli were compared by presenting pictures of facial or bodily expressions either to the intact or blind visual field of two patients with unilateral destruction of the visual cortex and ensuing phenomenal blindness. Facial reactions were recorded using electromyography, and arousal responses were measured with pupil dilatation. Passive exposure to unseen expressions evoked faster facial reactions and higher arousal compared with seen stimuli, therefore indicating that emotional contagion occurs also when the triggering stimulus cannot be consciously perceived because of cortical blindness. Furthermore, stimuli that are very different in their visual characteristics, such as facial and bodily gestures, induced highly similar expressive responses. This shows that the patients did not simply imitate the motor pattern observed in the stimuli, but resonated to their affective meaning. Emotional contagion thus represents an instance of truly affective reactions that may be mediated by visual pathways of old evolutionary origin bypassing cortical vision while still providing a cornerstone for emotion communication and affect sharing. PMID:19805044

Tamietto, Marco; Castelli, Lorys; Vighetti, Sergio; Perozzo, Paola; Geminiani, Giuliano; Weiskrantz, Lawrence; de Gelder, Beatrice

2009-10-20

400

A Novel Feature Extraction Technique for Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new technique to extract the light invariant local feature for facial expression recognition. It is not only robust to monotonic gray-scale changes caused by light variations but also very simple to perform which makes it possible for analyzing images in challenging real-time settings. The local feature for a pixel is computed by finding the direction of the neighboring of the pixel with the particular rank in term of its gray scale value among all the neighboring pixels. When eight neighboring pixels are considered, the direction of the neighboring pixel with the second minima of the gray scale intensity can yield the best performance for the facial expression recognition in our experiment. The facial expression classification in the experiment was performed using a support vector machine on CK+ dataset The average recognition rate achieved is 90.1 3.8%, which is better than other previous local feature based methods for facial expression analysis. The experimental results do show that the proposed feature extraction technique is fast, accurate and efficient for facial expression recognition.

Mohammad Shahidul Islam

2013-01-01

401

Frontal and facial flatness of major human populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the frontal and facial features of 112 populations from around the world are compared in terms of frontal and facial flatness measurements. Univariate analyses and canonical correlation analysis were applied to six indices representing flatness of frontal and facial bones. The deep infraglabellar notch, marked prognathism, and flat frontal bone show distinctive Australian/Melanesian characters among recent populations. Very flat faces in the transverse plane are the most common condition in eastern Asians. Some subSaharan Africans share similar characteristics with Australians in terms of marked prognathism and flat frontal bones in the sagittal plane on the one hand, and with eastern Asians on the other hand, for flat nasal and zygomaxillary regions. These results are not necessarily inconsistent with the evidence for regional continuity. The examination of relationships between frontal and facial flatness through canonical correlation analysis reveals a significant association between morphological features such as a deep infraglabellar notch, prognathism, flat frontal bone, and flat faces in the transverse plane. In this context, together with the generalized features of the late Pleistocene fossil record, the features of Australians having transversely projecting faces and of eastern Asians showing weak infraglabellar notches, ortho-/mosognathism, and rounded frontal bones can be interpreted as a differential retention of ancestral traits of anatomically modern humans. This may allow us to suppose that the frontal and facial flatness features treated herein can be explained by the hypothesis of a single origin of anatomically modern humans. PMID:10618591

Hanihara, T

2000-01-01

402

Relleno facial con ácido hialurónico: técnica de pilares y malla de sustentación. Principios básicos para obtener una remodelación facial / Facial filling with hyaloronic acid: pillars technique and supporting mesh. Basic principles to obtain a facial remodelling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos dos técnicas de relleno facial utilizando ácido hialurónico y los resultados obtenidos con este método desarrollado por nosotros en base a los principios físicos de sustentación, para optimizar y racionalizar el material de relleno y mejorar los resultados, especialmente la relación cost [...] o-beneficio. Hacemos también una presentación general de los principios básicos para conseguir remodelar el tejido cutáneo empleando técnicas de relleno facial. Señalamos la importancia de la evaluación clínica para llegar a un buen diagnóstico, haciendo hincapié en los límites de selección del paciente y enumeramos los puntos importantes y éticos en el uso de materiales de relleno. Abstract in english We present two techniques of facial injectable resorbable filling, using hyaluronic acid (HA), and the different results obtained with both methods, based on physical principles of sustentation, intending to demonstrate how theese techniques can optimize and rationalize the use of the filling substa [...] nce, contributing to enhance the results and cost-benefit relation. We also make a general presentation of the basic principles that remodel the cutaneous tissue using facial filling methods, as well as the importance of the clinical evaluation to achieve a fine diagnostic, emphasizing the limits when selecting the patient, listing the important and ethical points related to the use of facial filling procedures.

P.J., Erazo; A.C. de, Carvalho; T., Alexander; M., Ramos; P., Vianna.

2009-09-01

403

Head and Facial Injuries in Interscholastic Women's Lacrosse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Purpose of this study was to determine the advisability of protective headgear for interscholastic women playing lacrosse by recording the occurrence of head and facial injuries. During this 3-year study, the head and facial region was the most frequently injured individual area (5.4/100 athletes) of all body structures. The three areas of the head and face that were injured the most were: the head (36%), the eye (23%), and the nose (18%). Being struck by an opponent's stick or the ball were the two most common mechanisms of injury, with contusions (63%), lacerations (14%), and concussions (10%) being the most frequent injuries. Athletes were most often in the act of catching the ball or being stick-checked when the injury occurred to the head and facial area. Twice as many head and facial injuries occurred during game play than practice, with on-goal and midfield play being the most hazardous situations. Over the 3-year study, 75% of the athletes who sustained a head or facial injury were incapacitated for 0 to 1 day. Due to the lack of severity of injuries, we concluded that helmets were not necessary for interscholastic women. PMID:16558306

Goldenberg, M S; Hossler, P H

1995-03-01

404

Diagnostic dilemma: Sturge-Weber syndrome, without facial nevus  

Science.gov (United States)

Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), a rare sporadic neurocutaneous disease, is characterized by a congenital unilateral port-wine nevus affecting the area innervated by V1, ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomatosis, and calcification in the occipital or frontoparietal region and glaucoma/vascular eye abnormality. Three types of SWS have been described in literature: Type I (classic) demonstrates facial and leptomeningeal angioma, often with glaucoma; type II has facial angioma and glaucoma, with no evidence of intracranial lesions; and type III (rarest) presents with only leptomeningeal angioma. Only a few cases of type III SWS have been reported. Here, we report a case of a seven-year-old boy with focal complex partial seizure, who was diagnosed with SWS without facial nevus. Recognition of this type of SWS is important, as our patient had been misdiagnosed and received inappropriate antiepileptic drugs for six years. We suggest that in the appropriate clinical scenario, the diagnosis of SWS without facial nevus should be considered before labelling idiopathic or cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be done in clinically suspicious cases of SWS, without facial nevus. PMID:25552865

Zanzmera, Paresh; Patel, Tinkal; Shah, Vinay

2015-01-01

405

RECOGNITION OF EYE MOVEMENTS USING FACIAL ACTION CODING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face recognition is an important research problem spanning numerous fields and disciplines. Face recognition having numerous practical applications such as bankcard identification, access control, Mug shots searching, security monitoring, and surveillance system, is a fundamental human behavior that is essential for effective communications and interactions among people. The human face is involved in a large variety of different activities. It houses the apparatus for speech production as well as the majority of our sensors (eyes, nose, mouth. Besides these biological functions, the human face provides a number of social signals essential for our public life. This paper introduces recognition of eye movements. The ability to recognize facial signals is essential of human facial expression is a challenging problem with many applications. In this paper we use eye movement recognition technique using Facial Action Coding System (FACS is the most widely used and versatile method for measuring and describing facial behaviors. A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.

PALLAVI S. SALUNKE

2012-12-01

406

Physical rehabilitation of paralysed facial muscles: functional and morphological correlates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a combined morphofunctional approach, we recently found that polyinnervation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the critical factor for recovery of function after transection and suture of the facial nerve. Since polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, we tried to design a clinically feasible therapy by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. First, electrical stimulation was applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralyzed facial muscles. Both procedures did not improve vibrissal motor performance (video-based motion analysis of whisking), failed to diminish polyinnervation, and even reduced the number of innervated NMJ to one-fifth of normal values. In contrast, gentle stroking of the paralyzed vibrissal muscles by hand resulted in full recovery of whisking. Manual stimulation depended on the intact sensory supply of the denervated muscle targets and was also effective after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, after interpositional nerve grafting, when applied to the orbicularis oculi muscle and after transection and suture of the hypoglossal nerve. From these results, we conclude that manual stimulation is a noninvasive procedure with immediate potential for clinical rehabilitation following facial nerve reconstruction. PMID:21510167

Angelov, Doychin N

2011-01-01

407

Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors.Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve