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1

Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys  

Science.gov (United States)

Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans.

Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

2

Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men). PMID:24754804

Alrajih, Shuaa; Ward, Jamie

2014-05-01

3

Detection of Propensity for Aggression based on Facial Structure Irrespective of Face Race  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The human face provides a wealth of information pertaining to the internal state and life-stage history of an individual. Facial width-to-height ratio is a size-independent sexually dimorphic trait, and estimates of aggression made by untrained adults judging own-race faces were positively associated with both facial width-to-height ratio and actual aggressive behavior. Given the significant adaptive value of accurately detecting aggressiveness based on facial appearance, we hypothesized that...

Short, Lindsey A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Mccormick, Cheryl M.; Carre?, Justin M.; Ma, Ruqian; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

2012-01-01

4

Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939–1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio—a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males—and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B.

2013-01-01

5

Sex ratio influences the motivational salience of facial attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did this using an effort-based key-press task, in which the motivational salience of facial attractiveness was assessed in samples of faces in which the ratio of male to female images was manipulated. The motivational salience of attractive opposite-sex, but not own-sex, faces was greater in the own-sex-biased (high competition for mates) than in the opposite-sex-biased (low competition for mates) condition. Moreover, this effect was not modulated by participant sex. These results present new evidence that sex ratio influences human mating-related behaviours. They also present the first evidence that the perceived sex ratio of the local population may modulate allocation of mating effort in women, as well as men. PMID:24919700

Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-06-01

6

Facial paralysis  

Science.gov (United States)

... otherwise healthy, facial paralysis is often due to Bell's palsy . This is a condition in which the facial ... speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell's palsy lasts for more than 6 - 12 months, plastic ...

7

Facial Schwannoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the presence of normal facial function is difficult. Case: A 19-year-old girl with all above symptoms in the right side except loss of taste is diagnosed having facial schwannoma with full examination, audiometric, and radiological tests. She underwent surgery. In follow-up facial function were mostly restored. Conclusion: The need for careful assessment of patients with Bell's palsy cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the negative results if still there is any suspicoin, total facial nerve exploration is necessary.

Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani

2005-06-01

8

Facial Prostheses  

Science.gov (United States)

... person may be missing a portion of the face due to a congenital or acquired condition. A ... that you are born with; such as a facial cleft or hemifacial microsomia. An acquired condition exists ...

9

Treatment of Facial Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ...

10

Facial Cosmetic Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ...

11

Facial Plastic Surgery Today  

Science.gov (United States)

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... information on facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Facial Plastic Surgery Today features three articles on facial plastic surgery ...

12

Facial drooping (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial drooping can be caused by a disorder such as Bell's palsy. This disorder is a mononeuropathy ( ... a single nerve) that damages the seventh cranial (facial) nerve. The facial nerve controls movement of the ...

13

Facial features  

Science.gov (United States)

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

14

[Facial ageing and cosmetic facial surgery].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of cosmetic facial surgery is to enhance facial beauty by reducing the effects of ageing or by beautifying certain aspects of the face. The face can be subdivided anatomically into the skin, the fat compartments, the ligaments (the links between the skin and the underlying facial skeleton), the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and the masticatory and mimic musculature. As a result of the influence of gravity and ageing, changes which progress according to a fixed pattern take place at all levels of the soft tissue of the face. The supporting facial skeleton also reduces in volume in a characteristic manner. A thorough knowledge of the facial anatomy and the ageing process is essential for safe, effective and predicable facial rejuvenating surgery. The dentist generally has a long-lasting relationship with his patients and therefore may play an important role in advising patients with respect to the (im)possibilities of cosmetic facial surgery. PMID:24684134

Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Jaspers, G W C; Vissink, A

2014-03-01

15

Modelling human facial UV exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are strong links between exposure to UV radiation and both adverse health outcomes (eg. skin cancer, cataracts) and protective health outcomes (e.g. the production of vitamin D). The aim of our research is to develop methods of estimating cumulative UV exposure in a manner suitable for risk-factor epidemiology. We have developed a flexible computer model that determines UV exposure over the human facial region (utilising exposure ratios as determined by polysuphone dosimeters) for various solar zenith angles (SZA). By adjusting latitude and time of year, researchers can estimate cumulative facial UV exposure for particular geographical locations and time periods. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

2000-12-01

16

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

17

Facial Sports Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial Sports Injuries Playing catch, shooting hoops, bicycling on a scenic path or just kicking around a soccer ball ... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or ...

18

Facial Injuries and Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can ... of your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. ...

19

Knowledge driven facial modelling:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims at supporting users if not involved in computer graphics, facial physiology, or psychology and in need of generating realistic facial animations. Realism is to be understood in terms of the visual appeal of a single rendered image and focused on believable behaviour of the animated face. Our goal is to develop a system enabling semi-automatic facial animation, allowing an average user to generate facial animation in a simple manner. A system with knowledge about the communi...

Wojdel, A. W.

2005-01-01

20

[Peripheral facial nerve palsy].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are different etiological factors concerning the acute peripheral facial nerve palsy. In the majority of the cases, however, no etiological factor can be found. These cases are called idiopathic facial palsy or Bells palsy. Perhaps local anaesthetics could play a role as an etiological factor. By means of a case-report this form of facial nerve palsy will be discussed. PMID:11908448

Nauta, J M; Timmenga, N M; Cats, H

1993-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for feature extraction and creates a dynamic spatiotemporal representation of the face, followed by classification into one of the expression classes. The algorithm achieves an accuracy of 81.0% for facial expression recognition fromgrayscale image.

Neeta Sarode

2010-08-01

22

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery.

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

23

Cosmetic Facial Surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

Adamson, Peter A.

1987-01-01

24

Facial injury in sport.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sports are a common cause of facial injury. A wide variety of facial injuries occurs during sports. Severity of these injuries varies greatly. Understanding the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries is important to those participating in the health care of the athlete. Injuries that may threaten the airway or vision or cause bleeding are particularly crucial to understand. Dental injuries such as tooth fracture and tooth avulsion may need to be treated urgently in many cases. Facial lacerations may damage underlying structures, including the lacrimal system, facial nerve, or parotid duct. Closure of facial lacerations involves several considerations, such as cosmesis, method of wound closure, and complexity of the wound. Facial fractures occur commonly in sports, and familiarity with the various types and levels of severity is of key importance. Return-to-play guidelines after facial injury have yet to be established. Use of protective equipment can prevent facial injuries and protect athletes when returning to play after facial injury has occurred. PMID:20071918

Reehal, Paul

2010-01-01

25

Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

2009-10-01

26

Análise Facial Subjetiva Subjective Facial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a análise facial tem sido um recurso diagnóstico valorizado desde os primórdios da Ortodontia. Vários autores tentaram estabelecer referências de normalidade na direção das quais os pacientes ortodônticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupação da Ortodontia está em concordância com a expectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivação para o tratamento ortodôntico é a melhora estética. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente é fundamental que o ortodontista conheça os parâmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliação estética. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realização da Análise Facial Subjetiva, estética e morfológica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicação prática da análise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogêneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivíduos (50 de cada gênero classificando-os como esteticamente desagradáveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3, esteticamente aceitáveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6 e esteticamente agradáveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9. RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitáveis, 8% desagradáveis e 3% agradáveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsável pela estética desagradável, seguida pelo mento ("queixo" em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar, portanto, que a Análise Facial Subjetiva é mais um instrumento diagnóstico, que tem sua importância aumentada por ser o parâmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vão avaliar os resultados do tratamento.INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The main motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9, acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6 or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3. Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

2006-10-01

27

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.

Testa José Ricardo Gurgel

2003-01-01

28

Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps. PMID:24037925

Fabrizio, Tommaso

2013-10-01

29

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

30

PCA facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

31

Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively. PMID:23714934

Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

2013-05-01

32

Análise Facial Subjetiva / Subjective Facial Analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: a análise facial tem sido um recurso diagnóstico valorizado desde os primórdios da Ortodontia. Vários autores tentaram estabelecer referências de normalidade na direção das quais os pacientes ortodônticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupação da Ortodontia está em concordância com a ex [...] pectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivação para o tratamento ortodôntico é a melhora estética. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente é fundamental que o ortodontista conheça os parâmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliação estética. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realização da Análise Facial Subjetiva, estética e morfológica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicação prática da análise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogêneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas) que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivíduos (50 de cada gênero) classificando-os como esteticamente desagradáveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3), esteticamente aceitáveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6) e esteticamente agradáveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9). RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitáveis, 8% desagradáveis e 3% agradáveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsável pela estética desagradável, seguida pelo mento ("queixo") em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar, portanto, que a Análise Facial Subjetiva é mais um instrumento diagnóstico, que tem sua importância aumentada por ser o parâmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vão avaliar os resultados do tratamento. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The mai [...] n motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists) to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9), acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6) or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3). Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively) as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

Sílvia Augusta Braga, Reis; Jorge, Abrão; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho; Cristiane Aparecida de Assis, Claro.

33

Facial reconstruction project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial reconstruction of mummies and corpses is important in anthropological, medical and forensic studies. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of three-Dimensional Multidetector CT examination for 3D facial reconstruction. We present a multidisciplinary work performed by radiologists, anthropologists and forensic police in reconstructing the possible physiognomy of an ancient Egyptian mummy. Three-Dimensional data were obtained from a well-preserved completely wrapped Egypti...

Gandini, Giovanni; Boano, Rosa

2005-01-01

34

History of facial reconstruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We briefly describe the history of facial reconstruction in the deceased, starting from the skull. Facial reconstruction has passed through many phases and has been variously motivated, from religion and ancestor worship, through anthropology, to the identification of lost persons for forensic purposes. Renaissance artists used this technique for modelling and teaching. Techniques changed over the centuries but the ultimate goal was to create a convincing likeness of the dead. The two current...

2009-01-01

35

Facial infiltrative lipomatosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Pennington, A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Plastic Surgey; Philips, R. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of General Pediatrics

2006-11-15

36

Facial infiltrative lipomatosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

2006-11-01

37

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial expression database and Japanese Female Facial Expression database. The results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy

2012-01-01

38

Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy  

Science.gov (United States)

... is usually a com- plete lack of motion. Moebius syndrome is a subtype of facial palsy. This ... facial expression and side-to-side eye movement. Moebius syndrome may also involve abnormalities of the limbs. ...

39

Facial reanimation after facial nerve injury using hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis: the gruppo otologico experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the results of facial nerve reanimation after facial nerve injury by means of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis. Retrospective case review. Private neuro-otologic and cranial base quaternary referral center. Sixty patients underwent hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis for facial nerve reanimation between April 1987 and December 2010. Only forty patients completed a minimal follow up of 24 months at the time of evaluation and were included in the study population. Facial nerve paralysis was present for a mean duration of 11.3 months (range 2-42 months) and all the patients had a HB grade VI prior their surgery. Final facial nerve motor function. The most common cause of facial paralysis was vestibular Schwannoma surgery. All the patients achieved a postoperative HB grade III or IV after a mean follow-up time of 20 months. The facial movements were detected after a period that ranged from ranged from 5 to 9 months. Only 4 patients suffered from difficulties during eating and drinking and three of them had associated lower cranial nerve deficit. Despite the various techniques in facial reanimation following total facial nerve paralysis, the end to end of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis remains one of the best treatments in cases of viable distal facial stump and nonatrophic musculature. PMID:24427588

Tanbouzi Husseini, Sami; Kumar, David Victor; De Donato, Giuseppe; Almutair, Tamama; Sanna, Mario

2013-12-01

40

Facial Contouring Surgery for Asians  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Asian people, especially women, prefer a more delicate and feminine facial shape. To achieve a softer and better facial contour, there are several procedures to change the facial skeleton. Reduction malarplasty and mandibular angleplasty are common facial contouring operations in Asia. A lot of techniques have been developed independently by several authors. Various approaches can be chosen, such as intraoral or external skin incisions. There as also different contouring methods that can be c...

Kim, Yong-ha; Cho, Byung-chae; Lo, Lun-jou

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kana...

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani

2012-01-01

42

Facial Expressions Evaluation Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expressions are probably the most visual method to convey emotions and one of the most powerful means to relate to each other. A typical automatic system for the recognition of facial expressions is based on a representation of the expression, learned from a training set of pre-selected meaningful features. The learning process relies on the labels associated by an expert or a group of experts to the training samples. The experts are asked to associate each images in the training set t...

2007-01-01

43

Computed tomography in facial trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT), plain radiography, and conventional tomography were performed on 30 patients with facial trauma. CT demonstrated bone and soft-tissue involvement. In all cases, CT was superior to tomography in the assessment of facial injury. It is suggested that CT follow plain radiography in the evaluation of facial trauma

1982-01-01

44

Paralisia facial periférica congênita familiar Familial congenital peripheral facial palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores referem 6 casos de paralisia facial periférica congênita que se sucederam em três gerações. O estudo genético sugere a atuação de um gen autosômico dominante. Na mesma família foram assinalados outras alterações congênitas (estrabismo, nistagmo. Um dos pacientes com paralisia facial (caso II-7 também apresentava micrognatia. Os pacientes com outras alterações congênitas não foram examinados adequadamente, não sendo possível, por isso, estbelecer relação etiológica entre esses achados e a paralisia facial.Six cases of congenital peripheral facial diplegia occurring in three generations are reported. The action of an autosomal dominant gene is suggested. In the same family were observed other congenital anomalies (strabismus, nistagmus. One of the patients with facial palsy had also micrognathy. Patients with other congenital anomalies but without facial palsy were examined not adequately; therefore it was impossible to correlate these findings with those concerning the facial palsy.

Ehrenfried O. Wittig

1968-03-01

45

Children and Facial Trauma  

Science.gov (United States)

... up after Facial trauma: A prospective study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997: 117:72-75 Kim MK, Buchman ... trauma in children: An urban hospital’s experience. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000: 123: 439-43 Updated 4/4/ ...

46

Cervico-facial actinomycosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The localization and activity of actinomycosis was demonstrated very well with gallium scintigraphy in a patient with disease in the cervico-facial area. This method as in other inflammatory diseases is also useful for the patient's follow-up and especially to evaluate the response to therapy. (orig.)

1982-01-01

47

Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences. PMID:23469703

Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

2012-01-01

48

Análisis Facial, Dentario y Radiográfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La estética y armonía facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepción y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estéticos por medio de cirugías para obtener una valoración positiva de sí mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la percepción, autoestima y deseo de cambio estético; y puntos antropométricos, cefalométricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 años de edad, en las cuales se realizó una encuesta sobre la autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial, deseo de cambio estético y cambio de autoestima posterior a una cirugía, éstas se asociaron a través de un análisis de chi2, regresión logística de multivariado y ANOVA, con las distancias entre puntoantropométricos objetivos basados en estudios de Farkas y entre puntos cefalométricos basados en Epker y Fish; y entre ellas a través de un análisis. La normalidad facial se ve afectada principalmente por clases caninas derecha (p=0,02 e izquierda (p=0,015 y molares derecha (p=0,015 e izquierda (p=0,04; y además el apiñamiento dentario (p=0,012. Mientras el aumento en la distancia de exocantios (p=0,04, bases alares (p=0,03, proporción glabela subnasal y subnasal mentón (p=0,02 se asocian a una percepción de anormalidad. La autoestima puede variar de forma positiva posterior a un cambio estético, a través de cirugía o tratamiento de ortodoncia. Los parámetros dentomaxilares y craneofaciales son determinantes en la percepción de normalidad estética de estas mujeres, siendo los relacionados con nariz y altura facial los de mayor influencia en este estudio. Son necesarios futuros estudios para evaluar autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial y proporciones estéticas.Aesthetics and facial harmony are directly related to self-esteem and perception individuals have of themselves. There is often a desire to make overall aesthetic changes through surgery in order to get a positive assessment of oneself. The aim of this study was to research the relationship between perception, self-esteem and desire for change; and points aesthetic anthropometric and cephalometric points, as well as malocclusions in a group of women. Twenty nine (29Chilean women between 20 and 25 years of age were chosen, taking part in a survey on self-esteem, self-perception of facial normalcy, the desire for aesthetic change, and changes of self-esteem following surgery. These were subsequently associated through Chi2 analysis, logistic multi variant regression and ANOVA, with distances between objective anthropometric marks based on Farkas research, and between cephalometric points based in Epker and Fish study. Facial normalcy seems mainly affected by right canine class (p=0.02, and left (p=0.015; right molar class (p=0.015 and left (p=0.04, as well as dental crowding (p=0.012. While greater exocanthion distance (p=0.04, alar base (p=0.03, subnasal glabella and subnasal menton ratios (p=0.02, are related to a perception of abnormality. Self esteem perception can vary in positive ways following an aesthetic change through surgery or orthodontic treatment. Dental, maxillary and craniofacial parameters are determinants of the aesthetic normalcy perception of these women, with nose and facial height having the most influence in this study. Further research is necessary to evaluate self- esteem and self perception of facial normalcy, as well as aesthetic ratios.

Claudio Huentequeo-Molina

2013-03-01

49

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

50

Facial Asymmetry Correction in Facial Palsy Patients with Silhouette Sutures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: over the last few decades several techniques static and dynamics, have been performed to improve facial asymmetry and functionality alter suffering facial paralysis. Methods: we present a pilot study to show and evaluate the benefits of a new form of facial suspension, with Silhouette sutures. We performed two patients with total and complete facial palsy due to otical tuberculosis in one case and to parotid carcinoma in the other. Results: one year after surgery, both patients have improved facial asymmetry, mastication and speech production which have lead to a higher self-esteem and major social interaction. Conclusions: static facial suspension with Silhouette sutures is a non invasive alternative to dynamic techniques in patients who don’t want or can’t undergo more complex surgeries.

Juan Fernando Fuentes

2012-01-01

51

Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

J. Fortes-Rego

1976-03-01

52

Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

J. Fortes-Rego

1975-12-01

53

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of...

Tan, Pearlie W. W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

54

Facial Tracking Using Radial Basis Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper implements facial tracking using Radial basis function neural network (RBF. There is no unique method that claims perfect facial tracking in video transfer. The local features of a frame are segmented. A ratio is found based on a criteria and output of RBF is used for transferring the necessary information of the frame from one system to another system. A decision approach, with a threshold, is used to detect if there is any change in the local object of the successive frames. The accuracy of the result depends upon the number of centers. The performance of the algorithm in reconstructing the tracked object is about 96.5% and similar to the performance of back propagation algorithm (BPA, in terms of reduced time and quality of reconstruction.

P. Mayilvahanan

2011-03-01

55

[Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

Koyama, Shinichi

2014-04-01

56

Unilateral facial palsy following bilateral intraoral coronoidectomies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The second reported case of unilateral facial palsy following intraoral coronoidectomy is presented. A differential diagnosis of facial palsy is discussed. The etiologic mechanism of facial palsy following intraoral coronoidectomy, however, remains speculative. PMID:3476892

Rubin, M M; Cozzi, G

1987-08-01

57

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica / Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Uni [...] versidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão suprageniculada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial. Abstract in english The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clí [...] nicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Bento, Ricardo E.; Vellutini, Eduardo A. S.; Pahl, Felix H.; Tedesco-Marchese, A. J.; Formigoni, Gilberto S.; Navarro, Hector C.; Miniti, A..

58

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão suprageniculada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial.The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Ricardo E. Bento

1985-09-01

59

Facial Expression Recognition from Speech  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this document, we present a facial expression recognition method developed during the ReV-TV project by the Metiss team. First we detail the representation of facial expressions, then the database construction, the audio features and the classifier used.

Lejan, Guylaine; Souviraa?-labastie, Nathan; Bimbot, Fre?de?ric

2013-01-01

60

Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorp...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression  

CERN Multimedia

This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

Pickin, Andrew

2011-01-01

62

Celulitis facial odontógena  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se muestra un grupo de pacientes afectados por celulitis facial odontógena y los resultados obtenidos durante el tratamiento, pues en ocasiones se produce demora en su remisión al Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial. Dichos resultados deben tomarse en cuenta por parte de los estomatólogos generales integrales e incorporarlos a los programas docentes. Un total de 40 pacientes constituye el universo de trabajo; predominó la edad de 15 años y más (60 %, y el sexo femenino (57,5 % como el de mayor incidencia. Los pacientes que fueron remitidos tempranamente evolucionaron de forma satisfactoria al tratamiento.A group of patients affected with odontogen facial cellulitis is presented. The results obtained during the treatment are shown, since sometime their referral to the Maxillofacial Surgery Service is delayed. The comprehensive general stomatologists should take such results into consideration and include them in the curricula. Most of the 40 patients studies were 15 years and over. The greastest incidence was observed among the females (57.5 %. Those who were referred early had a satisfactory evolution.

ORLANDO L RODRÍGUEZ CALZADILLA

1997-06-01

63

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial / Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A eti [...] opatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial) juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural) e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas. Abstract in english Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic) and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiolo [...] gy can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%). The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves) and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel; Vicente, Andy de Oliveira; Abreu, Carlos E.C.; Benbassat, Simone F.; Antunes, Marcos L.; Barros, Flávia A..

64

MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

1996-10-01

65

MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

1996-10-01

66

Parotidectomía y vena facial Parotidectomy and facial vein  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La cirugía de los tumores benignos de la parótida, es una cirugía de relaciones con estructuras fundamentalmente nerviosas cuyo daño, representa un gravísimo problema psicosomático por definirlo de una manera genérica. Para ayudar al manejo quirúrgico del nervio facial periférico, es por lo que en el presente artículo tratamos de enfatizar la importancia de la vena facial en la disección y conservación del nervio, precisamente donde su disección suele ser más comprometida, esto es en las ramas más caudales. El trabajo que vamos a desarrollar hay que verlo pues, como un ensalzamiento de las estructuras venosas en el seguimiento y control del nervio facial periférico y de porqué no, el nervio auricular mayor no siempre suficientemente valorado en la cirugía de la parótida al perder protagonismo con el facial.Benign parotid tumor surgery is related to fundamental nervous structures, defined simply: that when damaged cause great psychosomatic problems. In order to make peripheral facial nerve surgery easy to handle for the surgeon this article emphasizes the importance of the facial vein in the dissection and conservation of the nerve. Its dissection can be compromised if the caudal branches are damaged. The study that we develop should be seen as praise for the vein structures in the follow up and control of the peripheral facial nerve, and the main auricular nerve that is often undervalued when it is no longer the protagonist in the face.

F. Hernández Altemir

2009-10-01

67

Imaging investigation of facial neuroma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate imaging methods and imaging findings of facial neuroma to promote its diagnostic accuracy. Methods: CT was performed in all 10 patients with facial neuroma confirmed by pathology and surgery. Of all 10 patients, plain and enhanced MRI was performed in 6 patients. CT and MRI findings were analysed and compared retrospectively. Results: Ten facial neuromas consisted of 6 schwannoma and 4 neurofibroma. The tumor affected the horizontal segment of facial nerve in 8 cases, anterior genu in 6, mastoid segment in 4, labyrinth segment in 2, internal auditory canal segment in 3, intra-parotid segment in 2, and cistern segment in 1. On CT, enlargement of fallopian canal was seen in 9 cases, soft tissue mass in tympanum in 7 cases, destruction of auditory ossicles in 5, and bone destruction with soft tissue mass in mastoid region in 4. MRI demonstrated enlargement of facial nerve in 6 cases, soft tissue mass in tympanum, mastoid region and jugular fossa in 2, and soft tissue mass only in tympanum in 2. In 3 of 6 patients, the soft tissue mass was slightly hypointense and inhomogeneous on T1WI, hyperintense on T2WI and heterogeneous enhancement after administration of contrast medium. However, in other 3 cases, the soft tissue mass showed isointense signal on T1-and T2-weighted images and homogeneous enhancement alter contrast. 2 neuroma involving internal auditory canal segment of facial nerve was clearly demonstrated on postcontrast T1WI but not shown on pre-contrast T1-and T2-images. CT missed 3 neuromas found with MRI, 2 involving internal auditory canal segment and 1 involving tympanum segment. For the small facial neuroma, CT found enlargement and/or destruction of fallopian canal only, but MRI could demonstrated enlarged facial nerve itself. Conclusion: CT and MRI, especially postcontrast T1WI, can accurately display shape, location, extension, and structure of facial neuroma, which contribute to diagnose the lesion and provide evidence for surgical planning

2001-07-01

68

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

2011-01-01

69

Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed andevaluated.Key WordsArtificial Muscles, facial prosthetics, stroke rehabilitation,facial paralysis, computer vision, automated facialrecognition.

Fergal Coulter

2011-10-01

70

Facial Fractures: Using imaging methods to discover facial injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Appropriate clinical radiographic investigation, together with an understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the facial skeleton, allows for precise delineation of facial fracutres and associated soft tissue injuries encountered in clinical practice. A combination of multiple plain radiographic views and coronal and axial computed tomographic images allow for optimal delineation of fracture patterns. This information is beneficial in the clinical and surgical management patients with...

White, Lawrence M.; Marotta, Thomas R.; Mclennan, Michael K.; Kassel, Edward E.

1992-01-01

71

Rehabilitation Strategies for Facial Nerve Injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many treatment techniques, including exercise, electrical stimulation, biofeedback, and neuromuscular retraining, have been described for the treatment of patients with facial paresis. The degree of nerve injury determines the recovery of the facial muscles. Patients with a Sunderland third-degree injury benefit most from therapy to maximize facial nerve function. Following a facial nerve palsy, many patients present with facial muscle weakness in addition to aberrant synkinetic movements. Th...

Novak, Christine B.

2004-01-01

72

Imaging of the facial nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

2010-05-15

73

Facial Expression Recognition System :Basics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an important part of technology for humanmachine interface, FER draws much attention recently and numerous methods are proposed .For human beings ,facial expressions is one of the most powerful, natural and non verbal way to communicate their emotions and intensions. A human being can detect facial expression without efforts, but for a machine it is very difficult. This paper describes the problem of facial expression recognition in the field of computer vision .Firstly, the psychological background of a problem presented. Then the idea of facial expression recognition system (FERS is outlined and the requirement of such system is specified. The FER consists of 3 stages: face detection, feature extraction and expression recognition .Method proposed in literature are reviewed for each stage of system.

Tanvi Srivastava

2012-08-01

74

Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is used to identify the person’s emotional state through facial expression such as angry, disgust, happy. This can be done with different age group of people with different situation. We Used a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN for classification and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for feature selection.

Devi Arumugam

2011-08-01

75

Developmental facial paralysis: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusing nomenclature and pathogenesis of Developmental Facial Paralysis, and how it can be differentiated from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth. Differentiating developmental from traumatic facial paralysis noted at birth is important for determining prognosis, but also for medicolegal reasons. Given the dramatic presentation of this condition, accurate and reliable guidelines are necessary in order to facilitate early diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy, while providing support and counselling to the family. The 30 years experience of our center in the management of developmental facial paralysis is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve embryology, anatomy, nerve physiology, and an appreciation of well-recognized mishaps during fetal development. It is hoped that a better understanding of this condition will in the future lead to early targeted screening, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment in this population of facially disfigured patients, which will facilitate their emotional and social rehabilitation, and their reintegration among their peers. PMID:21724478

Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

2011-10-01

76

Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" / "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz d [...] e lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior). Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior). Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog) se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil. Abstract in english Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal l [...] ifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the fa

O. M., Ramírez; A., Novo Torres; Ch. R., Volpe.

77

Pregnancy and facial diplegia: A rare case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial paralysis is seen more commonly in the womenduring pregnancy compared to their peers. Facial diplegiais a more common condition than facial paralysis.In etiology, many reasons such as Moebius syndrome,Guillain-Barre syndrome, sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis,bilateral temporal bone fractures, Lyme diseaseand multiple sclerosis might be responsible. While facialparalysises are generally observed as idiopathically, asmall part of facial diplegias is idiopathic. Diagnosis of idiopathicfacial diplegia is possible only after an extensiveinvestigation. In this case, clinical follow-up and treatmentof pregnant women diagnosed as idiopathic facial diplegiawas evaluated.Key words: Pregnancy, facial diplegia, prednisolone

Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

2012-09-01

78

Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparameterization using Facial Action Coding System(FACS action units and the methods whichrecognizes the action units parameters using facial expression data that are extracted. Various kinds offacial expressions are present in human face which can be identified based on their geometric features,appearance features and hybrid features . The two basic concepts of extracting features are based onfacial deformation and facial motion. This article also identifies the techniques based on thecharacteristics of expressions and classifies the suitable methods that can be implemented.

C.P. Sumathi

2013-01-01

79

Neurologic Aspects of Chronic Facial Pain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic facial pain can result from neuropathic changes associated with deafferentation. The pattern of deep afferent convergence on trigeminal cells may also relate to the pathophysiology of chronic facial pain disorders.

Maciewicz, Raymond

1990-01-01

80

Prosthetic therapy of the lateral facial defect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Facial defects may arise as a result of head and neck trauma or facial tumor ablation. Minor defects can be reconstructed surgically while large defects usually need combined surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. The aim of this study was to present the prosthetic reconstruction of the lateral facial defect using facial colored acrylic prosthesis. Case Report. A male patient with a maxillary defect on the left side and a large lateral facial defect on the same side received an obturator prosthesis as well as a facial colored acrylic prosthesis (facial-orbit retained by the glasses frame. Satisfied aesthetics was accomplished. However, the stability of the prostheses during mandibular movements could not be achieved which resulted in saliva leakage over the lips. Conclusion. Better functional and aesthetic outcome could be achieved by combined surgical and prosthetic treatment of such large facial defect.

Lazi? Vojkan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The contribution of different cues of facial movement to the emotional facial expression adaptation aftereffect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probing emotional facial expression recognition with the adaptation paradigm is one way to investigate the processes underlying emotional face recognition. Previous research suggests that these processes are tuned to dynamic facial information (facial movement). Here we examined the tuning of processes involved in the recognition of emotional facial expressions to different sources of facial movement information. Specifically we investigated the effect of the availability of rigid head movement and intrinsic facial movements (e.g., movement of facial features) on the size of the emotional facial expression adaptation effect. Using a three-dimensional (3D) morphable model that allowed the manipulation of the availability of each of the two factors (intrinsic facial movement, head movement) individually, we examined emotional facial expression adaptation with happy and disgusted faces. Our results show that intrinsic facial movement is necessary for the emergence of an emotional facial expression adaptation effect with dynamic adaptors. The presence of rigid head motion modulates the emotional facial expression adaptation effect only in the presence of intrinsic facial motion. In a second experiment we show these adaptation effects are difficult to explain by merely the perceived intensity and clarity (uniqueness) of the adaptor expressions. Together these results suggest that processes encoding facial expressions are differently tuned to different sources of facial movements. PMID:23335323

de la Rosa, Stephan; Giese, Martin; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Curio, Cristóbal

2013-01-01

82

[Therapy for atypical facial pain].  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypical facial pain is a pain in the head, neck and the face, without organic causes. It is treated at departments of physical medicine, such as dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, cerebral surgery, or head and neck surgery. In primary care, it is considered to be a medically unexplained symptom (MUS), or a somatoform disorder, such as somatization caused by a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) by psychiatrists. Usually, patients consult departments of physical medicine complaining of physical pain. Therefore physicians in these departments should examine the patients from the holistic perspective, and identify organic diseases. As atypical facial pain becomes chronic, other complications, including psychiatric complaints other than physical pain, such as depression may develop. Moreover, physical, psychological, and social factors affect the symptoms by interacting with one another. Therefore, in examining atypical facial pain, doctors specializing in dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine are required to provide psychosomatic treatment that is based on integrated knowledge. PMID:19768920

Ishida, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko

2009-09-01

83

Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de tabagismo. Os indivíduos tabagistas e não tabagistas foram avaliados de acordo com o tempo e a quantidade de cigarros fumados, o sexo, a cor da pele e a idade. RESULTADOS: A comparação quanto ao escore da fácies de tabagismo evidenciou que o grupo tabagista apresentou maior escore que o grupo não tabagista (p=0,021. Foram observadas diferenças significativas de escore na comparação entre as faixas etárias (p=0,004 e a cor (p <0,01. Em relação à quantidade de cigarros fumados e o tempo desse hábito de acordo com sexo não houve diferenças de escore. A análise multivariada das variáveis, evidenciou que o tabagismo, Odds Ratio (OR = 3,49, a cor da pele (OR=8,10 e a idade (OR=1,21 são fatores independentes para o envelhecimento facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo é fator de risco independente para o envelhecimento cutâneo. Esse achado confirma os efeitos cutâneos nocivos do cigarro, constituindo-se em mais um argumento na luta contra o tabagismo.

Suehara Letícia Yumi

2006-01-01

84

Modelling human perception of facial expressions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expression recognition by human observers is affected by subjective components. Indeed there is no ground truth. We have developped Discrete Choice Models to capture the human perception of facial expressions. In a first step, the static case is treated, that is modelling perception of facial images. Image information is extracted using a computer vision tool called Active Appearance model (AAM). DCMs attributes are based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), Expressions Descri...

Sorci, Matteo; Robin, Thomas; Cruz, Javier; Bierlaire, Michel; Thiran, Jean-philippe

2009-01-01

85

Facial mimicry is not necessary to recognize emotion: Facial expression recognition by people with Moebius syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the reverse simulation model of embodied simulation theory, we recognize others' emotions by subtly mimicking their expressions, which allows us to feel the corresponding emotion through facial feedback. Previous studies examining whether facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition were limited by potentially distracting manipulations intended to artificially restrict facial mimicry or very small samples of people with facial paralysis. We addressed these limitations by collecting the largest sample to date of people with Moebius syndrome, a condition characterized by congenital bilateral facial paralysis. In this Internet-based study, 37 adults with Moebius syndrome and 37 matched control participants completed a facial expression recognition task. People with Moebius syndrome did not differ from the control group or normative data in emotion recognition accuracy, and accuracy was not related to extent of ability to produce facial expressions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that reverse simulation with facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition. PMID:19882440

Rives Bogart, Kathleen; Matsumoto, David

2010-01-01

86

Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

Masuria B.L

1999-01-01

87

Recurrent Idiopathic Facial Paralysis: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idiopathic facial paralysis is the mononeuropathy Multiple recurrences of idiopathic facial paralysis in a patient may be the sign or sympton of a serious illness. therefore; in recurrent cases, family history, systemic diseases and malignancy must be investigated. In this report, a case of recurrent idiopathic facial paralysis is presented.

Hale Hekim Balo?lu

2010-09-01

88

Texture and shape information fusion for facial expression and facial action unit recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel method based on fusion of texture and shape information is proposed for facial expression and Facial Action Unit (FAU) recognition from video sequences. Regarding facial expression recognition, a subspace method based on Discriminant Non-negative Matrix Factorization (DNMF) is applied to the images, thus extracting the texture information. In order to extract the shape information, the system firstly extracts the deformed Candide facial grid that corresponds to the facial expression d...

Kotsia, I.; Zafeiriou, St; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

89

The face is not an empty canvas: how facial expressions interact with facial appearance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who...

Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B.; Kleck, Robert E.

2009-01-01

90

The contribution of different cues of facial movement to the emotional facial expression adaptation aftereffect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probing emotional facial expression recognition with the adaptation paradigm is one way to investigate the processes underlying emotional face recognition. Previous research suggests that these processes are tuned to dynamic facial information (facial movement). Here we examined the tuning of processes involved in the recognition of emotional facial expressions to different sources of facial movement information. Specifically we investigated the effect of the availability of rigid head moveme...

La Rosa, Stephan; Giese, Martin; Buelthoff, Heinrich H.; Curio, Cristobal

2013-01-01

91

Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, ...

2006-01-01

92

The facial reflex of allergy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The facial reflex, originally described by Franz Chvostek, is shown to be of value in allergy by assessing the relative irritability of muscle tissue (cardic, smooth, skeletal) and the effect of certain drugs frequently used by allergists upon them. PMID:222174

Breneman, J C

1979-06-01

93

Treatment of congenital facial nevi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of congenital facial nevi is often difficult and challenging. Previous authors have reported their techniques, results, and complications when treating these lesions. Our objectives are to simplify the treatment planning by subdividing the lesions with a new classification and using this to formulate a surgical algorithm. One hundred and two patients with congenital facial nevi were reviewed. All of these patients have had surgical excision for the lesions. We have subgrouped the lesions into three groups, according to size, number of aesthetic units involved, and number of reconstructive stages required. Group I included lesions 1 to 3 cm in maximal diameter, within one aesthetic unit, and requiring one or two reconstructive stages. This group included 29 patients. Group II included lesions 3 to 12 cm in maximal diameter, covering one or two aesthetic units, and requiring not more than two stages of reconstruction. This group had 41 patients. Group III consisted of extensive lesions, over 12 cm in maximal diameter, covering several aesthetic units, and requiring several stages of reconstruction. In this group, we had 32 patients. On the basis of our experience in treating congenital facial nevi in this series, we have developed a surgical algorithm for reconstruction. We are optimistic that this will assist the surgeon in surgical planning and treating this complex patient population. The algorithm is arranged according to the new classification of congenital facial nevi that is presented. PMID:16192879

Leshem, David; Gur, Eyal; Meilik, Benjamin; Zuker, Ronald M

2005-09-01

94

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

Science.gov (United States)

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

95

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

Science.gov (United States)

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions.

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

96

Three dimensional CT analysis of facial asymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to identify the range of normal facial asymmetry using three-dimensional CT and to develop a simple method of diagnosis of facial asymmetry. Twenty eight adults with normal occlusion (16 males and 12 females; mean age 24 years and 1 month) were selected, whose faces were assessed to be symmetric by an orthodontist. Three-dimensional reconstructions were obtained utilising spiral CT scans and an oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated nineteen anatomic landmarks in three-dimensional coordinates. Facial asymmetry index of each landmark was calculated. The range of normal facial asymmetry of each landmark was identified using mean and standard deviation of facial asymmetry index. The range of normal facial asymmetry identified in this study may be used as a diagnostic standard for facial asymmetry analysis

2007-03-01

97

Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

98

Seis anos de atendimento em trauma facial: análise epidemiológica de 355 casos Six years of facial trauma care: an epidemiological analysis of 355 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traumas faciais são frequentes em emergências requerendo o diagnóstico de fraturas e lesões associadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar dados epidemiológicos de atendimento em trauma facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 335 prontuários de pacientes com trauma facial tratados pelo Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia, no período de Janeiro de 2002 a Dezembro de 2008. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade, gênero, etiologia, local anatômico da fratura, lesão associada, consumo de álcool, tratamento e hospitalização. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte longitudinal histórico. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes são homens adultos jovens (pFacial traumas are frequent in emergencies, and they require the diagnosis of fractures and associated lesions. AIM: To analyze epidemiological data concerning facial trauma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-five charts from patients with facial trauma treated by the Service of Otorhinolaryngology, from January 2002 to December 2008, were revised. The following data was collected: age, gender, etiology, anatomical localization of the fracture, associated injuries, alcohol consumption, treatment, and hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective historical longitudinal study. RESULTS: Most of the patients are young adult men (p<0.05 with a male:female ratio of 4:1(p<0.05. Interpersonal violence is the most prevalent cause of facial trauma (27.9%, followed by motor vehicle accidents (16.6% (p<0.05. The mandible is the most prevalent facial bone fractured (44.2%, followed by nasal fracture (18.9% (p<0.05. 41.1% of the patients consumed alcohol with a male:female ratio of 11.2:1 (p<0.05. Seventy-seven percent of the patients required surgical intervention (p<0.05 and 84.5% were hospitalized (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Young male adults are the most prevalent victims of facial trauma, and interpersonal violence is responsible for the majority of the facial injuries. Most of the cases of facial trauma are associated with the consumption of alcohol. Further studies will be necessary to provide a clear understanding of the trends in the etiology of facial trauma.

Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni Carvalho

2010-10-01

99

Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

2014-02-01

100

Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have differentclinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflectsthe flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protectedenvironments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performeda retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatricpopulation.Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years,with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. Thefollowing parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associatedinjuries, treatment and complications.Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girlswas 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years ofage (36.3%. The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the mostcommon type of fracture (69% and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%.Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%.Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea.Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shifttowards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these agegroups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpfulin further evaluation and management.

Sang Hun Kim

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Avaliação comparativa entre agradabilidade facial e análise subjetiva do Padrão Facial Comparative evaluation among facial attractiveness and subjective analysis of Facial Pattern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar duas análises subjetivas faciais utilizadas para o diagnóstico ortodôntico, avaliação da agradabilidade facial e definição de Padrão Facial, e verificar a associação existente entre elas. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se 208 fotografias faciais padronizadas (104 laterais e 104 frontais de 104 indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação da agradabilidade por dois grupos distintos (Grupo " Ortodontia" e Grupo " Leigos" , que classificaram os indivíduos em " agradável" , " aceitável" ou " desagradável" . Os indivíduos também foram classificados quanto ao Padrão Facial por três examinadores calibrados, utilizando-se apenas a vista lateral. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: após a análise estatística, verificou-se que houve associação fortemente positiva entre a agradabilidade facial e o Padrão Facial para a norma lateral, porém não para a frontal, em que os indivíduos tenderam a ser bem classificados mesmo no Padrão II.AIM: To study two subjective facial analysis commonly used on orthodontic diagnosis and to verify the association between the evaluation of facial attractiveness and Facial Pattern definition. METHODS: Two hundred and eight standardized face photographs (104 in lateral view and 104 in frontal view of 104 randomly chosen individuals were used in the present study. They were classified as " pleasant" , " acceptable" and " not pleasant" by two distinct groups: " Lay people" and " Orthodontists" . The individuals were either classified according to their Facial Pattern using lateral view images. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After statistical analysis, it was noted a strong positive concordance between facial attractiveness in lateral view and Facial Pattern, however, frontal view attractiveness classification did not have good concordance with Facial Pattern, tending to have good attractiveness classification even in Facial Pattern II.

Olívia Morihisa

2009-12-01

102

Avaliação comparativa entre agradabilidade facial e análise subjetiva do Padrão Facial / Comparative evaluation among facial attractiveness and subjective analysis of Facial Pattern  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar duas análises subjetivas faciais utilizadas para o diagnóstico ortodôntico, avaliação da agradabilidade facial e definição de Padrão Facial, e verificar a associação existente entre elas. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se 208 fotografias faciais padronizadas (104 laterais e 104 frontais) de 104 [...] indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação da agradabilidade por dois grupos distintos (Grupo " Ortodontia" e Grupo " Leigos" ), que classificaram os indivíduos em " agradável" , " aceitável" ou " desagradável" . Os indivíduos também foram classificados quanto ao Padrão Facial por três examinadores calibrados, utilizando-se apenas a vista lateral. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: após a análise estatística, verificou-se que houve associação fortemente positiva entre a agradabilidade facial e o Padrão Facial para a norma lateral, porém não para a frontal, em que os indivíduos tenderam a ser bem classificados mesmo no Padrão II. Abstract in english AIM: To study two subjective facial analysis commonly used on orthodontic diagnosis and to verify the association between the evaluation of facial attractiveness and Facial Pattern definition. METHODS: Two hundred and eight standardized face photographs (104 in lateral view and 104 in frontal view) [...] of 104 randomly chosen individuals were used in the present study. They were classified as " pleasant" , " acceptable" and " not pleasant" by two distinct groups: " Lay people" and " Orthodontists" . The individuals were either classified according to their Facial Pattern using lateral view images. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After statistical analysis, it was noted a strong positive concordance between facial attractiveness in lateral view and Facial Pattern, however, frontal view attractiveness classification did not have good concordance with Facial Pattern, tending to have good attractiveness classification even in Facial Pattern II.

Olívia, Morihisa; Liliana Ávila, Maltagliati.

103

Treatments for unwanted facial hair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

Shapiro, J; Lui, H

104

[Facial palsy in Equatorial Africa].  

Science.gov (United States)

The author presents the analysis of 29 cases of facial palsy collected in Shaba, Zaire (former Katanga, Belgian Congo) between 1984-1988 in the region called Copperbelt. Because to date there has been no work done on these problems in this part of Africa, it would be interesting to present a short report. Patients with facial palsy came to the ENT Department mostly for other reasons, and very late. Only 5 patients came before 3 mos after the onset. The different etiologies were as follows: 2--post traumatic, 7--otogenic, 9--tumors, 4--iatrogenic, 6--Bells palsy, 1--other. The assessment, comparison and the treatment of such cases in an underdeveloped country is very difficult or almost impossible. The small number of cases is insufficient for any conclusions, but the author tried to get some data, which would be a starting point in the future researches. PMID:8255587

Pietruski, J

1993-01-01

105

Radiologic evaluation of facial injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed radiological investigation of the maxillofacial injuries is essential to achieve good treatment results. The images should identify every lesion and guide the treatment, thus improving esthetic and functional results. With the aim of simplifying the diagnostic task, the face may be seen as a five regions structure that may suffer a regional fracture or combined fractures involving the adjacent regions. These regions represent areas of focus for pre surgical planning and are as follows: nasal, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular. In order to understand the injury mechanisms and their consequences it is useful to know the supporting buttresses, which are divided in five sagittal planes, three horizontal planes and two coronal planes. We reviewed the cases of patients with facial trauma treated at Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A review of the relevant issues concerning radiological investigation of these injuries is presented. This study allowed standardization and ordering of the radiological investigation in patients with facial trauma. (author)

2003-01-01

106

Facial Feedback Signals for ECAs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most desirable characteristics of an intelligent interactive system is its capability of interacting with users in a natural way. An example of such a system is the embodied conversational agent (ECA) that has a humanoid aspect and the capability of communicating with users through multiple modalities such as voice, gesture, facial expressions, that are typical of human-human communication. It is important to make an ECA able to fit well in each role in a conversation: the agent sh...

Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Heylen, Dirk; Pelachaud, Catherine; Tellier, Marion

2007-01-01

107

Survey about facial image quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The project "Two Dimensional Facial Image Quality (2DFIQ)" is the initiative of Fraunhofer IGD Darmstadt to propose a model to measure the quality of digital passport photos based on the specifications of the international standards ICAO/MRTD and ISO 19794-5. In the analysis and design phase of the project, some problems to assign a precedence and relevance of attributes occurred. Since these international standards play an important role in the maturation process of security assurance in som...

Gonzalez, Yuridia

2006-01-01

108

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

Schimek, F.; Fahle, M.

1995-01-01

109

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images

Schimek, F; Fahle, M

1995-01-01

110

3D statistical facial reconstruction  

CERN Document Server

The aim of craniofacial reconstruction is to produce a likeness of a face from the skull. Few works in computerized assisted facial reconstruction have been done in the past, due to poor machine performances and data availability, and major works are manually reconstructions. In this paper, we present an approach to build 3D statistical models of the skull and the face with soft tissues from the skull of one individual. Results on real data are presented and seem promising.

Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

2005-01-01

111

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions wer...

Giada Mancini; Pier Francesco Ferrari; Elisabetta Palagi

2013-01-01

112

Cultural perspectives in facial allotransplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

Tan, Pearlie W W; Patel, Ashish S; Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

113

Reconstruction of facial nerve injuries in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial nerve trauma is uncommon in children, and many spontaneously recover some function; nonetheless, loss of facial nerve activity leads to functional impairment of ocular and oral sphincters and nasal orifice. In many cases, the impediment posed by facial asymmetry and reduced mimetic function more significantly affects the child's psychosocial interactions. As such, reconstruction of the facial nerve affords great benefits in quality of life. The therapeutic strategy is dependent on numerous factors, including the cause of facial nerve injury, the deficit, the prognosis for recovery, and the time elapsed since the injury. The options for treatment include a diverse range of surgical techniques including static lifts and slings, nerve repairs, nerve grafts and nerve transfers, regional, and microvascular free muscle transfer. We review our strategies for addressing facial nerve injuries in children. PMID:21558887

Fattah, Adel; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ron M

2011-05-01

114

Gamer's Facial Cloning for Online Interactive Games  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Virtual illustration of a human face is essential to enhance the mutual interaction in a cyber community. In this paper we propose a solution to solve two bottlenecks in facial analysis and synthesis for an interactive system of human face cloning for non-expert users of computer games. Tactical maneuvers of the gamer make single camera acquisition system unsuitable to analyze and track the face due to its large lateral movements. For an improved facial analysis system, we propose to acquire the facial images from multiple cameras and analyze them by multiobjective 2.5D Active Appearance Model (MOAAM. Facial morphological dissimilarities between a human face and an avatar make the facial synthesis quite complex. To successfully clone or retarget the gamer facial expressions and gestures on to an avatar, we introduce a simple mathematical link between their appearances. Results obtained validate the efficiency, accuracy and robustness achieved.

Abdul Sattar

2009-01-01

115

Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hy...

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Ste?phane

2013-01-01

116

Facial affect recognition in psychopathic offenders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research examined whether psychopathy was associated with impaired facial affect recognition. Participants were selected from a medium-security prison. Emotion recognition was assessed with the pictures of Facial Affect (PFA; Ekman & Friesen, 1976) and the Facial Discrimination Task (FDT; Erwin et al., 1992). Psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores contained in inmates' files (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003). Participants also completed the ...

Kreklewetz, Kimberly

2005-01-01

117

Dental injuries in association with facial fractures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental injuries and facial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 273 patients examined at a level 1 trauma center in Switzerland from September 2005 until August 2006 who had facial fractures. Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings were recorded to evaluate demographics, etiology, presentation, and type of facial fracture, as well as its relationship to dental inj...

Lieger, O.; Zix, J.; Kruse, A.; Iizuka, T.

2009-01-01

118

Discriminant Graph Structures for Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a series of advances in elastic graph matching for facial expression recognition are proposed. More specifically, a new technique for the selection of the most discriminant facial landmarks for every facial expression (discriminant expression-specific graphs) is applied. Furthermore, a novel kernel-based technique for discriminant feature extraction from graphs is presented. This feature extraction technique remedies some of the limitations of the typical kernel Fisher discrimi...

Zafeiriou, S.; Pitaw, I.

2010-01-01

119

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, ...

Shiqing Zhang; Xiaoming Zhao; Bicheng Lei

2012-01-01

120

Facial reconstruction as a regression problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a computer-assisted method for facial reconstruction : this method provides an estimation of the facial outlook associated with unidentified skeletal remains. Current computer-assisted methods using a statistical framework rely on a common set of points extracted form the bone and soft-tissue surfaces. Facial reconstruction then attempt to predict the position of the soft-tissue surface points knowing the positions of the bone surface points. We propose to use linear...

Berar, Maxime; Bucki, Marek; Tilotta, Franc?oise; Glaune?s, Joan Alexis; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan; Rozenholc, Yves

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Extending the range of facial types  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe, in case study form, techniques to extend the range of facial types and movement using a parametric facial animation system originally developed to model and control synthetic 3D faces limited to a normal range of human shape and motion. These techniques have allowed us to create a single authoring system that can create and animate a wide range of facial types that range from realistic, stylized, cartoon-like, or a combination thereof, all from the same control system. Additional...

Dipaola, Steve

1991-01-01

122

Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkab...

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-01-01

123

Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900?...

Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Castro, Jose? Mari?a Bermu?dez; Martino?n-torres, Mari?a; O’higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L.; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G.

2013-01-01

124

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

1986-01-01

125

Rinoplastia e assimetria facial: análise de fatores subjetivos e antropométricos no nariz caucasiano / Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Proporções antropométricas e simetria são consideradas determinantes de beleza. Tais parâmetros têm importância significativa em cirurgia plástica facial, notadamente na Rinoplastia. Sendo o nariz o órgão central da face, ele tem especial importância na determinação da simetria facial, t [...] anto através da percepção de um nariz torto quanto através da determinação do crescimento facial. A avaliação da presença de assimetrias faciais tem grande relevância no pré-operatório, tanto para planejamento cirúrgico quanto aconselhamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e documentar a presença de assimetria facial em pacientes com plano de Rinoplastia e correlacionar as medidas antropométricas com percepção de assimetria ou simetria facial, avaliando se há uma maior prevalência de assimetria facial entre esses pacientes em comparação com voluntários sem queixa nasal. MÉTODO: trabalho prospectivo, realizado através de comparação de fotografias, em pacientes com Pré-operatório de Rinoplastia e voluntários (controles), n=201, através de controle de medidas antropométricas tomadas de uma linha passando pelo centro da face, até: tragus, canto medial, canto lateral, margem alar, e comissura oral, de cada lado da face, por meio de testes estatísticos (teste Z e Odds ratio). RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes ou voluntários apresentou valores totalmente simétricos. Subjetivamente, 59% dos pacientes foram percebidos como assimétricos, contra 54%dos voluntários. Objetivamente, mais de 89% dos pesquisados tiveram medidas assimétricas. Os pacientes apresentaram RLMTr (Razão Linha Média Tragus) mais assimétrica que os voluntários, com diferença estatisticamente significativa. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÃO: assimetrias faciais são muito frequentes em pacientes que procuram Rinoplastia, portanto, especial atenção deve ser dada a estes aspectos, tanto para o planejamento cirúrgico, quanto para orientação aos pacientes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both th [...] rough the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. METHODS: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). RESULTS: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Christine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraff; Hurtado, Johann G. G. Melcherts; Mocellin, Marcos.

126

Cross-pose Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In real world facial expression recognition (FER) applications, it is not practical for a user to enroll his/her facial expressions under different pose angles. Therefore, a desirable property of a FER system would be to allow the user to enroll his/her facial expressions under a single pose, for example frontal, and be able to recognize them under different pose angles. In this paper, we address this problem and present a method to recognize six prototypic facial expressions of an individual...

Guney, Fatma; Arar, Nuri Murat; Fischer, Mika; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal

2013-01-01

127

Case of a completely absent facial artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a student course on gross anatomy dissection at Showa University School of Dentistry in 2005, we found a case of a unilateral absence of the facial artery in a 75-year-old Japanese male cadaver.In this case, the left facial artery was completely absent, and it was compensated by the transverse facial artery which had a larger than normal diameter. In addition, the ascending palatine artery formed a common trunk with the lingual artery and the branch of the submandibular gland arose directly from the position where the normal facial artery would usually be in the external carotid artery.

Ezure H

2011-04-01

128

The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

2010-01-01

129

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874...Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that...

2009-04-01

130

Genetics Home Reference: Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed September 2012 What is branchio-oculo-facial syndrome? Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome is a condition ...

131

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a...

2009-04-01

132

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

133

Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author)

1991-01-01

134

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

135

Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age. PMID:24269646

Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yi?it, B

2014-07-01

136

Idiopathic facial paralysis in children  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated for Bell's palsy. Material and Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2011, pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated with the diagnosis of idiopathic facial paralysis were enrolled for this study. All the subjects' medical records were reviewed for demographic data, history of upper respiratory infection, family history, and severity of initial paralysis, treatment and outcomes. All subjects received high dose steroid therapy (methyl prednisolone 1mg/kg-in decreasing doses with medications for eye and gastric protection. Results: 61 subjects with 66 facial paralysis episode were evaluated. The mean age was 8.73±3.11 (range 2-14. Thirty seven (60% out of 61 subjects were male whereas remaining 24 (40% were female. Thirty seven (56.1% out of 66 episodes were seen on left side whereas remaining 29 (43.9% episodes were seen on left. 72.7% of the admissions were within first 24 hour. (mean 1,45±0.64, range 1-4 days. In five (8.2% cases family history was positive. In 19 (28. 8% cases upper respiratory infection history was positive. The initial facial paralysis grade was grade 2 in 3 (4.5%, grade 3 in 6 (9.11%, grade 4 in 16 (24.2%, grade 5 in 37 (56.1%, grade 6 in 4 (6.1% episodes. 56 (84.9% subjects were completely recovered at the end of 6 month. Eight (12.1% subjects were remained with grade 1, 2 subjects were remained with grade 2 paralysis. Conclusions: Our results indicate that Bell's palsy has a favorable prognosis. But even with steroid therapy some patients heal with sequelae.

?brahim Say?n

2012-01-01

137

Pathologic grooming behavior: facial dermatillomania.  

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Dermatillomania is a pathologic grooming disorder characterized by repetitive, ritualistic, impulsive skin picking without an underlying dermatologic condition. It can lead to skin damage and distress and can affect patient function. This disorder has not received much attention in the literature, with few studies reporting treatment efficacy. Patients with dermatillomania typically present to primary care physicians and frequently are referred to dermatologists; only rarely do patients receive additional psychiatric consultation that may improve treatment efficacy and decrease morbidity. We provide a case report of long-standing facial dermatillomania and our multimodal treatment approach. PMID:21323095

Harris, Scott S; Kushon, Donald; Benedetto, Ernest

2011-01-01

138

Facial mimicry and the mirror neuron system: simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

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Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e., facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis' facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry) of male and female avatar ...

Likowski, Katja U.; Mu?hlberger, Andreas; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Pauli, Paul; Weyers, Peter

2012-01-01

139

BILATERAL ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF FACE INVOLVING THE FACIAL AND TRANSVERSE FACIAL ARTERY  

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Full Text Available We present a case-report whereby a bilateral variation in the arterial supply of face was seen. The facial artery which is the main artery of face was seen terminating in the lower part of the face, as the inferior labial artery and few other branches; the transverse facial artery, which supplements the facial artery normally, was seen to enlarge and take over the course of facial artery, giving the superior labial and lateral nasal branches. The small pre-masseteric branch arising from facial artery was seen only on right side of face. It was absent on left side. Accurate knowledge of the normal and variant arterial anatomy of the facial artery is important for vascular radiology and will provide an anatomical basis to assist surgeons in performing maxillo-facial surgeries successfully. The details of this variation and its clinical significance are discussed herein.

Vrushali S. Kolte

2014-03-01

140

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

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We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE) syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

Nagdeve, N. G.; Mudkhedkar, K. P.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

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Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

Nagdeve N

2009-01-01

142

Robust Automatic Facial Expression Detection Method  

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Recently, the recognition of occluded facial expressions attract more and more people’s attention. Sparse representation based classification (SRC) method gives good performance on face recognition (FR) and facial expression recognition (FER), well-known for its robustness to occlusion. Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG) descriptors are very efficient to represent the shape<...

Yan OuYang; Nong Sang

2013-01-01

143

Irreversible facial paralysis and its treatment  

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The importance of symmetry of the external appearance of humans and the rarity of morphologic asymmetry in the animal worled are stressed in chapter 1. The outline of this study is presented. Chapter 2 reviews the anatomy and physiology of the facial nerve and facial muscles. A few topographic data are metioned. ... Zie: Summary

Nicolai, Jean-philippe Albert

1983-01-01

144

Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

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Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

2008-01-01

145

Facial Nerve Monitoring under Neuromuscular Blockade  

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The characteristics of facial nerve electromyography at various levels of neuromuscular blockade are unclear. Partial blockade is well known to facilitate anesthetic safety and management. However, the use of neuromuscular blockage in many skull base procedures is avoided to allow intraoperative facial nerve monitoring.

Hester, T. Oma; Hasan, Akbar; Mcdonnell, Francis; Valentino, Joseph; Jones, Raleigh

1995-01-01

146

Epidemiology study of facial injuries during a 13 month of trauma registry in Tehran  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have recently noted a shift in the causative mechanism of facial injuries away from traffic accident to assaults. AIMS: Our study aimed to investigate patterns of facial injuries in trauma patients during 13 months study of trauma patients in six general hospitals in Tehran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trauma patients who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours and had sustained injuries within seven days from admission were included in the study. Of the 8000 trauma patients, four hundred (5% sustained facial injuries. RESULTS: Male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Among them, 53.3% were aged 11-30 years. Traffic accidents were by the far the commonest cause of injury. Motorcyclists who wore a helmet sustained facial fractures less often during traffic accident than those patients who did not wear helmet. Soft tissue injury and facial bone fracture comprised 43.3% and 40.8% of facial injuries, respectively. The majority of Soft tissue injuries (79% were located extra orally. The mandible and nasal bone were the most commonly fractured facial bones. Victims of assault sustained more severe injuries compared to those involved in falls and traffic accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Use of helmets by motorcyclists and the separation of pedestrians routes from motor vehicles could reduce the number of victims and consequently injuries due to road traffic accidents. For implementation of effective prevention programs for reduction of facial injuries due to assault, it seems to be necessary to conduct studies investigating causes and pattern of injuries resulting in assault.

Zargar Moosa

2004-03-01

147

Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models  

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Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV of the statistical shape model (SSM built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have been used for the testing. The experimental results show that the SSV not only controls the shape variations but also captures the expressive characteristic of the faces and can be used as a significant feature for facial expression recognition. Finally the paper suggests improvements of the SSV discriminatory characteristics by using 3D facial sequences rather than 3D stills.

Djamel Ait-Boudaoud

2009-01-01

148

Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks. PMID:22737035

Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

2012-01-01

149

A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES  

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Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, human–computer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

ANITHA C,

2010-10-01

150

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

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Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

Shiqing Zhang

2012-03-01

151

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

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This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

152

Navigation aided surgery for facial fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A navigation system that has been developed in neurosurgery has recently been applied in the maxillofacial region. We introduced a navigation system (Stealth Station, Medtronic) in the maxillofacial region. As preoperative preparation, CT scanning was performed with a slice of 1 mm. Navigation aided surgery was performed in 11 patients with facial fractures between April 2005 and July 2006. Navigation aided reduction of the bone segment was performed by comparing with the sound site on the screen. Facial symmetry was recovered in 10 of 11 cases. Facial asymmetry in 1 case (midfacial multiple fractures) remained, because the system did not work after the surgeon contacted the reference frame during the operation. The navigation system is useful for repairing facial fractures, especially for verifying facial symmetry. (author)

2007-09-01

153

Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image  

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Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

154

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

155

Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

2007-01-01

156

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD, genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

Dallapiccola Bruno

2010-09-01

157

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

Science.gov (United States)

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (?5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation.

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

158

Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric and the Facial Index (photographs. RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa, made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias. RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa, feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários.

Luciana Flaquer Martins

2012-10-01

159

Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than 10 weeks were, respectively, 68.6% and 77.4%.

H. Madokoro

2012-08-01

160

Orbital abscess after facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta um caso de abscesso agudo em cavidade orbitária, após 2 dias de trauma facial, sem a presença de fratura óssea, ocorrido em uma mulher da raça negra com 20 anos de idade. Os sintomas se intensificaram nas últimas 24 h com o desenvolvimento de distúrbios visuais do tipo diplopia [...] e fotofobia. Durante exame clínico foi constatado a presença de febre, edema e eritema periorbitário, ptose, proptose e limitação de movimentação ocular para cima, baixo, lado direto e esquerdo. A tomografia computadorizada evidenciava proptose associada a edema considerável, dos tecidos moles no lado esquerdo da face, sem fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. A internação hospitalar e o início da antibioticoterapia endovenosa foram realizados, e o tratamento cirúrgico de incisão e drenagem do abscesso sob anestesia geral foi conduzido, sendo realizado por meio de incisão na pálpebra superior e inferior para acesso a cavidade orbitária e por acesso de Caldwell-Luc para o seio maxilar. No pós-operatório imediato foi observada rápida melhora dos sintomas inicialmente relatados pela paciente. Após 2 dias da intervenção cirúrgica foi observado melhora na movimentação ocular e na acuidade visual, retornando ao normal. No décimo segundo dia pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou melhora significativa com relação à ptose palpebral e a proptose, com adequado processo de cicatrização. Abstract in english This paper reports a rare case of acute severe orbital abscess manifested 2 days after a facial trauma without bone fracture in a 20-year-old Afro-American female. The symptoms worsened within the 24 h prior to hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. The [...] clinical findings at the first consultation included fever, periorbital swelling and redness, ptosis, proptosis and limitation of ocular movements upwards, downwards, to the right and to the left. Computed tomography scan showed proptosis with considerable soft tissue swelling on the left side and no fracture was evidenced in the facial skeleton, including the zygomatic-orbital complex. After hospital admission and antibiotic therapy intravenously the patient was conducted to the operation room and submitted to incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The orbit was approached thorough both eyelids and the maxillary sinus was reached only through the Caldwell-Luc approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. Visual acuity and ocular motility returned to the normal ranges within 2 days after the surgical intervention. After 12 postoperative days, the patient presented with significative improvement in the ptosis and proptosis, and acceptable scars.

Elis Cristina Sousa, Serra; Cassio Edvard, Sverzut; Alexandre Elias, Trivellato.

 
 
 
 
161

Seeing facial expressions enhances placebo analgesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strength of the placebo effect is influenced by social contexts and individual personality. Although facial expressions provide important contextual cues, no study of their influence on the placebo response has been performed hitherto. Here we tested (1) whether the observation of facial expressions with different emotional content (Neutral, Pain, and Happy) affects the magnitude of placebo analgesia, and (2) whether interindividual differences in personality traits interact with any modulation of placebo response induced by facial expression. Twenty-seven healthy participants underwent classical placebo conditioning, and subsequently rated the intensity and unpleasantness of their pain experience associated with nociceptive-specific laser pulses delivered to the right hand dorsum. On each trial, different visual cues signalled the occurrence of a laser stimulus alone or of a laser stimulus accompanied by a sham analgesic treatment. In the conditioning period, cues signalling the sham treatment were followed by laser stimuli whose intensity was surreptitiously lowered. In the test period, either cue was followed by laser stimuli of the same intensity. The observation of facial expressions with different emotional content enhanced significantly the placebo analgesia. In particular, a significantly greater analgesic effect was observed when facial expressions with emotional content were presented concomitantly to the nociceptive stimulation. The enhancement of placebo analgesia during the observation of facial expressions was not correlated with personality traits like empathy and behavioural activation/inhibition. These findings quantify for the first time the effect of facial expressions on the magnitude of placebo analgesia. PMID:24315986

Valentini, Elia; Martini, Matteo; Lee, Michael; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Iannetti, Giandomenico

2014-04-01

162

Bilateral facial palsy associated with leptospirosis  

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Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. It is an acute feverish disease with a broad clinical spectrum and follows a characteristic biphasic course. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical condition and the differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive. The objective of this exploratory study, presented as a case report, is to describe the occurrence of bilateral facial palsy as an unusual manifestation of leptospirosis. This suggestion should not be overlooked when analyzing the causes for bilateral facial palsy, and should be considered with other possible differential diagnoses, some of which are potentially fatal.

Andressa Alves da Silva

2009-08-01

163

Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided

1985-06-01

164

Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood.

Kalaydjieva Luba

2006-08-01

165

Giant sialocele following facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Lesões na região parotídea e massetérica podem causar danos importantes secundariamente à injúrias de estruturas anatômicas nobres. A sialocele é observada como um aumento de volume facial associado a ruptura do ducto parotídeo devido a trauma. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso de sialocele [...] parotídea gigante traumática, por arma branca, em uma paciente de 40 anos de idade. Em virtude do insucesso de medidas conservadoras de tratamento, uma intervenção cirúrgica por meio de instalação de um dreno à vácuo foi proposta. Sob anestesia local, uma pequena incisão foi realizada adjacente ao ducto da papila parotídea, seguida de divulsão do plano muscular e drenagem de quantidade significativa de saliva. Um dreno à vácuo foi instalado e mantido por 15 dias objetivando formar um novo ducto salivar. Esta técnica se mostrou segura, efetiva e de baixo custo, proporcionando a completa resolução do caso; não sendo observada recidiva em acompanhamento de 28 meses. Abstract in english Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in th [...] e parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was selected. Under local anesthesia, a small incision was performed adjacent to parotid duct papilla, followed by muscular divulsion and draining of significant amount of saliva. An active vacuum suction drain was placed for 15 days, aiming to form a new salivary duct. This technique was shown to be a safe, effective and low-cost option, leading to complete resolution and no recurrence after 28 months of follow up.

Rui, Medeiros Júnior; Alípio Miguel da, Rocha Neto; Isaac Vieira, Queiroz; Antônio de Figueiredo, Cauby; Luiz Alcino Monteiro, Gueiros; Jair Carneiro, Leão.

166

Software Antropmeter, una Nueva Herramienta para Análisis Facial Antropmeter Software, a New Tool for Facial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El análisis de las dimensiones y proporciones faciales es necesario en distintos ámbitos de la odontoestomatología y de la antropología física. En este informe presentamos el software Antropmeter, diseñado para realizar análisis de dimensiones y proporciones faciales, en base a fotografías estandarizadas, de fácil manejo por parte del clínico y de utilidad en análisis faciales estéticos y antropológicos.The dimensions and facial proportions analysis are necessary in different áreas of the odontostomatology and physical anthropology practice. In this report we present the Antropmeter software, designed to carry out analysis of dimensions and facial proportions, based on standardized pictures, of easy handling on the part of the clinical one and of utility in aesthetic and anthropological facial analysis.

Iván Suazo Galdames

2008-12-01

167

Facial nerve palsy associated with leptospirosis Paralisia facial associada à leptospirose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case report describes the findings of a 27-year-old black male from Bahia, Brazil, who developed facial palsy during the convalescence phase of leptospirosis. The patient recovered without neurological sequel. This work calls attention to a possible association between leptospirosis and facial palsy.Este relato de caso descreve os achados de um homem de 27 anos, residente na Bahia, Brasil, que desenvolveu paralisia facial durante a fase de convalescença da leptospirose. O paciente s...

Everaldo Costa; Edilson Sacramento; Antonio Alberto Lopes; José Carlos Bina

2001-01-01

168

Puckering and Blowing Facial Expressions in People With Facial Movement Disorders  

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Background and Purpose: People with facial movement disorders are instructed to perform various facial movements as part of their physical therapy rehabilitation. A difference in the movement of the orbicularis oris muscle has been demonstrated among people without facial nerve impairments when instructed to “pucker your lips” and to “blow, as if blowing out a candle.” The objective of this study was to determine whether the within-subject difference between “pucker your lips” and...

Denlinger, Rachel L.; Vanswearingen, Jessie M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Schmidt, Karen L.

2008-01-01

169

Facial Expression Recognition Using Angle-related Information From Facial Meshes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we introduce a newmethod for facial expression recognition. In order to be able to recognize the six main facial expressions [1] we use a grid approach and therefore we establish our new feature space based on the angles that each grid’s edge form. This way we undertake several affine transformations such as translation, rotation and scaling which in other approaches are considered very harmful in the overall accuracy of a facial expression recognition algorithm. We will there...

Vretos, N.; Solachidis, V.; Somol, P.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

170

An analysis of facial expression recognition under partial facial image occlusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, an analysis of the effect of partial occlusion on facial expression recognition is investigated. The classification from partially occluded images in one of the six basic facial expressions is performed using a method based on Gabor wavelets texture information extraction, a supervised image decomposition method based on Discriminant Non-negative Matrix Factorization and a shape-based method that exploits the geometrical displacement of certain facial features. We demonstrate h...

Kotsia, I.; Buciu, I.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

171

Intraparotid Facial Nerve Neurofibroma: an Uncommon Neoplasm Neurofibroma Intraparotídeo del Nervio Facial: una Neoplasia Poco Frecuente  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibromas are a rare entity, and are grossly and histopathologically distinct from the comparatively more prevalent schwannomas. We report a rare case of an intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma with intratemporal extension in a 48-year-old female. The tumor was surgically excised with cable grafting of the facial nerve. Electroneurography may eventually assist in the preoperative diagnosis. Facial nerve resection should be more readily contemplated in a patient with neurofibroma than in a patient with schwannoma; however, facial nerve preservation with serial follow-up electroneurography and computerized tomography remains a viable option in patients with small facial nerve neurofibromas when electrical testing reveals minimal evidence of progressive neural degeneration. Close monitoring, especially in neurofibromas associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease, is mandatory because of an increased risk of sarcomatous degeneration.Los neurofibromas intraparotídeos del nervio facial son una entidad poco frecuente, macroscópicamente e histopatológicamente diferentes de los comparativamente más frecuentes schwannomas. Se presenta un caso raro de un neurofibroma del nervio facial con extensión intraparotídea intratemporal en una mujer de 48 años de edad. El tumor se extirpó quirúrgicamente con injerto del nervio facial. La electroneurografía puede llegar a ayudar en el diagnóstico preoperatorio. La resección del nervio facial debe ser realizada con mayor facilidad en un paciente con neurofibroma que en un paciente con schwannoma, sin embargo, la preservación del nervio facial con electroneurografía de seguimiento y tomografía computarizada sigue siendo una opción viable en pacientes con pequeños neurofibromas del nervio facial, cuando las pruebas eléctricas revelan mínima evidencia de degeneración neuronal progresiva. Una estrecha vigilancia, especialmente en los neurofibromas asociados con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen es fundamental debido al aumento del riesgo de degeneración sarcomatosa.

Ashwani Sethi

2011-09-01

172

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks.

Kulkarni Saket S; Reddy Narender P; Si, Hariharan

2009-01-01

173

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operat...

Junghans Katharina; Rohrbach Saskia; Ellies Maik; Laskawi Rainer

2007-01-01

174

Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial de...

Agich, G.; Siemionow, M.

2005-01-01

175

Facial nerve palsy associated with leptospirosis Paralisia facial associada à leptospirose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case report describes the findings of a 27-year-old black male from Bahia, Brazil, who developed facial palsy during the convalescence phase of leptospirosis. The patient recovered without neurological sequel. This work calls attention to a possible association between leptospirosis and facial palsy.Este relato de caso descreve os achados de um homem de 27 anos, residente na Bahia, Brasil, que desenvolveu paralisia facial durante a fase de convalescença da leptospirose. O paciente se recuperou sem sequela neurológica. Este trabalho chama atenção para uma possível associação entre leptospirose e paralisia facial.

Everaldo Costa

2001-04-01

176

Facial nerve palsy associated with leptospirosis / Paralisia facial associada à leptospirose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este relato de caso descreve os achados de um homem de 27 anos, residente na Bahia, Brasil, que desenvolveu paralisia facial durante a fase de convalescença da leptospirose. O paciente se recuperou sem sequela neurológica. Este trabalho chama atenção para uma possível associação entre leptospirose e [...] paralisia facial. Abstract in english This case report describes the findings of a 27-year-old black male from Bahia, Brazil, who developed facial palsy during the convalescence phase of leptospirosis. The patient recovered without neurological sequel. This work calls attention to a possible association between leptospirosis and facial [...] palsy.

Costa, Everaldo; Sacramento, Edilson; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Bina, José Carlos.

177

Co2 Laser Resurfacing for Facial Rhytides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resurfacing of facial rhytides (periorbital crow-feet wrinkles) was performed in three cases by carbon dioxide laser (Sharplan® 1030 machine). Good to excellent results were observed. However, erythema and postinflammatory pigmentation were important side effects.

Jain, Vinod K.; Ghiya, B. C.; Gupta, Dhruv; Singhi, Mahendra K.

2008-01-01

178

Research on Dynamic Facial Expressions Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these eigen-sequences, and recognize six universal facial expressions: angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. And we developed an experimental system based on our algorithm. The experimental results show that the computing time and the error of vector quantization is reduced, while the classification efficiency is improved.

Xiaoning Peng

2009-04-01

179

Transient Facial Nerve Baroparesis: Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a rare case of facial paralysis that was unusual not only in its causation but also in its rapidity of onset and recovery. We describe a rare case history of this accruing in 35 years old women traveling at the high altitude mountain road referred to ENT clinic with sudden symptoms of middle ear effusion and facial nerve paralysis. Patient had undergone medical systemic steroid treatment and after 3-4 weeks she had a good recovery of facial palsy with a minimum remnant of sensory neural hearing loss. Facial nerve paralysis resulting from a barotrauma of the middle ear is suggested. The correct diagnosis of this condition is important and unnecessary treatment should be avoided.

M.M. Ardehali

2009-01-01

180

Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals tend to choose mates who are sufficiently genetically dissimilar to avoid inbreeding. As facial attractiveness is a key factor in human mate preference, we investigated whether facial preferences were related to genetic dissimilarity. We asked female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of men from photographs and compared these results with individual genotypes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast to previously reported preferences based on odour, we found ...

Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C.; Gosling, L. Morris; Jones, Benedict C.; Perrett, David I.; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

2005-01-01

182

Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face b...

Oravec, M.; Kristof, B.; Kolarik, M.; Pavlovicova, J.

2008-01-01

183

Towards facial mimicry for a virtual human  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mimicking others’ facial expressions is believed to be important in making virtual humans as more natural and believable. As result of an empirical study conducted with a virtual human a large face repertoire of about 6000 faces arranged in Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD-) space with respect to two dominance values (dominant vs. submissive) was obtained. Each face in the face repertoire consists of different intensities of the virtual human’s facial muscle actions called Action Units (AU...

Boukricha, Hana; Wachsmuth, Ipke

2009-01-01

184

The Surgical Management of Facial Nerve Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The surgical management of facial nerve injuries is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve anatomy, nerve physiology, and microsurgical techniques. When possible, primary neurorrhaphy is the “gold standard” repair technique. Injuries resulting in long nerve gaps or a significant delay between the time of injury and repair requires alterative techniques, such as nerve grafts, nerve transfers, regional muscle transfers, free tissue transfers, and static procedures. Scrupulo...

Rovak, Jason M.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2004-01-01

185

Petrous bone cholesteatoma and facial paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a series of patients with a petrous temporal bone cholesteatoma paying particular attention to the complications and their management. Sixteen patients who underwent surgery in our department were reviewed. Topographically, the petrous bone cholesteatomas were grouped into five categories according to the classification proposed by Sanna et al. There were five massive labyrinthine; five infralabyrinthine; one apical; four supralabyrinthine; and one infralabyrinthine-apical. Clinically, the presenting symptom of these lesions were facial nerve paralysis (10 patients) and unilateral deafness (13 patients). Total removal of the cholesteatomas was achieved in all patients using different surgical approaches according to their site and extent. Recurrences were observed in two patients after 8 months and 24 months, respectively. The facial nerve was infiltrated and compressed by the cholesteatoma in eight patients. Seven were managed with cable grafts using sural nerve. One of these patients was treated using a facial-hypoglossal anastomosis because of the failure of the graft. In the remaining patient, a baby-sitter procedure was employed. In the other two patients, the preoperative facial paralysis was due to compression by the cholesteatoma, and its removal allowed partial recovery of facial function. The rationale of the surgical management of petrous bone cholesteatoma is its radical and total removal. Our present policy is to prefer approaches which result in a closed cavity obliterating the eustachian tube and closing the auditory canal as a blind sac. Facial nerve function is the main complication of these lesions, Facial nerve involvement requires rapid management because the duration of the paralysis is directly related to poor recovery of facial function. PMID:9669076

Magliulo, G; Terranova, G; Sepe, C; Cordeschi, S; Cristofar, P

1998-06-01

186

Facial affect recognition in myasthenia gravis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of facial expression is an important aspect of a clinical neurological examination, both as an indicator of a mood disorder and as a sign of neurological damage. To date, although studies have been conducted on certain psychosocial aspects of myasthenia, such as quality of life and anxiety, and on neuropsychological aspects such as memory, no studies have directly assessed facial emotion recognition accuracy. The aim of this study was to assess the facial emotion recognition accuracy (fear, surprise, sadness, happiness, anger, and disgust), empathy, and reaction time of patients with myasthenia. Thirty-five patients with myasthenia and 36 healthy controls were tested for their ability to differentiate emotional facial expressions. Participants were matched with respect to age, gender, and education level. Their ability to differentiate emotional facial expressions was evaluated using the computer-based program Feel Test. The data showed that myasthenic patients scored significantly lower (p < 0.05) than healthy controls in the total Feel score, fear, surprise, and higher reaction time. The findings suggest that the ability to recognize facial affect may be reduced in individuals with myasthenia. PMID:23866249

Lázaro, Esther; Amayra, Imanol; López-Paz, Juan Francisco; Jometón, Amaia; Martín, Natalia; Caballero, Patricia; De Nicolás, Luís; Hoffmann, Holger; Kessler, Henrik; Ruiz, Begoña; Martínez, Oscar

2013-01-01

187

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

188

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence.

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

189

Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans  

Science.gov (United States)

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900–800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor.

Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; de Castro, Jose Maria Bermudez; Martinon-Torres, Maria; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L.; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G.

2013-01-01

190

Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest, happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ?a? like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It?s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

Mahyar Hamedi

2011-01-01

191

Avaliação dos fatores determinantes da estética do perfil facial Evaluation of the determinants of facial profile aesthetics  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da idade, do sexo, da relação oclusal sagital, do Padrão Facial e de 8 medidas do perfil facial sobre a estética do perfil. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas tabelas de contingência, o Teste Qui-quadrado e o coeficiente de Cramér para avaliar a possível associação entre a nota dada por 32 avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 6 artistas para a estética do perfil de 100 brasileiros - adultos, leucodermas, portadores de selamento labial passivo - e a idade, o sexo, a relação oclusal sagital, o Padrão Facial e as variáveis da análise facial numérica do perfil. RESULTADOS: não foi observada associação entre a idade, o sexo e a relação oclusal sagital e a estética do perfil facial. A associação foi observada entre a nota recebida para a estética do perfil e o Padrão Facial, o ângulo de convexidade facial e o ângulo do terço inferior da face. CONCLUSÃO: o Padrão Facial, definido na avaliação do perfil pela convexidade do perfil facial, e a projeção anterior do mento foram, entre os fatores avaliados, os determinantes para a estética do perfil facial.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of age, gender, sagittal occlusal relationship, facial pattern and 8 facial profile measures on profile aesthetics. METHODS: Contingency tables, chi-square test and Cramer's coefficient were used to evaluate the possible association between the scores assigned by 32 examiners (14 orthodontists, 12 laypeople and 6 artists to the aesthetics of the profile of 100 Brazilian Caucasian adults, all patients with lip seal competence, and age, gender, sagittal occlusal relationship, facial pattern and the variables of the numerical analysis of the facial profile. RESULTS: No association was found between age, gender and sagittal occlusal relationship and the aesthetics of facial profile. An association was observed between profile scores and facial pattern, facial convexity angle and lower face angle. CONCLUSIONS: Among the factors evaluated in this study, facial profile convexity and anterior chin projection were the key determinants of facial profile aesthetics.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

2011-02-01

192

Automated facial image analysis: detecting improvement in abnormal facial movement after treatment with botulinum toxin A.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Automated Facial Image Analysis (AFA) to detect changes in facial motion after Botox injections in patients with facial nerve disorders accompanied by abnormal muscle activity. Eight subjects received Botox for oral to ocular synkinesis (n = 6), ocular to oral synkinesis (n = 1), and/or depressor anguli oris overactivity (n = 3). Subjects were video-recorded during 2 directed facial action tasks before and after Botox treatment. AFA measurement and Facial Grading System (FGS) scores were used to evaluate the effects of Botox. After Botox, AFA detected a decrease in abnormal movements of the eyelids in all patients with oral to ocular synkinesis, a decrease in oral commissure movement for the patients with ocular to oral synkinesis, and an increase in oral commissure movement in all patients with depressor overactivity. The FGS scores failed to demonstrate any change in facial movement for the case of ocular to oral synkinesis and for 2 cases of depressor overactivity. AFA enables recognition of subtle changes in facial movement that may not be adequately measured by observer based ratings of facial function. PMID:17197940

Rogers, Carolyn R; Schmidt, Karen L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Wachtman, Galen S; Manders, Ernest K; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

2007-01-01

193

Parálisis facial: ¿siempre parálisis de Bell? / Facial paralysis: always Bell's palsy?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La parálisis facial periférica es un motivo de consulta relativamente frecuente en Atención Primaria, afectando de forma similar a hombres y mujeres. La parálisis facial periférica más frecuente es la de causa idiopática o parálisis de Bell, en un 70% de los casos. Otras etiologías menos frecuentes [...] son los traumatismos, infección por virus o la posible causa neoplásica, ya sea por un tumor intracraneal o extracraneal. La sintomatología clínica más relevante es la afectación de la musculatura facial existiendo una recuperación completa hasta en el 80% de los casos. El tratamiento depende de la etiología, siendo el más aceptado para la parálisis de Bell el uso de corticoides. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven con parálisis facial refractaria al tratamiento en Atención Primaria. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis is a relatively common reason for primary care consultations, affecting males and females similarly. The most common peripheral facial paralysis is that of idiopathic origin or Bell's palsy, in 70% of cases. Other less frequent aetiologies are injuries, viral infections o [...] r a possible neoplastic cause, whether from an intra-cranial or extra-cranial tumour. The most important clinical symptom is that affecting the facial muscles, with a full recovery in up to 80% of cases. Treatment is dependent on aetiology, with the most widely accepted being that for Bell's palsy; the use of corticosteroids. We present the case of a young female patient with refractory facial paralysis under primary healthcare treatment.

Jonathan, Valdez González; Francisco José, Román Pérez; Beatriz, Ponce Moreno; Elena, Pérez Guerra; Vicente, Martín Díaz.

194

Facial bite wounds: management update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bite wounds are frequently located on the face; injuries inflicted by dogs are most common, especially in children. Bacteriology of infected dog and cat bite wounds includes Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, and oral anaerobes. Infected human bites yield a similar spectrum of bacteria except for Pasteurellae and C. canimorsus; instead human bites are frequently complicated by Eikenella corrodens. Antibiotic therapy against these bacteria is indicated both for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (and other combinations of extended-spectrum penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors) and moxifloxacin offer the best in vitro coverage of the pathogenic flora. Initial wound management consisting in irrigation and debridement is at least equally important with antibiotics for prevention of infection. The need for prophylaxis against systemic infectious complications, particularly tetanus, should also be evaluated. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most clinically uninfected facial bite wounds, whereas delayed closure should be reserved for certain high risk or already infected wounds. Avulsive injuries with significant tissue loss represent the most difficult cases for definitive management and are also those most likely to require hospitalization. PMID:16053863

Stefanopoulos, P K; Tarantzopoulou, A D

2005-07-01

195

Medidas faciais antropométricas de adultos segundo tipo facial e sexo / Adult facial anthropometric measurements according to facial type and gender  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: descrever medidas antropométricas faciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram comparados [...] os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo de face com sete medidas antropométricas faciais diretas: altura facial anterior- násio ao mentoniano; distância bizigomática- zigomático esquerdo ao direito; altura do terço facial inferior- subnasal ao mentoniano; altura da face média- násio ao estômio; altura do queixo- supramentoniano ao mentoniano; altura da face inferior- estômio ao mentoniano; e altura facial posterior- condílio ao gônio. RESULTADOS: para o sexo masculino, os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para os valores médios das medidas antropométricas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média e altura da face inferior. Para o sexo feminino, diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram encontradas nas medidas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média, altura da face inferior e altura facial posterior. CONCLUSÃO: houve dimorfismo sexual para todas as medidas antropométricas obtidas, as quais tiveram valores médios maiores para o sexo masculino quando comparados ao feminino. Os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para quatro medidas antropométricas do sexo masculino e cinco do feminino. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe anthropometric measurements in adults according to facial type and gender. METHODS: 105 Caucasian adults took part, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%) with ages between 20 and 40-year old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings f [...] rom the cephalometric analysis were compared for determining facial type with seven direct anthropometric measurements: anterior face height- nasion to menton; distance bizygomatique- zygion left to right; lower face height- subnasale to menton; middle face height- nasion to stomion; chin height- supramenton to menton; inferior face height- stomion to menton; and posterior face height- condylion to gonion. RESULTS: for male, the facial types classified by means of cephalometry had significant statistical differences for the average values of the anthropometric measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height and inferior face height. For female, significant statistical differences were found in the following measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height, inferior face height and posterior face height. CONCLUSION: there was sexual dimorphism for all collected anthropometric measurements. The male showed higher average values when compared with the female. The facial types classified by means of cephalometry showed significant statistical differences in four anthropometric measurements, for male and five for female.

Rossana Ribeiro, Ramires; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira; Irene Queiroz, Marchesan; Débora Martins, Cattoni; Marta Assumpção de, Andrada e Silva.

196

Lightning Ratios  

Science.gov (United States)

Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.

197

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda / Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação d [...] e patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman) e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman). O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável. Abstract in english Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this associati [...] on, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman) and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman). Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Yonamine, Fernando Kaoru; Tuma, Juliane; Silva, Rogério Fernandes Nunes da; Soares, Maria Claudia Mattos; Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel.

198

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

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Full Text Available A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação de patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman. O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável.Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this association, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman. Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Fernando Kaoru Yonamine

2009-04-01

199

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequência de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%, a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5% tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8% pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita.BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facial paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2% underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5% showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8% sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Kátia Torres Batista

2011-12-01

200

3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease

1994-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism  

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Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

Nicholas Lange

2013-07-01

202

Higher-level mechanisms detect facial symmetry  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of symmetry detection in early visual processing and the sensitivity of biological visual systems to symmetry across a wide range of organisms suggest that symmetry can be detected by low-level visual mechanisms. However, computational and functional considerations suggest that higher-level mechanisms may also play a role in facial symmetry detection. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether symmetry detection is better for faces than comparable patterns, which share low-level properties with faces. Symmetry detection was better for upright faces than for inverted faces (experiment 1) and contrast-reversed faces (experiment 2), implicating high-level mechanisms in facial symmetry detection. In addition, facial symmetry detection was sensitive to spatial scale, unlike low-level symmetry detection mechanisms (experiment 3), and showed greater sensitivity to a 45° deviation from vertical than is found for other aspects of face perception (experiment 4). These results implicate specialized, higher-level mechanisms in the detection of facial symmetry. This specialization may reflect perceptual learning resulting from extensive experience detecting symmetry in faces or evolutionary selection pressures associated with the important role of facial symmetry in mate choice and ‘mind-reading’ or both.

Rhodes, Gillian; Peters, Marianne; Lee, Kieran; Morrone, M. Concetta; Burr, David

2005-01-01

203

Fetal facial abnormalities identified during obstetric sonography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The orbits and, if readily accessible, the facial profile were visualized as part of a brief fetal anatomy survey during approximately 7100 low-risk and high-risk obstetric sonographic examinations. This examination identified 17 facial abnormalities in 11 fetuses. There were seven abnormalities of the eyes, including three instances of absence of both eyes, two of hypertelorism, one of proptosis, and one of relative prominence. There were seven abnormalities of the nose, including three instances of marked flattening, one of absence, one of a proboscis, one of a single nostril, and one of a sunken appearance. There were two abnormally small chins. There was one marked cleft that involved the nose, lip, and palate. At least two fetuses with abnormal faces were missed entirely and coexistent facial abnormalities were missed in another three fetuses. Of the 11 fetuses with facial abnormalities identified, eight had other structural abnormalities as well, and the other three had either polyhydramnios or a history of teratogen exposure. A brief facial examination done as part of the fetal anatomy survey helps to identify abnormalities in high-risk fetuses but is considerably less productive in low-risk fetuses. PMID:3543386

Hegge, F N; Prescott, G H; Watson, P T

1986-12-01

204

Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant's response or the sender's true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practice effects often observed in cognitive tasks. PMID:24578686

Huelle, Jan O; Sack, Benjamin; Broer, Katja; Komlewa, Irina; Anders, Silke

2014-01-01

205

Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects' facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response. PMID:17121065

Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith D; Berge, Cynthia A

2006-10-01

206

Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills  

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Full Text Available Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practise without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear and sadness was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practise effects often observed in cognitive tasks.

SilkeAnders

2014-02-01

207

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação / Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequê [...] ncia de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%), a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5%) tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8%) pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facia [...] l paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2%) underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5%) showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8%) sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Batista, Kátia Torres.

208

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

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Full Text Available An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something about the human’s emotions and mood. This paper focuses on the novel Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm (HFGA and comparative analysis of Facial Geometry algorithm and HFGA for facial feature extraction and its use to classify facial expressions. Feed forward back propagation neural network (BPNN and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS are used as classifiers for expression classification and recognition. Experimentations are carried out using Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Experimental results shows that average recognition efficiency from 95.33% to 93.33% is achieved for 30 to 75 test samples using BPNN and 95.71% to 95.33% with ANFIS approach.

Sunanda P. Khandait

2013-03-01

209

The many facets of facial interactions in mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial interactions are prominent behaviors in primates. Primate facial signaling, which includes the expression of emotions, mimicking of facial movements, and gaze interactions, is visually dominated. Correspondingly, in primate brains an elaborate network of face processing areas exists within visual cortex. But other mammals also communicate through facial interactions using additional sensory modalities. In rodents, multisensory facial interactions are involved in aggressive behaviors and social transmission of food preferences. The eusocial naked mole-rat, whose face is dominated by prominent incisors, uses facial aggression to enforce reproductive suppression. In burrow-living mammals like the naked mole-rat in particular, and in rodents in general, somatosensory face representations in cortex are enlarged. Diversity of sensory domains mediating facial communication might belie underlying common mechanisms. As a case in point, neurogenetics has revealed strongly heritable traits in face processing and identified gene defects that disrupt facial interactions both in humans and rodents. PMID:22209040

Brecht, Michael; Freiwald, Winrich A

2012-04-01

210

Genetics Home Reference: Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (often shortened to CCFDN ) ... definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is CCFDN? Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (CCFDN) is a rare ...

211

A Study of Techniques for Facial Detection and Expression Classification  

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Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions is an important component for human-machine interfaces. It has lot of attraction in research area since 1990's.Although humans recognize face without effort or delay, recognition by a machine is still a challenge. Some of its challenges are highly dynamic in their orientation, lightening, scale, facial expression and occlusion. Applications are in the fields like user authentication, person identification, video surveillance, information security, data privacy etc. The various approaches for facial recognition are categorized into two namely holistic based facial recognition and feature based facial recognition. Holistic based treat the image data as one entity without isolating different region in the face where as feature based methods identify certain points on the face such as eyes, nose and mouth etc. In this paper, facial expression recognition is analyzed with various methods of facial detection,facial feature extraction and classification.

G.Hemalatha

2014-04-01

212

Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis complicated with peripheral facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of an acute febrile illness with liver dysfunction. A peripheral blood smear displayed atypical lymphocytes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis was diagnosed based on the detection of CMV-specific IgM and conventional CMV pp65 antigen. The physical examination on admission revealed signs of lower motor neuron right facial palsy. There were no significant cerebrospinal fluid findings, nor were there other neurological abnormalities. After receiving a short-course of oral corticosteroids, the patient gradually recovered from the facial paralysis. A one-month follow-up examination indicated that she had fully recovered neurologically, showing disappearance of CMV-DNA and a significant increase in the anti-CMV IgG titer. To our knowledge, there has been only one previous report describing CMV as the cause of an isolated facial palsy combined with CMV mononucleosis. PMID:24681941

Hirano, Taichi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

2014-03-01

213

Incidencia de las lesiones cutáneas malignas faciales  

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Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de las lesiones malignas de la piel facial en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey en los años 2000 y 2001. La información se obtuvo de 148 historias clínicas con el diagnóstico de lesiones malignas de la piel, de las cuales 42 correspondieron a lesiones de localización facial. La entidad que nos ocupa fue mayor en pacientes mayores de 50 años de edad, blancos, masculinos, con predominio en el tercio medio facial. Los principales tipos histológicos fueron: el carcinoma basocelular y el espinocelular, pero con mayor predominio en el primero. Se revisa el tema y se comparan nuestros resultados con los de otros autores.

Jorge Luis Zequeira Peña

2003-04-01

214

Incidencia de las lesiones cutáneas malignas faciales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realiza un estudio de las lesiones malignas de la piel facial en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey en los años 2000 y 2001. La información se obtuvo de 148 historias clínicas con el diagnóstico de lesiones malignas de la piel, de las cuales 42 [...] correspondieron a lesiones de localización facial. La entidad que nos ocupa fue mayor en pacientes mayores de 50 años de edad, blancos, masculinos, con predominio en el tercio medio facial. Los principales tipos histológicos fueron: el carcinoma basocelular y el espinocelular, pero con mayor predominio en el primero. Se revisa el tema y se comparan nuestros resultados con los de otros autores.

Jorge Luis, Zequeira Peña; Oscar, García-Roco Pérez; Miguel, Arredondo López.

215

Facial dysostoses: Etiology, pathogenesis and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A; Andrews, Brian T

2013-11-01

216

Automatic Facial Spots and Acnes Detection System  

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Full Text Available Recently medical cosmetic has attracted significant business opportunity. Micro cosmetic surgery usually involves invasive cosmetic procedures such as non-ablative laser procedure for skin rejuvenation. However, to select an appropriate treatment for skin relies on accurate preoperative evaluations. In this paper, an automatic facial skin defects detection and recognition method is proposed. The system first locates the facial region from the input image. Then, the shapes of faces were recognized using a contour descriptor. The facial features are extracted to define regions of interest and an image segment method is used to extract potential defect. A support-vector-machine-based classifier is then used to classify the potential defects into spots, acnes and normal skin. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

Chuan-Yu Chang

2013-01-01

217

Robust Automatic Facial Expression Detection Method  

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Full Text Available Recently, the recognition of occluded facial expressions attract more and more people’s attention. Sparse representation based classification (SRC method gives good performance on face recognition (FR and facial expression recognition (FER, well-known for its robustness to occlusion. Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG descriptors are very efficient to represent the shape information of different facial expressions and robust to various illumination. Since, this paper proposes a novel method by using HOG descriptors conjunction with SRC framework for FER. Experiment results show that the proposed method gives better performance than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is not only robust to assigned occlusions, but also to random occlusions.

Yan OuYang

2013-07-01

218

Manifold based methods in facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel method for facial expression recognition based on non-linear manifold techniques. The graph-based algorithms are designed to treat structure in data, and regularize accordingly. This same goal is shared by several other algorithms, from linear method principal components analysis (PCA) to modern variants such as Laplacian eigenmaps. In this paper we focus on manifold learning for dimensionality reduction and clustering using Laplacian eigenmaps for facial expression recognition. We evaluate the algorithm by using all the pixels and selected features respectively and compare the performance of the proposed non-linear manifold method with the previous linear manifold approach, and the non linear method produces higher recognition rate than the facial expression representation using linear methods.

Xie, Kun

2013-07-01

219

Facial Reconstruction after a Complicated Gunshot Injury  

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Full Text Available Facial gunshot injuries are unusual and complicated clinical entities. Because of themechanism of injury, early aggressive primary reconstruction might not be ideal. Initial conservativemanagement followed by staged secondary reconstruction could be performed toobtain satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Reconstruction of the cranio-maxillofacialdeformities requires a multi-disciplinary approach, the same way as for patients withcleft lip/palate deformities. We present a male patient with severe facial gunshot injuries. Ateam approach revealed maxilla recession, dental malocclusion, a large oronasal fistula overhis hard palate, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and a stable psychosocial status. His mainconcern was facial appearance, which included the nose, lip, and scars. Staged reconstructionswere performed, consisting of orthognathic surgery, rhinoplasty, lip-switch flap, andrevisions of scars. A satisfactory outcome was obtained. The results indicated the importanceof preoperative evaluation and treatment planning for this uncommon problem.

Vanna Long

2002-08-01

220

Repeated facial palsies after chlorocresol inhalation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 42-year-old woman who experienced more than 50 attacks of left-sided facial palsies after exposure to chlorocresol was studied. Only muscles around the left side of the mouth were affected. On neurophysiological testing during chlorocresol provocation the only abnormality was a loss of motor units during maximal contraction of the left orbicularis oris muscle. This could be explained by a peripheral as well as a central effect. Extensive electrophysiological examination without chlorocresol provocation excluded a preexisting generalised nerve disorder and other diagnostic procedures did not give evidence of pathology involving the left facial nerve. A hyperreactive mechanism causing a transient block of the left facial nerve is proposed. Images

D?ssing, M; Wulff, C H; Olsen, P Z

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Color stability of polymers for facial prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Color stability of resin and silicone is an important factor for longevity of facial prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resins and silicone for facial prostheses. Three brands of acrylic resin and 1 of facial silicone were evaluated considering pigment incorporation for the colorless materials. Ten samples of each material were fabricated and submitted to measurements of chromatic alteration initially and after 252, 504, and 1008 hours of weathering through visual analysis and spectrophotometry. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey test (P MDX4-4210 and between pigmented and colorless Classico acrylic resin was statistically significant for the 3 weathering periods. Aging for 1008 hours represented a significant influence on color alteration of all resins. All materials presented chromatic alteration after accelerated artificial aging. PMID:20061973

dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Ribeiro, Paula do Prado; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

2010-01-01

222

Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

1996-02-01

223

Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

1996-02-01

224

[Facial nerve and petrous bone cholesteatoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis and treatment of petrous bone cholesteatoma is a challenge to aural surgeons. Seven patients with extensive petrous bone cholesteatomas which invaded the labyrinth and fallopian canal are presented. These cholesteatomas originated as secondary to acquired lesions. The cases were evaluated according to the clinical features, the intraoperative findings, the radiological findings, and the surgical approaches. In this series, six patients presented with facial paralysis associated with profound or total deafness. The transtemporal lateral approach was used in all the cases. Acute facial nerve palsy or facial nerve pareses progressing to palsy in patients with chronic ear disease should be studied radiographically for petrous bone cholesteatoma, even if there is no physical evidence of cholesteatoma. PMID:8031580

Li, Z

1993-01-01

225

Aspectos neurofisiológicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: revisão teórica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiológicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial periférica. MÉTODOS: revisão da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos periódicos nacionais e internacionais e nos livros científicos sobre o tema, no período entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referências neste trabalho. Destas, 20 sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em três grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Características morfológicas e histoquímicas dos músculos da face e III - Denervação e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impressão dos autores, são relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitação da paralisia facial.PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophysiology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

Adriana Tessitore

2008-03-01

226

Aspectos neurofisiológicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial / Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: revisão teórica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiológicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial periférica. MÉTODOS: revisão da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos periódicos n [...] acionais e internacionais e nos livros científicos sobre o tema, no período entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referências neste trabalho. Destas, 20 sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em três grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Características morfológicas e histoquímicas dos músculos da face e III - Denervação e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impressão dos autores, são relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitação da paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international [...] journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophysiology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

Tessitore, Adriana; Pfelsticker, Leopoldo Nisan; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato.

227

Meta-Analysis of the First Facial Expression Recognition Challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automatic facial expression recognition has been an active topic in computer science for over two decades, in particular facial action coding system action unit (AU) detection and classification of a number of discrete emotion states from facial expressive imagery. Standardization and comparability have received some attention; for instance, there exist a number of commonly used facial expression databases. However, lack of a commonly accepted evaluation protocol and, typically, lack of suffi...

Valstar, Michel F.; Mehu, Marc; Jiang, Bihan; Pantic, Maja; Scherer, Klaus

2012-01-01

228

Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other proposed methods as shown in experiment results.

Dr.R.Parthasarathi

2011-01-01

229

Facial Expression Recognition based on Affine Moment Invariants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial Expression Recognition is rapidly becoming area of interest in computer science and human computer interaction because the most expressive way of displaying the emotions by human is through the facial expressions. In this paper, recognition of facial expression is studied with the help of several properties associated with the face itself. As facial expression changes, the curvatures on the face and properties of the objects such as, eyebrows, nose, lips and mouth area changes. We have...

Londhe, Renuka R.; Pawar, Vrushsen P.

2012-01-01

230

Rehabilitation of the paralysed face: Results of facial nerve surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The case notes of 34 patients undergoing rehabilitative facial nerve surgery between 1978 and 1994 were retrospectively examined. Thirteen patients underwent facio-hypoglossal transposition with six achieving a facial nerve grade of IV (House-Brackmann scale) at 24 months post-surgery. Twelve patients underwent cable grafting of the facial nerve defect. Of these, 10 achieved a grade III result at 24 months. Nine patients underwent end to end anastomosis of the facial nerve, seven achieving a ...

Saeed, S. R.; Ramsden, R. T.

1996-01-01

231

The submental island flap for reconstruction of facial defects.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The procedure of facial resurfacing dictates that there should be an excellent colour and texture match between the facial and the transposed skin. Cervical flaps e.g. platysma flap are commonly used for reconstruction of facial defects but, with disadvantages like limited mobility, unacceptable donor site and unpredictable outcomes. The submental island flap is a new addition to the armamentorium of the Plastic Surgeon. It is an axial pattern flap based on the submental branch of facial arte...

Prabhune K; Patni S; Gomes D; Bhathena H; Kavarana N

1998-01-01

232

Gender and 3D Facial Symmetry: What's the Relationship?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although it is valuable information that human faces are approximately symmetric, in the literature of facial attributes recognition, little consideration has been given to the relationship between gender, age, ethnicity, etc. and facial asymmetry. In this paper we present a new approach based on bilateral facial asymmetry for gender classification. For that purpose, we propose to first capture the facial asymmetry by using Deformation Scalar Field (DSF) applied on each 3D face, then train su...

Xia, Baiqiang; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Drira, Hassen; Daoudi, Mohamed; Ballihi, Lahoucine

2013-01-01

233

Bilateral transverse facial cleft as an isolated deformity: Case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transverse facial clefts are rare deformities, these mostly occur as part of syndromes such as facial dysostosis and branchial arch syndrome. This is a report of a case of isolated, asyndromic bilateral facial cleft seen at a semi-urban specialist hospital. Congenital facial defects remain sources of mental and social stress to the families. Infanticide, perhaps a thing of the past in the developed world may still be practiced in cases of congenital deformities in the developing countries, he...

2007-01-01

234

Recognition of 3D facial expression dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose a method that exploits 3D motion-based features between frames of 3D facial geometry sequences for dynamic facial expression recognition. An expressive sequence is modelled to contain an onset followed by an apex and an offset. Feature selection methods are applied in order to extract features for each of the onset and offset segments of the expression. These features are then used to train GentleBoost classifiers and build a Hidden Markov Model in order to model the ...

Sandbach, Georgia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Rueckert, Daniel

2012-01-01

235

Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patrick J BowlerCourt House Clinics, London, UKAbstract: The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed.Keywords: facial aging, botulinum toxin, dermal fillers, combination therapy, cosmetic market

Patrick J Bowler

2009-01-01

236

Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

J. Pavlovicova

2008-09-01

237

Automated prediction of preferences using facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a computer vision problem from social cognition, namely, the automated detection of attitudes from a person's spontaneous facial expressions. To illustrate the challenges, we introduce two simple algorithms designed to predict observers' preferences between images (e.g., of celebrities) based on covert videos of the observers' faces. The two algorithms are almost as accurate as human judges performing the same task but nonetheless far from perfect. Our approach is to locate facial landmarks, then predict preference on the basis of their temporal dynamics. The database contains 768 videos involving four different kinds of preferences. We make it publically available. PMID:24503553

Masip, David; North, Michael S; Todorov, Alexander; Osherson, Daniel N

2014-01-01

238

Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

2009-01-01

239

TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain  

Science.gov (United States)

... Facial Pain TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain Submitted by Admin on Wed, 2007-10-24 14:42 Type: Consumer Daniel M. Laskin, D.D.S., M.S., Director Temporomandibular Joint and Facial Pain Research Center University of Illinois Medical Center ...

240

An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic ratios and"nsizes, among Canadian and Isfahanian young adults, the results obtained from Canadian race, should not"nbe applied as a criteria for Iranian surgical and dental treatment plans. Due to the wide racial"ncombinations in Iran, more studies, with wider variations, should be conducted among different Iranian"nraces.

Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

2003-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application; Case report  

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Background: Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed.

Junghans, Katharina; Rohrbach, Saskia; Ellies, Maik; Laskawi, Rainer

2007-01-01

242

Facial Caricaturing Robot “COOPER" for Proposing New Facial Media and Its Field Test at EXPO2005  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed the facial caricaturing robot “COOPER” that was exhibited at the Prototype Robot Exhibition of EXPO 2005, Aichi Japan during 11 days from Jun.9 to Jun.19. COOPER watches the face of a person seated at the chair, obtains facial images, and analyzes the images to extract 251 feature points to generate his facial line drawings with deformation. It is noted that the caricature was drawn on the specialized “Shrimp rice cracker” in about 4 minutes. To do this, we customized the original system PICASSO by coping with the illumination circumstances in EXPO pavilion. This paper illustrates the outline of the COOPER and the details of the image processing in it. And we discuses on the prospects of the future subjects based on more than 352 facial caricatures obtained at EXPO2005.

Funahashi, Takuma; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Tokuda, Naoya; Takino, Fuminori; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

243

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

Ellies Maik

2007-08-01

244

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

Junghans, Katharina; Rohrbach, Saskia; Ellies, Maik; Laskawi, Rainer

2007-01-01

245

Shape analysis of local facial patches for 3D facial expression recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we address the problem of 3D facial expression recognition. We propose a local geometric shape analysis of facial surfaces coupled with machine learning techniques for expression classification. A computation of the length of the geodesic path between corresponding patches, using a Riemannian framework, in a shape space provides a quantitative information about their similarities. These measures are then used as inputs to several classification methods. The experimental results ...

Maalej, Ahmed; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Daoudi, Mohamed; Srivastava, Anuj; Berretti, Stefano

2011-01-01

246

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

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An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI) will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something abou...

Khandait, Sunanda P.; Thool, R. C.; Khandait, Prabhakar D.

2013-01-01

247

Trauma facial: análise de 194 casos Facial trauma: analysis of 194 cases  

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INTRODUÇÃO: O trauma facial tem crescido em importância para a Cirurgia Plástica, especialmente nas últimas quatro décadas, tendo estreita relação com o aumento de acidentes automobilísticos e violência urbana. O presente estudo objetiva traçar um perfil dos pacientes que sofreram esse tipo de trauma. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 194 casos de trauma facial atendidos em serviço de referência em Fortaleza (Ceará), entre 2005 e 2009. Os dados obtidos foram entrecruzados e classificado...

2011-01-01

248

Analysis of facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis  

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Full Text Available Objective: In order to provide an objective observational index for facial neuritis, the authors monitored the changes of facial far-infrared thermogram in patients with acute facial neuritis.Methods: A total of 23 patients with acute facial neuritis were enrolled from Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Chinese PLA General Hospital. Another 21 healthy participants were selected as the control group. Focal plane thermal imaging system (thermal sensitivity 0.05 ? was applied to collect facial far-infrared thermogram. Temperature differences in the thermogram of both sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead of the same patient were compared separately and statistically and analyzed by software provided by the imaging system.Results: Results of far-infrared thermography of the patients displayed obvious temperature differences ranging from 0.01 to 0.26 ? between two sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead areas. In the control group, far-infrared thermogram showed that there were no obvious temperature differences between two sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead. There were significant differences in temperature difference in the four monitoring areas between the two groups (P<0.01. Among the 23 patients, there were 14 patients with congestive change, 7 with ischemic change and 2 with both congestive and ischemic changes.Conclusion: The facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis is characterized mainly by congestive changes. Far-infrared thermography can objectively reflect the changes of blood-supply status in patients with facial neuritis.

Zhang-ling Zhou

2011-11-01

249

Postoperative Care of the Facial Laceration  

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The purpose of this investigation is to examine factors involved in the postoperative care of traumatic lacerations. An evidence-based comprehensive literature review was conducted. There are a limited number of scientifically proven studies that guide surgeons and emergency room physicians on postoperative care. Randomized controlled trials must be conducted to further standardize the postoperative protocol for simple facial lacerations.

Medel, Nicholas; Panchal, Neeraj; Ellis, Edward

2010-01-01

250

Legionnaires' Disease with Facial Nerve Palsy  

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Legionnaires' disease is primarily a pneumonic process caused by Legionella pneumophilia, a gram-negative aerobic bacillus but also has multiple system involvement. The most common manifestation is encephalopathy suggesting a generalized brain dysfunction but focal neurological manifestations have been reported. We report a patient with Legionella pneumonia associated with cerebellar dysfunction and unilateral facial nerve weakness. 51-year-old

Basani, Shailesh R.; Ahmed, Salwa Mohamed; Habte-gabr, Eyassu

2011-01-01

251

Degloving facial injury treated with hydroconductive dressing.  

Science.gov (United States)

COMPLEX, OPEN MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES ARE OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY EXTENSIVE CONTAMINATION, CRUSH, OR AVULSION OF THE OVERLYING SOFT TISSUE, THERE HAVE BEEN TWO ALTERNATIVES TO TREATMENT: either radical debridement of all contaminated tissue, fixation of the underlying fractures, and soft tissue closure by pedicle flap or graft is done; or more conservative debridement is repeated multiple times until the contaminated tissue is removed and fracture fixation is deemed safe. Debridement is usually accomplished by sharp debridement or with high-pressure intermittent irrigation or some combination of both modalities. The problems with this standard treatment in the face are that facial features may be distorted, superficial branches of the facial and/or trigeminal nerve can be inadvertently sacrificed (even with the use of nerve stimulators), and scarring can distort contours and radically change facial appearance. A serious facial degloving injury with necrotic malodorous tissue and no clear anatomical delineations demanded special attention. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the management of a soft tissue avulsive contaminated injury of the face with underlying maxillofacial fractures. PMID:23662267

Perumal, Colin; Bouckaert, Michael; Robson, Martin

2013-01-01

252

Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations  

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The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed.

2009-01-01

253

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions.Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers’ age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces.

MaraFölster

2014-02-01

254

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces.

Folster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

2014-01-01

255

Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media. PMID:16319234

Agich, G J; Siemionow, M

2005-12-01

256

Bell's palsy: a facial nerve paralysis diagnosis of exclusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bell's Palsy is not synonymous with facial nerve paralysis. While it is a common cause of facial nerve paralysis, it is a diagnosis of exclusion and other causes of facial nerve paralysis should be ruled out by appropriate evaluation and follow-up. A case report is presented of a patient with a facial nerve paralysis, which was initially diagnosed as Bell's Palsy, but which was found to be a poorly differentiated parotid malignancy causing facial nerve paralysis. A review and discussion of Bells Palsy, evaluation and treatment is presented. PMID:2362620

Yetter, M F; Ogren, F P; Moore, G F; Yonkers, A J

1990-05-01

257

Complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) injection in facial augmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation for more than a decade. In recent years, PAAG has been advocated as a safe soft tissue filler for facial augmentation. However, the complications associated with PAAG injection in facial augmentation have not been widely covered in the literature. We present two cases of severe complications associated with PAAG injection in facial augmentation, including bony erosion and facial ulcer. Further studies are required to support the safety of PAAG in facial injection. PMID:19540824

Liu, H L; Cheung, W Y

2010-01-01

258

Expression and communication of doubt/uncertainty through facial expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a wide debate on the mental state of doubt/uncertainty; one wonderswhether it is a predominantly cognitive or emotional state of mind and whethertypical facial expressions communicate doubt/uncertainty. To this purpose,through a role playing procedure, a large sample of expressions were collected andafterwards evaluated through a combination of encoding and decoding procedures,including also FACS (Facial Action Coding System analysis. The resultshave partially confirmed our hypothesis, identifying two typical facial expressionsof doubt/uncertainty, which share the same facial actions in the inferior part ofthe face and show differential facial actions in the upper face.

Pio E. Ricci Bitti

2014-04-01

259

An analysis of facial bone fractures on CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer tomography of the facial bones provides the maxillo-facial surgeon with valuable information regarding the type and extent of typical mid-facial fractures (Le Fort fractures I to III, fractures of the malar bone, orbital fractures, fractures of the skull base close to the facial bones). The procedure takes little extra time. The patient is saved additional investigations, requiring changes in position which may, at times, be hazardous. Our experience extends to 59 examinations, which is used for an analysis of mid-facial fractures. Some typical examples are given. (orig.)

1982-01-01

260

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos / Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à com [...] pressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Abstract in english Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression les [...] ion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p

Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto.

 
 
 
 
261

Facial expression (mood recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases, from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection.

Hariharan SI

2009-08-01

262

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo: elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial.PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients were evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles. CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Daniele Fontes Ferreira Bernardes

2010-02-01

263

Recognition of 3D facial expression from posed data  

Science.gov (United States)

Although recognition of facial expression in 3D facial images has been an active research area, most of the prior works are limited to using full frontal facial images. These techniques primarily project 3D facial image on 2D and manually select landmarks in 2D projection to extract relevant features. Face recognition in 2D images can be challenging due to unconstrained conditions such as head pose, occlusion, and resulting loss of data. Similarly, pose variation in 3D facial imaging can also result in loss of data. In most of the current 3D facial recognition works, when 3D posed face data are projected onto 2D, additional data loss may render 2D facial expression recognition even more challenging. In comparison, this work proposes novel feature extraction directly from the 3D facial posed images without the need of manual selection of landmarks or projection of images in 2D space. This feature is obtained as the angle between consecutive 3D normal vectors on the vertex points aligned either horizontally or vertically across the 3D facial image. Our facial expression recognition results show that the feature obtained from vertices aligned vertically across the face yields the best accuracy for classification with an average 87.8% area under the ROC. The results further suggest that the same feature outperforms its horizontal counterpart in recognizing facial expressions for pose variation between 35º - 50º with average accuracy of 80% - 60%, respectively.

Samad, Manar D.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

2013-05-01

264

A novel human-machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multichannel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Fron-tails and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passes through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs. rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. (author)

2011-12-01

265

Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture. PMID:24029906

Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

2013-11-01

266

Guide of maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns Guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The guide for maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns has been developed on the basis of the results obtained in a retrospective descriptive study of a series of patients for facial burns, were treated in serving Burned Cienfuegos University General Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "between January 2005 and September 2007. The document describes the set of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, both general and local, to treat patients with facial b...

Eduardo Duarte Marrero; Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

2010-01-01

267

An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However, the irradiated graft group had a greater proportion of patients with pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p = 0.007) and unfavorable type of nerve graft (p = 0.04). Although the irradiated graft cohort had more potentially negative prognostic factors, there was no difference in functional outcome (H-B Grade III or IV) between irradiated and unirradiated graft patients. H-B Grades III, IV, V, and VI were the best postoperative facial nerve functions achieved in 35%, 39%, 13%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The patient with preoperative radiotherapy never recovered any facial nerve function (H-B Grade VI). Median time to best facial nerve function after surgery was longer in the irradiated patients (13.1 vs. 10.8 months), but this was not statistically significant (p 0.10). Presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy (p = 0.005), duration of preoperative palsy (p = 0.003), and age greater than 60 years at the time of grafting (p = 0.04) were all negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve on univariate analysis. Analysis of age as a continuous variable (p = 0.12) and pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p 0.1) revealed a trend toward negative prognostic factors. Gender, number of previous operations in the parotid bed, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, and type of grafting procedure were not significant prognostic factors. Whether radiotherapy was delivered less than 6 weeks after nerve grafting or more than 6 weeks had no impact on achievement of a functional facial nerve. Conclusion: Negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve in our series include the presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy, and age greater than 60 years. Radiotherapy was not a negative prognostic factor. Comparing irradiated and unirradiated grafts revealed no difference in best facial nerve function achieved, despite the presence of a greater proportion of negative prognostic factors in the irradiated group. Therefore, planned postoperative radiation therapy is not a contraindication t

2000-10-01

268

Investigation of internal radionuclide contamination from the analysis of nasal swabs and facial swipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nasal swabs and facial swipes have been used to screen potential internal radioactive contamination for decades. However, the ratio between the lung intake and the activity on a swab or a swipe varies according to the nature of the contaminant involved and the exposure conditions such as particle sizes of the contaminant and the humidity in the air. This paper reports the experimental results using stable La2O3 as an analog for actinide oxides, focusing on the most important parameters such as humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition at a fixed room temperature of 23 ± 2 deg C. The results showed that the effects of humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition vary more on orofacial swipe/lung deposition ratios compared to nasal swab/lung deposition ratios. The amounts on nasal swabs tended to show smaller change with respect to parameters such as plume velocity, humidity, and skin moisture. The amounts on orofacial swipes varied by a factor of 10-15 among the samples collected across all parameters. Such variability would be expected to be even greater in a real-world scenario with a larger range of physiological and environmental conditions. (author)

2014-07-01

269

Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous analysis and symptom correlation of the fracture patterns seen in facial nerve canal injury in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy is helpful for treatment planning and prognosis

2002-07-01

270

The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

2006-12-01

271

MR findings of facial nerve on oblique sagittal MRI using TMJ surface coil: normal vs peripheral facial nerve palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the findings of normal facial nerve, as seen on oblique sagittal MRI using a TMJ (temporomandibular joint) surface coil, and then to evaluate abnormal findings of peripheral facial nerve palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of 20 patients with peripheral facial palsy and 50 normal facial nerves of 36 patients without facial palsy. All underwent oblique sagittal MRI using a T MJ surface coil. We analyzed the course, signal intensity, thickness, location, and degree of enhancement of the facial nerve. According to the angle made by the proximal parotid segment on the axis of the mastoid segment, course was classified as anterior angulation (obtuse and acute, or buckling), straight and posterior angulation. Among 50 normal facial nerves, 24 (48%) were straight, and 23 (46%) demonstrated anterior angulation; 34 (68%) showed iso signal intensity on T1W1. In the group of patients, course on the affected side was either straight (40%) or showed anterior angulation (55%), and signal intensity in 80% of cases was isointense. These findings were similar to those in the normal group, but in patients with post-traumatic or post-operative facial palsy, buckling, of course, appeared. In 12 of 18 facial palsy cases (66.6%) in which contrast materials were administered, a normal facial nerve of the opposite facial canal showed mild enhancement on more than one segment, but on the affected side the facial nerve showed diffuse enhancement in all 14 patients with acute facial palsy. Eleven of these (79%) showed fair or marked enhancement on more than one segment, and in 12 (86%), mild enhancement of the proximal parotid segment was noted. Four of six chronic facial palsy cases (66.6%) showed atrophy of the facial nerve. When oblique sagittal MR images are obtained using a TMJ surface coil, enhancement of the proximal parotid segment of the facial nerve and fair or marked enhancement of at least one segment within the facial canal always suggests pathology of the facial nerve. The use of this modality, together with the coil, is, therefore, an effective complementary technique for the evaluation of a facial nerve. (author)

2000-07-01

272

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

Science.gov (United States)

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors.

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O'Brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

273

Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

Tomomi Okamura

2011-04-01

274

Sex Differences in the Rapid Detection of Emotional Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Previous studies have shown that females and males differ in the processing of emotional facial expressions including the recognition of emotion, and that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly than are neutral expressions. However, whether the sexes differ in the rapid detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured reaction times (RTs) during a visual search task in which 44 females and 46 males detected normal facial expressions of anger and happiness or their anti-expressions within crowds of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions expressed neutral emotions with visual changes quantitatively comparable to normal expressions. We also obtained subjective emotional ratings in response to the facial expression stimuli. RT results showed that both females and males detected normal expressions more rapidly than anti-expressions and normal-angry expressions more rapidly than normal-happy expressions. However, females and males showed different patterns in their subjective ratings in response to the facial expressions. Furthermore, sex differences were found in the relationships between subjective ratings and RTs. High arousal was more strongly associated with rapid detection of facial expressions in females, whereas negatively valenced feelings were more clearly associated with the rapid detection of facial expressions in males. Conclusion Our data suggest that females and males differ in their subjective emotional reactions to facial expressions and in the emotional processes that modulate the detection of facial expressions.

Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

275

Comparison of hemihypoglossal-facial nerve transposition with a cross-facial nerve graft and muscle transplant for the rehabilitation of facial paralysis using the facial clima method.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare quantitatively the results obtained after hemihypoglossal nerve transposition and microvascular gracilis transfer associated with a cross facial nerve graft (CFNG) for reanimation of a paralysed face, 66 patients underwent hemihypoglossal transposition (n = 25) or microvascular gracilis transfer and CFNG (n = 41). The commissural displacement (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) in the two groups were compared using the system known as Facial clima. There was no inter-group variability between the groups (p > 0.10) in either variable. However, intra-group variability was detected between the affected and healthy side in the transposition group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively). The transfer group had greater symmetry in displacement of the commissure (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) than the transposition group and patients were more satisfied. However, the transposition group had correct symmetry at rest but more asymmetry of CCV and CD when smiling. PMID:22455573

Hontanilla, Bernardo; Vila, Antonio

2012-02-01

276

Facial feature extraction based on GSLDA  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a general and efficient facial feature extraction approach, global search linear discriminant analysis (GSLDA), is presented. It is designed to solve the puzzle of standard linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for small sample size problems (SSSP). Compared with PCA-LDA, in GSLDA, raw data dimension can be greatly decreased without discarding important discriminant information. In this process, all basis vectors of the non-null eigen-space of the scatter matrix is worked out, and then the well-known global search strategy, genetic algorithm, is enrolled to select basis vectors to construct a new feature space which has optimal discriminant ability. In contrast with PCA, this approach reserves more information for recognition. Therefore, this process enhances the performance of LDA for SSSP, and eventually the recognition performance. This strategy has been tested on the ORL and Yale face database. Experiment results show that this approach works much better than classical facial feature extraction methods.

Meng, Li; Cai, Yong; Li, Yuanxing; Wang, Min

2009-10-01

277

Facial resurfacing of the male patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cosmetic facial plastic procedures, surgical and nonsurgical alike, continue to increase in number. Recent statistics from the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery indicate that approximately 78% of the nearly 8.3 million cosmetic procedures performed in the United States each year are nonsurgical. Similar statistics have been demonstrated by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery who report that over the past 5 years there has been a 47% increase in nonsurgical procedures compared with a 19% increase in surgical procedures. The demographic of those seeking cosmetic procedures is dramatically changing also. Although cosmetic surgery was once predominantly sought by females, more and more male patients are now seeking treatment. PMID:18620987

Poore, Samuel O; Shama, Liat; Marcus, Benjamin

2008-08-01

278

Interactive Poisson Photometric Propagation for Facial Composite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In image composition, the inconsistent illumination of the source images is one of the major problems for seamless stitching of separated patches. The Poisson image editing is a sound technique for seamless image composition. In this paper, we have generalized and improved this technique and applied it onto solving the illumination discontinuity problem for facial image composition. Toward stitched image with patches of arbitrary shapes, number, and severe photometric discrepancy, an extended Poisson equation is proposed and formulated into a linear equation problem. To solve this equation efficiently, a layer-based Poisson solution propagation algorithm is designed. Based on it, an interactive photometric alignment system for facial compositing image is built. In the experiments, the photometric propagation effects with respect to the standard Poisson editing and other relevant algorithms are compared. Its time performance is also investigated. The experimental results verified the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Jianyi Liu

2013-04-01

279

Facial tolerability of topical retinoid therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The facial tolerability of various topical retinoids was evaluated in 253 healthy volunteers in a series of split-face, randomized, investigator-masked studies-all conducted at the same site by the same investigator. Four variables were evaluated to determine if they influenced tolerability-retinoid concentration, formulation vehicle, skin sensitivity, and individual retinoid. Lower retinoid concentrations were associated with less irritation. Vehicle influenced tolerability but whether a gel or cream formulation was better tolerated varied from retinoid to retinoid. Tolerability was superior on normal skin than "sensitive skin." On normal skin, tazarotene cream was better tolerated than tretinoin cream whereas adapalene and tretinoin microsponge gels were better tolerated than tazarotene gel. On sensitive skin, tazarotene and adapalene creams were better tolerated than tretinoin cream whereas adapalene gel was better tolerated than tazarotene gel. Retinoid concentration, vehicle, skin sensitivity, and retinoid can all affect facial tolerability. Skin vulnerability may be the most important factor. PMID:15624747

Leyden, James; Grove, Gary; Zerweck, Charles

2004-01-01

280

Facial dermatitis artefacta: A rare presentation  

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Full Text Available Dermatitis artefacta (DA is a rare psycho-cutaneous disorder where bizarre skin lesions are seen in accessible parts of the body. It is common in young females with mental stress. We here report a case of DA from West Bengal. A 16 years old female with depression presented with mainly facial lesions. She responded to psychotherapy. The relevant literature regarding DA and other similar disorders has been also discussed at length.

Ramtanu Bandyopadhyay, Rudrajit Paul, Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee, Kaberi Bhattacharya, Dilip Mondal

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Special locations dermoscopy: facial, acral, and nail.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although dermoscopy reflects the anatomy, skin anatomy is different on facial and acral skin as well as in the nail unit. Malignant patterns on acral sites include the parallel ridge pattern and irregular diffuse pigmentation, whose presence should lead to a biopsy. Malignant patterns on the face include features of follicular invasion (signet-ring images, annular granular images, and rhomboidal structures) and atypical vessels. Malignant patterns on the nail unit include the micro-Hutchinson sign and irregular longitudinal lines. PMID:24075549

Thomas, Luc; Phan, Alice; Pralong, Pauline; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Dalle, Stéphane

2013-10-01

282

Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patrick J BowlerCourt House Clinics, London, UKAbstract: The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is dis...

2009-01-01

283

Ensemble Approaches to Facial Action Unit Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial action unit (au) classification is an approach to face expression recognition that decouples the recognition of expression from individual actions. In this paper, upper face aus are classified using an ensemble of MLP (Multi-layer perceptron) base classifiers with feature ranking based on PCA components. This approach is compared experimentally with other popular feature-ranking methods applied to Gabor features. Experimental results on Cohn-Kanade database demonstrate that the MLP ens...

2008-01-01

284

Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions  

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Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp dema...

Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

2013-01-01

285

Repeated facial palsies after chlorocresol inhalation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 42-year-old woman who experienced more than 50 attacks of left-sided facial palsies after exposure to chlorocresol was studied. Only muscles around the left side of the mouth were affected. On neurophysiological testing during chlorocresol provocation the only abnormality was a loss of motor units during maximal contraction of the left orbicularis oris muscle. This could be explained by a peripheral as well as a central effect. Extensive electrophysiological examination without chlorocresol...

Døssing, M.; Wulff, C. H.; Olsen, P. Z.

1986-01-01

286

Parametric models for facial features segmentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we are dealing with the problem of facial features segmentation (mouth, eyes and eyebrows). A specific parametric model is defined for each deformable feature, each model being able to take into account all the possible deformations. In order to initialize each model, some characteristic points are extracted on each image to be processed (for example, eyes corners, mouth corners and brows corners). In order to fit the model with the contours to be extracted, a gradient flow (of...

Hammal, Zakia; Eveno, Nicolas; Caplier, Alice; Coulon, Pierre-yves

2005-01-01

287

[Anesthesia in cranio-facial surgery].  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstructive operations on the facial skeleton and on the skull have been widely introduced in surgery. Increment of indications and augmentation of traumaticity from surgical interventions pose to anesthesiologist a set of such problems, as tracheal intubation, antinociceptive protection, prevention of hepatocerebral encephalopathy. The peculiarities of cerebral and hepatic circulation and metabolism as well as approaches in anesthesia and craniofacial surgery are discussed. PMID:12462781

Gritsuk, S F; Bezrukov, V M; Ippolitov, V P; Nabiev, F Kh; Shafranski?, A P

2002-01-01

288

Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.

Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

2005-01-01

289

Facial and bodily correlates of family background  

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It has been suggested that absence of the father during early childhood has long-reaching effects on reproductive strategy and development of offspring. This paper reports two studies designed to investigate the physical characteristics of daughters associated with father absence. Study 1 used a facial averaging method to produce composite images of faces of women whose parents separated during their childhood (who were ‘father absent’), women whose parents remained together, but had poor...

2006-01-01

290

Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

Bakshi S

1992-07-01

291

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of t...

Finsterer, Josef

2008-01-01

292

Radiological observation of the facial bone fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomography has played an important role in diagnosis of facial bone fracture. Nowadays, it still acts as a inevitable process in decision of adequate treatment in patient with facial bone fracture. At the Department of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, 74 patients who have facial bone fracture, were observed and analyzed with simple skull films, mainly skull A-P, lateral and Water's view, after comparison with tomographic findings. The results were as follows: 1. Male was in 90.5% incidence. Most frequent age distribution was 21 to 40 years and marked 62.2%. 2. Most frequent cause of trauma was traffic accident as 41 cases and the next one was fall down as 13 cases. Other cause were blunt trauma such as first, stone, heavy metal etc. and explosion. 3. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were painful swelling, abrasion, ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage in almost all patient. 4. Fracture distribution was 22 cases in simple fracture and 52 cases in complex fractures which were 26 cases in Tripod fractures, 14 cases in Le Fort fractures and 12 cases in combined complex fractures. 5. The radiologic findings on tomography were opacity of orbit or P.N.S. 87.8%, regional soft tissue swelling 85.1%, displacement of bony fragment 56.8%, abnormal linear density in orbit or P.N.S. 48.6%, bony fragment in orbit or P.N.S. 47.3% change of size of orbit or P.N.S. 40.5%, foreign body in orbit of P.N.S. 16.2%, and others 27.0%. These radiologic findings of simple fracture were less than those of complex fracture. 6. Radiologic findings of facial bone fracture on simple films were analyzed after comparison with tomographs. Detectable possibility of obvious fracture lines such as cortical disruption or separation was 67.6% on simple films

1983-12-01

293

Identifying Kinship Cues from Facial Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The investigation of human face images is ubiquitous in pattern analysis/ image processing research. Traditional approaches are related to face identification and verification but, several other areas are emerging, like age/ expression estimation, analysis of facial similarity and attractiveness and automatic kinship recognition. Despite the fact that the latter could have applications in fields such as image retrieval and annotation, little work in this area has been presented so far. This t...

Figueiredo Vieira, Tiago

2013-01-01

294

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular / Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço [...] de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes. Abstract in english BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. Th [...] e evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

Calais, Lucila Leal; Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Comerlatti, Luiz Roberto.

295

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes.BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. The evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

Lucila Leal Calais

2005-08-01

296

Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores.

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

297

PARÁLISIS FACIAL PERIFÉRICA A FRÍGORI. TERAPIA ACUPUNTURAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo clínico fase III con 93 pacientes de ambos sexos, entre las edades de 5 a 20 años remitidos a la clínica de Medicina Natural y Tradicional del ISCM Carlos J Finlay por las consultas especializadas de Neurología y Maxilo Facial de los hospitales de la provincia Camagüey con el diagnóstico de parálisis facial periférica a frígori en el período comprendido entre enero de 2001 a julio de 2002. La muestra se dividió en dos grupos control y estudio, con 62 y 31 pacientes respectivamente (en una proporción de dos por uno. Los objetivos propuestos fueron determinar la conducta terapéutica a seguir, evaluar el tratamiento y sus resultados y demostrar la efectividad de la terapia acupuntural para lograr la calidad del tratamiento en la parálisis facial periférica a frígori. Concluimos que en las parálisis producidas por cambio de temperatura tratadas con acupuntura su recuperación motora es más rápida, el uso indiscriminado de los esteroides trae consigo mayor número de reacciones adversas no favorables para el desarrollo del niño y mientras más rápido se instaure el tratamiento con acupuntura la recuperación motora de los pacientes es más rápida y mejor será la calidad de nuestros tratamientos.

Elvia Isabel Paz Latorre

2004-01-01

298

Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusion technique, which provides MPEG-4-compatible features assorted with a confidence measure. This confidence measure is used to pinpoint cases where detection of individual features may be wrong and reduce their contribution to the training phase or their importance in deducing the observed facial expression, while the fusion process ensures that the final result regarding the features will be based on the extraction technique that performed better given the particular lighting or color conditions. Real data and results are presented, involving both extreme and intermediate expression/emotional states, obtained within the sensitive artificial listener HCI environment that was generated in the framework of related European projects.

Ioannou Spiros

2007-01-01

299

Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusion technique, which provides MPEG-4-compatible features assorted with a confidence measure. This confidence measure is used to pinpoint cases where detection of individual features may be wrong and reduce their contribution to the training phase or their importance in deducing the observed facial expression, while the fusion process ensures that the final result regarding the features will be based on the extraction technique that performed better given the particular lighting or color conditions. Real data and results are presented, involving both extreme and intermediate expression/emotional states, obtained within the sensitive artificial listener HCI environment that was generated in the framework of related European projects.

Spiros Ioannou

2007-07-01

300

Voiceless Arabic vowels recognition using facial EMG.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work attempts to recognize the Arabic vowels based on facial electromyograph (EMG) signals, to be used for people with speech impairment and for human computer interface. Vowels were selected since they are the most difficult letters to recognize by people in Arabic language. Twenty subjects (7 females and 13 males) were asked to pronounce three Arabic vowels continuously in a random order. Facial EMG signals were recorded over three channels from the three main facial muscles that are responsible for speech. The EMG signals are then pre-processed to eliminate noise and interference signals. Segmentation procedure was implemented to extract the time event that corresponds to each vowel based on a moving standard deviation window. The accuracy of the segmentation procedure was found to be 94%. The recognition of the vowels was carried out by extracting features from the EMG in three domains: the temporal, the spectral, and the time frequency using the wavelet packet transform. Classification of the extracted features was then finally performed using different classification methods implemented in the WEKA software. The random forest classifier with time frequency features showed the best performance with an accuracy of 77% evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. PMID:21409427

Fraiwan, Luay; Lweesy, Khaldon; Al-Nemrawi, Ayat; Addabass, Sondos; Saifan, Rasha

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Interfacing Assessment Using Facial Expression Recognition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most important issues in gaming is deciding about the employed interfacing technology. Gamepad has traditionally been a popular interfacing technology for the gaming industry, but, recently motion controlled interfacing has been used widely in this industry. This is exactly the purpose of this paper to study whether the motion controlled interface is a feasible alternative to the gamepad, when evaluated from a user experience point of view. To do so, a custom game has been developed and 25 test subjects have been asked to play the game using both types of the interfaces. To evaluate the users experiences during the game, their hedonic and pragmatic quality are assessed using both subjective and objective evaluation methods in order to cross-validate the obtained results. An application of computer vision, facial expression recognition, has been used as a non-obtrusive objective and hedonic measure. While, the score obtained by the user during the game has been used as a pragmatic quality measure. The use of facial expression recognition has, to the best of our knowledge, not been used before to assess the hedonic quality of interfaces for games. The thorough experimental results show that the user experience of the motion controlled interface is significantly better than the gamepad interface, both in terms of hedonic and pragmatic quality. The facial expression recognition system proved to be a useful non-obtrusive way to objectively evaluate the hedonic quality of the interfacing technologies.

Albjerg Andersen, Rune; Nasrollahi, Kamal

2014-01-01

302

Geometric facial gender scoring: objectivity of perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

303

An Improved Conditional Regression Forests for Facial Feature Points Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to improve the detection accuracy of facial feature points even on deformed and low quality image. This study proposed a new method which combined the constrained local model and conditional regression forests voting. Firstly, the method used the constrained local model to build head pose as global characteristic. This could provide holistic constraint for facial feature points detection. Then conditional regression forests voting was used to train the decision trees which express the relationship between facial image patches and the location of feature points. The resulted decision trees, together with the global face characteristic trained by constrained local model, could be used to fastly and accurately cast votes for the optimal facial feature position. Experimental results show that the algorithm can mark the facial feature points quickly and robustly. The accuracy is improved by 6% in general compared to other methods for facial feature detection.

Xukang Wang

2014-01-01

304

The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

Fu-Chan Wei

2008-10-01

305

Paralisia facial periférica e gestação: abordagem e tratamento / Facial palsy and pregnancy: management and treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar o grau da paralisia facial periférica de gestantes e puérperas no momento da admissão e na alta e avaliar outros fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, com análise dos prontuários de gestantes e puérperas atendidas no ambulatório de paralisia facial, em um [...] período de 12 meses, com aplicação de protocolo padronizado de avaliação das pacientes e da escala de House-Brackmann na primeira consulta e na data da alta. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 6 pacientes, com média de idade de 22,6 anos. Cinco casos foram classificados com estadiamento IV e um com II na escala de House-Brackmann, sendo que duas eram puérperas e quatro gestantes. Todas evoluíram com melhora na escala de House-Brackmann. CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia de Bell tem bom prognóstico mesmo em gestantes e puérperas, sendo importante realizar tratamento adequado para diminuir as sequelas neste grupo apontado como mais susceptível à paralisia facial periférica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To compare the degree of peripheral facial palsy of pregnant women and puerperae at admission and at discharge and to evaluate related factors. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, with analysis of medical records of pregnant and postpartum women with facial palsy, over a period o [...] f 12 months, with application of a standardized protocol for patient evaluation and of the House-Brackmann scale on the occasion of the first visit and at discharge. RESULTS: Six patients were identified, mean age of 22.6 years. Five cases were classified as stage IV and one as stage II on the House-Brackmann scale, being two of them puerperae and four pregnant. All showed improvement on the House-Brackmann scale. CONCLUSION: The Bell's palsy has a good prognosis even in pregnant and postpartum women, being important to perform the correct treatment to reduce the sequelae in this group identified as more susceptible to peripheral facial palsy.

Ferreira, Maria Augusta Aliperti; Lavori, Milena; Carvalho, Guilherme Machado de; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Silva, Vanessa Golçalves; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato.

306

Significance of electromyography to predict and evaluate facial function outcome after acute peripheral facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prognostic value of electromyography (EMG) and its significance to estimate facial function outcome after acute facial palsy is still unclear. We retrospectively analysed the EMG reports of 494 patients with acute facial palsy treated from 1995 to 2005 in a tertiary referral centre. Initial and final facial functions were assessed by the House-Brackmann (HB) scale. Serial EMG results were classified into neurapraxia, axonotmesis/neurotmesis, mixed lesion, complete recovery, defective healing, or not classifiable. Initial HB was II-IV in 321 patients and V-VI in 173 cases. The aetiology was idiopathic palsy in 294, iatrogenic lesion in 86, traumatic in 52, Herpes zoster in 37, and of various origin in 25 patients. EMG revealed neurapraxia in 300 patients, axonotmesis/neurotmesis in 95 patients, and mixed lesion in 23 cases. EMG was not meaningful in 76 patients. The follow-up time ranged from 0.3-264 months. Final EMG revealed a full recovery in 160 patients, whereas 219 patients showed signs of defective healing. In 155 patients, EMG was not significant to classify the final outcome. The predictive EMG value for poor outcome was 77-86% and for recovery 53%. The mean EMG recovery time was 2.3 months. Mean time for defective healing was 4.3 months. Final HB was normal (HB I) in 323 patients, HB II-IV in 115 patients, and V-VI in 46 patients. We conclude that EMG has a high predictive value for unfavourable outcome after acute facial palsy. EMG is more sensible to detect signs of defective healing than clinical evaluation of facial function. PMID:17611766

Grosheva, Maria; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

2007-12-01

307

Desfiguramento facial adquirido: breve revisão narrativa / Acquired facial disfigurement: a brief narrative review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 2010, o Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Portugal (INE) indicou que anualmente se realizam cerca de 40 000 médias e grandes cirurgias reconstrutiva e estética. Apesar da sua etiologia, justifica-se uma maior dedicação na investigação de indivíduos que por trauma ou doença perderam a sua “iden [...] tidade” apresentando um desfiguramento facial. Pretende-se com o presente artigo apresentar uma breve contextualização que descreva o desenvolvimento sobre o desfiguramento facial adquirido causado pela doença (cancro cabeça e pescoço) ou originado pelo trauma (queimados, agressão, outros), recorrendo a literatura publicada em livros e artigos científicos, fazendo também referência a instrumentos validados para a população portuguesa que permitem avaliar o investimento da imagem corporal (ASI-R) e avaliar a autoconsciência da aparência (DAS-24). Referenciar as necessidades e questões psicossociais mais comuns, o tipo de intervenção, a importância do apoio social e quais as estratégias de coping mais frequentes no ajustamento ao desfiguramento facial adquirido. Abstract in english In 2010, the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE) pointed out that 40,000 medium and large reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries are performed annually. Regardless of its etiology, a stronger focus on investigating individuals that have lost their "identity" due to trauma or disease, thus featu [...] ring a facial disfigurement, is justified. The intention of this paper to present a brief context that describes the development of the acquired facial disfigurement caused by the disease (cancer of the head and neck) or originated by trauma (burns) using published literature in books and articles scientific, also making reference to instruments validated for the Portuguese population for assessing investment body image (ASI-R) and to evaluate the self-consciousness of appearance (DAS-24). Identify the need and psychosocial issues most common type of intervention, the importance of social support and coping strategies which frequently in adjustment to acquired facial disfigurement.

José Carlos da Silva, Mendes; Maria João, Figueiras.

308

Heritability of Individual Differences in Cortical Processing of Facial Affect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expression of emotion is a key mechanism of non-verbal social communication in humans. Deficits in processing of facial emotion have been implicated in psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal social behavior, such as autism and schizophrenia. Identification of genetically transmitted variability in the neural substrates of facial processing can elucidate the pathways mediating genetic influences on social behavior and provide useful endophenotypes for psychiatric genetic resear...

Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

309

Aberrant reinervation of the stapedius muscle following facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes the clinical course of a patient with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome. Partial recovery of the lower motor neuron facial palsy was associated with decreased hearing and a reduction of the middle ear compliance on voluntary contraction of the facial musculature. It is suggested that this is due to misdirection of regenerating nerve fibres, normally destined for facial muscles, to stapedius muscle. PMID:2926271

McFerran, D J; Baguley, D; Moffat, D A

1989-02-01

310

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis ...

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

311

Facial Expression Recognition Using New Feature Extraction Algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a method for facial expression recognition. Facial feature vectors are generated from keypoint descriptors using Speeded-Up Robust Features. Each facial feature vector is then normalized and next the probability density function descriptor is generated. The distance between two probability density function descriptors is calculated using Kullback Leibler divergence. Mathematical equation is employed to select certain practicable probability density function descriptors for...

Huang, Hung-fu

2012-01-01

312

Local binary patterns for multi-view facial expression recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research into facial expression recognition has predominantly been applied to face images at frontal view only. Some attempts have been made to produce pose invariant facial expression classifiers. However, most of these attempts have only considered yaw variations of up to 45 degrees, where all of the face is visible. Little work has been carried out to investigate the intrinsic potential of different poses for facial expression recognition. This is largely due to the databases available, wh...

Moore, S.; Bowden, R.

2011-01-01

313

Facial Expression Recognition With A Three-Dimensional Face Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis covers facial expression recognition from camera images to improve human-machine communication. A three-dimensional face model, which is fitted to the image, is used for this task. Automated facial expression recognition systems are confronted with two characteristic challenges: In contrast to artificial objects, human faces differ a lot with respect to appearance and shape. Furthermore, because obtaining natural training data is difficult, most databases provide only acted facial...

Mayer, Christoph

2012-01-01

314

Dynamic facial expression recognition with a discrete choice model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A generation of new models has been proposed to handle some complex human behaviors. These models account for the data ambiguity, and therefore extend the application field of the discrete choice modeling. The facial expression recognition (FER) is highly relevant in this context. We develop a dynamic facial expression recognition (DFER) framework based on discrete choice models (DCM). The DFER consists in modeling the choice of a person who has to label a video sequence representing a facial...

Robin, Thomas; Bierlairey, Michel; Cruz, Javier

2011-01-01

315

The efficiency of dynamic and static facial expression recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unlike frozen snapshots of facial expressions that we often see in photographs, natural facial expressions are dynamic events that unfold in a particular fashion over time. But how important are the temporal properties of expressions for our ability to reliably extract information about a person's emotional state? We addressed this question experimentally by gauging human performance in recognizing facial expressions with varying temporal properties relative to that of a statistically optimal...

Gold, Jason M.; Barker, Jarrett D.; Barr, Shawn; Bittner, Jennifer L.; Bromfield, W. Drew; Chu, Nicole; Goode, Roy A.; Lee, Doori; Simmons, Michael; Srinath, Aparna

2013-01-01

316

Dynamic facial expression recognition with a discrete choice model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a dynamic facial expression recognition framework based on discrete choice models (DCM). We model the choice of a person who has to label a video sequence representing a facial expression. The originality is based on the explicit modeling of causal effects between the facial features and the recognition of the expression. Three models are proposed. The first assumes that only the last frame of the video triggers the choice of the expression. The second model is composed of two part...

Robin, Thomas; Bierlaire, Michel; Cruz, Javier

2010-01-01

317

Facial Expression Recognition under Noisy Environment Using Gabor Filters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expression recognition is a major task concerning human-computer interaction issue. Plenty of techniques were proposed to recognize an expression either in still images or image sequences. However, most of them were applied for images recorded under controlled recording conditions. This paper aims at describing Gabor filters’ application to extract facial features required to classify facial expression when the images are disturbed by various noise levels. The experiments indicate a ...

Buciu, I.; Nafornita, I.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

318

Facial expression recognition from near-infrared videos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expression recognition is to determine the emotional state of the face regardless of its identity. Most of the existing datasets for facial expressions are captured in a visible light spectrum. However, the visible light (VIS) can change with time and location, causing significant variations in appearance and texture. In this paper, we present a novel research on a dynamic facial expression recognition, using near-infrared (NIR) video sequences and LBP-TOP (Local binary patterns from t...

Zhao, Guoying; Huang, Xiaohua; Taini, Matti; Li, Stan Z.; Pietikainen, Matti

2011-01-01

319

Coupled Gaussian Processes for Pose-Invariant Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a method for head-pose invariant facial expression recognition that is based on a set of characteristic facial points. To achieve head-pose invariance, we propose the Coupled Scaled Gaussian Process Regression (CSGPR) model for head-pose normalization. In this model, we first learn independently the mappings between the facial points in each pair of (discrete) nonfrontal poses and the frontal pose, and then perform their coupling in order to capture dependences between them. During...

Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja; Patras, Ioannis

2013-01-01

320

Easy Acquisition and Real-Time Animation of Facial Wrinkles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Facial animation details like wrinkles or bulges are very useful for the analysis and the interpretation of facial emotions and expressions. However, outfitting a virtual face with expression details for real-time applications is a difficult task. In this paper, we propose a mono-camera acquisition technique of facial animation details and a technique which add a wrinkle map layer (fine-scale animation) to a skinning layer (large-scale animation) for real-time rendering of...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Facial Gesture Recognition Using Correlation And Mahalanobis Distance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Augmenting human computer interaction with automated analysis and synthesis of facial expressions is a goal towards which much research effort has been devoted recently. Facial gesture recognition is one of the important component of natural human-machine interfaces; it may also be used in behavioural science , security systems and in clinical practice. Although humans recognise facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine is still a challen...

2010-01-01

322

The Epidemiology of Facial Fractures in Automotive Collisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial...

Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

2009-01-01

323

Imitating expressions: emotion-specific neural substrates in facial mimicry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intentionally adopting a discrete emotional facial expression can modulate the subjective feelings corresponding to that emotion; however, the underlying neural mechanism is poorly understood. We therefore used functional brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to examine brain activity during intentional mimicry of emotional and non-emotional facial expressions and relate regional responses to the magnitude of expression-induced facial movement. Eighteen healthy subjects were s...

Lee, Tien-wen; Josephs, Oliver; Dolan, Raymond J.; Critchley, Hugo D.

2006-01-01

324

Human newborn’s first eyes movements and facial expressions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human newborn’s first eyes movements and facial expressions Pierre Rousseau, Université Mons-Hainaut and Tivoli CHU – La Louvière, Belgium. Symposium II. Facial Expression as a Window on Perceptual-Cognitive Processing, Hedonics, & Affective Communication in Infants The 12th European Conference on Facial Expression, Geneva University, Switzerland, July 28 - 31, 2008. We have video recorded 75 normal term newborns focusing the camera on their face. The 34 videos that were recorded from t...

Rousseau, Pierre

2008-01-01

325

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available in...

Li, Zedong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingling

2013-01-01

326

Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cues of phenotypic condition should be among those used by women in their choice of mates. One marker of better phenotypic condition is thought to be symmetrical bilateral body and facial features. However, it is not clear whether women use symmetry as the primary cue in assessing the phenotypic quality of potential mates or whether symmetry is correlated with other facial markers affecting physical attractiveness. Using photographs of men's faces, for which facial symmetry had been measured,...

1999-01-01

327

Bilateral Facial Paralysis Case Presentation and Discussion of Differential Diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare condition and therefore represents a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a 34-year-old healthy woman with sequential bilateral facial paralysis as a sole manifestation of sarcoidosis. She initially presented with an isolated left sided Bell's palsy without any symptoms to suggest alternative diagnoses. Within a month there was progression to peripheral facial paresis on the contra lateral side, prompting a diagnosis of Lyme disease. Her physical ex...

Jain, Vishal; Deshmukh, Anagha; Gollomp, Stephen

2006-01-01

328

Facial nerve paralysis: A three year retrospective study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of all the cranial nerves, the facial nerve is the one which is most commonly involved in disease. Facial paralysis leaves the patient severely disfigured. Timely diagnosis and treatment can lead to considerable recovery. 16 consecutive patients of facial paralysis of all age groups and due to different causes diagnosed and treated in a tertiary referral hospital have been studied retrospectively. The frequency of aetiological factors, the various factors governing the management of these cas...

Das, A. K.; Sabarigirish, K.; Kashyap, R. C.

2006-01-01

329

Brain Processing of Fearful Facial Expression in Mentally Disordered Offenders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emotional facial expressions are important cues for interaction between people. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain function when processing fearful facial expressions in offenders with two psychiatric disorders which include impaired emotional facial perception; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy (PSY). Fourteen offenders undergoing forensic psychiatric assessment (7 with ASD, and 7 psychopathic offenders) and 12 healthy controls (HC) viewed fearful and neutral ...

Katarina Howner; Håkan Fischer; Thomas Dierks; Andrea Federspiel; Lars-Olof Wahlund; Tomas Jonsson; Maria Kristoffersen Wiberg; Marianne Kristiansson

2011-01-01

330

Understanding chimpanzee facial expression: insights into the evolution of communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the evolution of emotional communication, comparative research on facial expression similarities between humans and related species is essential. Chimpanzees display a complex, flexible facial expression repertoire with many physical and functional similarities to humans. This paper reviews what is known about these facial expression repertoires, discusses the importance of social organization in understanding the meaning of different expressions, and introduces a new coding sys...

Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.

2006-01-01

331

Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right  

CERN Document Server

The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

Osipa, Jason

2010-01-01

332

Segmental tuberous sclerosis presenting as unilateral facial angiofibromas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with cutaneous lesions of ash leaf hypopigmented macules, shagreen patches, periungual fibromas, facial angiofibromas, forehead fibrous plaques, confetti hypopigmentation, and poliosis. Multiple facial angiofibromas are a pathognomonic feature of TSC. Unilateral facial angiofibromas, however, represent a rare variant of TSC, as only 6 cases are reported in the literature. We describe a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with unilateral facial angiofibromas and poliosis without other features of TSC. PMID:12894111

Trauner, Michael A; Ruben, Beth S; Lynch, Peter J

2003-08-01

333

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available information which is belong to original semantic web, reduces the complexity and indirectly analysis the national facial features. Lastly, the effectiveness of our experiment is demonstrated by some real-word data sets.  

LI Zedong

2013-09-01

334

Outcomes of direct muscle neurotisation in adult facial paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-seven adult patients with facial paralysis, who underwent direct muscle neurotisation, were reviewed and divided into three categories depending on the function that direct neurotisation was aiming to augment. Group 1 included 30 patients who underwent direct neurotisation for eye closure and blink, group 2 consisted of 23 patients for smile augmentation, and group 3 comprised 31 patients for depressor. The age of the patients ranged from 21 to 74 years. Denervation time (Dt) ranged from 8 months to 42 years. Eight patients had partial facial paralysis, and 49 patients had complete facial paralysis. The results were based on the functional and electromyography (EMG) scoring of the neurotised muscles showing an overall EMG mean improvement of 26.56% in eye closure, 34.47% in smile restoration and 32.67% in depressor function by the procedure. Median improvement in all facial functions was one grade (25%) in theTerzis grading systems regarding the respective facial functions. The prerequisites are Dt less than 6 months and a functional contralateral facial nerve. In cases where Dt is more than 27 months and preoperative EMG's are silent, a free or pedicled muscle should be used to substitute the denervated native facial muscle. Promoting expressivity and augmenting facial muscle function using direct muscle neurotisation are important components in facial reanimation. PMID:20643594

Terzis, Julia K; Karypidis, Dimitrios

2011-02-01

335

Bilateral transverse facial cleft as an isolated deformity: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transverse facial clefts are rare deformities, these mostly occur as part of syndromes such as facial dysostosis and branchial arch syndrome. This is a report of a case of isolated, asyndromic bilateral facial cleft seen at a semi-urban specialist hospital. Congenital facial defects remain sources of mental and social stress to the families. Infanticide, perhaps a thing of the past in the developed world may still be practiced in cases of congenital deformities in the developing countries, hence the need for early involvement of social workers and clinical psychologist in management.

Akinmoladun V

2007-03-01

336

Paralisia facial periférica e otite média tuberculosa Peripheric facial paralysis and tuberculous otitis media: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de paralisia facial periférica devido a uma otite média tuberculosa. Chamam atenção para a raridade atual da otite tuberculosa e para a freqüência com que esta afecção compromete o nervo facial. A regressão da paralisia após tratamento cirúrgico (mastoidectomia e descompressão do nervo facial e medicamentoso específico foi assinalada.In reporting on a case of peripherical facial paralysis due to tuberculous otitis media attention is called both to the present rarity of tuberculous otitis and to the frequency of the attack of this infection to the facial nerve, emphasis being made on the paralysis regression following surgical treatment (mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression and use of specific medication.

José Geraldo Camargo Lima

1974-09-01

337

Mandibular range of motion in patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy Amplitude mandibular em pacientes com paralisia facial periférica idiopática  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regarding orofacial motor assessment in facial paralysis, quantitative measurements of the face are being used to establish diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning. AIM: To assess the prevalence of changes in mandibular range of motion in individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study. We had 56 volunteers, divided in two groups: G1 made up of 28 individuals with idiopathic facial paralysis (6 males and 22 females); 14 with manifestations on the rig...

Fernanda Chiarion Sassi; Laura Davison Mangilli; Michele Conceição Poluca; Ricardo Ferreira Bento; Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

2011-01-01

338

Recognition of emotional facial expressions: the role of facial and contextual information in the accuracy of recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition of emotional facial expressions is a central area in the psychology of emotion. This study presents two experiments. The first experiment analyzed recognition accuracy for basic emotions including happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust. 30 pictures (5 for each emotion) were displayed to 96 participants to assess recognition accuracy. The results showed that recognition accuracy varied significantly across emotions. The second experiment analyzed the effects of contextual information on recognition accuracy. Information congruent and not congruent with a facial expression was displayed before presenting pictures of facial expressions. The results of the second experiment showed that congruent information improved facial expression recognition, whereas incongruent information impaired such recognition. PMID:22489398

Chóliz, Mariano; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G

2012-02-01

339

Proposta para determinação do tipo facial a partir da antropometria / Proposal for facial type determination based on anthropometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever índices e proporções orofaciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e gênero, e verificar a possibilidade de estabelecer uma forma classificação da face, a partir da antropometria. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo prospectivo 105 adultos, leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) [...] mulheres, de 20 a 40 anos, pacientes de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os achados da análise cefalométrica que constavam em suas documentações ortodônticas foram utilizados para determinação do tipo facial. Os indivíduos divididos em gêneros e tipos faciais foram submetidos à coleta de algumas medidas antropométricas faciais por meio de paquímetro. Essas medidas foram comparadas a seis variáveis: índice facial, índice facial inferior, índice facial superior, proporção queixo-face, proporção do queixo e proporção mandibular. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios das variáveis obtidas dos indivíduos divididos em gêneros e tipos faciais que apresentaram diferenças foram: índice facial, índice facial inferior, índice facial superior e proporção mandibular, para o gênero masculino, e proporção mandibular, para o feminino. Para se predizer os tipos faciais, houve diferença entre índice facial, índice facial superior e proporção mandibular para o tipo dolicofacial, para o gênero masculino; e proporção mandibular para o tipo dolicofacial e índice facial inferior para o braquifacial, para o gênero feminino. CONCLUSÃO: Alguns índices e proporções orofaciais apresentam variações de acordo com os tipos faciais e gêneros. De maneira geral, as variáveis antropométricas desta pesquisa não apresentam boa habilidade preditiva para se determinar os tipos faciais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To describe orofacial indexes and proportions in adults, according to facial type and gender, and to verify the possibility to establish a way of classifying face based on anthropometry. METHODS: Participants were 105 leukoderm adults, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%), with ages betwee [...] n 20 and 40 years old, patients in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings from the cephalometric analysis contained in their orthodontic records were used for determination of facial type. Subjects were divided according to gender and facial type, and were submitted to anthropometric facial measures obtained directly through a caliper rule. These measures were compared to six variables: facial index, lower face index, upper face index, chin-face height proportion, chin height proportion, and mandibular height proportion. RESULTS: The average values obtained by the subjects divided into genders and facial types that presented significant differences were: facial index, lower face index, upper face index, and mandibular height proportion for males, and mandibular height proportion, for females. To predict facial types, the following parameters were considered significant: facial index, upper face index and mandibular height proportion for the dolichofacial type, for males; and mandibular height proportion for the dolichofacial and lower face index for the brachyfacial type, for females. CONCLUSION: Some indexes and orofacial proportions present variations according to facial types and genders. In general, the anthropometric variables in this study are not good predictors to determine facial types.

Rossana Ribeiro, Ramires; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira; Irene Queiroz, Marchesan; Débora Martins, Cattoni; Marta Assumpção de, Andrada e Silva.

340

Management strategy for facial arteriovenous malformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis; haemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolisation (super-selective followed by complete resection 24-48 hours later. We treated 20 patients with facial arteriovenous malformation by using this method. Most of the lesions (80% were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure related complications and cosmetic results were excellent.

Bhandari P

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Early excision and grafting in facial burns].  

Science.gov (United States)

Early excision and graft surgery is now a routinely used procedure, but whereas its application for burns of the hand has been well determined it is employed less extensively for facial lesions. It is a heavy and very hemorrhagic surgery requiring close cooperation between surgeons and intensive care physicians. Its use for the face is not easy to define, difficulties arising because of the need to establish the depth of the burn, the hemorrhagic risk involved and the need for effective compression after graft surgery. PMID:3523735

Abdelnour, R; Chassagne, J F; Brice, M; Rahme, J

1986-01-01

342

Facial nerve injury during temporal artery biopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal artery biopsy is considered the gold standard investigation of giant cell arteritis and is recommended in suspected cases despite a sensitivity of 81-91%. This review highlights the potential risk of facial nerve injury during temporal artery biopsy and introduces recent advances in the emerging role of imaging modalities. When these non-invasive techniques are used in conjunction with American College of Rheumatology scoring, which includes clinical features and biochemical test results, temporal artery biopsy may be avoided in selected cases. PMID:24780014

Gunawardene, A R; Chant, H

2014-05-01

343

Vemurafenib-induced bilateral facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Vemurafenib in August 2011, for treatment of melanoma with BRAF V600 mutation. It has shown improvement in the median overall survival of melanoma patients. The most common adverse effects of vermurafenib are arthralgia, rash, alopecia, photosensitivity and fatigue. Other infrequent and severe adverse reactions reported in patients include keratocanthomas, hypersensitivity, Stevens Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, uveitis, QT prolongation, and hepatotoxicity. We hereby present a case of bilateral facial palsy as an adverse effect of vemurafenib therapy, seen after six weeks of commencement of the drug. Complete resolution of the symptoms was seen when the patient was taken off vemurafenib. PMID:24823520

Shailesh, Fnu; Singh, M; Tiwari, U; Hutchins, L F

2014-01-01

344

MPEG-4 Facial Feature Point Editor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of computer animated interactive faces in film, TV, games is ever growing, with new application areas emerging also on the Internet and mobile environments. Morph targets are one of the most popular methods to animate the face. Up until now 3D artists had to design each morph target defined by the MPEG-4 standard by hand. This is a very monotonous and tedious task. With the newly developed method of Facial Motion Cloning [11]the heavy work is relieved from the artists. From an already...

Lundberg, Jonas

2002-01-01

345

High-resolution Animation of Facial Dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a framework for performance-based animation and retargeting of high-resolution face models from motion capture. A novel method is introduced for learning a mapping between sparse 3D motion capture markers and dense high-resolution 3D scans of face shape and appearance. A high-resolution facial expression space is learnt from a set of 3D face scans as a person specific morphable model. Sparse 3D face points sampled at the motion capture marker positions are used to build a ...

Nadtoka, N.; Tena, Jr; Hilton, A.; Edge, J.

2007-01-01

346

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2013-04-01

347

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica / Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e [...] divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They wer [...] e separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Mory, Marion Renée; Tessitore, Adriana; Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo Nizam; Couto Junior, Euro de Barros; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato.

348

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na Paralisia Facial Periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2012-01-01

349

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica / Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superf [...] ície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo): elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural). CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients we [...] re evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles). CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Bernardes, Daniele Fontes Ferreira; Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira.

350

Meta-Analysis of the First Facial Expression Recognition Challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic facial expression recognition has been an active topic in computer science for over two decades, in particular facial action coding system action unit (AU) detection and classification of a number of discrete emotion states from facial expressive imagery. Standardization and comparability have received some attention; for instance, there exist a number of commonly used facial expression databases. However, lack of a commonly accepted evaluation protocol and, typically, lack of sufficient details needed to reproduce the reported individual results make it difficult to compare systems. This, in turn, hinders the progress of the field. A periodical challenge in facial expression recognition would allow such a comparison on a level playing field. It would provide an insight on how far the field has come and would allow researchers to identify new goals, challenges, and targets. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the first such challenge in automatic recognition of facial expressions, held during the IEEE conference on Face and Gesture Recognition 2011. It details the challenge data, evaluation protocol, and the results attained in two subchallenges: AU detection and classification of facial expression imagery in terms of a number of discrete emotion categories. We also summarize the lessons learned and reflect on the future of the field of facial expression recognition in general and on possible future challenges in particular. PMID:22736651

Valstar, Michel F; Mehu, Marc; Jiang, Bihan; Pantic, Maja; Scherer, Klaus

2012-06-20

351

The application of orthopantomography in the diagnosis of facial traumas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty patients with facial trauma were examined for diagnostic of possible fractures, using the Orthopantomography. Fifteen fractures of the mandibula, associated fractures of other facial bones and dental pathologies were detected. The method is accurate, less time-consuming, and without patient's disconfort. (Author)

1981-01-01

352

Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

2006-01-01

353

A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expressions of six basic emotions. Facial dynamics can be explicitly analyzed by detecting the constituent temporal segments in Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Action Units (AUs)-onset, apex, and offset. In this paper, we present a novel approach to explicit analysis of temporal dynamics of facial actions using the dynamic appearance descriptor Local Phase Quantization from Three Orthogonal Planes (LPQ-TOP). Temporal segments are detected by combining a discriminative classifier for detecting the temporal segments on a frame-by-frame basis with Markov Models that enforce temporal consistency over the whole episode. The system is evaluated in detail over the MMI facial expression database, the UNBC-McMaster pain database, the SAL database, the GEMEP-FERA dataset in database-dependent experiments, in cross-database experiments using the Cohn-Kanade, and the SEMAINE databases. The comparison with other state-of-the-art methods shows that the proposed LPQ-TOP method outperforms the other approaches for the problem of AU temporal segment detection, and that overall AU activation detection benefits from dynamic appearance information. PMID:23757539

Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

2014-02-01

354

Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial

Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

2008-01-01

355

Simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry of male and female avatar characters. During Differentiation presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system.

PeterWeyers

2012-07-01

356

[Parameters of OEMG for Judgement of Facial Function (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to test the function of facial nerve in Bells palsy we used three methods, the function test of Schubert-Cobet, the nerve excitability test and the surface electromyography. We could find a correlation in the parameters of this methods in judgement of facial nerve function. PMID:138040

Demus, H G; Skurczynski, W

1976-12-01

357

Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous studies show that candidatesâ?? facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidatesâ?? attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from candidatesâ?? faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) partiesâ?? nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidatesâ?? facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidatesâ?? attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantlythese relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, partiesâ?? nomination strategies and candidatesâ?? age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two-component structure of the relationship between candidatesâ?? facial appearance and electoral success is highly robust.

Laustsen, Lasse

2013-01-01

358

Contralateral facial palsy following coronoidectomy. Report of a case.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contralateral facial palsy has been described as an unusual complication following coronoidectomy. The differential diagnosis of facial palsy is reviewed. An idiopathic Bell's palsy, coincident with the surgical procedure, is the most likely diagnosis in the absence of dislocation or acute fracture involving the ipsilateral condyle. PMID:6582428

Chuong, R

1984-01-01

359

CT and MRI diagnosis of facial nerve neuroma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the CT and MRI findings of facial neuroma to promote diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Nine facial neuromas consisted of 8 schwannoma and 1 neurofibroma. High-resolution CT were performed on 7 cases, routine CT scan on 2 patients. Six cases were examined by MRI, in which 5 cases were used contrast media. Results: Five tumors on right side and 4 on left were detected. The tumor affected the internal auditory canal segment of facial nerve in 1 case, labyrinth segment in 4, anterior genu in 6, tympanum segment in 7, mastoid segment in 6, horizontal segment in 5 and parotid segment in 3. CT demonstrated enlargement of the facial nerve canal, benign bone remodeling in the location of geniculate ganglion and stripe soft issue along the course of facial nerve, MRI found that involved facial nerve became thickened markedly as a stripe or soft mass by several segments, that were isointense to brain on T1WI and isointense or hyperintense on T2WI and enhanced obviously. Conclusion: The segmental soft tissue mass along the facial nerve course is the characteristic of facial neuroma. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is an effective method for detecting the lesion

2001-07-01

360

Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

Sharma P

2011-03-01

362

Facial Nerve Paralysis seen in Pseudomonas sepsis with ecthyma gangrenosum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin lesion which is created by pseudomonas auriginosa. Peripheral facial paralysis and mastoiditis as a rare complication of otitis media induced by pseudomonas auriginosa.In this study, 4 months child who has ecthyma gangrenosum and facial nerve paralysis was reported. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 126-130

Suleyman Ozdemir

2013-02-01

363

Análise facial numérica do perfil de brasileiros Padrão I Numeric facial analysis of the profile in Pattern I Brazilians  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar as medidas do perfil facial de brasileiros portadores de equilíbrio facial, denominados Padrão I. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi constituída por 50 indivíduos (32 femininos e 18 masculinos, brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, com idade média de 23 anos. Fotografias padronizadas do perfil foram obtidas. Sobre essas foram executados os traçados por dois avaliadores, que verificaram: 1 ângulo nasolabial; 2 ângulo mentolabial; 3 ângulo interlabial; 4 ângulo de convexidade facial; 5 ângulo de convexidade facial total; 6 ângulo do terço inferior da face; 7 proporção entre a altura facial anterior média e a altura facial anterior inferior e 8 proporção do terço inferior da face. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve diferença estatística relevante entre as duas medidas realizadas. Os valores de média, desvio-padrão, valores máximos e mínimos obtidos para cada variável estudada foram: 1 ângulo nasolabial: 108,13° ± 9,75° (81° a 127°; 2 ângulo do sulco mentolabial: 132,37° ± 9,82° (110,5° a 152°; 3 ângulo interlabial: 135,35° ± 11,14° (116,5° a 159,5°; 4 ângulo de convexidade facial: 12,32°± 3,93° (4° a 19,5°; 5 ângulo de convexidade facial total: 137,85° ± 4,08° (129,5° a 147,5°; 6 ângulo do terço inferior da face: 103,41° ± 8,12° (88° a 124°; 7 proporção entre os terços médio e inferior da face: 0,93 ± 0,10 (0,80 a 1,21 e 8 proporção do terço inferior da face: 0,45 ± 0,06 (0,30 a 0,67. Propõe-se esse conjunto de medidas como um padrão de referência para avaliação facial numérica de adultos, brasileiros, brancos.AIM: the aim of this study was to determine measurements of the facial profile in balanced faces of Pattern I Brazilian patients. METHODS: the sample was comprised by 50 Brazilian adults (32 women and 18 men selected by morphologic facial analysis in frontal and lateral views. Standardized lateral facial photographs were taken. They were measured for two different researches to obtain the following: 1 nasolabial angle; 2 angle of mentolabial fold; 3 interlabial angle; 4 angle of facial convexity; 5 angle of total facial convexity; 6 angle of the lower third of the face; 7 proportion between medium facial height and lower facial height; 8 proportion of the lower third of the face. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: there was no statistical difference between the two measurements. The averages, standard deviation, minimal and maximal values obtained were: 1 nasolabial angle: 108.13° ± 9.75° (81° to 127°; 2 angle of mentolabial fold: 132.37° ± 9.82° (110.5° to 152°; 3 interlabial angle: 135.35° ± 11.14° (116.5° to 159.5°; 4 angle of facial convexity: 12.32°± 3.93° (4° to 19.5°; 5 angle of total facial convexity: 137.85° ± 4.08° (129.5° to 147.5°; 6 angle of lower third of the face: 103.41° ± 8.12° (88° to 124°; 7 proportion between medium facial height and lower facial height: 0.93 ± 0.10 (0.80 to 1.21; 8 proportion of lower third of the face: 0.45 ± 0.06 (0.30 to 0.66. With those results, we intend to determine values of reference for the measurements of facial profile, establishing averages and standard deviation to be used comparatively in the study and treatment of compromised faces of white Brazilians adults.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

2006-12-01

364

Reversible facial nerve palsy due to parotid abscess???  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION A facial nerve palsy combined with parotid enlargement usually suggests malignancy. It is highly unusual for facial nerve palsy to result from a benign situation such as inflammation or infection of the gland. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a rare case of facial nerve palsy due to parotid abscess. DISCUSSION A literature search retrieved thirty-two cases of facial nerve palsy due to benign parotid lesions since 1969. Only nine reported the presence of a parotid abscess. The etiology of paralysis remains unknown although certain factors such as the virulence of the offending organisms or perineuritis, have been suggested. Best diagnostic evaluation and management are discussed. CONCLUSION In clinical practice, exclusion of malignancy is mandatory, as it represents the most common cause of facial palsy in the presence of a parotid lump.

Hajiioannou, Jiannis K.; Florou, Vasiliki; Kousoulis, Panagiotis; Kretzas, Dimitris; Moshovakis, Eustratios

2013-01-01

365

A Comprehensive Study of Major Techniques of Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial Expression Recognition is one of thechallenging and active research topic in the recent years. FacialExpression Recognition System comprises the detection of face,facial feature extraction and classification of facial expressionfrom still images. This paper summarizes the major techniquesto recognize the facial expressions from still images. Thetechniques included in this paper are Principal ComponentAnalysis, Singular Value Decomposition, Neural Network,Cloud Model, Fuzzy Model and K-Means ClusteringAlgorithm. The performance of these techniques is good enoughand almost effective also except fuzzy model. Fuzzy model doesnot classify the expressions exactly. The main purpose of thisresearch work is to present the major techniques of automaticfacial expression recognition in a single view.

Tanvi Sheikh, Shikha Agrawal

2012-10-01

366

The efficiency of dynamic and static facial expression recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike frozen snapshots of facial expressions that we often see in photographs, natural facial expressions are dynamic events that unfold in a particular fashion over time. But how important are the temporal properties of expressions for our ability to reliably extract information about a person's emotional state? We addressed this question experimentally by gauging human performance in recognizing facial expressions with varying temporal properties relative to that of a statistically optimal ("ideal") observer. We found that people recognized emotions just as efficiently when viewing them as naturally evolving dynamic events, temporally reversed events, temporally randomized events, or single images frozen in time. Our results suggest that the dynamic properties of human facial movements may play a surprisingly small role in people's ability to infer the emotional states of others from their facial expressions. PMID:23620533

Gold, Jason M; Barker, Jarrett D; Barr, Shawn; Bittner, Jennifer L; Bromfield, W Drew; Chu, Nicole; Goode, Roy A; Lee, Doori; Simmons, Michael; Srinath, Aparna

2013-01-01

367

Influencia de la simetría facial en la elección de pareja  

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Full Text Available Muchos estudios sugieren que la simetría facial, como indicador de estabilidad en el desarrollo y de la salud del individuo, influye en la evaluación de las características de la pareja. Para determinar la importancia de la simetría facial en la elección de pareja, aplicamos, en diversos espacios públicos de Santiago de Chile, una encuesta a 718 personas heterosexuales: 456 mujeres y 262 hombres. Ellos evaluaron tres imágenes de rostros de personas del sexo opuesto con diferentes niveles de simetría facial. Concluimos que la simetría facial influye en la evaluación de las características de una pareja pero, en adición a la simetría, otros factores como el uso de productos de belleza pueden ser señales fenotípicas más importantes que la simetría facial.

Katherine Portales Rosas

2009-01-01

368

Communal and agentic behaviour in response to facial emotion expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial emotions are important for human communication. Unfortunately, traditional facial emotion recognition tasks do not inform about how respondents might behave towards others expressing certain emotions. Approach-avoidance tasks do measure behaviour, but only on one dimension. In this study 81 participants completed a novel Facial Emotion Response Task. Images displaying individuals with emotional expressions were presented in random order. Participants simultaneously indicated how communal (quarrelsome vs. agreeable) and how agentic (dominant vs. submissive) they would be in response to each expression. We found that participants responded differently to happy, angry, fearful, and sad expressions in terms of both dimensions of behaviour. Higher levels of negative affect were associated with less agreeable responses specifically towards happy and sad expressions. The Facial Emotion Response Task might complement existing facial emotion recognition and approach-avoidance tasks. PMID:24754806

Aan Het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen; Gesing, Christina M

2014-05-01

369

Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

2008-01-01

370

Facial Expression Recognition based on Independent Component Analysis  

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Full Text Available As an important part of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition, facial expression recognition has drawn much attention recently and numerous methods have been proposed. Feature extraction is the most important part which directly affects the final recognition results. Independent component analysis (ICA is a subspace analysis method, which is also a novel statistical technique in signal processing and machine learning that aims at finding linear projections of the data that maximize their mutual independence. In this paper, we introduce the basic theory of ICA algorithm in detail and then present the process of facial expression recognition based on ICA model. Finally, we use PCA and ICA algorithm to extract facial features, and then SVM classifier is used for facial expression recognition. Experimental results show ICA is a real effective facial expression recognition method and the recognition rate based on ICA is greater than based on PCA and 2DPCA

XiaoHui Guo

2013-08-01

371

Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation  

CERN Multimedia

Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

1994-01-01

372

Facial nerve and medially invasive petrous bone cholesteatomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight patients with extensive petrous bone cholesteatomas that invaded the labyrinth and fallopian canal are presented. The eight cases are added to a tabulation of prior literature reports to elucidate concepts of routes of extension of medially invasive temporal bone cholesteatoma. Medially invasive petrous bone cholesteatoma develops insidiously, often without symptoms other than facial palsy and/or unilateral deafness. Typically, a history of chronic ear disease can be obtained. While hearing is unlikely to be preserved in this group of patients, facial nerve function can usually be preserved, and a facial nerve graft was not necessary in our series. Acute facial nerve palsy or facial nerve paresis progressing to palsy in patients with a history of chronic ear disease should be studied radiographically for petrous bone cholesteatoma, even if there is no physical evidence of cholesteatoma. PMID:2018289

Bartels, L J

1991-04-01

373

Robust facial landmark detection for three-dimensional face segmentation and alignment  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional human faces have been applied in many fields, such as face animation, identity recognition, and facial plastic surgery. Segmenting and aligning 3-D faces from raw scanned data is the first vital step toward making these applications successful. However, the existence of artifacts, facial expressions, and noises poses many challenges to this problem. We propose an automatic and robust method to segment and align 3-D face surfaces by locating the nose tip and nose ridge. Taking a raw scanned surface as input, a novel feature-based moment analysis on scale spaces is presented to locate the nose tip accurately and robustly, which is then used to crop the face region. A technique called the geodesic Euclidean ratio is then developed to find the nose ridge. Each face is aligned based on the locations of nose tip and nose ridge. The proposed method is not only invariant to translations and rotations, but also robust in the presence of facial expressions and artifacts such as hair, clothing, other body parts, etc. Experimental results on two large 3-D face databases demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

Wu, Hai Shan; Chen, Yan Qiu

2010-07-01

374

Pathology Case Study: Left Facial Numbness  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 56-year-old woman developed left facial numbness, followed by right peripheral facial weakness, left hand weakness, and left side hearing loss and tinnitus. The patientâÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. Results from a cranial magnetic resonance (MR) scan along with a microscopic description and images of a sural nerve biopsy are provided here to help aid in understanding the diagnosis. The âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section contains the attending doctorâÂÂs notes on the patient with commentary, and a detailed pathology. References are also included in this section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

Heyman, Rock A.; Lacomis, David

2009-07-22

375

Asynchronicity of Facial Blood Perfusion in Migraine  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology.

Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Narhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Giniatullin, Rashid

2013-01-01

376

Facial firework injury: a case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future. PMID:25035740

Tadisina, Kashyap; Abcarian, Ariane; Omi, Ellen

2014-07-01

377

Facial affect recognition in CADASIL patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the capacity of Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) patients to recognize facial expressions. Twenty-three consecutive CADASIL patients and 23 age-matched, gender-matched, and education-matched controls were assessed with a semi-structured psychiatric interview, cognitive tests, and the Ekman and Friesen test. Cases and controls (5 males, 18 females) had a mean age (+SD) of 52.4 + 15.7 and 54.0 + 15.3 years, respectively, and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) mean score of 27.8 + 2.2 and 28.9 + 1.3 (p CADASIL patients and 10 (43.5%) controls were diagnosed as affected by major depression according to DSM-IV criteria (p CADASIL patients had an impaired ability of emotion recognition in comparison with controls, particularly for fear expression. This effect was not mediated by depression, cognitive impairment, and MMSE score. Facial affect recognition is reduced in the CADASIL patients and this impairment might represent an early manifestation of the disease. PMID:23127883

Valenti, Raffaella; Salvadori, Emilia; Pescini, Francesca; Poggesi, Anna; Castellini, Giovanni; Antonini, Sarah; Bianchi, Silvia; Inzitari, Domenico; Pallanti, Stefano; Pantoni, Leonardo

2013-02-01

378

Secondary surgery in paediatric facial paralysis reanimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-two children, the entire series of paediatric facial reanimation by a single surgeon over thirty years, are presented. The objective is to analyse the incidence and value of secondary revisions for functional and aesthetic refinements following the two main stages of reanimation. The reconstructive strategy varied according to the denervation time, the aetiology, and whether the paralysis was uni- or bilateral, complete or partial. Irrespective of these variables, 89% of the patients required secondary surgery. Post-operative videos were available in seventy-two cases. Four independent observers graded patients' videos using a scale from poor to excellent. The effect of diverse secondary procedures was measured computing a mean-percent-gain score. Statistical differences between treatment groups means were tested by the t-test and one-way ANOVA. Two-thirds of the corrective and ancillary techniques utilized granted significantly higher mean-scores post-secondary surgery. A comparison of pre- and post-operative data found valuable improvements in all three facial zones after secondary surgery. In conclusion, inherent to dynamic procedures is the need for secondary revisions. Secondary surgery builds in the potential of reanimation surgery, effectively augmenting functional faculties and aesthesis. PMID:20018580

Terzis, Julia K; Olivares, Fatima S

2010-11-01

379

Colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery  

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Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la población chilena. La región facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposición a la radiación ultravioleta. El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuesta a la luz solar. Los tipos más frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cánceres cutáneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirúrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial. Material y método: Se analizaron 55 cirugías realizadas para colgajos cutáneos en 54 pacientes en 2 años (2009-2010 en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB de Concepción. Resultados: Presentación descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutáneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la resección de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, párpados, labios, mejilla y mentón. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus características más relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clínicos obtenidos con estas técnicas quirúrgicas, de fácil aplicación en un área clínica en que la estética es primordial, aplicando márgenes oncológicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La región facial permite la obtención de colgajos cutáneos con muy buena vascularización, delgados, con características muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mínima morbilidad. La biomecánica de la piel y su aplicación en la técnica quirúrgica es vital para el diseño y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un área de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estéticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstrucción, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron buenos considerando la localización y extensión de las lesiones tumorales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente.Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010, which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

Mario Gutiérrez A

2012-04-01

380

Facial mimicry and the mirror neuron system: simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e., facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis' facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry) of male and female avatar characters. During picture presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA, and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG, and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula, and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system (MNS).

Likowski, Katja U.; Muhlberger, Andreas; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Pauli, Paul; Weyers, Peter

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Fisioterapia na paralisia facial periférica: estudo retrospectivo Physical therapy in peripheral facial paralysis: retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica requer tratamento especializado. A fisioterapia tem como objetivo restabelecer a mímica facial. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e analisar os resultados da fisioterapia para indivíduos com paralisia facial periférica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Retrospectivo. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em um Hospital Universitário, com autorização do Serviço de Atendimento Médico e Estatístico, no período de 1999 a 2003. Os dados são apresentados em forma descritiva, com utilização de média e mediana para variáveis numéricas e freqüência para variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 23 prontuários durante quatro anos. Foi identificado o predomínio do sexo feminino e a média de idade foi de 32,3 anos (DP±16,5; 14 casos idiopáticas e cinco traumáticas; 12, com comprometimento motor total e 11, parcial; nos 12 casos com avaliação final, sete evoluíram para recuperação parcial e cinco para total. A fisioterapia utilizada foi cinesioterapia e orientações. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo os indivíduos são similares a outras populações. Foram tratados com cinesioterapia, como sugerido pela literatura científica e evoluíram com recuperação.Peripheral facial paralysis requires specialized treatment. Physical therapy aims at reestablishing facial movements. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze physical therapy results for individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: A retrospective study was carried out at the University Hospital, authorized by the Statistics and Medical File Services, from 1999 to 2003. Data are presented in descriptive form with mean and median values for numeric variables and frequency for categorical variables. RESULTS: Twenty-three files were analyzed during four years. Females predominated and the average age was of 32.3 years (SD±16.5; 14 idiopathic and five trauma cases; 12 with total motor deficit and 11 with partial motor deficit; in the 12 cases that underwent final evaluation, seven had partial and five had total recovery. The physical therapy program used was kinesiotherapy and patient education. CONCLUSION: In this study, individuals were similar to individuals in other populations. They were treated with kinesiotherapy, as suggested by the scientific literature and recovered.

Márcia Regina Garanhani

2007-02-01

382

Fisioterapia na paralisia facial periférica: estudo retrospectivo / Physical therapy in peripheral facial paralysis: retrospective study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial periférica requer tratamento especializado. A fisioterapia tem como objetivo restabelecer a mímica facial. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e analisar os resultados da fisioterapia para indivíduos com paralisia facial periférica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Retrospectivo. MÉTODO: Foi re [...] alizado um estudo retrospectivo em um Hospital Universitário, com autorização do Serviço de Atendimento Médico e Estatístico, no período de 1999 a 2003. Os dados são apresentados em forma descritiva, com utilização de média e mediana para variáveis numéricas e freqüência para variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 23 prontuários durante quatro anos. Foi identificado o predomínio do sexo feminino e a média de idade foi de 32,3 anos (DP±16,5); 14 casos idiopáticas e cinco traumáticas; 12, com comprometimento motor total e 11, parcial; nos 12 casos com avaliação final, sete evoluíram para recuperação parcial e cinco para total. A fisioterapia utilizada foi cinesioterapia e orientações. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo os indivíduos são similares a outras populações. Foram tratados com cinesioterapia, como sugerido pela literatura científica e evoluíram com recuperação. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis requires specialized treatment. Physical therapy aims at reestablishing facial movements. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze physical therapy results for individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: A retrospec [...] tive study was carried out at the University Hospital, authorized by the Statistics and Medical File Services, from 1999 to 2003. Data are presented in descriptive form with mean and median values for numeric variables and frequency for categorical variables. RESULTS: Twenty-three files were analyzed during four years. Females predominated and the average age was of 32.3 years (SD±16.5); 14 idiopathic and five trauma cases; 12 with total motor deficit and 11 with partial motor deficit; in the 12 cases that underwent final evaluation, seven had partial and five had total recovery. The physical therapy program used was kinesiotherapy and patient education. CONCLUSION: In this study, individuals were similar to individuals in other populations. They were treated with kinesiotherapy, as suggested by the scientific literature and recovered.

Garanhani, Márcia Regina; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Capelli, Alessandra de Mello Guides; Ribeiro, Mara Claudia.

383

Influência do posicionamento sagital mandibular na estética facial Influence of mandibular sagittal position on facial esthetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do posicionamento sagital da mandíbula na determinação da atratividade facial. MÉTODOS: fotografias faciais de perfil foram tomadas de um homem negro e um branco, assim como de uma mulher negra e uma branca. Essas fotografias foram manipuladas no computador, utilizando o programa Adobe Photoshop CS2®, a fim de produzir, a partir de cada face original, um perfil reto, três simulando discrepâncias mandibulares por retrusão e três por protrusão. As 28 fotografias foram avaliadas por ortodontistas (n = 20, cirurgiões bucomaxilofaciais (n = 20, artistas plásticos (n = 20 e leigos (n = 20. A análise descritiva foi realizada a partir do cálculo da média e desvio-padrão em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: para as faces do homem negro, bem como para as faces femininas, o perfil reto foi o mais aceito. Para o homem branco, a face considerada mais agradável apresentava um perfil levemente côncavo, com a mandíbula mais proeminente. Nesse, analisando-se as simulações de discrepâncias esqueléticas, houve predileção pela protrusão mandibular, em detrimento da retrusão. Contudo, para as faces femininas, os perfis côncavos foram mais rejeitados do que os convexos. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados demonstraram concordância entre os grupos de avaliadores na escolha dos perfis mais atrativos. Para as faces masculinas, o perfil reto e a face levemente côncava apresentaram-se mais atrativos, já as faces femininas que foram consideradas mais atrativas possuíam o perfil reto.OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of mandibular sagittal position in the determination of facial attractiveness. METHODS: Facial profile photographs were taken of an Afro-descendant man and a Caucasian man, as well as an Afro-descendant woman and a Caucasian woman. These photos were manipulated on the computer using Adobe Photoshop® CS2 to produce-from each original face-a straight profile, three simulating retrusion and three protrusion mandibular discrepancies. In all, 28 photographs were evaluated by orthodontists (n = 20, oral maxillofacial surgeons (n = 20, plastic artists (n = 20 and laypersons (n = 20. The descriptive analysis was performed by calculating the mean and standard deviation for each group. RESULTS: The straight facial profile was met with greater acceptance by Afro-descendant male faces and female faces. Caucasian males found a lightly concave facial profile with a more prominent mandible to be the most pleasant. After an analysis of skeletal discrepancies simulations, Caucasian males also showed a preference for mandibular protrusion versus retrusion. Females, however, preferred convex over concave profiles. CONCLUSION: The results showed agreement between groups of evaluators in selecting the most attractive profiles. Regarding male faces, a straight profile with a slightly concave face seemed more attractive and a straight facial profile was also greatly valued.

Marina Dórea de Almeida

2010-04-01

384

High-intensity facial nerve lesions on T2-weighted images in chronic persistent facial nerve palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our aim was to estimate the value of MRI in detecting irreversibly paralysed facial nerves. We examined 95 consecutive patients with a facial nerve palsy (14 with a persistent palsy, and 81 with good recovery), using a 1.0 T unit, with T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The geniculate ganglion and tympanic segment had gave high signal on T2-weighted images in the chronic stage of persistent palsy, but not in acute palsy. The enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in the chronic persistent facial nerve palsy is similar to that in the acute palsy with good recovery. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI can be used to show severely damaged facial nerves. (orig.)

2001-05-01

385

Sequential Clustering based Facial Feature Extraction Method for Automatic Creation of Facial Models from Orthogonal Views  

CERN Document Server

Multiview 3D face modeling has attracted increasing attention recently and has become one of the potential avenues in future video systems. We aim to make more reliable and robust automatic feature extraction and natural 3D feature construction from 2D features detected on a pair of frontal and profile view face images. We propose several heuristic algorithms to minimize possible errors introduced by prevalent nonperfect orthogonal condition and noncoherent luminance. In our approach, we first extract the 2D features that are visible to both cameras in both views. Then, we estimate the coordinates of the features in the hidden profile view based on the visible features extracted in the two orthogonal views. Finally, based on the coordinates of the extracted features, we deform a 3D generic model to perform the desired 3D clone modeling. Present study proves the scope of resulted facial models for practical applications like face recognition and facial animation.

Ghahari, Alireza

2009-01-01

386

Osteomas múltiples faciales asociados a síndrome de Gardner / Facial multiple osteomas associated with Gardner syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los osteomas faciales son una de las manifestaciones extracolónicas del síndrome de Gardner que pueden preceder la aparición de los pólipos intestinales. La ubicación más frecuente es en la región mandibular, aunque pueden afectar otros huesos de la cara. Pese a ser lesiones benignas pueden crecer d [...] e manera exagerada y requerir tratamiento quirúrgico. Se describe el caso de una mujer de 16 años que presentó osteomas múltiples en la cara. Abstract in english The facial osteomas are one of the extracolonic manifestations of Gardner syndrome that may precede the appearance of intestinal polyps. The most common location is in the mandibular region but may affect other bones of the face. Despite being benign lesions can grow in an exaggerated manner and req [...] uire surgical treatment. We describe a woman of 16 who presented a multiple osteomas of the face.

Juan Pablo, Restrepo; María del Pilar, Molina.

387

Osteomas múltiples faciales asociados a síndrome de Gardner Facial multiple osteomas associated with Gardner syndrome  

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Full Text Available Los osteomas faciales son una de las manifestaciones extracolónicas del síndrome de Gardner que pueden preceder la aparición de los pólipos intestinales. La ubicación más frecuente es en la región mandibular, aunque pueden afectar otros huesos de la cara. Pese a ser lesiones benignas pueden crecer de manera exagerada y requerir tratamiento quirúrgico. Se describe el caso de una mujer de 16 años que presentó osteomas múltiples en la cara.The facial osteomas are one of the extracolonic manifestations of Gardner syndrome that may precede the appearance of intestinal polyps. The most common location is in the mandibular region but may affect other bones of the face. Despite being benign lesions can grow in an exaggerated manner and require surgical treatment. We describe a woman of 16 who presented a multiple osteomas of the face.

Juan Pablo Restrepo

2012-07-01

388

Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions.

Blanson, Nina

2011-01-01

389

Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students  

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Full Text Available Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifying the expressions of the students torecognize their comprehension from the facial expressions in static images containing the frontal view of the human face. Our goal is to categorize the facial expressions of the students in the given image into two basic emotional expression states – comprehensible, incomprehensible. One of the key action units in the face to expose expression is eye. In this paper, Facial expressions are identified from the expressions of the eyes. Our method consists of three steps, Edge detection, Eye extraction and Emotion recognition. Edge detection is performed through Prewitt operator. Extraction of eyes is performed using iterative search algorithm on the edge image. All the extracted information are combined together to form the feature vector. Finally, the features are given as an input for a BPN classifier and thus the facial expressions are being identified. The proposed method is tested on the Yale Face database.

G.Sofia,

2010-07-01

390

Visual Working Memory Capacity for Emotional Facial Expressions  

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Full Text Available The capacity of visual working memory is limited to no more than four items. At the same time, it is limited not only by the number of objects, but also by the total amount of information that needs to be memorized, and the relation between the information load per object and the number of objects that can be stored into visual working memory is inverse. The objective of the present experiment was to compute visual working memory capacity for emotional facial expressions, and in order to do so, change detection tasks were applied. Pictures of human emotional facial expressions were presented to 24 participants in 1008 experimental trials, each of which began with a presentation of a fixation mark, which was followed by a short simultaneous presentation of six emotional facial expressions. After that, a blank screen was presented, and after such inter-stimulus interval, one facial expression was presented at one of previously occupied locations. Participants had to answer if the facial expression presented at test is different or identical as the expression presented at that same location before the retention interval. Memory capacity was estimated through accuracy of responding, by the formula constructed by Pashler (1988, adopted from signal detection theory. It was found that visual working memory capacity for emotional facial expressions equals 3.07, which is high compared to capacity for facial identities and other visual stimuli. The obtained results were explained within the framework of evolutionary psychology.

Domagoj Švegar

2011-12-01

391

Unilateral facial myokymia in a dog with an intracranial meningioma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 23-month-old castrated male Cavalier King Charles spaniel was evaluated because of a 6-month history of unusual rippling/undulating movements of the right facial muscles that were continuous and persisted during sleep. Neurological examination revealed narrowing of the right palpebral fissure and unilateral right-sided facial myokymia that was characterised by myokymic, and to a lesser degree, neuromyotonic discharges on concentric needle electromyographic examination. After persisting unchanged for almost 2.5 years from its onset, the facial myokymia gradually disappeared over a 6-month period concomitant with the emergence of a persistent ipsilateral facial paralysis and head tilt. At 5 years and 9 months after the first examination, signs of ipsilateral lacrimal, pharyngeal and laryngeal dysfunction became evident and the dog was euthanased. Postmortem examination identified a malignant (WHO grade III) meningioma in the right cerebellopontomedullary angle that compressed the ventrolateral cranial medulla, effaced the jugular foramen and internal acoustic meatus and extended into the facial canal of the petrous temporal bone. Novel findings were the unique observation of isolated unilateral facial myokymia preceding diagnosis of a meningioma affecting facial nerve function within the caudal cranial fossa and the remarkably long duration of neurological signs (75 months) attributable to the neoplasm. PMID:20726972

Holland, C T; Holland, J T; Rozmanec, M

2010-09-01

392

Coexistence of scutum defect and facial canal dehiscence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have discussed the facial canal dehiscence rates in patients with scutum defect, who had undergone surgery with the diagnosis of chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma. The operation records of 154 patients who had undergone tympanomastoidectomy with the diagnosis of chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma were retrospectively analyzed. Scutum defect was investigated by inspection under direct high magnification following tympanomeatal flap elevation during the operation. Facial canal dehiscence was evaluated by inspection and through palpation by blunt picking after the pathological tissues had been removed. The rate of scutum defect was determined as 29.22% (45 out of 154 patients), and the rate of facial canal dehiscence was determined as 22.07% (34 out of 154 patients). While facial canal dehiscence was encountered in 55.55% of the patients with scutum defect, this rate was determined as 8.25% in patients without scutum defect. While the tympanic segment was the most commonly affected segment of the facial canal, isolated mastoid segment involvement was encountered in only 1 (2.94%) patient. The presence of scutum defect is a significant finding for the prediction of the extent of the disease and facial canal dehiscence. Thus, the surgeon should pay more attention to avoid facial nerve injury during the operation in the patient in whom a scutum defect is detected. PMID:23553244

Genc, Selahattin; Genc, Meliha Gulden; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Selcuk, Adin

2014-04-01

393

Muscular subunits transplantation for facial reanimation Transplantes de sub-unidades musculares na reanimação facial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: To present an alternative technique for reconstruction of musculocutaneous damages in the face transferring innervated subsegments(subunits) of the latissimus dorsi flap for replacement of various facial mimetic muscles. METHODS: One clinical case of trauma with skin and mimetic muscles damage is described as an example of the technique. The treatment was performed with microsurgical transfer of latissimus dorsi muscle subunits. Each subunit present shape and dimensions of the respec...

André Salo Buslik Hazan; Fábio Xerfan Nahas; Rodrigo Tiago Faria; Ramil Sinder; Lydia Masako Ferreira

2006-01-01

394

Prevalencia de fracturas faciales vinculadas con el deporte Prevalence of facial fractures linked to sports practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en 57 pacientes con fracturas faciales adquiridas durante la actividad deportiva, los cuales fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Provincial "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, en el quinquenio 1992-1996. Este tipo de lesión representó el 6,2 % del total de tratadas en dicho período. En los atletas que jugaban con pelota y practicaban técnicas de combate hubo la mayor prevalencia de estas l...

2004-01-01

395

Paralisia facial periférica em Petrópolis Peripheral facial palsy in the city of Petrópolis  

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Full Text Available O autor apresenta 83 casos de paralisia facial periférica «a frigore» ocorridos em Petrópolis, cidade montanhosa de clima tropical, sem estação seca, com média de temperatura 10ºC a 23ºC. Faz relação delas com viroses que ocorrem durante o ano. Cinquenta e seis pacientes são de sua clínica e têm «follow up», enquanto 25 outros são pacientes de outra clínica, para os quais são relatados apenas o início de instalação da paralisia, o sexo, o lado e a idade. Mostra que a maior incidência ocorreu nos meses de maio, agosto, setembro e outubro. Faz também considerações sobre a etiologia, incidência, prevalência, conduta, terapêutica e resultados na paralisia facial periférica,The author presents 83 cases of «a frigore» peripheral facial palsy, occurred in the mountain city of Petrópolis 'which has characteristics such as a tropical climate without any traces of a dry season and an average temperature of 50º F to 73.5º F. The author relates them with virus infections which appear within a year period. Fifty six patients belong to his clinic and have a follow up, while other 25 patients proceed from another clinics and from them he only has reports on sex, age, side of palsy and the beginning of illness. He shows that the largest number of cases occurred along the monthhs of May, August, September and October. Season distribution for southern hemisphere is analysed. He also considers etiology, incidence, prevalence, treatment and results on patients studied.

Marco Aurélio Marzullo de Almeida

1992-03-01

396

[Wrinkle fillers in cosmetic facial procedures].  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade cosmeticfacial procedures have become part of the professional work of both dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. A shift has taken place from invasive surgical treatment towards minimally invasive treatments. Besides the use ofbotulinum toxin type A, non-permanent wrinkle fillers can be an alternative to invasive surgical treatment. Since botulism was first described in the 18th century, the neurotoxin has continued to develop, as a result of which Botox, now available in synthetically produced form, can safely be employed in healthcare. The frequency with which patients visit dentists and maxillofacial surgeons offers the professional group the possibility to inform patients about cosmetic facial treatments and to carry them out according to diagnosis. PMID:24881255

Jaspers, G W C; Schepers, R H; Pijpe, J; Jansma, J

2014-05-01

397

Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation

1981-01-01

398

Face Recognition Based on Facial Features  

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Full Text Available Commencing from the last decade several different methods have been planned and developed in the prospect of face recognition that is one of the chief stimulating zone in the area of image processing. Face recognitions processes have various applications in the prospect of security systems and crime investigation systems. The study is basically comprised of three phases, i.e., face detection, facial features extraction and face recognition. The first phase is the face detection process where region of interest i.e., features region is extracted. The 2nd phase is features extraction. Here face features i.e., eyes, nose and lips are extracted out commencing the extracted face area. The last module is the face recognition phase which makes use of the extracted left eye for the recognition purpose by combining features of Eigenfeatures and Fisherfeatures.

Muhammad Sharif

2012-08-01

399

Differential diagnosis of midline facial granulomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The list of differential diagnoses in the case of midline facial granulomatous lesions is long. Intensive investigation into the true origin of disease must be done before definitive treatment can be begun. Extensive and repeated biopsies are necessary. The diagnosis may narrow down to the nonspecific midline lethal granuloma. Evidence in the literature coupled with our experience strongly indicates that this disease does not exist as a pathologic entity but merely as a clinical syndrome which upon further evaluation will reveal either Wegener's granulomatosis or a reticulum cell neoplasm. Treatment of the syndrome consists of corticosteroid drugs, irradiation, and chemotherapy until a definitive diagnosis is made. Midline granulomas have been and will continue to be a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem for the otolaryngologist. PMID:1166336

Vandemoer, J N; Adams, D M

1975-10-01

400

Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation.

Rudolph, R.; Woodward, M.

1981-03-01