WorldWideScience

Sample records for facial width-to-height ratio

  1. New “Golden” Ratios for Facial Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the face’s vertical distance between the eyes and th...

  2. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S. F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but ...

  3. Facial masculinity: how the choice of measurement method enables to detect its influence on behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Pages, Santiago; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Claudia; Turiegano, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has explored the relationship between facial masculinity, human male behaviour and males' perceived features (i.e. attractiveness). The methods of measurement of facial masculinity employed in the literature are quite diverse. In the present paper, we use several methods of measuring facial masculinity to study the effect of this feature on risk attitudes and trustworthiness. We employ two strategic interactions to measure these two traits, a first-price auction and a trust game. We find that facial width-to-height ratio is the best predictor of trustworthiness, and that measures of masculinity which use Geometric Morphometrics are the best suited to link masculinity and bidding behaviour. However, we observe that the link between masculinity and bidding in the first-price auction might be driven by competitiveness and not by risk aversion only. Finally, we test the relationship between facial measures of masculinity and perceived masculinity. As a conclusion, we suggest that researchers in the field should measure masculinity using one of these methods in order to obtain comparable results. We also encourage researchers to revise the existing literature on this topic following these measurement methods. PMID:25389770

  4. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  5. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that ...

  6. Facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26308869

  7. Facial blindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcà, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people's categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  8. Facial blindsight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcà, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people’s categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  9. Facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan of the head and bones of the face may be done. ... 2013:chap 42. Hill JD, Hamilton III GS. Facial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:chap ...

  10. Evaluation of the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720

  11. Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, U; Thunberg, M; Elmehed, K

    2000-01-01

    Studies reveal that when people are exposed to emotional facial expressions, they spontaneously react with distinct facial electromyographic (EMG) reactions in emotion-relevant facial muscles. These reactions reflect, in part, a tendency to mimic the facial stimuli. We investigated whether corresponding facial reactions can be elicited when people are unconsciously exposed to happy and angry facial expressions. Through use of the backward-masking technique, the subjects were prevented from consciously perceiving 30-ms exposures of happy, neutral, and angry target faces, which immediately were followed and masked by neutral faces. Despite the fact that exposure to happy and angry faces was unconscious, the subjects reacted with distinct facial muscle reactions that corresponded to the happy and angry stimulus faces. Our results show that both positive and negative emotional reactions can be unconsciously evoked, and particularly that important aspects of emotional face-to-face communication can occur on an unconscious level. PMID:11228851

  12. Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring in Posterior Fossa Surgery: Prognostic Value

    OpenAIRE

    Berges, C; Fraysse, B; Yardeni, E.; Rugiu, G.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was done of 43 patients operated on for acoustic neuroma by a translabyrinthine approach with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. Direct stimulation of the facial nerve at the level of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and the internal auditory canal (IAC) permits the calculation of a R ratio that has a predictive value for postoperative facial function: R = R?/R?, where R? is the ratio of the minimal intensity (I) of stimulation capable of inducing a response after d...

  13. Clinical considerations in facial transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Renshaw, A.

    2011-01-01

    Facial transplantation has emerged as the next step on the reconstructive ladder for severe facial disfigurement. Clinical issues surrounding facial tissue donation are examined, comprising pre-transplant facial vessel delineation; pre-operative aesthetic matching; and attitudes towards donation. An anatomical study of 200 consecutive facial and transverse facial vessels was performed using colour Doppler ultrasound. Facial vessels were measured at three landmarks and their bra...

  14. Management of facial trauma in children: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Das U; Nagarathna C; Viswanath D; Keerthi R; Gadicherla P

    2006-01-01

    Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender ...

  15. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

  16. Análise Facial Subjetiva Subjective Facial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a análise facial tem sido um recurso diagnóstico valorizado desde os primórdios da Ortodontia. Vários autores tentaram estabelecer referências de normalidade na direção das quais os pacientes ortodônticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupação da Ortodontia está em concordância com a expectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivação para o tratamento ortodôntico é a melhora estética. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente é fundamental que o ortodontista conheça os parâmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliação estética. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realização da Análise Facial Subjetiva, estética e morfológica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicação prática da análise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogêneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivíduos (50 de cada gênero classificando-os como esteticamente desagradáveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3, esteticamente aceitáveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6 e esteticamente agradáveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9. RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitáveis, 8% desagradáveis e 3% agradáveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsável pela estética desagradável, seguida pelo mento ("queixo" em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar, portanto, que a Análise Facial Subjetiva é mais um instrumento diagnóstico, que tem sua importância aumentada por ser o parâmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vão avaliar os resultados do tratamento.INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The main motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9, acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6 or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3. Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

  17. Análise Facial Subjetiva / Subjective Facial Analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sílvia Augusta Braga, Reis; Jorge, Abrão; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho; Cristiane Aparecida de Assis, Claro.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a análise facial tem sido um recurso diagnóstico valorizado desde os primórdios da Ortodontia. Vários autores tentaram estabelecer referências de normalidade na direção das quais os pacientes ortodônticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupação da Ortodontia está em concordância com a ex [...] pectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivação para o tratamento ortodôntico é a melhora estética. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente é fundamental que o ortodontista conheça os parâmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliação estética. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realização da Análise Facial Subjetiva, estética e morfológica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicação prática da análise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogêneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas) que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivíduos (50 de cada gênero) classificando-os como esteticamente desagradáveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3), esteticamente aceitáveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6) e esteticamente agradáveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9). RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitáveis, 8% desagradáveis e 3% agradáveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsável pela estética desagradável, seguida pelo mento ("queixo") em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar, portanto, que a Análise Facial Subjetiva é mais um instrumento diagnóstico, que tem sua importância aumentada por ser o parâmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vão avaliar os resultados do tratamento. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The mai [...] n motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists) to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9), acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6) or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3). Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively) as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

  18. Facial Reanimation After Facial Nerve Injury Using Hypoglossal to Facial Nerve Anastomosis: The Gruppo Otologico Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Tanbouzi Husseini, Sami; Kumar, David Victor; DONATO, GIUSEPPE; Almutair, Tamama; Sanna, Mario

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the results of facial nerve reanimation after facial nerve injury by means of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis. Retrospective case review. Private neuro-otologic and cranial base quaternary referral center. Sixty patients underwent hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis for facial nerve reanimation between April 1987 and December 2010. Only forty patients completed a minimal follow up of 24 months at the time of evaluation and were included in the study population. Facial ...

  19. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  20. Intraoperative continuous monitoring of facial motor evoked potentials in acoustic neuroma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimura, Hiroshi; Sugata, Sei; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Yunoue, Shunji; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Arita, Kazunori

    2014-10-01

    The preservation of facial nerve function is one of the primary objectives in acoustic neuroma surgery. We detail our method of continuous intraoperative facial motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring and present criteria for the preservation of facial nerve function to avoid postoperative facial nerve palsy. Our study population was comprised of 15 patients who did not (group 1), and 20 who did (group 2) undergo facial MEP monitoring during surgery to remove acoustic neuromas. In group 2, we continuously stimulated the facial motor cortex at 5- or 10-s intervals throughout surgery. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the contralateral orbicularis oculi- and orbicularis oris muscles. Optimal anode and cathode placement was at the facial motor cortex and the vertex, respectively. Postoperative facial palsy occurred in 8 of the 15 group 1 patients; in 2 it improved to grade II at 6 months after the operation. Of the 20 group 2 patients, 7 suffered postoperative facial palsy. At 6 months after the operation, their facial nerve function was normal. At the end of the operation, the ratio of the amplitude of the supramaximal EMG to the amplitude at the dural opening was 39.6 % in patients with- and 94.3 % in patients without transient postoperative facial palsy. Continuous facial MEP monitoring not only alerts to surgical invasion of the facial nerves but also helps to predict postoperative facial nerve function. To preserve a minimum amplitude ratio of 50 %, even transient postoperative facial palsy must be avoided. MEP monitoring is an additional useful modality for facial nerve monitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:25015389

  1. Surgical Treatment of Facial Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ritvik P.

    2009-01-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgi...

  2. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, a...

  3. Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani

    2012-01-01

    A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial e...

  4. 3D facial landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Harder, Stine; Rosengren, Anders; Moeller, Christian; Werge, Thomas; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Hansen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manual annotation of landmarks is a known source of variance, which exist in all fields of medical imaging, influencing the accuracy and interpretation of the results. However, the variability of human facial landmarks is only sparsely addressed in the current literature as opposed to e.g. the research fields of orthodontics and cephalometrics. We present a full facial 3D annotation procedure and a sparse set of manually annotated landmarks, in effort to reduce operator time and mini...

  5. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Pennington, A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Plastic Surgey; Philips, R. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of General Pediatrics

    2006-11-15

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  6. Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial expression database and Japanese Female Facial Expression database. The results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

  7. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. PMID:25620090

  8. Facial Asymmetry Correction in Facial Palsy Patients with Silhouette Sutures

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernando Fuentes; Lluisa Torrent; Ricard Palao; María Luisa Navarrete; Mireia González

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: over the last few decades several techniques static and dynamics, have been performed to improve facial asymmetry and functionality alter suffering facial paralysis. Methods: we present a pilot study to show and evaluate the benefits of a new form of facial suspension, with Silhouette sutures. We performed two patients with total and complete facial palsy due to otical tuberculosis in one case and to parotid carcinoma in the other. Results: one year after surgery, both patients ...

  9. A Smartphone-Based Automatic Diagnosis System for Facial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Kim, So Young; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy induces a weakness or loss of facial expression through damage of the facial nerve. A quantitative and reliable assessment system for facial nerve palsy is required for both patients and clinicians. In this study, we propose a rapid and portable smartphone-based automatic diagnosis system that discriminates facial nerve palsy from normal subjects. Facial landmarks are localized and tracked by an incremental parallel cascade of the linear regression method. An asymmetry index is computed using the displacement ratio between the left and right side of the forehead and mouth regions during three motions: resting, raising eye-brow and smiling. To classify facial nerve palsy, we used Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Leave-one-out Cross Validation (LOOCV) with 36 subjects. The classification accuracy rate was 88.9%. PMID:26506352

  10. A Smartphone-Based Automatic Diagnosis System for Facial Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seok Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve palsy induces a weakness or loss of facial expression through damage of the facial nerve. A quantitative and reliable assessment system for facial nerve palsy is required for both patients and clinicians. In this study, we propose a rapid and portable smartphone-based automatic diagnosis system that discriminates facial nerve palsy from normal subjects. Facial landmarks are localized and tracked by an incremental parallel cascade of the linear regression method. An asymmetry index is computed using the displacement ratio between the left and right side of the forehead and mouth regions during three motions: resting, raising eye-brow and smiling. To classify facial nerve palsy, we used Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Leave-one-out Cross Validation (LOOCV with 36 subjects. The classification accuracy rate was 88.9%.

  11. Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

  12. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  13. Relaciones de Forma y Proporción del Incisivo Central Maxilar con Medidas Faciales, Línea Mediana Dentaria y Facial en Adultos / Relationships between Shape and Proportion of the Maxillary Central Incisor with Facial Measurements, Dental and Facial Midline in Adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benjamín, Weber; Ramón, Fuentes; Nerilda, García; Mario, Cantín.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue relacionar la forma y proporción del incisivo central maxilar (ICM) derecho con la forma facial y ubicación de las líneas medianas dentarias y facial. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal sobre una muestra por conveniencia constituida por 118 pacientes de ambos [...] sexos, con una edad promedio de 25,09±7,71 años, escogidos según criterios de inclusión. En cada caso, fueron medidos el largo y ancho del ICM derecho, proporción dentaria resultante entre estas medidas, líneas medianas dentarias en relación a la línea mediana facial. Estas medidas se correlacionaron con las medidas faciales para forma y clase facial. Los resultados revelaron que la forma dentaria más frecuente encontrada fue la ovoide; las medidas promedio de largo y ancho para el ICM fueron de 10,28±0,91 mm y 8,69±0,57 mm, respectivamente. En mujeres fue 9,98 mm y 8,55 mm, y en hombres de 10,62 mm y 8,86 mm. La proporción dentaria fue de un 85%. Se encontraron coincidencias de las líneas medianas dentarias maxilar, mandibular y facial sólo en un 18% de los casos, y los tipos de contornos gingivales más frecuentes fueron de tipo estético (97%). No hubo relación entre medidas dentarias y faciales para las distintas clases faciales (análisis de varianza, y pruebas de comparaciones múltiples de Scheffe), sin embargo, encontramos que en todas las clases faciales de ambos sexos, predominó el tipo mesofacial y la clase I facial (57%). No se puede establecer una correlación entre forma dentaria y forma facial de manera significativa, por lo que otros parámetros también deben ser tomados en cuenta. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to relate the shape and proportion of the right maxillary central incisor with facial shape and location of dental and facial median lines. Cross-sectional study on a convenience sample consisting of 118 patients of both sexes was performed, with an average age of 25.09 [...] ±7.71 years, selected according to inclusion criteria. In each case, were measured the length and width of right maxillary central incisor, tooth ratio resulting of these measures and medium tooth lines in relation to the midline. These measures were correlated with measures of facial shape and facial class. The results revealed that the most common tooth shape found was ovoid; average length and width for the maxillary central incisor were 10.28±0.91 mm and 8.69±0.57 mm, respectively; of 9.98 mm and 8.55 mm in women, and 10.62 mm and 8.86 mm in men. The dental proportion was 85%. Matches between the median lines of maxillary teeth, jaw and face were only found in 18% of cases, and the most common types of gingival contours were aesthetic (97%). There was no relationship between dental and facial for different facial types (analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests of Scheffe) measures, however, we found that all facial classes in both sexes, prevailed mesofacial and class I facial types (57%). Unable to establish a correlation between tooth shape and facial shape significantly, so other parameters should also be taken into account.

  14. Emotional mimicry signals pain empathy as evidenced by facial electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Yu-Zheng; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Facial mimicry has been suggested to be a behavioral index for emotional empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the link between facial muscle activity and empathy for pain by facial electromyographic (EMG) recording while observers watched videos depicting real-life painful events. Three types of visual stimulus were used: an intact painful scene and arm-only (needle injection) and face only (painful expression) scenes. Enhanced EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles was found when observers viewed others in pain, supporting a unique pain expression that is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. In the intact video stimulus condition, CS activity was correlated positively with the empathic concern score and ZM activity, suggesting facial mimicry mediated empathy for pain. Cluster analysis of facial EMG responses revealed markedly different patterns among stimulus types, including response category, ratio, and temporal dynamics, indicating greater ecological validity of the intact scene in eliciting pain empathy as compared with partial scenes. This study is the first to quantitatively describe pain empathy in terms of facial EMG data. It may provide important evidence for facial mimicry as a behavioral indicator of pain empathy. PMID:26647740

  15. Paralisia facial bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.

  16. Management of facial trauma in children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender minds of young children and their parents. This case report documents the trauma and follow up care of a 4-year-old patient with maxillofacial injuries.

  17. Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesus Claudio, Gabana-Silveira; Laura Davison, Mangilli; Fernanda C., Sassi; Arnaldo Feitosa, Braga; Claudia Regina Furquim, Andrade.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample compris [...] ed four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment.

  18. Emotion recognition using facial images

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya.S; Siva sankari.S; Narasimhan.K

    2013-01-01

    Facial emotion is vital path for human contact and also used in numerous real applications. Facial expression identification has in recent times become a hopeful investigate area.Their applications include human-computer interface, human emotion examination robot control, driver state surveillance and medical fields. This paper aims to perform emotion classification scheme to identify six dissimilar facial emotions, such as anger, fear, sad, happy, disgust and surprise by using JAFFE database...

  19. Paralisia facial periférica congênita familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem 6 casos de paralisia facial periférica congênita que se sucederam em três gerações. O estudo genético sugere a atuação de um gen autosômico dominante. Na mesma família foram assinalados outras alterações congênitas (estrabismo, nistagmo. Um dos pacientes com paralisia facial (caso II-7 também apresentava micrognatia. Os pacientes com outras alterações congênitas não foram examinados adequadamente, não sendo possível, por isso, estbelecer relação etiológica entre esses achados e a paralisia facial.

  20. Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of...

  1. Skin color and facial prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, Robert Piet van,

    1982-01-01

    In this investigation the width of the range of facial skin for the population in the north of the Netherlands is determined (P< 0.05). Insight has been obtained into variations in facial skin color. It has been shown that photo-biologic factors influence the facial skin to such amount, that it determines the width of the range of the color mixing system as well. Zie: Summary and conclusions

  2. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

  3. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  4. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  5. The Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    Develops an interpersonal perception inventory which demonstrates that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. Analysis of data establishes validity for the Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory as well as reliability and consistency. Implications are…

  6. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial / Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa; Andy de Oliveira, Vicente; Carlos E.C., Abreu; Simone F., Benbassat; Marcos L., Antunes; Flávia A., Barros.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A eti [...] opatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial) juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural) e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas. Abstract in english Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic) and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiolo [...] gy can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%). The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves) and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

  7. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%. The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

  8. Parotidectomía y vena facial Parotidectomy and facial vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hernández Altemir

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía de los tumores benignos de la parótida, es una cirugía de relaciones con estructuras fundamentalmente nerviosas cuyo daño, representa un gravísimo problema psicosomático por definirlo de una manera genérica. Para ayudar al manejo quirúrgico del nervio facial periférico, es por lo que en el presente artículo tratamos de enfatizar la importancia de la vena facial en la disección y conservación del nervio, precisamente donde su disección suele ser más comprometida, esto es en las ramas más caudales. El trabajo que vamos a desarrollar hay que verlo pues, como un ensalzamiento de las estructuras venosas en el seguimiento y control del nervio facial periférico y de porqué no, el nervio auricular mayor no siempre suficientemente valorado en la cirugía de la parótida al perder protagonismo con el facial.Benign parotid tumor surgery is related to fundamental nervous structures, defined simply: that when damaged cause great psychosomatic problems. In order to make peripheral facial nerve surgery easy to handle for the surgeon this article emphasizes the importance of the facial vein in the dissection and conservation of the nerve. Its dissection can be compromised if the caudal branches are damaged. The study that we develop should be seen as praise for the vein structures in the follow up and control of the peripheral facial nerve, and the main auricular nerve that is often undervalued when it is no longer the protagonist in the face.

  9. Visual facial grasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Alonso R; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2004-10-01

    Some patients with degenerative neurological diseases have a release of the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), as detected by passive head movement during visual fixation on a moving target ("doll's eyes"maneuver). However, a positive doll's eyes sign might be induced by other defects and the purpose of this article is to describe a new ocular sign of cortical dysfunction, the visual facial grasp. We observed three patients, one with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), another with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a third with cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) all of whom appeared to demonstrate a release of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) with passive head movements. Whereas the patient with PSP, who was unable to inhibit the VOR regardless of the visual target used probably had a true release of the VOR, the patients with AD and CBD were able to inhibit this reflex when the visual target was the examiner's moving face. These two patients also exhibited spontaneous preference for visual fixation on the examiner's face and improvement in smooth pursuit when the examiner's face was the visual target. This clinical observation suggests that the deficits in these two patients with AD and CBD were related to the emergence of a primitive stimulus-bound behavior, the visual facial grasp. PMID:15788274

  10. Celulitis facial odontógena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO L RODRÍGUEZ CALZADILLA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestra un grupo de pacientes afectados por celulitis facial odontógena y los resultados obtenidos durante el tratamiento, pues en ocasiones se produce demora en su remisión al Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial. Dichos resultados deben tomarse en cuenta por parte de los estomatólogos generales integrales e incorporarlos a los programas docentes. Un total de 40 pacientes constituye el universo de trabajo; predominó la edad de 15 años y más (60 %, y el sexo femenino (57,5 % como el de mayor incidencia. Los pacientes que fueron remitidos tempranamente evolucionaron de forma satisfactoria al tratamiento.A group of patients affected with odontogen facial cellulitis is presented. The results obtained during the treatment are shown, since sometime their referral to the Maxillofacial Surgery Service is delayed. The comprehensive general stomatologists should take such results into consideration and include them in the curricula. Most of the 40 patients studies were 15 years and over. The greastest incidence was observed among the females (57.5 %. Those who were referred early had a satisfactory evolution.

  11. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  12. Rapid facial mimicry in orangutan play

    OpenAIRE

    Davila Ross, Marina; Menzler, Susanne; Zimmermann, Elke

    2007-01-01

    Emotional contagion enables individuals to experience emotions of others. This important empathic phenomenon is closely linked to facial mimicry, where facial displays evoke the same facial expressions in social partners. In humans, facial mimicry can be voluntary or involuntary, whereby its latter mode can be processed as rapid as within or at 1?s. Thus far, studies have not provided evidence of rapid involuntary facial mimicry in animals.

  13. Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathi, C. P.; T. Santhanam; M.Mahadevi

    2013-01-01

    The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparamet...

  14. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed andevaluated.Key WordsArtificial Muscles, facial prosthetics, stroke rehabilitation,facial paralysis, computer vision, automated facialrecognition.

  15. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth P.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature tracking, which usually detects and tracks prominent landmarks surrounding facial components (i.e., mouth, eyebrow, etc, captures the detailed face shape information; Second, facial actions recognition, i.e., recognize facial action units (AUs defined in FACS, try to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial  expression analysis attempts to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial expression analysis attempts to recognize facial expressions that represent the human emotion states. In this proposed algorithm initially detecting eye and mouth, features of eye and mouth are extracted using Gabor filter, (Local Binary Pattern LBP and PCA is used to reduce the dimensions of the features. Finally SVM is used to classification of expression and facial action units.

  16. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" / "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O. M., Ramírez; A., Novo Torres; Ch. R., Volpe.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz d [...] e lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior). Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior). Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog) se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil. Abstract in english Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal l [...] ifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction

  17. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ramírez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior. Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior. Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil.Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal lifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction of the sagging cheek structures. This

  18. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zeng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

  19. Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Arumugam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is used to identify the person’s emotional state through facial expression such as angry, disgust, happy. This can be done with different age group of people with different situation. We Used a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN for classification and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for feature selection.

  20. A REVIEW ON FACIAL NEURALGIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Facial neuralgias are produced by a change in neurological structure or function. This type of neuropathic pain affects the mental health as well as quality of life of patients. There are different types of neuralgias affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. These unusual pains are linked to some possible mechanisms. Various diagnostic tests are done to diagnose the proper cause of facial neuralgia and according to it the medical and surgical treatment is done to provide relief to patient.

  1. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Roisman, Glenn I.; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Huang, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are exp...

  2. Subtotal facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence and promoting facial nerve recovery of severe idiopathic recurrent facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Hui; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Jie; Liu, Hua; Qian, Xiao-Zhong; Pan, Xin-Liang

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study is to document the role of subtotal facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence and promoting facial nerve recovery of severe idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. Twenty-two cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, which had over 95 % degeneration of facial nerve on electroneurography, were included in the study, among which 12 accepting subtotal facial nerve decompression were involved in surgery group, and 10 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were classified into control group. The recurrence of facial palsy and facial nerve recovery was compared. The patients were followed up for 5.3 years (range 3-8 years) and 5.2 years (range 3-7 years) in surgery group and control group, respectively. Further recurrence of facial palsy occurred in none of 12 patients (0 %) in surgery group in contrast to 4 of 10 cases (40 %) in control group, with statistical difference (p surgery group recovered to Grade I or Grade II compared to 3 of 10 cases (30.0 %) in control group, with significant difference (p facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further recurrence of facial palsy and promote facial nerve recovery of severe idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. PMID:24619203

  3. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  4. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. PMID:26088742

  5. Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sumathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparameterization using Facial Action Coding System(FACS action units and the methods whichrecognizes the action units parameters using facial expression data that are extracted. Various kinds offacial expressions are present in human face which can be identified based on their geometric features,appearance features and hybrid features . The two basic concepts of extracting features are based onfacial deformation and facial motion. This article also identifies the techniques based on thecharacteristics of expressions and classifies the suitable methods that can be implemented.

  6. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  7. Gamma knife surgery for facial nerve schwannomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Litré, Claude Fabien; Gourg, GP; Tamura, M.; Mdarhri, D; Touzani, A; Roche, Ph; Régis, J

    2007-01-01

    Radical resection of facial nerve schwannomas classically implies a high risk of severe facial palsy. Owing to the rarity of facial palsy after gamma knife surgery (GKS) of vestibular schwannomas, functional evaluation after GKS seems rational in this specific group of patients. To our knowledge, no previous similar evaluation exists in the literature.

  8. Thermal Analysis of Facial Muscles Contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarlier, Sophie Josiane; Grandjean, Didier Maurice; Delplanque, Sylvain; Ndiaye, Karim Babacar Joseph; Cayeux, Isabelle; Velazco, Maria Ines; Sander, David; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2011-01-01

    Facial expressions can be systematically coded using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) that describes the specific action unit (AU) or combination of AUs elicited during different kinds of expressions. This study investigated the thermal patterns concomitant to specific action units performance. As thermal imaging can track dynamic patterns in facial temperature at any distance (>0.4m), with high temporal (

  9. The face is not an empty canvas: how facial expressions interact with facial appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B.; Kleck, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who...

  10. Seis anos de atendimento em trauma facial: análise epidemiológica de 355 casos Six years of facial trauma care: an epidemiological analysis of 355 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumas faciais são frequentes em emergências requerendo o diagnóstico de fraturas e lesões associadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar dados epidemiológicos de atendimento em trauma facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 335 prontuários de pacientes com trauma facial tratados pelo Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia, no período de Janeiro de 2002 a Dezembro de 2008. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade, gênero, etiologia, local anatômico da fratura, lesão associada, consumo de álcool, tratamento e hospitalização. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte longitudinal histórico. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes são homens adultos jovens (pFacial traumas are frequent in emergencies, and they require the diagnosis of fractures and associated lesions. AIM: To analyze epidemiological data concerning facial trauma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-five charts from patients with facial trauma treated by the Service of Otorhinolaryngology, from January 2002 to December 2008, were revised. The following data was collected: age, gender, etiology, anatomical localization of the fracture, associated injuries, alcohol consumption, treatment, and hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective historical longitudinal study. RESULTS: Most of the patients are young adult men (p<0.05 with a male:female ratio of 4:1(p<0.05. Interpersonal violence is the most prevalent cause of facial trauma (27.9%, followed by motor vehicle accidents (16.6% (p<0.05. The mandible is the most prevalent facial bone fractured (44.2%, followed by nasal fracture (18.9% (p<0.05. 41.1% of the patients consumed alcohol with a male:female ratio of 11.2:1 (p<0.05. Seventy-seven percent of the patients required surgical intervention (p<0.05 and 84.5% were hospitalized (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Young male adults are the most prevalent victims of facial trauma, and interpersonal violence is responsible for the majority of the facial injuries. Most of the cases of facial trauma are associated with the consumption of alcohol. Further studies will be necessary to provide a clear understanding of the trends in the etiology of facial trauma.

  11. Blocking facial mimicry reduces perceptual sensitivity for facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipser, Alberta; Cook, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Built on models of 'action understanding', motor theories of expression perception propose that facial simulation, a process similar to covert imitation, aids perception and interpretation of others' facial expressions. As predicted by these accounts, some reports suggest that blocking facial mimicry impairs expression recognition. However, these reports have been criticized and motor theories remain controversial. Crucially, it remains to be determined whether the labeling errors observed reflect a loss of perceptual sensitivity - a genuine perceptual phenomenon - or whether they are a product of response bias. The current study addressed this question using a novel psychophysical paradigm, where observers judged whether smiles drawn from a morph continuum were sincere or insincere. In Experiment 1, we confirmed that cues from both the eye and mouth regions contribute to sincerity judgments. Experiment 2 measured discrimination of smile sincerity across free-viewing and blocked-mimicry conditions. In the blocked-mimicry condition, participants pronounced vowel sounds during stimulus presentation, thereby loading the motor system and preventing mimicry. Each participant's responses were modeled by fitting psychometric functions. Sensitivity to changes in smile sincerity and bias were inferred from the slope and the point of subjective equality (PSE), respectively. Motor interference significantly decreased sensitivity relative to baseline, but did systematically affect bias. Experiment 3 examined whether the motor manipulation has similar effects on judgments of facial gender, a task equated for difficulty but which is not thought to recruit motor processes. Neither slope nor PSE estimates for gender judgments were affected, indicating that the loss of sensitivity seen in Experiment 2 is relatively specific to judgments of expression and does not reflect generic distraction. These findings accord with the view that judgments of facial expression benefit from motor contributions to perception. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327064

  12. Pseudotumoural hypertrophic neuritis of the facial nerve

    OpenAIRE

    ZANOLETTI, E; Mazzoni, A.; Barbò, R

    2008-01-01

    In a retrospective study of our cases of recurrent paralysis of the facial nerve of tumoural and non-tumoural origin, a tumour-like lesion of the intra-temporal course of the facial nerve, mimicking facial nerve schwannoma, was found and investigated in 4 cases. This was defined as, pseudotumoral hypertrophic neuritis of the facial nerve. The picture was one of recurrent acute facial palsy with incomplete recovery and imaging of a benign tumour. It was different from the well-known recurrent ...

  13. Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaydjieva Luba

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facia...

  14. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from genetic principal components across a population of 1,266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode these to genetic principal components and then use these principal components as predictors for facial traits in a linear regression. We show in this proof-of-concept study for facial trait prediction from genome-wide SNP data that some facial characteristics can be modeled by genetic information: facial width, eyebrow width, distance between eyes, and features involving mouth shape are predicted with statistical significance (p < 0.03).

  15. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin; Pers, Tune H; Nielsen, Henrik B; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kári; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Jarmer, Hanne

    2015-11-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from genetic principal components across a population of 1266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode these to genetic principal components and then use these principal components as predictors for facial traits in a linear regression. We show in this proof-of-concept study for facial trait prediction from genome-wide SNP data that some facial characteristics can be modeled by genetic information: facial width, eyebrow width, distance between eyes, and features involving mouth shape are predicted with statistical significance (p<0.03). PMID:26355663

  16. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Miki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  17. Sympathicotomy for Isolated Facial Blushing: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P. B.; Pilegaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period. Quality of life (QOL) was investigated preoperatively and after 12 months by Short Form 36. Local effects and side effects were assessed by questionnaire. Results. The male/female ratio was 27/73. The median age was 29 years (range, 18-56 years. The response rate was 93%. QOL increased significantly in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient experienced Horner's syndrome. Compensatory sweating occurred in 93% of patients, gustatory sweating 36%, and dry hands in 66%; 13% of patients regretted the operation despite thorough preoperative selection and information. Conclusions. There were no significant differences in local effects or side effects between R2 and R2-R3 sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing. Both were effective, and QOL increased significantly. Despite very frequent side effects, the vast majority of patients were satisfied. Surprisingly, many patients experienced mild recurrent symptoms within the first year; this should always be discussed with patients preoperatively. (Ann Thorac Surg 2012;94:401-5) (c) 2012 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

  18. Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls, n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio. Results: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

  19. Avaliação comparativa entre agradabilidade facial e análise subjetiva do Padrão Facial Comparative evaluation among facial attractiveness and subjective analysis of Facial Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Morihisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar duas análises subjetivas faciais utilizadas para o diagnóstico ortodôntico, avaliação da agradabilidade facial e definição de Padrão Facial, e verificar a associação existente entre elas. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se 208 fotografias faciais padronizadas (104 laterais e 104 frontais de 104 indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação da agradabilidade por dois grupos distintos (Grupo " Ortodontia" e Grupo " Leigos" , que classificaram os indivíduos em " agradável" , " aceitável" ou " desagradável" . Os indivíduos também foram classificados quanto ao Padrão Facial por três examinadores calibrados, utilizando-se apenas a vista lateral. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: após a análise estatística, verificou-se que houve associação fortemente positiva entre a agradabilidade facial e o Padrão Facial para a norma lateral, porém não para a frontal, em que os indivíduos tenderam a ser bem classificados mesmo no Padrão II.AIM: To study two subjective facial analysis commonly used on orthodontic diagnosis and to verify the association between the evaluation of facial attractiveness and Facial Pattern definition. METHODS: Two hundred and eight standardized face photographs (104 in lateral view and 104 in frontal view of 104 randomly chosen individuals were used in the present study. They were classified as " pleasant" , " acceptable" and " not pleasant" by two distinct groups: " Lay people" and " Orthodontists" . The individuals were either classified according to their Facial Pattern using lateral view images. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After statistical analysis, it was noted a strong positive concordance between facial attractiveness in lateral view and Facial Pattern, however, frontal view attractiveness classification did not have good concordance with Facial Pattern, tending to have good attractiveness classification even in Facial Pattern II.

  20. Rinoplastia e assimetria facial: análise de fatores subjetivos e antropométricos no nariz caucasiano / Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bettina, Carvalho; Annelyse Christine, Ballin; Renata Vecentin, Becker; Cezar Augusto Sarraff, Berger; Johann G. G. Melcherts, Hurtado; Marcos, Mocellin.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Proporções antropométricas e simetria são consideradas determinantes de beleza. Tais parâmetros têm importância significativa em cirurgia plástica facial, notadamente na Rinoplastia. Sendo o nariz o órgão central da face, ele tem especial importância na determinação da simetria facial, t [...] anto através da percepção de um nariz torto quanto através da determinação do crescimento facial. A avaliação da presença de assimetrias faciais tem grande relevância no pré-operatório, tanto para planejamento cirúrgico quanto aconselhamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e documentar a presença de assimetria facial em pacientes com plano de Rinoplastia e correlacionar as medidas antropométricas com percepção de assimetria ou simetria facial, avaliando se há uma maior prevalência de assimetria facial entre esses pacientes em comparação com voluntários sem queixa nasal. MÉTODO: trabalho prospectivo, realizado através de comparação de fotografias, em pacientes com Pré-operatório de Rinoplastia e voluntários (controles), n=201, através de controle de medidas antropométricas tomadas de uma linha passando pelo centro da face, até: tragus, canto medial, canto lateral, margem alar, e comissura oral, de cada lado da face, por meio de testes estatísticos (teste Z e Odds ratio). RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes ou voluntários apresentou valores totalmente simétricos. Subjetivamente, 59% dos pacientes foram percebidos como assimétricos, contra 54%dos voluntários. Objetivamente, mais de 89% dos pesquisados tiveram medidas assimétricas. Os pacientes apresentaram RLMTr (Razão Linha Média Tragus) mais assimétrica que os voluntários, com diferença estatisticamente significativa. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÃO: assimetrias faciais são muito frequentes em pacientes que procuram Rinoplastia, portanto, especial atenção deve ser dada a estes aspectos, tanto para o planejamento cirúrgico, quanto para orientação aos pacientes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both th [...] rough the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. METHODS: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). RESULTS: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

  1. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  2. Facial information processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joa?o Paulo Machado de Sousa and Jaime Eduardo Ceci?lio Hallak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients’ cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are analyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

  3. Facial information processing in schizophrenia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Paulo Machado de, Sousa; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients' cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are a [...] nalyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

  4. [Facial paralysis surgery. Current concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robla-Costales, David; Robla-Costales, Javier; Socolovsky, Mariano; di Masi, Gilda; Fernández, Javier; Campero, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Facial palsy is a relatively common condition, from which most cases recover spontaneously. However, each year, there are 127,000 new cases of irreversible facial paralysis. This condition causes aesthetic, functional and psychologically devastating effects in the patients who suffer it. Various reconstructive techniques have been described, but there is no consensus regarding their indication. While these techniques provide results that are not perfect, many of them give a very good aesthetic and functional result, promoting the psychological, social and labour reintegration of these patients. The aim of this article is to describe the indications for which each technique is used, their results and the ideal time when each one should be applied. PMID:25498528

  5. 3D statistical facial reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of craniofacial reconstruction is to produce a likeness of a face from the skull. Few works in computerized assisted facial reconstruction have been done in the past, due to poor machine performances and data availability, and major works are manually reconstructions. In this paper, we present an approach to build 3D statistical models of the skull and the face with soft tissues from the skull of one individual. Results on real data are presented and seem promising.

  6. Interactions between dynamic facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ben; Johnston, Alan

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic facial expressions entail coordinated movement of multiple facial features. Cook et al. found illusory slowing of eye blinks in the presence of mouth movement, arguing against independent processing in favour of global encoding of dynamic facial features (Cook, Aichelburg & Johnston, Psychological Science, in press). The present work extends the search for feature motion interactions from perception to performance. Principal Component Analysis occlusion studies highlight the importance of the eyebrow and mouth regions for determining global configuration. We asked whether the detection threshold for misaligned eyebrow movement might change in the presence of mouth movement. In a 2AFC design participants viewed two animated facial avatars, displayed for 3 seconds, either side of fixation, whose eyebrows oscillated sinusoidally at 1.5Hz. The standard's eyebrows moved in phase, while the comparison's were offset by between 1 - 30 degrees of phase angle (increments of around 5 degrees; standard/comparison position switching randomly). Participants judged which face's eyebrows were misaligned. The 75% point on the fitted psychometric function was taken as the dynamic misalignment discrimination threshold. In separate blocks both mouths were either closed or oscillating at 1.5Hz, and faces were upright or inverted. The inversion manipulation allowed us to differentiate between face-specific and lower-level mechanisms. Thresholds for 4 out of 5 participants increased in the presence of mouth movement by around 3.5 degrees of phase. Mouth movement therefore interferes with eyebrow movement discrimination, despite the spatial separation. The threshold shift either disappeared or reversed for inverted faces (mean shift around -0.9 degrees of phase). Face-specific processes can therefore be implicated in causing the interference as opposed to distraction, crowding or other low-level interactions. It would appear that the grouping of mouth movement with eyebrow movement disrupts the capacity of participants to discriminate eyebrow motion patterns. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325834

  7. Olfactory cues modulate facial attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Demattè, ML; Osterbauer, R; Spence, C.

    2007-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate whether olfactory cues can influence people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Sixteen female participants judged the attractiveness of a series of male faces presented briefly on a computer monitor using a 9-point visual rating scale. While viewing each face, the participants were simultaneously presented with either clean air or else with 1 of 4 odorants (the odor was varied on a trial-by-trial basis) from a custom-built olfactometer. We in...

  8. Survey about facial image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Yuridia

    2006-01-01

    The project "Two Dimensional Facial Image Quality (2DFIQ)" is the initiative of Fraunhofer IGD Darmstadt to propose a model to measure the quality of digital passport photos based on the specifications of the international standards ICAO/MRTD and ISO 19794-5. In the analysis and design phase of the project, some problems to assign a precedence and relevance of attributes occurred. Since these international standards play an important role in the maturation process of security assurance in som...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders

  11. A Software Tool for Facial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawehinmi Babatude Hakeem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and thorough facial analysis is needed for the formulation of treatment plan in rhinoplastic, dental and aesthetic surgical procedures. The analysis process is not difficult but tedious due to accuracy requirements. Before technological advances, facial analysis was done manually to detect and interpret facial characteristics. This procedure is often time consuming with greater error due to parallax and approximation. The object of this study is to introduce a software tool design to simplify the analysis of facial parameters. 2D photographic images of the face captured under varying condition of illumination where analyzed with the aid of standard anatomical landmarks. Facial dimensions obtained where less time consuming and accurate. The software is capable of depicting and quantifying craniofacial dimensions and facial soft tissue profile at an increased speed and accuracy.

  12. [Reconstructive surgery of facial nerve injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascarevi?, V; Samardzi?, M; Rasuli?, L; Simi?, V

    2003-01-01

    The facial nerve is main motor nerve of the face and its injury leads to total ipsilateral paralysis. There are several surgical procedures in reconstruction of the facial nerve, and the most frequent one is hypoglosso-facial anastomosis. In this study were analysed a series of 69 patients operated on Institute of neurosurgery from 1981 to 2000 year. The most frequent cause of injury was the operation of cerebellopontine angle tumors, as well as the skull base fractures. Hypoglosso-facial anastomosis was done in 57 patients, in 5 cases we performed nerve grafting in the cerebellopontine angle, and in 7 patients the facial nerve was operated peripherally. Results were analyzed in 27 of 57 patients with hipoglosso-facial nerve anastomosis. Functional recovery was achived in 22 (81.4%) patients. PMID:14619717

  13. Facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vretos, N.; Solachidis, V.; Somol, Petr; Pitas, I.

    Lausanne, Switzerland : EURASIP, 2008, s. 1-5. [16th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO- 2008). Lausanne (CH), 25.08.2008-29.08.2008] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : facial expression * facial meshes * recognition * feature selection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/somol-facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes.pdf

  14. Total Facial Nerve Decompression for Severe Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of 10 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Management of traumatic facial nerve disorders is challenging. Facial nerve decompression is indicated if 90–95% loss of function is seen at the very early period on ENoG or if there is axonal degeneration on EMG lately with no sign of recovery. Middle cranial or translabyrinthine approach is selected depending on hearing. The aim of this study is to present retrospective review of 10 patients with sudden onset complete facial paralysis after trauma who underwent total facial nerve decompress...

  15. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  16. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    OpenAIRE

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one?s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecti...

  17. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

  18. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stel, Mariëlle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. Th...

  19. Facial affect recognition in psychopathic offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Kreklewetz, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined whether psychopathy was associated with impaired facial affect recognition. Participants were selected from a medium-security prison. Emotion recognition was assessed with the pictures of Facial Affect (PFA; Ekman & Friesen, 1976) and the Facial Discrimination Task (FDT; Erwin et al., 1992). Psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores contained in inmates' files (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003). Participants also completed the ...

  20. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from genetic principal components across a population of 1,266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode thes...

  1. Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, María; O’Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L.; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900–8...

  2. The identification of unfolding facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s–1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt ...

  3. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Kamide; Takeshi Matsunobu; Akihiro Shiotani

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkab...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device...

  5. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ...

  6. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance...DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance...Identification. An external facial fracture fixation...

  7. Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    You-Wei Cheong; Lun-Jou Lo

    2011-01-01

    Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient histor...

  8. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BASED ON EDGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming CHEN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relational Over the last two decades, the advances in computer vision and pattern recognition power have opened the door to new opportunity of automatic facial expression recognition system[1]. This paper use Canny edge detection method for facial expression recognition. Image color space transformation in the first place and then to identify and locate human face .Next pick up the edge of eyes and mouth's features extraction. Last we judge the facial expressions after compared with the expressions we known in the database. This proposed approach provides full automatic solution of human expressions as well as overcoming facial expressions variation and intensity problems.

  9. Vitamin D3 potentiates myelination and recovery after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montava, Marion; Garcia, Stéphane; Mancini, Julien; Jammes, Yves; Courageot, Joël; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Feron, François

    2015-10-01

    Roles of vitamin D on the immune and nervous systems are increasingly recognized. Two previous studies demonstrated that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) induced functional recovery and increased myelination in a rat model of peroneal nerve transection. The current report assessed whether cholecalciferol was efficient in repairing transected rabbit facial nerves. Animals were randomized into two groups of rabbits with an unilateral facial nerve surgery: the vitamin D group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vitamin D3 (200 IU/kg/day), from day 1 post-surgery; the control group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vehicle (triglycerides). Contralateral unsectioned facial nerves from all experimental animals were used as controls for the histological study. The facial functional index was measured every week while the inner diameter of myelin sheath and the G ratio were quantified at the end of the 3 month experiment. The current report indicates that cholecalciferol significantly increases functional recovery and myelination, after 12 weeks of treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation in an animal model of facial paralysis. It paves further the way for clinical trials based on the administration of this steroid in individuals with injured facial nerves. PMID:25261104

  10. Granuloma aséptico facial idiopático / Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Belén, Zambrano Centeno; Carlos, Gómez González; Mercedes, Rojo López; María Luisa, Alonso Pacheco.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Granuloma Aséptico Facial Idiopático (GAFI) es un proceso dermatológico propio de la edad pediátrica, caracterizado por la presencia de un nódulo inflamatorio adquirido de larga evolución en la piel facial, sin dolor ni calor local. Su localización habitual es en la mejilla, en el triángulo que f [...] orma el ángulo externo del ojo, el lóbulo de la oreja y la comisura labial. Se han postulado varias hipótesis respecto a su etiología, como su relación con traumatismos sutiles o picaduras de insecto o bien se trate de un residuo embriológico o, la más aceptada en la actualidad, de una forma peculiar de manifestación de la rosácea en la infancia. Si bien en la literatura solo se han reportado 45 casos, algunos autores señalan que puede tratarse de un proceso poco conocido y no tan infrecuente en la edad infantil. Consideran así mismo que su apariencia clínica, localización y evolución características pueden ser suficientes para su diagnóstico, evitando así intervenciones diagnósticas y terapéuticas agresivas en una edad tan sensible al dolor, y con la posibilidad de secuelas cicatriciales en la cara. Presentamos un nuevo caso de GAFI, manejado de un modo conservador, tras ser diagnosticado a tenor de sus manifestaciones clínicas y evolutivas. Abstract in english The idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a cutaneous condition characteristic in the pediatric age which is characterized by an acquired inflammatory painless nodule of long-term evolution in the facial skin and presents no local heat. It usually appears on the cheeks, in the triangle forme [...] d by the external angle of the eye, the earlobe and the labial commissure. Several hypothesis have been postulated on its etiology: its appearance could be related to a slight injury or an insect bite or could be an embryological remnant. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that it could be a particular manifestation of rosacea in infants. Although only 45 cases have been reported in the literature, some authors point out that it could be a little known process and not so uncommon in the pediatric age. It is also considered that its clinical characteristic aspect, localization and evolution could be sufficient for correct diagnosis, thus avoiding invasive diagnostic interventions and aggressive therapies in such a sensitive age to pain and with the possibility to leave scars in the child's face. The present is a new case of IFAG handled in a conservative way after diagnosis based on its evolutional and clinical manifestations.

  11. An experimental illustration of 3D facial shape analysis under facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Boulbaba, Ben Amor; Drira, Hassen; Ballihi, Lahoucine; Srivastava, Anuj; Daoudi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to illustrate a geometric analysis of 3D facial shapes in presence of varying facial expressions. This approach consists of the following two main steps: (i) Each facial surface is automatically denoised and preprocessed to result in an indexed collection of facial curves. During this step one detects the tip of the nose and defines a surface distance function with that tip as the reference point. The level curves of this distance function are the desired facial...

  12. Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

  13. Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagdeve N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

  14. Irreversible facial paralysis and its treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai, Jean-Philippe Albert,

    1983-01-01

    The importance of symmetry of the external appearance of humans and the rarity of morphologic asymmetry in the animal worled are stressed in chapter 1. The outline of this study is presented. Chapter 2 reviews the anatomy and physiology of the facial nerve and facial muscles. A few topographic data are metioned. ... Zie: Summary

  15. Facial nerve palsy associated with underwater barotrauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, T R

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a case of facial nerve palsy following barotitis media sustained at shallow depth. The neuropraxia is likely to have been due to the direct effect of pressure, facilitated by a congenital hiatus in the bony canal protecting the facial nerve in the middle ear.

  16. Abscess secondary to facial snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. QUIROGA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, approximately 700 snakebite cases occur each year, 5 to 10 of which result in death. At the Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, 6 to 10 cases are reported annually, more than half of these cases and nearly all deaths are result from Bothrops asper snakebite. This venomous snake, popularly known as the "terciopelo", most often attacks the lower or upper limbs and characteristically produces local tissue damage, which can be severe. The following is a report of the first case of a non-fatal and unusual facial bite caused by Bothrops asper in our country.

  17. Early Observations on Facial Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2015-01-01

    Before Charles Bell's eponymous account of facial palsy, physicians of the Graeco-Roman era had chronicled the condition. The later neglected accounts of the Persian physicians Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakar?ya R?zi ("Rhazes") and Avicenna in the first millennium are presented here as major descriptive works preceding the later description by Stalpart van der Wiel in the seventeenth century and those of Friedreich and Bell at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. PMID:25513852

  18. Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, S; Nasipuri, M; Basu, D K; Kundu, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of a facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main research effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face construction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and analyzes the facial components from a face image by an efficient technique. The Fuzzy model, designed in this paper, takes crisp value of width and height of a facial component and produces the crisp value of Shape for different facial components. This method is designed using Matlab 6.5 and Visual Basic 6.0 and tested with the facial components extracted from 200 male and female face images of different ages from different face databases.

  19. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  20. Navigation aided surgery for facial fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A navigation system that has been developed in neurosurgery has recently been applied in the maxillofacial region. We introduced a navigation system (Stealth Station, Medtronic) in the maxillofacial region. As preoperative preparation, CT scanning was performed with a slice of 1 mm. Navigation aided surgery was performed in 11 patients with facial fractures between April 2005 and July 2006. Navigation aided reduction of the bone segment was performed by comparing with the sound site on the screen. Facial symmetry was recovered in 10 of 11 cases. Facial asymmetry in 1 case (midfacial multiple fractures) remained, because the system did not work after the surgeon contacted the reference frame during the operation. The navigation system is useful for repairing facial fractures, especially for verifying facial symmetry. (author)

  1. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITHA C,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, human–computer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

  2. Preoperative embolization of facial angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative embolization was performed on 27 patients with facial angiomas supplied by the external carotid branches. Sixteen were males and 11 females; 13 of these angiomas were high-flow arterio-venous (A-V), 14 were low-flow capillary malformations. Fourteen patients underwent surgical removal after preoperative embolization; in this group embolization was carried out with Spongel in 3 cases and with Lyodura in 11 cases. In 12 of these patients the last angiographic examination was performed 3-6 years later: angiography evidenced no recurrence in 8 cases (67%), while in 3 cases (25%) there was capillary residual angioma of negligible size. Treatment was unsuccessful in one patient only, due to the large recurrent A-V angioma. Thirteen patients underwent embolization only, which was carried out with Lyodura in 10 cases, and with Ivalon in 3 cases. On 12 of these patients the last angiographic study was performed 2-14 months later: there was recurrent A-V angioma in 5 patients (42%), who underwent a subsequent embolization; angiography evidenced no recurrence in the other 7 patients (58%). In both series, the best results were obtained in the patients with low-flow capillary angiomas. Embolization and subsequent surgical removal are the treatment of choice for facial angiomas; embolization alone is useful in the management of surgically inacessible vascular malformations, and it can be the only treatment in patients with small low-flow angiomas when distal occlusion of the feeding vessel with Lyodura or Ivalon particles is performed

  3. Chinese perceivers' facial first impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Clare; Liu, Xixi; Chu, Ying; Zhang, Lingshan; Oldmeadow, Julian; Young, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Studies of Western perceivers have found a three-factor structure to first impressions of Caucasian faces: approachability, youthful-attractiveness and dominance (Sutherland et al. 2013). These factors are thought to reflect responses to facial cues with a long evolutionary history related to threat and to sexual selection (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008; Sutherland et al. 2013). If this is the case, then these dimensions should be universal across culture. However, as yet research has only examined models derived from Western first impressions. To address this, we sought to derive models of first impressions of Asian and Caucasian faces from Chinese perceivers' spontaneous judgments. In Study 1, we asked 20 Chinese participants to freely describe 60 Asian face photographs. Participants frequently spontaneously inferred character traits, especially approachability-related traits. In Study 2, 120 Chinese participants rated a set of 500 Asian and 500 Caucasian face photographs on the twelve characteristics most frequently mentioned in Study 1. We found a three-factor structure for Chinese impressions of Caucasian faces, in which the first two factors were very similar to the first two factors of Western perceivers' impressions of Caucasian faces (approachability and youthful-attractiveness: Sutherland et al. 2013). For Asian faces, we found four factors, including an additional attractiveness factor, indicating that there are also culture-specific aspects of facial evaluation. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326906

  4. Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Flaquer Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric and the Facial Index (photographs. RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa, made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias. RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa, feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários.

  5. Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Flaquer, Martins; Julio Wilson, Vigorito.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvim [...] ento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo Índice Vert (cefalometricamente) e pelo Índice Facial (fotografias). RESULTADOS: pela análise de concordância (Kappa), feita para os dois tipos de análise, encontramos uma concordância de 76,5%. CONCLUSÕES: foi possível considerar que o Índice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnóstico ortodôntico, ou como método alternativo para pré-seleção de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessários. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of [...] radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric) and the Facial Index (photographs). RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa), made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.

  6. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial appearances. Facial deformity caused by trauma, congenital disabilities, and postsurgical sequelae present with significant adverse functional consequences. Facial deformities have a significant negative effect on perceptions of social functionality, including employability, honesty, and trustworthiness. Adverse perceptions of patients with facial deformities occur regardless of sex, educational level, and age of evaluator. PMID:12794453

  7. Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madokoro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than 10 weeks were, respectively, 68.6% and 77.4%.

  8. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

  9. Soft tissue facial morphology related to headform: a three-dimensional quantitative analysis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Schmitz, J H; Colombo, A

    1997-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to determine whether children of the same age with different headforms differ in their three-dimensional soft-tissue facial characteristics. The three-dimensional coordinates of 22 standardized facial landmarks were automatically collected in a sample of 70 boys and 71 girls age 11 to 13 years attending a junior high school. From the collected landmarks, several three-dimensional facial angles, linear distances, linear distance ratios, and volumes were calculated. For each subject the cephalic index (maximal head breadth/ maximal head length x 100) was computed and three groups of measurements for each sex were obtained (dolicho-, meso- and brachycephalic). A two-way factorial analysis of variance compared the effects of sex and headform, and the interaction sex x headform. On average, boys had significantly (P < or = 0.05) longer and wider faces than girls, with a larger lower third facial volume relative to middle third facial volume. A significant (P < or = 0.05) effect of headform over facial morphology was found for all angles with a prevalent axial orientation. Conversely, no effect was demonstrated for angles with a sagittal orientation, nor for any other considered parameters. For each sex, the dolichocephalic children had smaller values than the brachycephalic children (i.e., more convex faces in the left-right direction), while the mesocephalic children had intermediate values. No sex x headform interactions were found. Results confirm that a different headform (skull) is associated with a different three-dimensional facial morphology (combined effect of skull and soft tissues), but without size differences. PMID:9224943

  10. Orbital abscess after facial trauma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elis Cristina Sousa, Serra; Cassio Edvard, Sverzut; Alexandre Elias, Trivellato.

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um caso de abscesso agudo em cavidade orbitária, após 2 dias de trauma facial, sem a presença de fratura óssea, ocorrido em uma mulher da raça negra com 20 anos de idade. Os sintomas se intensificaram nas últimas 24 h com o desenvolvimento de distúrbios visuais do tipo diplopia [...] e fotofobia. Durante exame clínico foi constatado a presença de febre, edema e eritema periorbitário, ptose, proptose e limitação de movimentação ocular para cima, baixo, lado direto e esquerdo. A tomografia computadorizada evidenciava proptose associada a edema considerável, dos tecidos moles no lado esquerdo da face, sem fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. A internação hospitalar e o início da antibioticoterapia endovenosa foram realizados, e o tratamento cirúrgico de incisão e drenagem do abscesso sob anestesia geral foi conduzido, sendo realizado por meio de incisão na pálpebra superior e inferior para acesso a cavidade orbitária e por acesso de Caldwell-Luc para o seio maxilar. No pós-operatório imediato foi observada rápida melhora dos sintomas inicialmente relatados pela paciente. Após 2 dias da intervenção cirúrgica foi observado melhora na movimentação ocular e na acuidade visual, retornando ao normal. No décimo segundo dia pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou melhora significativa com relação à ptose palpebral e a proptose, com adequado processo de cicatrização. Abstract in english This paper reports a rare case of acute severe orbital abscess manifested 2 days after a facial trauma without bone fracture in a 20-year-old Afro-American female. The symptoms worsened within the 24 h prior to hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. The [...] clinical findings at the first consultation included fever, periorbital swelling and redness, ptosis, proptosis and limitation of ocular movements upwards, downwards, to the right and to the left. Computed tomography scan showed proptosis with considerable soft tissue swelling on the left side and no fracture was evidenced in the facial skeleton, including the zygomatic-orbital complex. After hospital admission and antibiotic therapy intravenously the patient was conducted to the operation room and submitted to incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The orbit was approached thorough both eyelids and the maxillary sinus was reached only through the Caldwell-Luc approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. Visual acuity and ocular motility returned to the normal ranges within 2 days after the surgical intervention. After 12 postoperative days, the patient presented with significative improvement in the ptosis and proptosis, and acceptable scars.

  11. Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos / Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi, Costa; Ciro Ferreira da, Silva; Gustavo Polacow, Korn; Paulo Roberto, Lazarini.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à com [...] pressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Abstract in english Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression les [...] ion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p

  12. Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, S; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, M.; Basu, D.K.; M. Kundu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of a facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main research effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face construction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and analyzes the facial components from a face image by an efficient technique. The Fuzzy model, designed in this paper, takes crisp value of width and height of a facial compone...

  13. Transient Facial Nerve Baroparesis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Ardehali; N Yazdani; M. Heidarali

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of facial paralysis that was unusual not only in its causation but also in its rapidity of onset and recovery. We describe a rare case history of this accruing in 35 years old women traveling at the high altitude mountain road referred to ENT clinic with sudden symptoms of middle ear effusion and facial nerve paralysis. Patient had undergone medical systemic steroid treatment and after 3-4 weeks she had a good recovery of facial palsy with a minimum remnant of sensory n...

  14. Intraparotid Facial Nerve Neurofibroma: an Uncommon Neoplasm Neurofibroma Intraparotídeo del Nervio Facial: una Neoplasia Poco Frecuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Sethi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibromas are a rare entity, and are grossly and histopathologically distinct from the comparatively more prevalent schwannomas. We report a rare case of an intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma with intratemporal extension in a 48-year-old female. The tumor was surgically excised with cable grafting of the facial nerve. Electroneurography may eventually assist in the preoperative diagnosis. Facial nerve resection should be more readily contemplated in a patient with neurofibroma than in a patient with schwannoma; however, facial nerve preservation with serial follow-up electroneurography and computerized tomography remains a viable option in patients with small facial nerve neurofibromas when electrical testing reveals minimal evidence of progressive neural degeneration. Close monitoring, especially in neurofibromas associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease, is mandatory because of an increased risk of sarcomatous degeneration.Los neurofibromas intraparotídeos del nervio facial son una entidad poco frecuente, macroscópicamente e histopatológicamente diferentes de los comparativamente más frecuentes schwannomas. Se presenta un caso raro de un neurofibroma del nervio facial con extensión intraparotídea intratemporal en una mujer de 48 años de edad. El tumor se extirpó quirúrgicamente con injerto del nervio facial. La electroneurografía puede llegar a ayudar en el diagnóstico preoperatorio. La resección del nervio facial debe ser realizada con mayor facilidad en un paciente con neurofibroma que en un paciente con schwannoma, sin embargo, la preservación del nervio facial con electroneurografía de seguimiento y tomografía computarizada sigue siendo una opción viable en pacientes con pequeños neurofibromas del nervio facial, cuando las pruebas eléctricas revelan mínima evidencia de degeneración neuronal progresiva. Una estrecha vigilancia, especialmente en los neurofibromas asociados con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen es fundamental debido al aumento del riesgo de degeneración sarcomatosa.

  15. Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application

    OpenAIRE

    Ellies Maik; Rohrbach Saskia; Junghans Katharina; Laskawi Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited...

  16. Puckering and Blowing Facial Expressions in People With Facial Movement Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Denlinger, Rachel L.; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; COHN, JEFFREY F.; Schmidt, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: People with facial movement disorders are instructed to perform various facial movements as part of their physical therapy rehabilitation. A difference in the movement of the orbicularis oris muscle has been demonstrated among people without facial nerve impairments when instructed to “pucker your lips” and to “blow, as if blowing out a candle.” The objective of this study was to determine whether the within-subject difference between “pucker your lips” and “blow, as i...

  17. Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaydjieva Luba

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood.

  18. Wavelet based approach for facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.

  19. Transient Facial Nerve Baroparesis: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ardehali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of facial paralysis that was unusual not only in its causation but also in its rapidity of onset and recovery. We describe a rare case history of this accruing in 35 years old women traveling at the high altitude mountain road referred to ENT clinic with sudden symptoms of middle ear effusion and facial nerve paralysis. Patient had undergone medical systemic steroid treatment and after 3-4 weeks she had a good recovery of facial palsy with a minimum remnant of sensory neural hearing loss. Facial nerve paralysis resulting from a barotrauma of the middle ear is suggested. The correct diagnosis of this condition is important and unnecessary treatment should be avoided.

  20. Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Henry H.; Neumeier, Anna T.; Davies, Brett W.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The a...

  1. The perception of facial expressions in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    FARRONI, TERESA; Menon, Enrica; Rigato, Silvia; JOHNSON, MARK H.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of newborns to discriminate and respond to different emotional facial expressions remains controversial. We conducted three experiments in which we tested newborns’ preferences, and their ability to discriminate between neutral, fearful, and happy facial expressions, using visual preference and habituation procedures. In the first two experiments, no evidence was found that newborns discriminate, or show a preference between, a fearful and a neutral face. In the third experiment, ...

  2. Crowdsourced data collection of facial responses

    OpenAIRE

    el Kaliouby, Rana; McDuff, Daniel Jonathan; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2011-01-01

    In the past, collecting data to train facial expression and affect recognition systems has been time consuming and often led to data that do not include spontaneous expressions. We present the first crowdsourced data collection of dynamic, natural and spontaneous facial responses as viewers watch media online. This system allowed a corpus of 3,268 videos to be collected in under two months. We characterize the data in terms of viewer demographics, position, scale, pose and movement of the...

  3. Chronic Facial Pain: A Clinical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    Facial pain is a common presenting complaint requiring patience and diagnostic acumen. The proliferation of eponyms attached to various syndromes complicates the subject. The most frequent cause of pain is likely to be muscle spasm in masticatory or temporalis muscles. This article presents a rank order for the common causes of facial pain that present diagnostic difficulty, such as temporomandibular joint pain, trigeminal neuralgia, giant cell arteritis, and post-herpetic neuralgia.

  4. Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Pantel Mira; Volk Gerd F; Guntinas-Lichius Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chro...

  5. The Surgical Management of Facial Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rovak, Jason M.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    The surgical management of facial nerve injuries is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve anatomy, nerve physiology, and microsurgical techniques. When possible, primary neurorrhaphy is the “gold standard” repair technique. Injuries resulting in long nerve gaps or a significant delay between the time of injury and repair requires alterative techniques, such as nerve grafts, nerve transfers, regional muscle transfers, free tissue transfers, and static procedures. Scrupulous t...

  6. MUGSHOT IDENTIFICATION FROM MANIPULATED FACIAL IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Chennamma H.R. and Lalitha Rangarajan

    2012-01-01

    Editing digital images is ubiquitous. Identification of deliberately modified facial images is a new challenge for face identification system. In this paper, we address the problem of identification of a face or person from heavily altered facial images. Query is a manipulated or transformed face image and the system reports back the determined identity from a database of known individuals. Such a system can be useful in mugshot identification in which mugshot database contains two views (fro...

  7. Mugshot Identification from Manipulated Facial Images

    OpenAIRE

    Chennamma, H. R.; Rangarajan, Lalitha

    2012-01-01

    Editing on digital images is ubiquitous. Identification of deliberately modified facial images is a new challenge for face identification system. In this paper, we address the problem of identification of a face or person from heavily altered facial images. In this face identification problem, the input to the system is a manipulated or transformed face image and the system reports back the determined identity from a database of known individuals. Such a system can be useful...

  8. FACE DETECTION FROM POSE VARYING FACIAL IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Singh; Kailash Dodani; Niraj Waghmare; Shilpa Themdeo; Saroj Dhoundiyal

    2012-01-01

    In Face Recognition it is important to detect the face in the image prior to any processing performed on the image. Usually facial image consists of background that is mostly of no use for recognition purpose. In this paper, we make use of skin-segmentation method in order to detect only face of the subject in the image. Experiments with facial image databases are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for face detection in any pose.

  9. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather; Albrecht, Beate; Bijlsma, Emilia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Donti, Emilio; Fitzpatrick, David; Isidor, Bertrand; Lachlan, Katherine; Le Caignec, Cedric; Prontera, Paolo; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Rogaia, Daniela; van Bon, Bregje; Aradhya, Swaroop; Crocker, Susan F; Jarinova, Olga; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Boycott, Kym; Bulman, Dennis; Fagerberg, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few years, several individuals with NMLFS have been reported to have a microdeletion of 8q21.3q22.1, demonstrated by microarray analysis. The minimal overlapping region is 93.98-96.22?Mb (hg19). Here we pr...

  10. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Lange; Andrew Alexander; Zielinski, Brandon A; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Brittany G. Travers; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Nielsen, Jared A; Prigge, Molly B. D.; Alyson Froehlich; Bigler, Erin D; Trontel, Haley G.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the ...

  11. Facial Expression Driven Mobile Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Ingosan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Processing human facial expressions is a computer vision challenge in a mobile technology environment. On the other hand, facial expression is an effective tool in behavioral studies on learning environment. Since, mobile technologies possess educating potential for today’s generation, the introduction of behavior as a consideration for mobile user opens up many opportunities for the design and development of a mobile learning system that can cater personalized learning. This undertaking was concerned with the enhancement of learners’ learning engagement and the enrichment of learners’ benefits. The mobile learning system approximates the learners’ facial expressions. The facial expressions will be used to identify the learning moods that will then be used to match the appropriate learning materials and activities of the learners. These steps are done to achieve optimal experience in learning. Approximation of learners’ facial expressions, learning moods, and matching of learning materials and activities to the learners are done through the use of intelligent computing techniques. In order for the stated endeavors to be achieved this undertaking considered three (3 stages of actions. Stage one focused on identifying the requirements needed to design, develop and assess the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. The second stage focused on the actual design and development of a prototype for the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system and the third stage focused on the assessment of the prototype of the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. Assessment was done by pilot testing the mobile learning system prototype to a student sample from the researchers’ locality.

  12. Ophthalmic Management of the Facial Palsy Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Custer, Philip L

    2004-01-01

    The management of the ocular sequelae of facial palsy should be individualized for each patient. The patient's age, ocular motility, tear production, and corneal sensation are considered when developing a treatment plan. Individuals with transient weakness often require only therapy with topical lubricants. Permanent or chronic facial paralysis is usually associated with lagophthalmos, ectropion, and exposure keratitis. Both “static” and “dynamic” procedures can be performed to improve these ...

  13. Facial Feature Point Detection: A Comprehensive Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey of facial feature point detection with the assistance of abundant manually labeled images. Facial feature point detection favors many applications such as face recognition, animation, tracking, hallucination, expression analysis and 3D face modeling. Existing methods can be categorized into the following four groups: constrained local model (CLM)-based, active appearance model (AAM)-based, regression-based, and other methods. CLM-ba...

  14. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    OpenAIRE

    ANITHA C,; M. K. Venkatesha; B SURYANARAYANA ADIGA

    2010-01-01

    Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - defi...

  15. Facial Expression Driven Mobile Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey S. Ingosan; Thelma D. Palaoag; Josephine S. Dela Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Processing human facial expressions is a computer vision challenge in a mobile technology environment. On the other hand, facial expression is an effective tool in behavioral studies on learning environment. Since, mobile technologies possess educating potential for today’s generation, the introduction of behavior as a consideration for mobile user opens up many opportunities for the design and development of a mobile learning system that can cater personalized learning. This undertaking was ...

  16. Bioestimulación facial con plasma rico en plaquetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique J. Moya Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la bioestimulación facial con plasma rico en plaquetas es un método actual de rejuve- necimiento facial que entra dentro de las terapias regenerativas. Objetivo: mostrar el papel principal de la bioestimulación como método positivo en las característi- cas de la piel facial. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 140 artículos originales publicados en Pubmed, Medline, Scielo y Google académico en los idiomas inglés y español mediante el gestor de referen- cias bibliográficas Endnote x9, de ellos se utilizaron 48 citas seleccionadas para realizar la revisión. Desarrollo: el envejecimiento es un proceso muy complejo, donde el envejecimiento cutáneo es una de sus manifestaciones más evidentes, por lo que el cirujano plástico busca constantemente formas de lograr atenuar este proceso, una de estas alternativas es la infiltración facial con plasma rico en plaquetas. Se describe la técnica de procesamiento de la sangre para obtener el plasma rico en plaquetas y el método em- pleado para la bioestimulación facial. Indicaciones y contraindicaciones del proceder. Conclusiones: la bioestimulación facial con plasma rico en plaquetas es un método sencillo, libre de complicaciones dado que se trabaja con material autólogo, mediante el cual se logran cambios positivos en la piel.

  17. Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, María; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

  18. Parálisis facial: ¿siempre parálisis de Bell? / Facial paralysis: always Bell's palsy?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan, Valdez González; Francisco José, Román Pérez; Beatriz, Ponce Moreno; Elena, Pérez Guerra; Vicente, Martín Díaz.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La parálisis facial periférica es un motivo de consulta relativamente frecuente en Atención Primaria, afectando de forma similar a hombres y mujeres. La parálisis facial periférica más frecuente es la de causa idiopática o parálisis de Bell, en un 70% de los casos. Otras etiologías menos frecuentes [...] son los traumatismos, infección por virus o la posible causa neoplásica, ya sea por un tumor intracraneal o extracraneal. La sintomatología clínica más relevante es la afectación de la musculatura facial existiendo una recuperación completa hasta en el 80% de los casos. El tratamiento depende de la etiología, siendo el más aceptado para la parálisis de Bell el uso de corticoides. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven con parálisis facial refractaria al tratamiento en Atención Primaria. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis is a relatively common reason for primary care consultations, affecting males and females similarly. The most common peripheral facial paralysis is that of idiopathic origin or Bell's palsy, in 70% of cases. Other less frequent aetiologies are injuries, viral infections o [...] r a possible neoplastic cause, whether from an intra-cranial or extra-cranial tumour. The most important clinical symptom is that affecting the facial muscles, with a full recovery in up to 80% of cases. Treatment is dependent on aetiology, with the most widely accepted being that for Bell's palsy; the use of corticosteroids. We present the case of a young female patient with refractory facial paralysis under primary healthcare treatment.

  19. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    CERN Document Server

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  20. Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Torres Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequência de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%, a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5% tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8% pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita.BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facial paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2% underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5% showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8% sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

  1. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general.

  2. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lange

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

  3. Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Anders

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practise without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear and sadness was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practise effects often observed in cognitive tasks.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (often shortened to CCFDN ) ... definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is CCFDN? Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (CCFDN) is a rare ...

  5. A Study of Techniques for Facial Detection and Expression Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Hemalatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions is an important component for human-machine interfaces. It has lot of attraction in research area since 1990's.Although humans recognize face without effort or delay, recognition by a machine is still a challenge. Some of its challenges are highly dynamic in their orientation, lightening, scale, facial expression and occlusion. Applications are in the fields like user authentication, person identification, video surveillance, information security, data privacy etc. The various approaches for facial recognition are categorized into two namely holistic based facial recognition and feature based facial recognition. Holistic based treat the image data as one entity without isolating different region in the face where as feature based methods identify certain points on the face such as eyes, nose and mouth etc. In this paper, facial expression recognition is analyzed with various methods of facial detection,facial feature extraction and classification.

  6. An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic ratios and"nsizes, among Canadian and Isfahanian young adults, the results obtained from Canadian race, should not"nbe applied as a criteria for Iranian surgical and dental treatment plans. Due to the wide racial"ncombinations in Iran, more studies, with wider variations, should be conducted among different Iranian"nraces.

  7. Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda P. Khandait

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something about the human’s emotions and mood. This paper focuses on the novel Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm (HFGA and comparative analysis of Facial Geometry algorithm and HFGA for facial feature extraction and its use to classify facial expressions. Feed forward back propagation neural network (BPNN and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS are used as classifiers for expression classification and recognition. Experimentations are carried out using Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Experimental results shows that average recognition efficiency from 95.33% to 93.33% is achieved for 30 to 75 test samples using BPNN and 95.71% to 95.33% with ANFIS approach.

  8. Analysis of Facial Aesthetics as Applied to Injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M; Glasgold, Robert; Glasgold, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the role of volume loss in the aging face has resulted in a paradigm shift in facial rejuvenation techniques. Injectable materials for volume restoration are among the most widespread cosmetic procedures performed. A new approach to the aesthetics of facial aging is necessary to allow the greatest improvement from volumetric techniques while maintaining natural appearing results. Examining the face in terms of facial frames and facial shadows provides the fundamental basis for our injectable analysis. PMID:26441091

  9. Gender and 3D Facial Symmetry: What's the Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Baiqiang; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Drira, Hassen; Daoudi, Mohamed; Ballihi, Lahoucine

    2013-01-01

    Although it is valuable information that human faces are approximately symmetric, in the literature of facial attributes recognition, little consideration has been given to the relationship between gender, age, ethnicity, etc. and facial asymmetry. In this paper we present a new approach based on bilateral facial asymmetry for gender classification. For that purpose, we propose to first capture the facial asymmetry by using Deformation Scalar Field (DSF) applied on each 3D face, then train su...

  10. Impaired Perception of Facial Motion in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Justin; Spencer, Janine; Girges, Christine; Johnston, Alan; Hill, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Facial motion is a special type of biological motion that transmits cues for socio-emotional communication and enables the discrimination of properties such as gender and identity. We used animated average faces to examine the ability of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perceive facial motion. Participants completed increasingly difficult tasks involving the discrimination of (1) sequences of facial motion, (2) the identity of individuals based on their facial motion and (3) the...

  11. Rehabilitation of the paralysed face: Results of facial nerve surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, S R; Ramsden, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    The case notes of 34 patients undergoing rehabilitative facial nerve surgery between 1978 and 1994 were retrospectively examined. Thirteen patients underwent facio-hypoglossal transposition with six achieving a facial nerve grade of IV (House-Brackmann scale) at 24 months post-surgery. Twelve patients underwent cable grafting of the facial nerve defect. Of these, 10 achieved a grade III result at 24 months. Nine patients underwent end to end anastomosis of the facial nerve, seven achieving a ...

  12. Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

  13. Using infrared facial imagery for positive identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David C.

    1995-05-01

    Positive identification or verification of identity of an individual is a major part of the security, legal, banking, and police task of granting or denying authority to take an action. Work is being done using IR facial imaging and computer technology to perform the human recognition task rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively. Three basic principles have been demonstrated: every human IR facial image (or thermogram) is unique to that individual; an IR camera can be used to capture human thermograms; and captured thermograms can be digitized, stored, and matched using a computer and certain mathematical algorithms. A three- part development effort has been undertaken using IR facial recognition in an access control application. The first, an opertor assisted proof-of-concept effort, has been successfully completed. The second, an automated access control unit, has been completed and is undergoing independent testing in a simulated controlled access environment. Work on the third developmental effort is planned for this summer.

  14. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

  15. LBP and SIFT based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Omer; Gunes, Ece O.

    2015-02-01

    This study compares the performance of local binary patterns (LBP) and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) with support vector machines (SVM) in automatic classification of discrete facial expressions. Facial expression recognition is a multiclass classification problem and seven classes; happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear and comtempt are classified. Using SIFT feature vectors and linear SVM, 93.1% mean accuracy is acquired on CK+ database. On the other hand, the performance of LBP-based classifier with linear SVM is reported on SFEW using strictly person independent (SPI) protocol. Seven-class mean accuracy on SFEW is 59.76%. Experiments on both databases showed that LBP features can be used in a fairly descriptive way if a good localization of facial points and partitioning strategy are followed.

  16. Robust Automatic Facial Expression Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan OuYang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the recognition of occluded facial expressions attract more and more people’s attention. Sparse representation based classification (SRC method gives good performance on face recognition (FR and facial expression recognition (FER, well-known for its robustness to occlusion. Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG descriptors are very efficient to represent the shape information of different facial expressions and robust to various illumination. Since, this paper proposes a novel method by using HOG descriptors conjunction with SRC framework for FER. Experiment results show that the proposed method gives better performance than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is not only robust to assigned occlusions, but also to random occlusions.

  17. On the ethics of facial transplantation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Osborne P; Barker, John H; Martinez, Serge; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Grossi, Federico; Francois, Cedric; Cunningham, Michael; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Kon, Moshe; Banis, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    Transplantation continues to push the frontiers of medicine into domains that summon forth troublesome ethical questions. Looming on the frontier today is human facial transplantation. We develop criteria that, we maintain, must be satisfied in order to ethically undertake this as-yet-untried transplant procedure. We draw on the criteria advanced by Dr. Francis Moore in the late 1980s for introducing innovative procedures in transplant surgery. In addition to these we also insist that human face transplantation must meet all the ethical requirements usually applied to health care research. We summarize the achievements of transplant surgery to date, focusing in particular on the safety and efficacy of immunosuppressive medications. We also emphasize the importance of risk/benefit assessments that take into account the physical, aesthetic, psychological, and social dimensions of facial disfiguration, reconstruction, and transplantation. Finally, we maintain that the time has come to move facial transplantation research into the clinical phase. PMID:16192123

  18. Incidencia de las lesiones cutáneas malignas faciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Zequeira Peña

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de las lesiones malignas de la piel facial en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey en los años 2000 y 2001. La información se obtuvo de 148 historias clínicas con el diagnóstico de lesiones malignas de la piel, de las cuales 42 correspondieron a lesiones de localización facial. La entidad que nos ocupa fue mayor en pacientes mayores de 50 años de edad, blancos, masculinos, con predominio en el tercio medio facial. Los principales tipos histológicos fueron: el carcinoma basocelular y el espinocelular, pero con mayor predominio en el primero. Se revisa el tema y se comparan nuestros resultados con los de otros autores.

  19. [Facial locoregional anesthetics: principles and precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, H; Lacroix, G; Cordier, A; Bey, E; Duhamel, P

    2009-12-01

    Facial locoregional anesthetics (ALR) with nervous blocks are simple and reliable to perform, need little technical resources with a very low iatrogenic risk. These blocks allow anesthesia without deforming wound banks using the same materials as usual local anesthetic procedures. Three principal nervous blocks, in a straight line along the vertical pupil axis, allow managing - even extensive - facial wounds. Few side effects may occur which can be easily prevented. It is a good alternative to local anesthetic for the treatment of extensive and deep areas which is performed with a lower number of injections and a high rate of success. These techniques are easy to learn and practise. These anesthetic techniques allow a nice treatment of different kinds of facial wounds from simple suture to flaps. PMID:19272691

  20. Impaired overt facial mimicry in response to dynamic facial expressions in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-05-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in high-functioning individuals with ASD and controls to dynamic and static facial expressions of anger and happiness. Visual coding of facial muscle activity and the subjective impression ratings showed reduced congruent responses to dynamic expressions in the ASD group. Additionally, this decline was related to social dysfunction. These results suggest that impairment in overt facial mimicry in response to others' dynamic facial expressions may underlie difficulties in reciprocal social interaction among individuals with ASD. PMID:25374131

  1. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Basir Hashemi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma is a rare tumor. Case report: In this article we presented two cases of intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma. In two cases tumor presented with asymptomatic parotid mass that mimic pleomorphic adenoma. No preoperative facial nerve dysfunction in cases is detected. Diagnostic result and surgical management are discussed in this paper.  

  2. From facial mimicry to emotional empathy: A role for norepinephrine?

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Neil A.; Morgan, Robert; Critchley, Hugo D

    2010-01-01

    Tendency to mimic others’ emotional facial expressions predicts empathy and may represent a physiological marker of psychopathy. Anatomical connectivity between amygdala, cingulate motor cortex (M3, M4), and facial nucleus demonstrates a potential neuroanatomical substrate for mimicry, though pharmacological influences are largely unknown. Norepinephrine modulation selectively impairs negative emotion recognition, reflecting a potential role in processing empathy-eliciting facial expressions....

  3. A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juebo Wu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of facial expression feature and the relationship between them based on cloud model, including the new method of facial expression synthesis with the uncertainty. It proposes the method of facial expression feature synthesis by cloud model, using the three numerical characteristics (Expectation, Entropy and Hyper Entropy as the features and concepts of facial expression with its fuzziness, randomness and certain relevance in them. Through such three numerical characteristics, it introduces the framework of facial expression synthesis and the detail procedures based on cloud model. It puts forward the synthesis method of facial expression and gives the concrete realization and the implementation process. The facial expressions after synthesis can express the different expressions for one person, and it can meet a variety of demands for facial expression. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective in facial expression synthesis.

  4. Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

  5. Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

  6. Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph B.; Rajshekhar V

    2002-01-01

    Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

  7. Vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain – case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodsi Mohammad; Gheini Mohammadreza; Eftekhar Behzad; Ketabchi Ebrahim

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) most commonly presents with ipsilateral disturbances of acoustic, vestibular, trigeminal and facial nerves. Presentation of vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain is quite uncommon. Case presentation Among 156 cases of operated vestibular schwannoma, we found one case with unusual presentation of contralateral hemifacial pain. Conclusion The presentation of contralateral facial pain in the vestibular schwannoma is rare...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that...

  9. Bioestimulación facial con plasma rico en plaquetas / Facial biostimulation with platelet-rich plasma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique J., Moya Rosa; Yadira, Moya Corrales.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la bioestimulación facial con plasma rico en plaquetas es un método actual de rejuvenecimiento facial que entra dentro de las terapias regenerativas. Objetivo: mostrar el papel principal de la bioestimulación como método positivo en las características de la piel facial. Métodos: se real [...] izó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 140 artículos originales publicados en Pubmed, Medline, Scielo y Google académico en los idiomas inglés y español mediante el gestor de referencias bibliográficas Endnote x9, de ellos se utilizaron 48 citas seleccionadas para realizar la revisión. Desarrollo: el envejecimiento es un proceso muy complejo, donde el envejecimiento cutáneo es una de sus manifestaciones más evidentes, por lo que el cirujano plástico busca constantemente formas de lograr atenuar este proceso, una de estas alternativas es la infiltración facial con plasma rico en plaquetas. Se describe la técnica de procesamiento de la sangre para obtener el plasma rico en plaquetas y el método empleado para la bioestimulación facial. Indicaciones y contraindicaciones del proceder. Conclusiones: la bioestimulación facial con plasma rico en plaquetas es un método sencillo, libre de complicaciones dado que se trabaja con material autólogo, mediante el cual se logran cambios positivos en la piel. Abstract in english Background: facial biostimulation with platelet-rich plasma is a modern method for facial rejuvenation that is part of the regeneration therapies. Objective: to show the main role of biostimulation as a positive method for the characteristics of facial skin. Methods: a bibliographic review of 140 or [...] iginal articles published in Pubmed, Medline, Scielo and academic Google in English and Spanish, was made by means of the reference management software Endnote x9. Forty-eight citations were selected to make the review. Development: aging is a complex process and skin aging is one of its clearest manifestations; that’s why, plastic surgeons are constantly looking for new ways to reduce this process. One of these alternatives is facial infiltration with platelet-rich plasma. The technique of processing blood to obtain platelets-rich plasma and the method used for facial biostimulation are described. Indications and contraindications of the procedure are also described. Conclusions: facial biostimulation with platelet-rich plasma is a simple, complications-free method since the procedure is made with an autologous by means of which positive changes in the skin are achieved.

  10. Aspectos neurofisiológicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial / Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nisan, Pfelsticker; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: revisão teórica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiológicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial periférica. MÉTODOS: revisão da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos periódicos n [...] acionais e internacionais e nos livros científicos sobre o tema, no período entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referências neste trabalho. Destas, 20 sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em três grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Características morfológicas e histoquímicas dos músculos da face e III - Denervação e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impressão dos autores, são relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitação da paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international [...] journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophysiology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

  11. Cognitive factors associated with facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S M; Gramling, S E

    1997-07-01

    Most well-accepted etiological models of facial pain (e.g., temporomandibular disorders and headache) implicate emotional distress as an important factor in the development and maintenance of pain. Data exists to support the notion that some facial pain sufferers are more emotionally distressed than no pain controls. However, many of these dependent measures of emotional distress are either lengthy assessment batteries, lack clear cut psychotherapeutic treatment implications, or focus exclusively on pain related sequela. As cognitive-behavioral interventions become more integrated into the treatment of chronic pain conditions, including various facial pain conditions, it becomes more imperative that the tools used to assess psychological functioning provide the clinician with specific cognitive/behavioral targets for change. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which symptomatic treatment seeking facial pain sufferers (N = 25), symptomatic non-treatment seeking facial pain sufferers (N = 48), and healthy pain-free controls (N = 70) differed on the Rational Beliefs Inventory (RBI). The RBI is a reliable, valid questionnaire assessing rational beliefs that are operationalized within a Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) framework. RET is a cognitive-behavioral treatment paradigm that focuses on how an individual's maladaptive cognitive errors or distortions exacerbate emotional distress. Group differences were assessed using a oneway Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with the total RBI score serving as the dependent measure, and a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) using individual RBI belief subscales as dependent measures. These results indicated that groups differed significantly on the total score and several of the individual belief subscales. These findings indicated that facial pain sufferers generally hold maladaptive beliefs that may be of clinical significance for cognitive/behavioral treatment approaches. PMID:9586505

  12. Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavlovicova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

  13. Management of the Eye in Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John J

    2016-02-01

    The preoperative assessment of the eye in facial paralysis is a critical component of surgical management. The degree of facial nerve paralysis, lacrimal secretion, corneal sensation, and lower eyelid position must be assessed accurately. Upper eyelid loading procedures are standard management of lagophthalmos. Lower eyelid tightening repositions the lower eyelid and helps maintain the aqueous tear film. Eyelid reanimation allows an aesthetic symmetry with blinking and restores protective functions vital to ocular preservation. Patients often have multiple nervous deficits, including corneal anesthesia. Other procedures include tarsorrhaphy, spring implantation, and temporalis muscle transposition; associated complications have rendered them nearly obsolete. PMID:26611698

  14. Facial porokeratosis: A series of six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ericson L; Galarza, Carlos; Ramos, Willy; Tello, Mercedes; De Paz, Patricia Chávez; Bobbio, Lucia; Barquinero, Alicia; Ronceros, Gerardo; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G

    2010-08-01

    Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized by annular plaques with an atrophic centre and hyperkeratotic edges, and includes a heterogeneous group of disorders that are mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Facial porokeratosis is rare and is not well documented. We present six cases of facial porokeratosis seen over a period of 15 years in a hospital in Lima, Peru. In most of the cases, porokeratosis was found in younger women without any significant past medical history. Oral isotretinoin showed moderate improvement in two of our patients. PMID:20695858

  15. Prediction of Facial Nerve Function After Surgery for Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Use of a Facial Nerve Stimulator and Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, P.J.; Watters, G.; Strong, A. J.; Walliker, J. R.; Gleeson, M J

    1991-01-01

    A series of 18 patients undergoing surgery for cerebellopontine angle tumors is reported. Patients were grouped according to size of tumor (0 to 2.5 cm, 11 cases; more than 2.5 cm, 7 cases). In all, the facial nerve was identified and conductance assessed by monitoring the facial electromyographic response to facial nerve stimulation. Postoperative facial nerve function was graded clinically after 3 months according to the House scale. Tumor removal was complete in all cases. In patients with...

  16. A novel human-machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multichannel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Fron-tails and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passes through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs. rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. (author)

  17. Freestyle facial perforator flaps-a safe reconstructive option for moderate-sized facial defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Jackson, Ian Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perforators are a constant anatomical finding in the facial area and any known flap can in theory be based on the first perforator located at the flap rotation axis. METHODS: A case series of single stage reconstruction of moderate sized facial defects using 21 perforator based local flaps in 19 patients from 2008-2013. RESULTS: A sufficient perforator was located in every case and the flap rotated along its axis (76 %) or advanced (24 %). Reconstruction was successfully achieved with a high self reported patient satisfaction. Two minor complications occurred early on in the series and corrective procedures were performed in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: The random facial perforator flap seems to be a good and reliable option for the reconstruction of facial subunits, especially the periorbital, nasal and periocular area with a minimal morbidity and a pleasing result in a one stage outpatient setting. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

  18. Teaching 3D sculpting to facial plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, C; Oghan, F

    2011-11-01

    This article describes the authors' course, which takes facial plastic surgeons through specific exercises to demonstrate the esthetic impact of 3D manipulations of the nose and face. The course components are described, which include 3D assessment, exercises in manual dexterity, and improving imagination in sculpting facial and nasal features for the optimal esthetic result and match to a given facial shape. The overlap and relationship between a course in 3D sculpting in facial plastic surgery and current 3D tools for design and image analysis being used for facial plastic surgery are discussed. PMID:22004855

  19. Fetal facial expression in response to intravaginal music emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Faura, Álex; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This study compared fetal response to musical stimuli applied intravaginally (intravaginal music [IVM]) with application via emitters placed on the mother’s abdomen (abdominal music [ABM]). Responses were quantified by recording facial movements identified on 3D/4D ultrasound. One hundred and six normal pregnancies between 14 and 39 weeks of gestation were randomized to 3D/4D ultrasound with: (a) ABM with standard headphones (flute monody at 98.6?dB); (b) IVM with a specially designed device emitting the same monody at 53.7?dB; or (c) intravaginal vibration (IVV; 125?Hz) at 68?dB with the same device. Facial movements were quantified at baseline, during stimulation, and for 5 minutes after stimulation was discontinued. In fetuses at a gestational age of >16 weeks, IVM-elicited mouthing (MT) and tongue expulsion (TE) in 86.7% and 46.6% of fetuses, respectively, with significant differences when compared with ABM and IVV (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.004, respectively). There were no changes from baseline in ABM and IVV. TE occurred ?5 times in 5 minutes in 13.3% with IVM. IVM was related with higher occurrence of MT (odds ratio?=?10.980; 95% confidence interval?=?3.105–47.546) and TE (odds ratio?=?10.943; 95% confidence interval?=?2.568–77.037). The frequency of TE with IVM increased significantly with gestational age (p?=?0.024). Fetuses at 16–39 weeks of gestation respond to intravaginally emitted music with repetitive MT and TE movements not observed with ABM or IVV. Our findings suggest that neural pathways participating in the auditory–motor system are developed as early as gestational week 16. These findings might contribute to diagnostic methods for prenatal hearing screening, and research into fetal neurological stimulation. PMID:26539240

  20. Modeling emotionnal facial expressions and their dynamics for realistic interactive facial animation on virtual characters

    OpenAIRE

    Stoiber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    In all computer-graphics applications, one stimulating task has been the integration of believable virtual characters. Above all other features of a character, its face is arguably the most important one since it concentrates the most essential channels of human communication. The road toward more realistic virtual characters inevitably goes through a better understanding and reproduction of natural facial expressiveness. In this work we focus on emotional facial expressions, which we believe...

  1. Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda P. Khandait; Thool, R. C.; Prabhakar D. Khandait

    2013-01-01

    An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI) will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something abou...

  2. Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fontes Ferreira Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo: elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial.PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients were evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles. CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

  3. Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica / Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniele Fontes Ferreira, Bernardes; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superf [...] ície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo): elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural). CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients we [...] re evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles). CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

  4. Facial contrast is a cue for health perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Morizot, Frederique

    2015-09-01

    Facial contrast-the luminance and color contrast between internal facial features and the surrounding skin-is a cue for several aspects of face perception, including face detection, sex classification, age estimation, and judgments of attractiveness. It is also increased by makeup. Here we report evidence that facial contrast is also a cue for the perception of health from the face. Facial contrast was measured from a large sample of Caucasian female faces, and was found to predict ratings of perceived health. Most aspects of facial contrast were positively related to perceived health, meaning that faces with higher facial contrast appeared healthier. For a subsequent experiment we increased and decreased the facial contrast of a subset of these images and presented them to participants in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Participants selected faces with increased facial contrast as appearing healthier than faces with decreased facial contrast. Together these results show that facial contrast is a cue for perceiving how healthy people look. This provides additional weight to the notion that facial contrast is an important cue for face perception. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326901

  5. Suitable models for face geometry normalization in facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hamid; Raie, Abolghasem A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, facial expression recognition has attracted much attention in machine vision research because of its various applications. Accordingly, many facial expression recognition systems have been proposed. However, the majority of existing systems suffer from a critical problem: geometric variability. It directly affects the performance of geometric feature-based facial expression recognition approaches. Furthermore, it is a crucial challenge in appearance feature-based techniques. This variability appears in both neutral faces and facial expressions. Appropriate face geometry normalization can improve the accuracy of each facial expression recognition system. Therefore, this paper proposes different geometric models or shapes for normalization. Face geometry normalization removes geometric variability of facial images and consequently, appearance feature extraction methods can be accurately utilized to represent facial images. Thus, some expression-based geometric models are proposed for facial image normalization. Next, local binary patterns and local phase quantization are used for appearance feature extraction. A combination of an effective geometric normalization with accurate appearance representations results in more than a 4% accuracy improvement compared to several state-of-the-arts in facial expression recognition. Moreover, utilizing the model of facial expressions which have larger mouth and eye region sizes gives higher accuracy due to the importance of these regions in facial expression.

  6. Autologous Fat Grafting in Facial Volumetric Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Piombino; Gaetano, Marenzi; Giovanni, Dell’Aversana Orabona; Luigi, Califano; Gilberto, Sammartino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The authors reported their surgical experience about structural fat grafting in the management of facial volumetric deficit. The purpose of this study was to assess the real indications, cosmetic results, complications, and global patient satisfaction of the Coleman technique in redefining facial contours in congenital and postoperative deformities. A retrospective analysis of 32 patients grafted according to Coleman's technique was performed, and the long-term outcomes and patient satisfaction were evaluated. The mean postoperative clinical follow-up was 14 months. The morphological changes were analyzed by comparing the photographic presurgical facial contour and the postoperative correction of soft tissue defects. All consecutive cases reported showed a progressive fat resorption for 3 months after surgery and its stable integration only after this period. Best results were performed in the treatment of genetically determined syndromes, such as the Franceschetti and Romberg syndromes. The authors suggest this surgical technique also for the treatment of unaesthetic cutaneous abscess cavity after incision and drainage. Unsatisfactory outcomes were obtained in the treatment of the posttraumatic facial scar, which needed more surgical procedures. PMID:25974786

  7. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Zawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  8. Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

  9. O to Z flaps in facial reconstructions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara Alcántara, Luna; Manuel Perea, Cejudo; Francisco Manuel Ildefonso, Mendonça; Francisco M. Camacho, Martínez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Local flaps are the standard procedure to reconstruct facial defects. As it occurs in any surgical procedure, the incision should be planned so that scars are located in the minimum skin tension lines. We report two cases of O to Z flaps in the supra and infraciliary regions. One of them is a hatche [...] t flap.

  10. ?-Facial Selectivity of Diels-Alder Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masaru; Inagaki, Satoshi

    Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions for organic synthesis. In this chapter we review the studies of the ?-facial selectivity in the Diels-Alder reactions of the dienes having unsymmetrical ?-plane. The theories proposed as the origin of the selectivity are discussed.

  11. Deformidad Facial Asimétrica: Papel de la Hiperplasia Condilar / Asymmetric Facial Deformity: Role of Condylar Hyperplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio, Olate; Marcio, de Moraes.

    Full Text Available Las deformidades dentofaciales (DDF) son conocidas y su diagnostico es cada vez mas frecuente; las DDF asimétricas son un grupo de enfermedades de complejo manejo debido a las condicionantes estéticas y funcionales comprometidas. La etiología es variada, aunque la hiperplasia condilar suele estar as [...] ociada en los pacientes adolescentes y adultos; su diagnostico se establece mediante análisis facial, estudio con medicina nuclear, tomografías computadorizadas y otros exámenes. La terapéutica mas aceptada hoy día consiste en la condilectomia parcial y la corrección de la deformidad facial basada en las necesidades estéticas y funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de esta revisión es determinar las condicionantes actuales asociadas al diagnostico y tratamiento de las DDF asimétricas y el papel que cumple la hiperplasia condilar en el desarrollo de estas alteraciones faciales. Abstract in english Dentofacial deformities (DDF) are know and the diagnosis is ever more executed; the asymmetric DDF are a group of disease with difficult management because of esthetic a functional conditions. The etiology is these conditions is varied, although the condylar hyperplasia is frequently in adolescent a [...] nd adult patients; the diagnosis is realized by facial analysis, nuclear medicine study and computed tomography and others. The more accepted therapy is related to partial condilectomy and facial deformity correction in relation to aesthetic and functional needs of patient. The aim of this review is to determine the current conditions associated to diagnosis and treatment of asymmetric DDF and the role of condylar hyperplasia in the development of these facial alterations.

  12. Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003. The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances.

  13. FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS ASSESSMENT USING ILLUSTRATED QUESTIONNAIRERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mesaros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An attractive facial appearance is considered nowadays to be a decisive factor in establishing successful interactions between humans. In relation to this topic, scientific literature states that some of the facial features have more impact then others, and important authors revealed that certain proportions between different anthropometrical landmarks are mandatory for an attractive facial appearance. Aim. Our study aims to assess if certain facial features count differently in people’s opinion while assessing facial attractiveness in correlation with factors such as age, gender, specific training and culture. Material and methods. A 5-item multiple choice illustrated questionnaire was presented to 236 dental students. The Photoshop CS3 software was used in order to obtain the sets of images for the illustrated questions. The original image was handpicked from the internet by a panel of young dentists from a series of 15 pictures of people considered to have attractive faces. For each of the questions, the images presented were simulating deviations from the ideally symmetric and proportionate face. The sets of images consisted in multiple variations of deviations mixed with the original photo. Junior and sophomore year students from our dental medical school, having different nationalities were required to participate in our questionnaire. Simple descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Results. Assessing the results obtained from the questionnaire it was observed that a majority of students considered as unattractive the overdevelopment of the lower third, while the initial image with perfect symmetry and proportion was considered as the most attractive by only 38.9% of the subjects. Likewise, regarding the symmetry 36.86% considered unattractive the canting of the inter-commissural line. The interviewed subjects considered that for a face to be attractive it needs to have harmonious proportions between the different facial elements. Conclusions. Considering an evaluation of facial attractiveness it is important to keep in mind that such assessment is subjective and influenced by multiple factors, among which the most important are cultural background and specific training.

  14. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication. PMID:11708727

  15. Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gianluca M., Tartaglia; Gaia, Grandi; Fabrizio, Mian; Chiarella, Sforza; Virgilio F., Ferrario.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could i [...] nduce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

  16. Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis by Means of Linear and Angular Measurements in an Adolescent Persian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Fathinejad, Sheida; Pakizeh, Zeinab; Shamsa, Mohammad; Golkari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To obtain objective average measurements of the profile and frontal facial soft tissue to be used as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. Methods and Materials : This observational study included 110 females and 130 males high school students aged 16-18 years. None of the subjects had any facial deformities. All of them and their parents gave consent to take part in this study. In each case, two standard photographs of profile and frontal views were taken 27 landmarks were digitized on photographs. The mean, standard deviation, and range for a total of 43 facial indices were calculated digitally by computer software. The Student’s t-test was used to compare males and females. Results : The ratio between the lower and middle facial thirds was one to one, but the height of the upper facial third was proportionally smaller than the other two-thirds in both sexes. Boys had greater nasal length, depth, and prominence than girls with statistically significant differences. Both upper and lower lips were more prominent in girls than in boys. All measurements of the chin showed sexual dimorphism characterized by greater chin height and prominence and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Boys had greater facial dimensions than girls. Mouth width, nasal base width, and intercanthal distance were significantly greater in boys. Conclusion : The labial, nasal, and chin areas showed sexual dimorphism in most of the parameters used in this study. Boys had larger faces, greater facial heights, longer nasal, labial, and chin lengths, and greater nasal, labial, and chin prominence. PMID:26464606

  17. Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca M. Tartaglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches and extraoral (face morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

  18. Fault nucleation, restriction, and aspect ratio in layered sections: Quantification of the strength and stiffness roles using numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, V.; Homberg, C.; Rocher, M.

    2013-08-01

    3D numerical modeling has been used to investigate how the variations of mechanical properties in sedimentary layered sections affect the development of normal faults. We calculated the distribution of the Coulomb stress to assess the proximity of the layers to failure through an elastic layered section. The simulation of various combinations of rock properties allowed us to compare the effect of the stiffness and strength contrasts, which promote or inhibit faulting in the stiff layer, respectively. For rock systems showing little variation in strength, nucleation of the fault occurs in the stiff layer (e.g., limestones or sandstones), whereas it occurs in the compliant layer (e.g., clay-rich rocks) if the stiff layer has a high cohesion. Considering a mean strength profile of the carbonate sequences, nucleation occurs in limestones if the ratio of Young's moduli between the limestone and clay-rich rock is greater than 2; otherwise, clay-rich layers fail first. We also showed that nucleation is promoted in sandstones or limestones if these layers are thinner than the clayey layers. In a second set of simulation, using a slip on a fault, we examined the conditions needed to overcome the restriction of the fault propagation. Our results suggest that the lateral propagation of the fault, within a layer, produces increasingly favorable conditions for vertical propagation. A maximum aspect ratio of width to height of 13 is predicted for faults in limestone-clay sequences, and this maximum aspect ratio is expected to decrease as the contrast in the rock properties decreases.

  19. CHILDREN'S AND ADULTS' JUDGMENTS OF FACIAL TRUSTWORTHINESS: THE RELATIONSHIP TO FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2015-08-01

    Existing research suggests that adults make effective trustworthiness judgments based on facial attractiveness during initial interactions. However, little is known about how children judge trustworthiness from faces. The present study examined the facial features that contributed to judgments of trustworthiness and attractiveness by three groups of Chinese children aged 8 years old (n=34; 17 boys), 10 years old (n=34; 17 boys), and 12 years old (n = 34; 17 boys) and a comparison group of 37 undergraduates (M age=20.2 yr.; 16 men). Using FaceGen Modeler 3.1, a total of 400 East Asian adult faces (200 male, 200 female) portraying neutral emotions with direct gazes were generated. The faces were represented by 61 shape features and were presented for a maximum of 3,000 msec. in the center of the computer screen in randomized order. The participants were asked to judge whether each person was trustworthy and to rate the level of trustworthiness; 1 month later, the attractiveness of the same faces was judged using a similar procedure. The children and the adults used similar facial features to judge trustworthiness (e.g., the brow ridge, nose, and chin). Some of the facial features used by the different age groups as the basis for the trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments were similar. Facial attractiveness accounted for roughly 30 to 60% of the variance in the groups' trustworthiness judgments. Thus, facial attractiveness may serve as a heuristic property that signals trustworthiness and guides adaptive social decisions. More importantly, even children as young as 8 years old use a strategy similar to that of adults to make trustworthiness judgments, although some differences in the use of specific facial features were observed among the age groups. PMID:26108060

  20. Paralisis de Bell: Parálisis Facial Idiopática

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José María, González H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La Parálisis de Bell, es una enfermedad benigna de la porción infratemporal del nervio facial, que consiste en la pérdida temporal de la función contráctil de la musculatura mímica de la cara, de causa desconocida, pero puede ser secundaria a un traumatismo, compresión o tumor. Este es un proceso au [...] tolimitante que no amenaza la vida del paciente y generalmente desaparece en un plazo de 1 a 3 semanas. Su rango de incidencia es de 23 por cada 100.000 personas por año. Esta alteración no tiene diferencia por sexo, en últimos estudios hay una incidencia entre los 20 y 35 años de edad, siendo mas frecuente en pacientes diabéticos e hipertensos que en la población normal. Se presenta indiferentemente en cualquiera de los lados de la cara y solo el 1 % en ambos lados simultáneamente. Se caracteriza por presentar el fenómeno de Bell, (Figura 1) (signo de parálisis facial periférica que se manifiesta por el movimiento ocular hacia arriba y afuera del globo acular, cuando el enfermo intenta cerrar el párpado), dolor facial o retroarticular, diagusia, hiperacusia y disminución del lagrimeo. 1, 2, 3. Abstract in english The paralysis of Bell, is an bening illness of the portion infratemporal of the facial nerve that consists on the temporary loss of the contractile function of the mimic musculature of the face, of unknown cause , but it can be secondary to a traumatism, compression or tumor. This is a process autol [...] imitante that she/he doesn´t threatren the life of the parient one and it generally disappears in a term from 1 to 3 weeks. Their range of incidence is of 23 for each 100.000 people per year. This alteration doesn´t have difference for sex, in last studies there is an incidence between the 20 and 35 years of age, being but it frecuents in diabetics patients and hipertensos that in the normal population. It is presented nonchalantly in anyone of the sides of the face and alone 1% in both sides simultaneously. It is characterized to present the phenomenon of Bell(Figura 1) (sign of outlying facial paralysis that one manifests for the ocular movement up and away from the ocular globe, when the sick person tries to close the lid), facial pain or retroarticular, diagusia, hiperagusia and decreaase of the shed I shed tears. 1, 2, 3.

  1. Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-12-01

    The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. PMID:25244638

  2. Relación entre la porciónextracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático: triángulo cigomático-facial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Álvaro, Campero; Abraham, Campero; Rafael, Torino; Mariano, Socolovsky; Conrado, Rivadeneira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo.Determinar larelación entre la porción extracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático.Método. Estudiamos 4 cabezas cadavéricas (8 regiones parotídeas),fijadas en formol e inyectadas con silicona coloreada.Resultados. El nervio facial tiene 6 porciones. La extracraneanacomienza cuando [...] el nervio atraviesa el foramen estilomasteoideo y corre dentrode la parótida. Anterior al trago el nervio se ubica a 26,88 mm debajo del arcosuperior del arco cigamático. Desde ese punto el nervio toma una direcciónsuperoanterior, cruzando el cigoma 18,65 mm por delante del trago. Así dibujaun triángulo (cigomático-facial), con 3 puntos: a) sobre el borde superior delcigoma, a nivel del borde anterior del trago; b) 26 mm por debajo del punto a)y c) 18 mm por delante del punto a) podemos trazar un área de trabajo libre,sin riesgo de dañar el facial.Conclusión. El triángulo cigomaticofacial es un reparo útil paratrabajar debajo del arco cigomático con bajo riesgo de dañar al facial. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the relationship between the extracranialportion of the seventh nerve and the zygomatic arch.Method: We studied 4 cadaveric heads (8 parotid regions) formaline fixedand injected with coloured silicone. A surgical microscope was used to performthe disections. Measures were tak [...] en with a caliper.Results: The facial nerve has 6 portions. The extracranial portionstarts when the nerve traverses the stylomastoid foramen, running inside theparotid gland. Just anterior to the tragus, the nerve is located 26.88 mm belowthe superior edge of the zygomatic arch. From that point, the nerve takes asuperior and anterior direction, crossing the zygomatic arch 18.65 mm ahead ofthe tragus. Thus, drawing a triangle (zygomatic-facial triangle), with threepoints: a) over the superior edge of the zygomatic arch, at the level of theanterior border of the tragus, b) 26 mm below the point a, and c) 18 mm aheadthe point a, we can trace a safe area of working, without risk of damage of thefacial nerve.Conclusion: The zygomatic-facial triangle is a very useful landmark forto work below the zygomatic arch with a low risk of damage of the facial nerve.

  3. Looking with different eyes: The psychological meaning of categorisation goals moderates facial reactivity to facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Lotte F; Harris, Lasana T; van Dijk, Wilco W; Rotteveel, Mark

    2015-12-01

    In the present research we examined whether the psychological meaning of people's categorisation goals affects facial muscle activity in response to facial expressions of emotion. We had participants associate eye colour (blue, brown) with either a personality trait (extraversion) or a physical trait (light frequency) and asked them to use these associations in a speeded categorisation task of angry, disgusted, happy and neutral faces while assessing participants' response times and facial muscle activity. We predicted that participants would respond differentially to the emotional faces when the categorisation criteria allowed for inferences about a target's thoughts, feelings or behaviour (i.e., when categorising extraversion), but not when these lacked any social meaning (i.e., when categorising light frequency). Indeed, emotional faces triggered facial reactions to facial expressions when participants categorised extraversion, but not when they categorised light frequency. In line with this, only when categorising extraversion did participants' response times indicate a negativity bias replicating previous results. Together, these findings provide further evidence for the contextual nature of people's selective responses to the emotions expressed by others. PMID:25435404

  4. Técnicas de confección de prótesis faciales / Techniques used for making of facial prostheses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Coelho Goiato; Eduardo, Vedovatto; José Vitor, Quinelli Mazaro; Marcelo, Matida Hamata; Humberto, Gennari Filho; Rose Mary, Falcón; Daniela Micheline, dos Santos.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Las prótesis faciales constituyen parte integrante de la rehabilitación de pacientes que sufrieron daños en la cara, sea de origen patológica, traumática o congénita. Aunque el éxito del tratamiento con prótesis faciales está asociado con la capacidad artística del profesional en reproducir las estr [...] ucturas perdidas, no se puede descuidar la buena adaptabilidad de las prótesis en cuanto a la asociación de materiales y técnicas empleadas para la confección de prótesis buco-maxilofaciales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, mediante la revisión de la literatura, mostrar los principales conceptos relacionados con las técnicas de confección de prótesis faciales y asociar nuestra experiencia clínica con el pronóstico de las prótesis Abstract in english Facial prostheses are a integral part of rehabilitation of patients underwent face damages, being of pathologic, traumatic or congenital origin. Although success of treatment with facial prostheses is associated with artistic ability of professional to reproduce lost structures, we can not to obviat [...] e the good adaptability of prostheses regards association of material and techniques used to make buccomaxillofacial prostheses.

  5. Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular / Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila Leal, Calais; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Luiz Roberto, Comerlatti.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço [...] de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes. Abstract in english BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. Th [...] e evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

  6. Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Leal Calais

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes.BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. The evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

  7. Interactive Poisson Photometric Propagation for Facial Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyi Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In image composition, the inconsistent illumination of the source images is one of the major problems for seamless stitching of separated patches. The Poisson image editing is a sound technique for seamless image composition. In this paper, we have generalized and improved this technique and applied it onto solving the illumination discontinuity problem for facial image composition. Toward stitched image with patches of arbitrary shapes, number, and severe photometric discrepancy, an extended Poisson equation is proposed and formulated into a linear equation problem. To solve this equation efficiently, a layer-based Poisson solution propagation algorithm is designed. Based on it, an interactive photometric alignment system for facial compositing image is built. In the experiments, the photometric propagation effects with respect to the standard Poisson editing and other relevant algorithms are compared. Its time performance is also investigated. The experimental results verified the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. The commitment function of angry facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter; Pinker, Steven A

    2014-08-01

    What function do facial expressions have? We tested the hypothesis that some expressions serve as honest signals of subjective commitments-in particular, that angry faces increase the effectiveness of threats. In an ultimatum game, proposers decided how much money to offer a responder while seeing a film clip depicting an angry or a neutral facial expression, together with a written threat that was either inherently credible (a 50-50 split) or less credible (a demand for 70% of the money). Proposers offered greater amounts in response to the less credible threat when it was accompanied by an angry expression than when it was accompanied by a neutral expression, but were unaffected by the expression when dealing with the credible threat. This finding supports the hypothesis that angry expressions are honest signals that enhance the credibility of threats. PMID:24898726

  9. Clinic-Radiological Study of facial paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have gathered 159 cases of facial paralysis from recent records in our hospital, including paralyses of central as well as peripheral origin, and presenting as the only symptom or as one of several major symptoms of the discomfort of each patient. Sixty-four percent of them were studied by CT scan and/or MR, confirming the existence of alterations in the pathway of nerve pair VII in 50% of the patients who underwent radiological study. Idiopathic facial paralysis was the most common type (42% of the total); while tumors and post-traumatic findings were the most constant radiological findings. From the analysis of the data, the importance of the clinical criteria for selection of the patients in the study and the protocol for radiological diagnosis employed can be deduced. (author)

  10. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  11. Facial dermatitis artefacta: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramtanu Bandyopadhyay, Rudrajit Paul, Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee, Kaberi Bhattacharya, Dilip MondalNigwekar Shubhangi P, Chaudhari Sagar V GupteChaitanya P BankarMahima S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a rare psycho-cutaneous disorder where bizarre skin lesions are seen in accessible parts of the body. It is common in young females with mental stress. We here report a case of DA from West Bengal. A 16 years old female with depression presented with mainly facial lesions. She responded to psychotherapy. The relevant literature regarding DA and other similar disorders has been also discussed at length.

  12. Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    Patrick J BowlerCourt House Clinics, London, UKAbstract: The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is dis...

  13. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Mey Chew; Rubita Sudirman; Ching Yee Yong

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the “match” of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized b...

  14. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rettinger, Gerhard; Scheithauer, Marc Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.Disorders primarily affect the protective skin ...

  15. Análisis Facial, Dentario y Radiográfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Huentequeo-Molina; Pablo Navarro; Bélgica Vásquez; Sergio Olate

    2013-01-01

    La estética y armonía facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepción y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estéticos por medio de cirugías para obtener una valoración positiva de sí mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la percepción, autoestima y deseo de cambio estético; y puntos antropométricos, cefalométricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 años de edad, en l...

  16. Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo

    OpenAIRE

    Suehara Letícia Yumi; Simone Karine; Maia Marcus

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de tabagismo). Os in...

  17. Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi S; Oak J; Chawla K; Kulkarni S.; Apte N

    1992-01-01

    A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

  18. Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakshi S

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

  19. Computer-enhanced emotion in facial expressions.

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, A.J.; Young, A. W.; Rowland, D.; Perrett, D.I.

    1997-01-01

    Benson & Perrett's (1991 b) computer-based caricature procedure was used to alter the positions of anatomical landmarks in photographs of emotional facial expressions with respect to their locations in a reference norm face (e.g. a neutral expression). Exaggerating the differences between an expression and its norm produces caricatured images, whereas reducing the differences produces 'anti-caricatures'. Experiment 1 showed that caricatured (+50% different from neutral) expressions were recog...

  20. Treatment of facial rejuvenation with fat restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Reza Mousavi

    2010-01-01

    Seyed Reza MousaviSurgical Department, Shohada Medical, Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tajrish, Tehran, IranObjective: To improve the compensation for fat atrophy and making the face look young and improve the mental and emotional conditions of patients.Material and methods: Our study was done from April 2003 to March 2006 with an assessment and documentation of the degree of facial lipoatrophy.Results: We have very good results in 91% of patients with no important co...

  1. Facial sporotrichoid infection with Mycobacterium marinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, R C; Sheth, A; Mayer, T; Goderwis, D; Schleiss, M R

    1997-02-01

    We report a case of Mycobacterium marinum facial sporotrichoid infection in an otherwise healthy 2-year-old child, probably acquired through contact with pets in an aquarium. The M. marinum isolate was susceptible to clarithromycin, and the child was successfully treated with oral antibiotic therapy. This unusual case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history in the evaluation of a patient with chronic sporotrichoid skin lesions. PMID:9042142

  2. Face Recognition Based on Facial Features

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sharif; Muhammad Younas Javed; Sajjad Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    Commencing from the last decade several different methods have been planned and developed in the prospect of face recognition that is one of the chief stimulating zone in the area of image processing. Face recognitions processes have various applications in the prospect of security systems and crime investigation systems. The study is basically comprised of three phases, i.e., face detection, facial features extraction and face recognition. The first phase is the face detection process where ...

  3. Higher-level mechanisms detect facial symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Gillian; Peters, Marianne; Lee, Kieran; Morrone, M. Concetta; Burr, David

    2005-01-01

    The role of symmetry detection in early visual processing and the sensitivity of biological visual systems to symmetry across a wide range of organisms suggest that symmetry can be detected by low-level visual mechanisms. However, computational and functional considerations suggest that higher-level mechanisms may also play a role in facial symmetry detection. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether symmetry detection is better for faces than comparable patterns, which share low-level ...

  4. Laser resurfacing for facial acne scars.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, RE; Cummins, CL; Burls, AJ; Seukeran, DC

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most people have acne at some stage during their life, with about one per cent being left with permanent acne scars. Recent laser techniques are thought to be more effective than chemical peels and dermabrasion. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of laser resurfacing for treating facial acne scars. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE (1966 to April 1999), EMBASE (1980 to April 1999), Science Citation Index (1981 to April 1999), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (April 1999),...

  5. Facial and bodily correlates of family background

    OpenAIRE

    Boothroyd, L.G; Perrett, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that absence of the father during early childhood has long-reaching effects on reproductive strategy and development of offspring. This paper reports two studies designed to investigate the physical characteristics of daughters associated with father absence. Study 1 used a facial averaging method to produce composite images of faces of women whose parents separated during their childhood (who were ‘father absent’), women whose parents remained together, but had poor qua...

  6. Endoscopic Surgery for Facial Lipoma Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, H; Kitano, H.; Fujimura, M.; Kinoshita, T; Kataoka, H.; M. Hirano; Seno, S.; KITAJIMA, K.

    2001-01-01

    Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery in the neck, first reported by Gagner in 1996, has been adopted by a number of other surgical specialties. We have developed new techniques for performing endoscopic enucleation lipoma. Using our new techniques, various complications, such as injury to nerves and vessels, are prevented. The technique generates cosmetically satisfying results. Expansion of minimally invasive surgery into the facial area will be enhanced by the future develop...

  7. Repeated facial palsies after chlorocresol inhalation.

    OpenAIRE

    Døssing, M.; Wulff, C H; Olsen, P Z

    1986-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman who experienced more than 50 attacks of left-sided facial palsies after exposure to chlorocresol was studied. Only muscles around the left side of the mouth were affected. On neurophysiological testing during chlorocresol provocation the only abnormality was a loss of motor units during maximal contraction of the left orbicularis oris muscle. This could be explained by a peripheral as well as a central effect. Extensive electrophysiological examination without chlorocresol...

  8. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N?=?18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing. PMID:23428082

  9. Towards Real-Life Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENTA, K.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are a set of symbols of great importance for human-to-human communication. Spontaneous in their nature, diverse and personal, facial expressions demand for real-time, complex, robust and adaptable facial expression recognition (FER systems to facilitate the human-computer interaction. The last years' research efforts in the recognition of facial expressions are preparing FER systems to step into the real-life. In order to meet the before-mentioned requirements, this article surveys the work in FER since 2008, particularly adopting the discrete states emotion model in a quest for the most valuable FER work/systems. We first present the new spontaneous facial expression databases and then organize the real-time FER solutions grouped by spontaneous and posed facial expression databases. Then automatic FERs are compared and the cross-database validation method is presented. Finally, we outline FER system open issues to meet real-life challenges.

  10. A Novel Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Method Based on AAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes anovel method to recognize facial expression through ActiveAppearance Model (AAMto extract facial regions based on Facial Action CodingSystem (FACS. Itis composed of three parts: extractionof facial regions based on AAM,extraction of facial featuresby Gabor wavelettransformation, and expressionrecognition through Support Vector Machines (SVMs.AAM has better performance thanother methodsin eliminations of the influenceof different facialregion size, head pose and lighting condition and thus can effectively increase the recognitionaccuracy. Therefore it is usedto extract facial regions before extracting features by Gabor wavelettransformation. Finally, SVMsis appliedto recognize expression for its advantage of solvingthe problems of small sample size and overfitting. The feasibility and effectiveness of this method are evaluated and verified by experiments, and satisfactoryresults are achieved.

  11. The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chan Wei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

  12. Emotional attention capture by facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional facial expressions capture visual attention. However, it has been unclear whether attentional modulation is attributable to their emotional significance or to their visual features. We investigated this issue using a spatial cueing paradigm in which non-predictive cues were peripherally presented before the target was presented in either the same (valid trial) or the opposite (invalid trial) location. The target was an open dot and the cues were photographs of normal emotional facial expressions of anger and happiness, their anti-expressions and neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained the amount of visual changes equivalent to normal emotional expressions compared with neutral expressions, but they were usually perceived as emotionally neutral. The participants were asked to localize the target as soon as possible. After the cueing task, they evaluated their subjective emotional experiences to the cue stimuli. Compared with anti-expressions, the normal emotional expressions decreased and increased the reaction times (RTs) in the valid and invalid trials, respectively. Shorter RTs in the valid trials and longer RTs in the invalid trials were related to higher subjective arousal ratings. These results suggest that emotional facial expressions accelerate attentional engagement and prolong attentional disengagement due to their emotional significance. PMID:26365083

  13. Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantel Mira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a early extratemporal reconstruction, b early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies.

  14. Facial Expression Recognition With A Three-Dimensional Face Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    This thesis covers facial expression recognition from camera images to improve human-machine communication. A three-dimensional face model, which is fitted to the image, is used for this task. Automated facial expression recognition systems are confronted with two characteristic challenges: In contrast to artificial objects, human faces differ a lot with respect to appearance and shape. Furthermore, because obtaining natural training data is difficult, most databases provide only acted facial...

  15. Vers une reconnaissance faciale tridimensionnelle dans le réel

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huibin

    2013-01-01

    En raison des naturelle, non-intrusive, facilement percevable caractéristiques, et une large diffusive applicabilité pour la criminalistique et de la sécurité, reconnaissance faciale basée sur la machine a reçu beaucoup d'attention de la communauté biométrie au cours des trois dernières décennies. Par rapport à la traditionnelle reconnaissance faciale basée sur le visage 2D, la reconnaissance faciale basé sur la forme 3D est plus stable aux variations d'éclairage; petite changements de tête p...

  16. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Michael E. Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial co...

  17. Facial emotion recognition impairments in individuals with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Uraina S; COHEN, RONALD A.; Westbrook, Michelle L.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Tashima, Karen T

    2010-01-01

    HIV is characterized by frontostriatal dysfunction, and is associated with cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have noted impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in patient pollutions that demonstrate frontostriatal dysfunction; however, facial emotion recognition abilities have not been systematically examined in HIV patients. The current study investigated facial emotion recognition in 50 non-demented HIV-seropositive adults and 50 control participants relative to...

  18. Un hombre de San Juan: aproximación facial en antropología

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Dentro de la antropología y la identificación forense, la aproximación facial (también conocida como "reconstrucción facial") se presenta frecuentemente como un hecho consumado, con evidencia mínima de las investigaciones y los métodos usados para alcanzar los resultados. Este trabajo presenta un panorama detallado de la investigación y los métodos usados para realizar una aproximación facial grafica en 2D de un hombre prehistórico del valle de Jachal, provincia de San Juan, Argentina. Se ent...

  19. Brain Processing of Fearful Facial Expression in Mentally Disordered Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Howner; Håkan Fischer; Thomas Dierks; Andrea Federspiel; Lars-Olof Wahlund; Tomas Jonsson; Maria Kristoffersen Wiberg; Marianne Kristiansson

    2011-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are important cues for interaction between people. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain function when processing fearful facial expressions in offenders with two psychiatric disorders which include impaired emotional facial perception; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy (PSY). Fourteen offenders undergoing forensic psychiatric assessment (7 with ASD, and 7 psychopathic offenders) and 12 healthy controls (HC) viewed fearful and neutral ...

  20. Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheib, J E; Gangestad, S.W.; Thornhill, R.

    1999-01-01

    Cues of phenotypic condition should be among those used by women in their choice of mates. One marker of better phenotypic condition is thought to be symmetrical bilateral body and facial features. However, it is not clear whether women use symmetry as the primary cue in assessing the phenotypic quality of potential mates or whether symmetry is correlated with other facial markers affecting physical attractiveness. Using photographs of men's faces, for which facial symmetry had been measured,...

  1. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vloeberghs, M.; Philip Breedon

    2009-01-01

    The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paraly...

  2. A Fuzzy Reasoning Model for Recognition of Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Starostenko; Renan Contreras; Vicente Alarc\\u00F3n Aquino; Leticia Flores Pulido; Jorge Rodr\\u00EDguez Asomoza; Oleg Sergiyenko; Vira Tyrsa

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos un sistema de razonamiento difuso capaz de reconocer y medir la intensidad de cualquier expresión facial prototípica o no prototípica. El modelo propuesto utiliza como entrada las deformaciones faciales codificadas ya sea en términos de AUs (Ekman FACS) o FAPs (MPEG-4) y provee reconocimiento de expresiones faciales utilizando una base de conocimiento la cual fue implementada utilizando el sistema de adquisición de conocimiento y editor de ontologías Protégé. Esta...

  3. Proximal and distal Facial nerve exploration during superficial parotidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rohit; Sirohi, D

    2010-01-01

    One of the most technique sensitive surgeries in the maxillofacial region is the parotid gland surgery owing to the close relation between the gland and the extra-cranial course of facial nerve. Facial nerve is generally located by means of a proximal surgical identification technique aimed at identifying the facial nerve at its point of exit from the stylomastoid foramen to its entry into the posteromedial surface of parotid gland. There are reports in the literature on distal nerve identifi...

  4. Fundus Obliteration and Facial Nerve Outcome in Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rompaey, Vincent Van; Van Dinther, Joost; Zarowski, Andrzej; Offeciers, Erwin; Somers, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The major objectives in vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have evolved from reducing mortality to functional preservation of the facial nerve and hearing. Absence of fluid between the lateral end of the VS and the internal auditory canal fundus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appeared to have a negative influence on hearing outcome. Our goal was to study the prognostic significance of fundus obliteration on facial nerve function after VS surgery in patients with clinically normal facial ...

  5. Intradural Facial Nerve Schwannoma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kohmura, Eiji; Aihara, Hideo; Miyake, Shigeru; Fujita, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To define characteristics of intradural facial schwannoma (FS) and discuss management strategies. Method: Retrospective review of clinical charts. Results: Six patients were diagnosed, based on surgical findings, as having intradural FS. None of the patients complained initially of facial weakness, but all showed severe disturbance of hearing function assessed on admission. FS was suspected in four of our six patients because of imaging findings or facial palsy caused by a small t...

  6. Injury to the Intratemporal Facial Nerve: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Saki

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the intratemporal facial nerve is caused most commonly by temporal bone fractures resulting from trauma sustained in motor vehicle accidents. Most cases of facial paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture are caused by longitudinal fractures of this bone. We report a 13 year-old girl with paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture. After removal of the bone fragments, we observed that the continuity of the facial nerve was intact.

  7. The Epidemiology of Facial Fractures in Automotive Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial b...

  8. Desfiguramento facial adquirido: breve revisão narrativa / Acquired facial disfigurement: a brief narrative review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos da Silva, Mendes; Maria João, Figueiras.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Em 2010, o Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Portugal (INE) indicou que anualmente se realizam cerca de 40 000 médias e grandes cirurgias reconstrutiva e estética. Apesar da sua etiologia, justifica-se uma maior dedicação na investigação de indivíduos que por trauma ou doença perderam a sua “iden [...] tidade” apresentando um desfiguramento facial. Pretende-se com o presente artigo apresentar uma breve contextualização que descreva o desenvolvimento sobre o desfiguramento facial adquirido causado pela doença (cancro cabeça e pescoço) ou originado pelo trauma (queimados, agressão, outros), recorrendo a literatura publicada em livros e artigos científicos, fazendo também referência a instrumentos validados para a população portuguesa que permitem avaliar o investimento da imagem corporal (ASI-R) e avaliar a autoconsciência da aparência (DAS-24). Referenciar as necessidades e questões psicossociais mais comuns, o tipo de intervenção, a importância do apoio social e quais as estratégias de coping mais frequentes no ajustamento ao desfiguramento facial adquirido. Abstract in english In 2010, the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE) pointed out that 40,000 medium and large reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries are performed annually. Regardless of its etiology, a stronger focus on investigating individuals that have lost their "identity" due to trauma or disease, thus featu [...] ring a facial disfigurement, is justified. The intention of this paper to present a brief context that describes the development of the acquired facial disfigurement caused by the disease (cancer of the head and neck) or originated by trauma (burns) using published literature in books and articles scientific, also making reference to instruments validated for the Portuguese population for assessing investment body image (ASI-R) and to evaluate the self-consciousness of appearance (DAS-24). Identify the need and psychosocial issues most common type of intervention, the importance of social support and coping strategies which frequently in adjustment to acquired facial disfigurement.

  9. Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à compressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL, quatro (BL e seis (CL semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression lesion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL, four (BL and six (CL weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p<0.05. RESULTS:There was partial functional recovery after two weeks, and complete recovery after five weeks. Qualitative analysis demonstrated a degenerative pattern in the AL group, with an increased tissue inflammatory process. Evident regeneration signs were observed in the BL group, and almost complete regeneration was seen in the CL group. Normal nerves (N had an average TD of 15705.59 and average PD of 21800.75. The BL group had an average TD of 10818.55 and an average PD of 15340.56. The CL group had an average TD of 13920.36 and an average PD of 16589.15. The BL group had an average TD of N equal to 68.88%, and the CL group had an average TD of N equal to 88,63% (statistically significant. N showed a significant higher PD than injured nerves. However, this was not statistically different between BL and CL subgroups. Nerve DT was a more reliable method than PD in this study.

  10. FACIAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING GABOR (HAPPY, SAD, ANGER, NEUTRAL MOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shamsh Alam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The best way to communicate the emotions and intentions is facial expressions. This is powerful because as per the psychological research 55% of the total communicated message is the human facial expression. Therefore deriving an effective facial representation from the original face image is a vital step and very tough task in the field of computer science for successful facial expression recognition. Human facial recognition usually uses image processing, gesture signal proces sing and physiological signal processing. Most use of this system is in the area of security, psychological studies, and social interaction [Ekman et al., 1997] [5]. Facial expression reflects not only emotions but other mental activities, social interacti on and physiological signals. Gabor filters are used to extract the features of facial expressions. GF represents the behavior of receptive fields in human visual systems (HVS very effectively even in case of slight object rotation, distortion and variati on in illumination. Here we have considered face database in which the different expressions of facial images are stored. Different facial expressions will be recognized as neutral, disgust, happy, sad, and anger. In this first we extracted the features of face by using Gabor filter and then applied SVM to classify into different mood. Finally mood is recognized and verified by using confusion matrix.

  11. Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right

    CERN Document Server

    Osipa, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

  12. Dynamic evoked facial expressions of emotions in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Christian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Milonova, Marina; Wang, Peng; Verma, Ragini; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Bilker, Warren; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Impaired facial expressions of emotions have been described as characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. Previous investigations of dynamic facial expressions have reported on global assessment of positive and negative emotion expressions. In this study, we examined facial expression differences based on duration and frequencies of emotion expressions. Methods 12 persons with stable schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent a standardized procedure for evoked facial expressions of five universal emotions, including happy, sad, anger, fear, and disgust expressions. Subjects completed self-ratings of their emotion experience. Reliable raters coded evoked facial expressions according to the Facial Expression Coding System. For each emotion, facial expressions were coded as target, non-target or neutral expressions. Logistic regression analyses examined group differences in duration and frequencies of facial expressions. Results Comparing overall duration of and frequencies of emotion expressions revealed affective flattening and inappropriate affect in patients, as evidenced by neutral and non-target expressions. Separated by emotion, impaired emotion expression was found in happy, sad and anger expression, but not for fear and disgust in which expressions were not well recognized. Conclusion In matched groups of participants, we found evidence for altered expressions in schizophrenia but equal subjective experience. Both affective flattening and inappropriate affect comprise abnormal facial expressions but may differ with respect to interpersonal communication and engagement. Future directions may include automated measurement, remediation of expressions and early detection of schizophrenia. PMID:18793827

  13. Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring During Cochlear Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Shan; Wu, Che-Ming; Zhuo, Ming-Ying; Yang, Chao-Hui; Hwang, Chung-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Iatrogenic facial nerve injury is one of the most severe complications of cochlear implantation (CI) surgery. Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is used as an adjunctive modality in a variety of neurotologic surgeries. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess whether the use of IFNM is associated with postoperative facial nerve injury during CI surgery. The medical charts of 645 patients who underwent CI from 1999 to 2014 were reviewed to identify postoperative facial nerve palsy between those who did and did not receive IFNM. Four patients (3 children and 1 adult) were found to have delayed onset facial nerve weakness. IFNM was used in 273 patients, of whom 2 had postoperative facial nerve weakness (incidence of 0.73%). The incidence of facial nerve weakness was 0.54% (2/372) in the patients who did not receive IFNM. IFNM had no significant effect on postoperative delayed facial palsy (P?=?1.000). All patients completely recovered within 3 months after surgery. Interestingly, all 4 cases of facial palsy received right CI, which may be because all of the surgeons in this study used their right hand to hold the drill. When right CI surgery is performed by a right-handed surgeon, the shaft of the drill is closer to the inferior angle of the facial recess, and it is easier to place the drilling shaft against the medial boundary (facial nerve) when the facial recess is small. The facial nerve sheaths of another 3 patients were unexpectedly dissected by a diamond burr during the surgery, and the monitor sounded an alarm. None of these 3 patients developed facial palsy postoperatively. This suggests that IFNM could be used as an alarm system for mechanical compression even without current stimulation. Although there appeared to be no relationship between the use of monitoring and delayed facial nerve palsy, IFNM is of great value in the early identification of a dehiscent facial nerve and assisting in the maintenance of its integrity. IFNM can still be used as an additional technique to optimize surgical success. PMID:25793243

  14. A rare case of keloidal granuloma faciale with extra-facial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is an uncommon, cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques, or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extra-facial lesions occur rarely. We present a case report of 33-year-old male who presented with keloidal lesions on face and left shoulder. The patient didn?t respond with intralesional triamcinolone and showed poor response with the addition of topical tacrolimus. Surgical excision in consultation with plastic surgeons is planned.

  15. An anatomical study on the facial nerve trunk in fetus cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    KALAYCIO?LU, Ahmet; YEG?NO?LU, Gülay; ÖKSÜZ, Canan ERTEMO?LU; UZUN, Özlem; KALKI?IM, ?ahi Nur

    2014-01-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is the most worrying parotid surgery complication. Little attention has been paid to the facial nerve trunk, especially in children. Pathological variations, tumors, and anatomic variations of the facial nerve may cause parotid and facial nerve surgery difficulties. This study describes the facial nerve trunk. Materials and methods: We measured the facial nerve trunk from 8 female and 8 male fetus cadavers aged 21.0 to 35.5 gestational weeks. The locations and positio...

  16. Silent intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma associated with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Phaniendra, V.; Pratinidhi, Santosh K.; Renuka, I. V.

    2007-01-01

    Facial palsy is a common manifestation of intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma. Review of English literature describes intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma presenting as vertigo, tinnitus (without facial palsy) which were diagnosed on CT scan or MRI of temporal bone. We are presenting two cases of asymptomatic facial nerve schwannoma without facial palsy presenting only as Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM), which were diagnosed incidentally during surgery.

  17. Assessing Nonacceptance of the Facial Appearance in Adult Patients After Complete Treatment of Their Rare Facial Cleft

    OpenAIRE

    Elzen, M.E.P. van den; Versnel, S.L.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Mathijssen, I.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with severe congenital facial disfigurements is aimed at restoring an aesthetic and functional balance. Besides an adequate level of satisfaction, an individual's acceptance of facial appearance is important to achieve because nonacceptance is thought to lead to daily psychological struggles. This study objectified the prevalence of nonacceptance among adult patients treated for their severe facial clefts, evaluated risk factors, and developed a screening tool...

  18. Electrical and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Facial Nerve: Diagnostic Relevance in Acute Isolated Facial Nerve Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Happe, Svenja; Bunten, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral facial weakness is common. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows identification of a conduction fail- ure at the level of the canalicular portion of the facial nerve and may help to confirm the diagnosis. Methods: We retro- spectively analyzed 216 patients with the diagnosis of pe- ripheral facial palsy. The electrophysiological investigations included the blink reflex, preaur icular electrical stimulation and the response to TMS at the lab...

  19. Facial nerve motor evoked potentials during skull base surgery to monitor facial nerve function using the threshold-level method

    OpenAIRE

    Sarnthein, J; Hejrati, N; Neidert, M C; Huber, A.M.; Krayenbühl, N

    2013-01-01

    Object During surgeries that put the facial nerve at risk for injury, its function can be continuously monitored by transcranial facial nerve motor evoked potentials (FNMEPs) in facial nerve target muscles. Despite their advantages, FNMEPs are not yet widely used. While most authors use a 50% reduction in FNMEP response amplitudes as a warning criterion, in this paper the authors' approach was to keep the response amplitude constant by increasing the stimulation intensity and to establish a w...

  20. Parálisis facial permanente: corrección quirúrgica con la técnica de Labbé / Permanent facial paralysis: surgical correction with Labbe’s technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubén, Yangali; Alex, Neme; Kattia, Moreno; Jerson, Cuadros.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La parálisis facial genera un gran déficit estético y funcional. Las diversas técnicas quirúrgicas han ido evolucionando, a fin de corregir este defecto de la forma más estructural y fisiológica posible. Consideramos que la mioplastia de alargamiento del temporal constituye actualmente la técnica de [...] elección para corregir los casos de parálisis facial permanente. Abstract in english Facial paralysis causes a large aesthetic and functional defect. Different surgical techniques may be used to repair this defect. Some of them have focused in structural and physiological aspects. We consider that temporalis lengthening myoplasty is currently the most important technique for permane [...] nt facial paralysis repair.

  1. Preservation of Facial Nerve Function Repaired by Using Fibrin Glue-Coated Collagen Fleece for a Totally Transected Facial Nerve during Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Min-Su; Jang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Oh-Lyong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the increasing rates of facial nerve preservation after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have been achieved. However, the management of a partially or completely damaged facial nerve remains an important issue. The authors report a patient who was had a good recovery after a facial nerve reconstruction using fibrin glue-coated collagen fleece for a totally transected facial nerve during VS surgery. And, we verifed the anatomical preservation and functional outcome of the facial ne...

  2. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high—and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  3. Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Renée Mory

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastiga??o, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

  4. Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica / Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marion Renée, Mory; Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nizam, Pfeilsticker; Euro de Barros, Couto Junior; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e [...] divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They wer [...] e separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

  5. Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na Paralisia Facial Periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Renée Mory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

  6. La extracción dentaria en la celulitis facial odontogénica Dental extraction in odontogenic facial cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Ducasse Olivera

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de los pacientes ingresados en el Hospital "Héroes del Baire" con el diagnóstico de celulitis facial odontogénica, con el objetivo de caracterizar la celulitis facial en nuestro medio, así como el nivel de conocimiento de los estomatólogos y la población tiene de esta. Se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: el sexo masculino y la región mandibular en pacientes de 15 a 29 años fueron los mas afectados. El antibiótico más utilizado fue la penicilina, y predominaron los casos moderados y leves. El nivel de información sobre el tema de los estomatólogos es adecuado, no así el de la población, que es deficiente.A retrospective study of patients admitted to "Heroes del Baire" hospital and diagnosed with odontogenic facial cellulitis was undertaken to characterize facial cellulitis behavior under our conditions as well as the level of knowledge by dentists and the population about this entity. The results were as follows: males and the mandibular region in 15-29 years-old patients were the most affected, penicillin was the most used antibiotic and moderate and mild cases predominated. The level of knowledge by dentists was adequate; however that of the population was poor.

  7. La extracción dentaria en la celulitis facial odontogénica / Dental extraction in odontogenic facial cellulitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro A, Ducasse Olivera; Ruth, Roca Rodríguez.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de los pacientes ingresados en el Hospital "Héroes del Baire" con el diagnóstico de celulitis facial odontogénica, con el objetivo de caracterizar la celulitis facial en nuestro medio, así como el nivel de conocimiento de los estomatólogos y la población tiene de [...] esta. Se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: el sexo masculino y la región mandibular en pacientes de 15 a 29 años fueron los mas afectados. El antibiótico más utilizado fue la penicilina, y predominaron los casos moderados y leves. El nivel de información sobre el tema de los estomatólogos es adecuado, no así el de la población, que es deficiente. Abstract in english A retrospective study of patients admitted to "Heroes del Baire" hospital and diagnosed with odontogenic facial cellulitis was undertaken to characterize facial cellulitis behavior under our conditions as well as the level of knowledge by dentists and the population about this entity. The results we [...] re as follows: males and the mandibular region in 15-29 years-old patients were the most affected, penicillin was the most used antibiotic and moderate and mild cases predominated. The level of knowledge by dentists was adequate; however that of the population was poor.

  8. Robust facial landmark detection for three-dimensional face segmentation and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai Shan; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional human faces have been applied in many fields, such as face animation, identity recognition, and facial plastic surgery. Segmenting and aligning 3-D faces from raw scanned data is the first vital step toward making these applications successful. However, the existence of artifacts, facial expressions, and noises poses many challenges to this problem. We propose an automatic and robust method to segment and align 3-D face surfaces by locating the nose tip and nose ridge. Taking a raw scanned surface as input, a novel feature-based moment analysis on scale spaces is presented to locate the nose tip accurately and robustly, which is then used to crop the face region. A technique called the geodesic Euclidean ratio is then developed to find the nose ridge. Each face is aligned based on the locations of nose tip and nose ridge. The proposed method is not only invariant to translations and rotations, but also robust in the presence of facial expressions and artifacts such as hair, clothing, other body parts, etc. Experimental results on two large 3-D face databases demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  9. Diplejia facial: variante regional del síndrome de Guillian-Barré / Facial diplejia: a regional variant of Guillian-Barré syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Piñol Pipoll; P., Larrodé Pellicer; I., de la Puerta González-Miró; C., Tejero Juste; C., Iñiguez Martínez; S., Santos Lasaosa; E., Mostacero Miguel.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diplejia facial es una manifestación clínica poco frecuente que puede presentarse como consecuencia de múltiples etiologías. Presentamos un paciente con una infección periodontal crónica que sufrió de forma brusca una parálisis facial inicialmente izquierda, que rápidamente se hizo bilateral. La apa [...] rición posterior de parestesias distales en extremidad superior derecha e hiporreflexia, junto con la disociación albúmino-citológica en el LCR, permitieron establecer el diagnóstico de variante regional del Síndrome de Guillian-Barré (SGB). La diplejia facial es idiopática en el 25% de casos, siendo la causa más frecuente. Sin embargo, existe un elevado porcentaje de casos secundarios a múltiples etiologías como el SGB donde es frecuente la afectación del nervio facial habitualmente asociado a otros trastornos motores siendo infrecuente la diplejia facial aislada. Concluimos la necesidad de sospecha clínica para realización de punción lumbar y RNM para descartar procesos neoplásicos y poder determinar la etiología responsable para establecer un adecuado abordaje terapéutico. Abstract in english Facial palsy is a uncommon clinical manifestation that it can be caused by different ethiologies. We show a patient with a chronic periodontal disease who presented a sudden facial palsy, initially in left-face but it becomes bilateral quickly. In few days he associated paresthesias in his right arm [...] and hiporreflexia. These clinical findings with albumin-citological dissociation, they had allowed to establish the diagnosis of regional variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (SGB). Facial diplejia is an idiopathic manifestation in 25% of patients, and this is the most common cause. However, facial diplejia can be secondary to many ethiologies as SGB. The affectation of facial nerve associated to other motor symptoms in SGB is frequent, but it is not frequent the presentation as facial diplejia alone. In conclusion, it is necessary a high clinical suspicion to do a lumbar punction (PL) and MRI to reject neoplasic pathologies and to obtain a diagnosis and an adequatted treatment.

  10. Mapping the development of facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Helen; Vizioli, Luca; Ouyang, Xinyi; Caldara, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Reading the non-verbal cues from faces to infer the emotional states of others is central to our daily social interactions from very early in life. Despite the relatively well-documented ontogeny of facial expression recognition in infancy, our understanding of the development of this critical social skill throughout childhood into adulthood remains limited. To this end, using a psychophysical approach we implemented the QUEST threshold-seeking algorithm to parametrically manipulate the quantity of signals available in faces normalized for contrast and luminance displaying the six emotional expressions, plus neutral. We thus determined observers' perceptual thresholds for effective discrimination of each emotional expression from 5 years of age up to adulthood. Consistent with previous studies, happiness was most easily recognized with minimum signals (35% on average), whereas fear required the maximum signals (97% on average) across groups. Overall, recognition improved with age for all expressions except happiness and fear, for which all age groups including the youngest remained within the adult range. Uniquely, our findings characterize the recognition trajectories of the six basic emotions into three distinct groupings: expressions that show a steep improvement with age - disgust, neutral, and anger; expressions that show a more gradual improvement with age - sadness, surprise; and those that remain stable from early childhood - happiness and fear, indicating that the coding for these expressions is already mature by 5 years of age. Altogether, our data provide for the first time a fine-grained mapping of the development of facial expression recognition. This approach significantly increases our understanding of the decoding of emotions across development and offers a novel tool to measure impairments for specific facial expressions in developmental clinical populations. PMID:25704672

  11. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    WataruSato; YasutakaKubota

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fea...

  12. Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that candidates’ facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates’ attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from candidates’ faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties’ nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates’ attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantlythese relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties’ nomination strategies and candidates’ age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and electoral success is highly robust.

  13. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial

  14. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

  15. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C; Frank, Mark G; Lee, Kang

    2014-03-31

    In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1-3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4-7]: a subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions, and a cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8-11]. However, machine vision may be able to distinguish deceptive facial signals from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here, we show that human observers could not discriminate real expressions of pain from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training human observers, we improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However, a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system's superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine expressions from faked expressions. Thus, by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling. PMID:24656830

  16. Simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry of male and female avatar characters. During Differentiation presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system.

  17. Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II with otolaryngological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Havle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr?s syndrome which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.

  18. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  19. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing : a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter BjØrn; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2012-01-01

    Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial.

  20. Facial Nerve Outcome after Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Our Experience*

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Vittorio; Casale, Manuele; Bressi, Federica; Potena, Massimiliano; Vesperini, Emanuela; Franco, Antonio; Silvestri, Sergio; Zini, Carlo; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the postoperative facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery and analyze the factors that cause it. We included 97 consecutive patients undergoing surgical excision of sporadic unilateral VS. Patient and tumor characteristics, surgical approaches, facial nerve function, extent of tumor removal, perioperative complications are all analyzed through standardized systems. Four different surgical approaches are used: translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthin...

  1. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  2. Facial contour deformity correction with microvascular flaps based on the 3-dimentional template and facial moulage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facial contour deformities presents with varied aetiology and degrees severity. Accurate assessment, selecting a suitable tissue and sculpturing it to fill the defect is challenging and largely subjective. Objective assessment with imaging and software is not always feasible and preparing a template is complicated. A three-dimensional (3D wax template pre-fabricated over the facial moulage aids surgeons to fulfil these tasks. Severe deformities demand a stable vascular tissue for an acceptable outcome. Materials and Methods: We present review of eight consecutive patients who underwent augmentation of facial contour defects with free flaps between June 2005 and January 2011. De-epithelialised free anterolateral thigh (ALT flap in three, radial artery forearm flap and fibula osteocutaneous flap in two each and groin flap was used in one patient. A 3D wax template was fabricated by augmenting the deformity on facial moulage. It was utilised to select the flap, to determine the exact dimensions and to sculpture intraoperatively. Ancillary procedures such as genioplasty, rhinoplasty and coloboma correction were performed. Results: The average age at the presentation was 25 years and average disease free interval was 5.5 years and all flaps survived. Mean follow-up period was 21.75 months. The correction was aesthetically acceptable and was maintained without any recurrence or atrophy. Conclusion: The 3D wax template on facial moulage is simple, inexpensive and precise objective tool. It provides accurate guide for the planning and execution of the flap reconstruction. The selection of the flap is based on the type and extent of the defect. Superiority of vascularised free tissue is well-known and the ALT flap offers a versatile option for correcting varying degrees of the deformities. Ancillary procedures improve the overall aesthetic outcomes and minor flap touch-up procedures are generally required.

  3. Management strategy for facial arteriovenous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis; haemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolisation (super-selective followed by complete resection 24-48 hours later. We treated 20 patients with facial arteriovenous malformation by using this method. Most of the lesions (80% were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure related complications and cosmetic results were excellent.

  4. Languages and interfaces for facial animation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, N. [Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

  5. Childhood Facial Osteo Sarcoma: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Farhangi, Hamid; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Alamdaran, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Paget’s disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is...

  6. Attentional control and interpretation of facial expression after oxytocin administration to typically developed male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Okumura, Eiichi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Furutani, Naoki; Ono, Yasuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in attentional-inhibitory control have been reported to correlate to anger, hostility, and aggressive behavior; therefore, inhibitory control appears to play an important role in prosocial behavior. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that oxytocin (OT) exerts a prosocial effect (e.g., decreasing negative behaviors, such as aggression) on humans. However, it is unknown whether the positively valenced effect of OT on sociality is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In the present study, we hypothesized that OT enhances attentional-inhibitory control and that the positively valenced effect of OT on social cognition is associated with enhanced attentional-inhibitory control. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we tested this hypothesis using 20 healthy male volunteers. We considered a decrease in the hostility detection ratio, which reflects the positively valenced interpretation of other individuals' facial expressions, to be an index of the positively valenced effects of OT (we reused the results of our previously published study). As a measure of attentional-inhibitory control, we employed a modified version of the flanker task (i.e., a shorter conflict duration indicated higher inhibitory control). These results failed to demonstrate any significant behavioral effects of OT (i.e., neither a positively valenced effect on facial cognition nor an effect on attentional-inhibitory control). However, the enhancement of attentional-inhibitory control after OT administration significantly correlated to the positively valenced effects on the interpretation of uncertain facial cognition (i.e., neutral and ambiguous facial expressions). PMID:25659131

  7. Parameterized Facial Expression Synthesis Based on MPEG-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaryllis Raouzaiou

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of MPEG-4, one can include applications where virtual agents, utilizing both textual and multisensory data, including facial expressions and nonverbal speech help systems become accustomed to the actual feelings of the user. Applications of this technology are expected in educational environments, virtual collaborative workplaces, communities, and interactive entertainment. Facial animation has gained much interest within the MPEG-4 framework; with implementation details being an open research area (Tekalp, 1999. In this paper, we describe a method for enriching human computer interaction, focusing on analysis and synthesis of primary and intermediate facial expressions (Ekman and Friesen (1978. To achieve this goal, we utilize facial animation parameters (FAPs to model primary expressions and describe a rule-based technique for handling intermediate ones. A relation between FAPs and the activation parameter proposed in classical psychological studies is established, leading to parameterized facial expression analysis and synthesis notions, compatible with the MPEG-4 standard.

  8. The treatment of facial nerve palsy by static suspension methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli? Lukas G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be directed towards the following: restoration of normal function, normal facial appearance at rest, symmetry in voluntary movements as well as symmetry in involuntary and emotional movements. Static suspension methods were used in our study. All patients had unilateral complete facial nerve palsy but one female patient who experienced the palsy of frontal branch of n.facialis. This method was successfully used to lift the eyebrow, the lid and to improve lagophthalmus on the paralytic side, then the angle and paralytic part of the lip, to reinforce buccal wall of oral cavity as well as to reconstruct new nasolabial fold. The results were satisfactory and permanent.

  9. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WataruSato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

  10. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

  11. Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

  12. Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

    1994-01-01

    Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

  13. Cephalic and Facial Indices Among Kosovo-Albanian Population / Índices Cefálico y Facial en la Población Kosovar-Albanesa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria, Staka; Metush, Disha; Fatmir, Dragidella.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los índices cefálicos y faciales se utilizan para estimar las diferencias raciales y de sexo. Este estudio se llevó a cabo para establecer estándares para las variables y la distribución de los índices cefálicos y faciales en la población de Kosovo- Albanesa. Se examinaron 204 estudiantes de odontol [...] ogía (101 hombres y 103 mujeres entre 18 y 30 años). Se midieron cuatro variables craneofaciales básicas (longitud de la cabeza, ancho de la cabeza, altura facial morfológica y ancho facial) para obtener los índices cefálicos y faciales. Todas las variables medidas craneofaciales fueron considerablemente más altas en los hombres que en las mujeres (p Abstract in english Cephalic and facial indices are used to estimate the racial and sex differences. This study was carried out to establish standards for craniofacial variables and distribution of cephalic and facial indices in Kosovo - Albanian population. The study population consisted of 204 dental students (101 ma [...] les and 103 females, aged 18 to 30). Four basic craniofacial variables (head length, head breadth, morphological face height and face breadth) were measured to obtained cephalic and facial indices. All measured craniofacial variables are considerably higher in males than in females (p

  14. Colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gutiérrez A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la población chilena. La región facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposición a la radiación ultravioleta. El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuesta a la luz solar. Los tipos más frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cánceres cutáneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirúrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial. Material y método: Se analizaron 55 cirugías realizadas para colgajos cutáneos en 54 pacientes en 2 años (2009-2010 en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB de Concepción. Resultados: Presentación descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutáneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la resección de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, párpados, labios, mejilla y mentón. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus características más relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clínicos obtenidos con estas técnicas quirúrgicas, de fácil aplicación en un área clínica en que la estética es primordial, aplicando márgenes oncológicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La región facial permite la obtención de colgajos cutáneos con muy buena vascularización, delgados, con características muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mínima morbilidad. La biomecánica de la piel y su aplicación en la técnica quirúrgica es vital para el diseño y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un área de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estéticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstrucción, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron buenos considerando la localización y extensión de las lesiones tumorales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente.Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010, which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

  15. Colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial / Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario, Gutiérrez A; Joaquín, Ulloa S; Patricio, Ulloa B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la población chilena. La región facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposición a la radiación ultravioleta. El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuest [...] a a la luz solar. Los tipos más frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cánceres cutáneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirúrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutáneos en cirugía oncológica facial. Material y método: Se analizaron 55 cirugías realizadas para colgajos cutáneos en 54 pacientes en 2 años (2009-2010) en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB) de Concepción. Resultados: Presentación descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutáneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la resección de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, párpados, labios, mejilla y mentón. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus características más relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clínicos obtenidos con estas técnicas quirúrgicas, de fácil aplicación en un área clínica en que la estética es primordial, aplicando márgenes oncológicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La región facial permite la obtención de colgajos cutáneos con muy buena vascularización, delgados, con características muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mínima morbilidad. La biomecánica de la piel y su aplicación en la técnica quirúrgica es vital para el diseño y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un área de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estéticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstrucción, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estéticos fueron buenos considerando la localización y extensión de las lesiones tumorales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente. Abstract in english Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency [...] are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010), which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

  16. Facial plexiform neurofibromatosis: A surgical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B Dogra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform neurofibromatosis is a relatively common but potentially devastating manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. It produces very hideous deformity if the face is involved. Surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, but in the head and neck region it is limited by the infiltrating nature of these tumors, inherent operative morbidity and high rate of regrowth. We present two cases of facial neurofibromatosis managed in our hospital. The first patient presented with overhanging mass of skin folds on the right side of her face, completely obliterating her right eye. The other patient was a young male having a huge, unsightly swelling over the right cheek, resulting in pulled down right eyelids and right pinna. Physical examination revealed the presence of café au lait macules, freckling in the axillary region and multiple neurofibromas over the trunk. Reconstructive surgical procedure in the form of subtotal excision of tumor mass followed by re draping of the facial skin was performed in both cases. There was evidence of regrowth of the tumor on review after 6 months.

  17. Botulinum toxin injection for facial wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    Botulinum toxin injection for treatment of facial wrinkles is the most frequently performed cosmetic procedure in the United States, and it is one of the most common entry procedures for clinicians seeking to incorporate aesthetic treatments into their practice. Treatment of frown lines and crow's feet, which are the cosmetic indications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and horizontal forehead lines, offers predictable results, has few adverse effects, and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Wrinkles are formed by dermal atrophy and repetitive contraction of underlying facial musculature. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Injection of small quantities of botulinum toxin into specific overactive muscles causes localized muscle relaxation that smooths the overlying skin and reduces wrinkles. Botulinum toxin effects take about two weeks to fully develop and last three to four months. Dynamic wrinkles, seen during muscle contraction, yield more dramatic results than static wrinkles, which are visible at rest. Botulinum toxin injection is contraindicated in persons with keloidal scarring, neuromuscular disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis), allergies to constituents of botulinum toxin products, and body dysmorphic disorder. Minor bruising can occur with botulinum toxin injection. Temporary blepharoptosis and eyebrow ptosis are rare complications that are technique-dependent; incidence declines as injector skill improves. PMID:25077722

  18. Mandibular facial talon cusp: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oredugba Folakemi A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Talon cusp is a supernumerary structure projecting from the dento-enamel junction to a variable distance towards the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. Studies have shown that it consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Hyperactivity of the enamel organ during morphodifferentiation has been attributed to its formation. Most previous reports have been made concerning the occurrence of this structure on primary and permanent teeth and mostly on the palatal aspect. Only few have been reported on the facial aspect of the teeth. When it occurs, the effects are mainly aesthetic and functional and so early detection and treatment is essential in its management to avoid complications. Case presentation An unusual case of talon cusp on the facial aspect of a mandibular central incisor is reported. Its presence resulted in attrition of the opposing tooth. Reduction of the cusp and topical application of fluoride gel was initiated. Conclusion The management and treatment outcome of talon cusp depends on the size, presenting complications and patient cooperation.

  19. Adults' responsiveness to children's facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhye, Chinmay; Vonk, Jennifer; Arida, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effect of young children's (hereafter children's) facial expressions on adult responsiveness. In Study 1, 131 undergraduate students from a midsized university in the midwestern United States rated children's images and videos with smiling, crying, or neutral expressions on cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and participants' experienced distress. Looking times at images and videos along with perception of cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and experienced distress using 10-point Likert scales were measured. Videos of smiling children were rated as cuter and more likely to be adopted and were viewed for longer times compared with videos of crying children, which evoked more distress. In Study 2, we recorded responses from 101 of the same participants in an online survey measuring gender role identity, empathy, and perspective taking. Higher levels of femininity (as measured by Bem's Sex Role Inventory) predicted higher "likely to adopt" ratings for crying images. These findings indicate that adult perception of children and motivation to nurture are affected by both children's facial expressions and adult characteristics and build on existing literature to demonstrate that children may use expressions to manipulate the motivations of even non-kin adults to direct attention toward and perhaps nurture young children. PMID:25838165

  20. 3D analysis of facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter; Hutton, Tim J; Allanson, Judith E; Campbell, Linda E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Holden, Sean; Patton, Michael A; Shaw, Adam; Temple, I Karen; Trotter, Matthew; Murphy, Kieran C; Winter, Robin M

    2004-05-01

    Dense surface models can be used to analyze 3D facial morphology by establishing a correspondence of thousands of points across each 3D face image. The models provide dramatic visualizations of 3D face-shape variation with potential for training physicians to recognize the key components of particular syndromes. We demonstrate their use to visualize and recognize shape differences in a collection of 3D face images that includes 280 controls (2 weeks to 56 years of age), 90 individuals with Noonan syndrome (NS) (7 months to 56 years), and 60 individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 3 to 17 years of age). Ten-fold cross-validation testing of discrimination between the three groups was carried out on unseen test examples using five pattern recognition algorithms (nearest mean, C5.0 decision trees, neural networks, logistic regression, and support vector machines). For discriminating between individuals with NS and controls, the best average sensitivity and specificity levels were 92 and 93% for children, 83 and 94% for adults, and 88 and 94% for the children and adults combined. For individuals with VCFS and controls, the best results were 83 and 92%. In a comparison of individuals with NS and individuals with VCFS, a correct identification rate of 95% was achieved for both syndromes. This article contains supplementary material, which may be viewed at the American Journal of Medical Genetics website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0148-7299/suppmat/index.html. PMID:15098232

  1. Facial firework injury: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Kashyap K; Abcarian, Ariane; Omi, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future. PMID:25035740

  2. Celulitis facial en niños con criterio de hospitalización / Children with facial cellulitis and hospitalization criterion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dadonim, Vila Morales; María Elena, Fernández Collazo; Rebeca, González-Longoria Concepción.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la celulitis facial puede convertirse en un grave riesgo vital cuando no se tiene en cuenta el tratamiento adecuado. Constituye un problema de salud en la población de edades pediátricas, pues es la segunda causa más frecuente de ingreso hospitalario en la cirugía maxilofacial, luego d [...] e los traumatismos maxilofaciales. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento y el manejo terapéutico por la Atención Primaria de Salud en los municipios de Playa, Marianao y Lisa de La Habana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo en 53 pacientes que fueron ingresados en el Servicio de Cirugía Máxilo Facial del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Juan Manuel Márquez", desde enero de 2001 a enero de 2007. Resultados: hubo ausencia de significación estadística entre sexos y entre los grupos de edades. La media de la edad fue de 8 años, con una desviación estándar de 4. La celulitis más frecuente fue la odontógena (60,4 %). El 60,3 % de los pacientes fueron mal manejados por la atención primaria. Los grupos dentarios más afectados sugieren que las acciones preventivas deben encaminarse mayormente a la población con dentición temporal y mixta. Conclusiones: hubo mayor representación del sexo masculino y del grupo de 1 a 5 años. El tipo de celulitis facial predominante fue la odontógena. En más de la mitad de los casos el tratamiento antimicrobiano aplicado en la atención primaria de salud fue inadecuado. Al momento del ingreso predominó la evaluación clínica severa. Abstract in english Introduction: facial cellulitis can become a serious vital risk when doctors don't keep in mind the appropriate treatment. It constitutes a health problem in pediatric population, because it is the second more frequent cause of hospital admittance in the Maxillofacial Surgery Service, followed by ma [...] xillofacial traumatisms. Objective: to understand facial cellulitis behavior and to describe the therapeutic handling in Primary Health Care (PHC) in Playa, Marianao, and Lisa municipalities in Havana. Method: a retrospective observational study was performed on 53 patients who were admitted to the Maxillofacial Surgery Pediatric Teaching Hospital "Juan Manuel Marquez", from January 2001 to January 2007. Results: there was no statistical significance between genders and age groups, the mean age was 8 years with a standard deviation of 4. The most frequent was odontogenic cellulitis (60.4 %). 60.3 % of patients were poorly handled by the primary care service. The most affected dental groups suggest that preventive measures should be directed mostly to people with temporary and mixed teething Conclusions: there was higher representation in male patients and the 1 to 5 age group. Odontogenic facial cellulitis was the predominant type. Antimicrobial treatment was inadequate in more than half of cases at the primary health care. At admission severe clinical evaluation prevailed.

  3. Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia : Effects of training on brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M.; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study,...

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF FACIAL PSORIASIS WITH DLQI AND SEVERITY OF PSORIASIS : A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic papulosquamous disorder involving any skin site. Involvement of exposed areas is associated with significant stigma. Facial involvement in psoriasis causes considerable cosmetic imbalance and psychosocial stress to the affected individual. Facial psoriasis has been described as severe psoriasis. KEYWORDS: D IQL facial psoria sis centro facial periorofacial.

  5. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions.

  6. Facial Palsy in Kawasaki Syndrome; Review and a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH. Moradi Nejad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve palsy, a very rare complication of Kawasaki syndrome, has been reported in only 25 patents. None of the 25 previous reported cases with this complication was treated with IVIG. We treated a 24-month-old boy with bilateral coronary artery aneurysms due to Kawasaki syndrome. In our patient, whom we treated with Aspirin and IVIG, duration of disease was 7-9 days. He developed marked unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy on day 3 of illness. This treatment led to complete resolution of facial nerve palsy within 48 hours. Review of pervious cases demonstrates that children with Kawasaki–associated facial nerve palsy have more than twice the risk for coronary artery aneurysm (52% vs 25% as that of children without facial nerve palsy. Unexplained facial nerve palsy in young children with a prolonged febrile illness should provoke consideration of Kawasaki syndrome and Echocardiography to exclude coronary artery aneurysms. Although facial nerve palsy appears likely to be resolved in all patients surviving the acute phase of Kawasaki syndrome, treatment with IVIG appears to shorten considerably the time for full recovery and provides an important clue to the mechanism of neurological injury in this illness.

  7. Facial expression of emotions in borderline personality disorder and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneberg, Babette; Heyn, Katrin; Gebhard, Rita; Bachmann, Silke

    2005-09-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by marked problems in interpersonal relationships and emotion regulation. The assumption of emotional hyper-reactivity in BPD is tested regarding the facial expression of emotions, an aspect highly relevant for communication processes and a central feature of emotion regulation. Facial expressions of emotions are examined in a group of 30 female inpatients with BPD, 27 women with major depression and 30 non-patient female controls. Participants were videotaped while watching two short movie sequences, inducing either positive or negative emotions. Frequency of emotional facial expressions and intensity of happiness expressions were examined, using the Emotional Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS-7, Friesen & Ekman, EMFACS-7: Emotional Facial Action Coding System, Version 7. Unpublished manual, 1984). Group differences were analyzed for the negative and the positive mood-induction procedure separately. Results indicate that BPD patients reacted similar to depressed patients with reduced facial expressiveness to both films. The highest emotional facial activity to both films and most intense happiness expressions were displayed by the non-clinical control group. Current findings contradict the assumption of a general hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli in patients with BPD. PMID:15950175

  8. Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sofia,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifying the expressions of the students torecognize their comprehension from the facial expressions in static images containing the frontal view of the human face. Our goal is to categorize the facial expressions of the students in the given image into two basic emotional expression states – comprehensible, incomprehensible. One of the key action units in the face to expose expression is eye. In this paper, Facial expressions are identified from the expressions of the eyes. Our method consists of three steps, Edge detection, Eye extraction and Emotion recognition. Edge detection is performed through Prewitt operator. Extraction of eyes is performed using iterative search algorithm on the edge image. All the extracted information are combined together to form the feature vector. Finally, the features are given as an input for a BPN classifier and thus the facial expressions are being identified. The proposed method is tested on the Yale Face database.

  9. Clinic-Radiological Study of facial paralysis. Estudio clinico-radiologico de la paralisis facial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olier, J.; Bacaicoa, M.C.; Guridi, J.; Gil, J.L.; Elcarte, F.; Delgado, G. (Hospital de Navarra Pamplona (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    We have gathered 159 cases of facial paralysis from recent records in our hospital, including paralyses of central as well as peripheral origin, and presenting as the only symptom or as one of several major symptoms of the discomfort of each patient. Sixty-four percent of them were studied by CT scan and/or MR, confirming the existence of alterations in the pathway of nerve pair VII in 50% of the patients who underwent radiological study. Idiopathic facial paralysis was the most common type (42% of the total); while tumors and post-traumatic findings were the most constant radiological findings. From the analysis of the data, the importance of the clinical criteria for selection of the patients in the study and the protocol for radiological diagnosis employed can be deduced. (author)

  10. Sequential Clustering based Facial Feature Extraction Method for Automatic Creation of Facial Models from Orthogonal Views

    CERN Document Server

    Ghahari, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Multiview 3D face modeling has attracted increasing attention recently and has become one of the potential avenues in future video systems. We aim to make more reliable and robust automatic feature extraction and natural 3D feature construction from 2D features detected on a pair of frontal and profile view face images. We propose several heuristic algorithms to minimize possible errors introduced by prevalent nonperfect orthogonal condition and noncoherent luminance. In our approach, we first extract the 2D features that are visible to both cameras in both views. Then, we estimate the coordinates of the features in the hidden profile view based on the visible features extracted in the two orthogonal views. Finally, based on the coordinates of the extracted features, we deform a 3D generic model to perform the desired 3D clone modeling. Present study proves the scope of resulted facial models for practical applications like face recognition and facial animation.

  11. Hemiatrofia facial progressiva: registro de um caso / Progressive facial hemiatrophy: report of a case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Geraldo, Speciali; Luiz Antonio de Lima, Resende.

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Relato de caso de doença de Parry-Romberg, com hemi-hipotrofia esquerda de predomínio facial, epilepsia, afasia amnéstica, rebaixamento intelectual, hemiparesia e hemianestesia direitas e sindrome cerebelar. É enfatizada a raridade da atrofia cerebelar (apenas um caso na bibliografia consultada) e a [...] correlação entre as anormalidades clínicas e a tomografia axial computadorizada de crânio. Abstract in english The authors report a case of Parry-Romberg disease with predominantly facial left atrophy, seizures, amnesic aphasia, mental retardation, right hemiplegia and hemianesthesia, and cerebellar syndrome. The rarity of cerebellar atrophy (only one case thus far reported in the literature surveyed) is emp [...] hasized, as well as the correlation between the clinical abnormalities and the computerized axial tomography of the skull.

  12. Facial expression recognition impairment following acute social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Andréa; Forget, Hélène; Daudelin-Peltier, Camille; Fiset, Daniel; Blais, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Recently, von Dawans et al. (2012) showed that stress exposure increases facial trustworthiness judgements. Given the relation between trustworthiness and the presence/absence of subtle visual features related to happiness and anger (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008), we verified if social stress modulates the visual perception of facial expressions. Twenty-nine men were submitted to a social stress (i.e. Trier Social Stress Test for Groups) or a control condition (i.e. identical setting save for the socio-evaluative threat component) in a counterbalanced order. Facial expression recognition was then measured using a homemade version of the 'facial expression megamix' (Young et al.,1997) in which each of the six basic facial expressions plus neutrality were morphed with each other at seven different percentages (from 14/86 in intervals of 12%). The task was to decide which expression the image most resembled. Recognition accuracy for each facial expression when it was dominant in the morph (i.e. over 50%) was first computed. We found that social stress modulates accuracy scores only for disgust (Mstress= 81%; Mcontrol=89%; t(28)=-3.20, p=0.028; bonferroni corrected). We also verified if the emotion signal necessary to detect each facial expression when they were part of the morph was modulated by stress. For each facial expression, we calculated, separately for each percentage level, the proportion of times that it was correctly identified as being part of the morph. This produced a curve on which we fitted a cumulated gaussian to find at what percentage level an expression was detected 50% of the time. Our results show that stress decreased the sensitivity to disgust (t(28)=3.55, p=0.007; bonferroni corrected). These results indicate that an acute social stress alters the perception of facial expressions, more specifically it decreases the sensitivity to the disgust expression. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327071

  13. Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo Evaluation of facial aging related to cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Yumi Suehara; Karine Simone; Marcus Maia

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de tabagismo). Os in...

  14. Distinct Contributions to Facial Emotion Perception of Foveated versus Nonfoveated Facial Features

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, AP; Smithson, HE

    2013-01-01

    Foveated stimuli receive visual processing that is quantitatively and qualitatively different from nonfoveated stimuli. At normal interpersonal distances, people move their eyes around another's face so that certain features receive foveal processing; on any given fixation, other features therefore project extrafoveally. Yet little is known about the processing of extrafoveally presented facial features, how informative those extrafoveally presented features are for face perception (e.g., for...

  15. Spontaneous Facial Expression Recognition Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradients Descriptor

    OpenAIRE

    Manar M. F. Donia; Aliaa A.A. Youssif; Atallah Hashad

    2014-01-01

    Automatically detecting facial expressions has become an important research area. It plays a significant role in security, human-computer interaction and health-care. Yet, earlier work focuses on posed facial expression. In this paper, we propose a spontaneous facial expression recognition method based on effective feature extraction and facial expression recognition for Micro Expression analysis. In feature extraction we used histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) descriptor to extract facial...

  16. ENDOGENOUS T CELL MEMORY ELICTED BY PRIOR FACIAL MOTOR NEURON INJURY: RELATION TO NEUROREGENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Grace K.; Huang, Zhi; Petitto, John M.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that prior injury to the facial motor nucleus (FMN) would elicit a more robust T cell response in the opposite FMN when the contralateral facial nerve was injured later in life, and that this would result in improved neuroregeneration. Measures of T cell, neuronal and microglial status were compared in sensitized mice (right facial nerve transection followed by contralateral facial nerve transection 9.5 weeks later) and naïve mice (sham surgery of the right facial ner...

  17. BeautiPHIcation™: a global approach to facial beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Arthur; Remington, Kent

    2011-07-01

    The recent availability of safe volumizing fillers has provided cosmetic physicians with the tools necessary to contour facial features non-surgically and cost-effectively. This review focuses on outlining objective parameters necessary for creating a template to maximize each individual's facial beauty. Phi relationships can be approached for all facial features and rely on the establishment of smooth ogee curves in all dimensions. Once goals have been determined and a budget established, a logical syntax is used to create an algorithm for selecting products and procedures. The methodology leads to consistent and pleasing results with a high rate of patient satisfaction. PMID:21824535

  18. Injectable Filler Techniques for Facial Rejuvenation, Volumization, and Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lawrence S

    2015-11-01

    Multiple fillers are available: various hyaluronic acid products, calcium hydroxylapatite, and a few others that are biocompatible with good duration and a variety of mechanical properties allowing intradermal, subdermal, and supraperiosteal injection. Facial features can be reshaped with great control using these fillers. Aging changes, including facial volume loss, can be well-corrected. These treatments have become a mainstay of rejuvenation in the early facial aging patient. Injection technique is critical to obtaining excellent results. Threading, fanning, cross-hatching, bleb, and pillar techniques must be mastered. Technical execution can only measure up to, but not exceed, the quality of the aesthetic analysis. PMID:26505544

  19. Orientation Selectivity for Representing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Madokoro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a representation method of facial expression changes using Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART networks. Our method extracts orientation selectivity of Gabor wavelets on ART networks, which are unsupervised and self-organizing neural networks that contain a stability-plasticity tradeoff. The classification ability of ART is controlled by a parameter called the attentional vigilance parameter. However, the networks often produce redundant categories. The proposed method produces suitable vigilance parameters according to classification granularity using orientation selectivity. Moreover, the method can represent the appearance and disappearance of facial expression changes to detect dynamic, local, and topological feature changes from obtained whole facial images.

  20. Violent video game play impacts facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J; Mounts, Jeffrey R W

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent video game play. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Typically, happy faces are identified faster than angry faces (the happy-face advantage). Results indicated that playing a violent video game led to a reduction in the happy face advantage. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the current models of aggressive behavior. PMID:17593563

  1. Persistent bilateral function after unilateral facial nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To indicate that occasionally the contralateral facial nerve provides redundant innervation to the hemi-face. Single case report. We report the case of a patient whose facial nerve was transected during removal of a 3 cm vestibular schwannoma. Postoperatively, this patient still demonstrated spontaneous mimetic motion on the side of the face ipsilateral to the transsection. Review of the literature finds rare instances of preserved function after nerve transection in the removal of large parotid masses. We speculate that the slow loss of ipsilateral function can at times contribute to innervation from the contralateral facial nerve.

  2. Pneumocephalus due to Compressed Air Injury without Facial Bone Fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumocephalus without a facial bone fracture or sinus disease is rare. A possible cause of pneumocephalus is high-pressure air applied into the orbit may cause without any evidence of a facial fracture. The mechanism behind pneumocephalus may be secondary to a blast of air from the orbit to the intracranial space with a degree of pressure. We report a case of compressed air injury induced by disseminated pneumocephalus in the absence of a facial bone fracture detected on multidetector computed tomography. After 5 days, a follow-up indicated that the pneumocephalus was almost completely resolved without visual loss.

  3. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vloeberghs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paralysis of the mouth corner is a very disabling bothfunctionally and cosmetically, speech and swallowing are hampered and the patient loses saliva, with presents a social problem.

  4. Aciclovir en el tratamiento de la parálisis facial idiopática / Acyclovir in idiopatic facial paralysis treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Rodríguez Blanco; J., Morera Montes.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha propuesto la utilización de aciclovir en el tratamiento de la parálisis facial idiopática, debido al auge que la hipótesis vírica ha tenido en los últimos años. Varios ensayos clínicos han intentado demostrar la utilidad del uso combinado de aciclovir y prednisona frente al uso d [...] e prednisona sola. Revisamos la literatura con el fin de establecer pautas de actuación en Atención Primaria y concluimos que con los datos disponibles en la actualidad no existe evidencia suficiente para recomendar el uso de aciclovir en el tratamiento de la parálisis facial idiopática. Abstract in english Recently, acyclovir use has been proposed for the treatment of idiopatic acute paralysis due to the hypothetical viral origin of the disease. Several trials has tried to conclude that acyclovir-prednisona is superior to prednisone alone. We review the latest studies to define protocols in Primary He [...] alth Care for the medical treatment of idiopatic facial paralisis but current evidence does not support the recomendation that acyclovir should be use in this disorder.

  5. Facial gunshot wound debridement: debridement of facial soft tissue gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyrkov, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. PMID:22998924

  6. Facial Action and Emotional Language: ERP Evidence that Blocking Facial Feedback Selectively Impairs Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua D; Winkielman, Piotr; Coulson, Seana

    2015-11-01

    There is a lively and theoretically important debate about whether, how, and when embodiment contributes to language comprehension. This study addressed these questions by testing how interference with facial action impacts the brain's real-time response to emotional language. Participants read sentences about positive and negative events (e.g., "She reached inside the pocket of her coat from last winter and found some (cash/bugs) inside it.") while ERPs were recorded. Facial action was manipulated within participants by asking participants to hold chopsticks in their mouths using a position that allowed or blocked smiling, as confirmed by EMG. Blocking smiling did not influence ERPs to the valenced words (e.g., cash, bugs) but did influence ERPs to final words of sentences describing positive events. Results show that affectively positive sentences can evoke smiles and that such facial action can facilitate the semantic processing indexed by the N400 component. Overall, this study offers causal evidence that embodiment impacts some aspects of high-level comprehension, presumably involving the construction of the situation model. PMID:26244721

  7. Atuação da fonoaudiologia na estética facial: relato de caso clínico / Speech therapy performance ih the facial aesthetics: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Cristina Gonçalves dos, Santos; Maria Julia Pereira Coelho, Ferraz.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: estética facial. PROCEDIMENTOS: por meio de anamnese e avaliação clínica, aplicou-se um protocolo de tratamento com manipulação funcional dos músculos mastigatórios faciais acompanhados de exercícios isométricos num total de 8 sessões semanais, durante 2 meses, sendo fotografados antes e após [...] o tratamento. O objetivo foi caracterizar as modificações faciais do ponto de vista qualitativo avaliadas clinicamente após tratamento Fonoaudiológico, num enfoque etiológico de caráter biomecânico. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma melhoria da simetria facial e funções relacionadas à biomecânica mandibular. CONCLUSÃO: sugere-se a importância da atuação fonoaudiológica no restabelecimento facial e funcional da motricidade oral com repercussões na diminuição das rugas, marcas de expressão e flacidez. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: aesthetics PROCEDURES: by means of a questionnaire and clinical evaluation, we applied a treatment protocol with functional manipulation of the masticatory muscles accompanied by facial isometric exercises for a total of 8 weekly sessions during 2 months, and we photographed before and a [...] fter treatment. This study aimed at featuring four facial changes in terms of quality, as assessed after treatment, under an etiological and biomechanical character focus. RESULTS: there was an improvement in facial symmetry and functions related to mandibular biomechanics. CONCLUSION: we suggest the importance of speech-language intervention in restoring facial and functional oral motor that influence the reduction of wrinkles, expression marks and flaccidity.

  8. Padronização das técnicas de secção do nervo facial e de avaliação da mímica facial em ratos / Standardization of techniques used in facial nerve section and facial movement evaluation in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Damasceno de, Faria; José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa; Andrei, Borin; Ronaldo N., Toledo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Padronização da técnica de secção do nervo facial extratemporal em ratos e elaboração de uma escala de avaliação da mímica facial desses animais antes e após essa secção. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar foram anestesiados com xilasina e ketamina e submetidos à sec [...] ção do nervo facial próximo à sua emergência pelo forame mastóideo na pele. Todos os animais foram avaliados. Foram observados: fechamento ocular, reflexo de piscamento, movimentação e posicionamento das vibrissas, e foi elaborada uma escala de avaliação e graduação destes parâmetros. RESULTADOS: O tronco do nervo facial foi encontrado entre a margem tendinosa do músculo clavotrapézio e a cartilagem auricular. O tronco foi seccionado proximal à sua saída pelo forame mastóideo e os cotos foram suturados com nylon 9-0. Foi elaborada uma escala de avaliação e graduação da mímica facial independente para olho e vibrissa e a somatória dos parâmetros, como forma de avaliar a face paralisada. A ausência de piscamento e de fechamento ocular recebeu valor 1; a presença de contração do músculo orbicular, sem reflexo de piscamento, valor 2; fechamento ocular de 50% através de reflexo de piscamento, valor 3, o fechamento de 75%, valor 4. A presença de reflexo de piscamento com fechamento ocular completo recebeu valor 5. A ausência de movimento e posição posterior das vibrissas recebeu pontuação 1; tremor leve e posição posterior, pontuação 2; tremor maior e posição posterior, pontuação 3 e movimento normal com posição posterior, pontuação 4. A movimentação simétrica das vibrissas, com posição anterior recebeu pontuação 5. CONCLUSÃO: O rato apresenta anatomia que permite fácil acesso ao nervo facial extratemporal, possibilitando secção e sutura desse nervo de forma padronizada. Também foi possível estabelecer uma escala de avaliação e graduação da mímica facial dos ratos com paralisia facial a partir da observação clínica desses animais. Abstract in english AIM: standardization of the technique to section the extratemporal facial nerve in rats and creation of a scale to evaluate facial movements in these animals before and after surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. METHOD: twenty Wistar rats were anesthetized with ketamine xylazine and submitted to sec [...] tioning of the facial nerve near its emergence through the mastoid foramen. Eye closure and blinking reflex, vibrissae movement and positioning were observed in all animals and a scale to evaluate these parameters was then created. RESULTS: The facial nerve trunk was found between the tendinous margin of the clavotrapezius muscle and the auricular cartilage. The trunk was proximally sectioned as it exits the mastoid foramen and the stumps were sutured with a 9-0-nylon thread. An evaluation and graduation scale of facial movements, independent for eye and vibrissae, was elaborated, together with a sum of the parameters, as a means to evaluate facial palsy. Absence of eye blinking and closure scored 1; the presence of orbicular muscle contraction, without blinking reflex, scored 2; 50% of eye closure through blinking reflex, scored 3, 75% of closure scored 4. The presence of complete eye closure and blinking reflex scored 5. The absence of movement and posterior position of the vibrissae scored 1; slight shivering and posterior position scored 2; greater shivering and posterior position, scored 3 and normal movement with posterior position, scored 4; symmetrical movement of he vibrissae, with anterior position, scored 5. CONCLUSION: The rat anatomy allows easy access to the extratemporal facial nerve, allowing its sectioning and standardized suture. It was also possible to establish an evaluation and graduation scale of the rat facial movements with facial palsy based on the clinical observation of these animals.

  9. Competition makes observers remember faces as more aggressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Thomas, Laura E

    2015-08-01

    People use facial appearance to predict social behavior, but can social context also influence face perception? Leveraging a link between competition and aggression, we investigated the effects of competitive interactions with confederates on participants' performance in a face reconstruction task. Participants played a game either in competition or cooperation with confederates and were then asked to create facial portraits of these confederates by arranging their component features into their best estimate of an accurate configuration. Across 2 experiments, participants who played in a competitive context reconstructed faces in a more aggressive configuration-with higher width-to-height ratios-than did participants who played cooperatively or alone. This result demonstrates that the social perception of faces is not merely a feed-forward process, but instead that the social contexts in which people interact can shape memory for faces. PMID:26010482

  10. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  11. / Parálisis facial periférica aguda idiopática en niños

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA, LEóN; RINA, BRUZZONE; CRISTINA, SCAVONE; AURORA, DELFINO.

    Full Text Available Resumen La parálisis facial periférica aguda “idiopática” tiene una incidencia que varía entre 11,5 y 40,2 casos por 100.000 habitantes/año. La mayor parte de los pacientes recupera espontáneamente la función en los dos o tres meses siguientes a la instalación de la parálisis; sin embargo, en un 15% [...] de los casos pueden persistir secuelas o recidivar. La elevada frecuencia y el impacto psicosocial que determina, hacen que sea una enfermedad de interés. En su etiopatogenia actualmente se insiste en la existencia de una infección por virus del grupo herpes simple. El objetivo es analizar la presentación clínica, evolución, tratamiento y existencia de recidivas en los niños entre un mes y 14 años, que consultaron por parálisis facial periférica aguda en el Servicio de Neuropediatría del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo. Se analizaron 69 historias clínicas de niños que consultaron por parálisis facial periférica aguda idiopática (PFPAI) en el período comprendido entre el 1 de abril de 2001 y el 1 de abril de 2003. En casi la mitad de los casos existió un proceso infeccioso previo. La recuperación varió entre 4 y 180 días, no evidenciándose una relación entre la precocidad de la consulta y el tiempo de recuperación, ni con el tratamiento recibido. Cinco pacientes presentaron recidiva. En nuestro medio no hay estudios sobre tratamientos con antivirales en niños. Sería de interés su realización para poder valorar su eficacia en relación a la recuperación y a evitar las recidivas Abstract in english Summary Idiopathic acute lower motor neurone facial nerve palsy has an incidence which varies between 11,5 and 40,2 cases per 100.000 inhabitants/year. Most of these patients have a spontaneous full function recovery in the following 2 or 3 months; nevertheless in 15% of the cases sequels or relapse [...] s can occur. The high frequency and the psychosocial impact that generates makes it a very interesting pathology. Herpes simplex virus infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. The objective of this study is to analyze the clinical manifestations, outcomes, treatment and relapses in children between 1 month and 14 years of age who visited the Neuropediatric Service of the "Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell" with this pathology. This is a descriptive, retrospective study. 69 histories of children who were attended in a two year period between April 1st 2001 and April 1st 2003 were analyzed. In nearly half of the cases a previous infectious process existed. The recovery period varied between 4 and 180 days with no relationship with an early visit to the physician nor with the treatment received. 5 patients relapsed. There are no clinical studies in our country using antiviral treatment in children. It will be very interesting to design one in order to demonstrate its efficiency in improving the outcome and preventing relapses

  12. Reconstruction of Facial Defect Using Deltopectoral Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the head and neck is a challenge for otolarygology surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons as well as plastic surgeons. Defects caused by the resection and/or trauma should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Deltopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the facial defects. This study report a patient presenting with tragic Road Traffic Accident (RTA) admitted to maxillofacial surgery department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar province, Iraq. An incision, medially based, was done and deltopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure and closure of defects after RTA. There was no major complication. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Deltopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation. PMID:26595007

  13. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. "Tail sign" was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  14. Parálisis facial periférica. Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Santana Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio tipo explicativo, longitudinal y aplicado en 120 pacientes con parálisis facial periférica de causa variable a los que se les realizó exploración y tratamiento quirúrgico. La investigación se llevó a cabo en el Hospital Militar Docente Clínico Quirúrgico «Dr. Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja» de la ciudad de Camagüey, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 1989 a enero de 2007. Los pacientes fueron remitidos a la consulta de Otorrinolaringología donde se definieron los criterios para la intervención quirúrgica y conducta según la lesión encontrada; después de operados fueron evaluados por un período de un año y se recogió la evolución de los signos clínicos, tiempo de recuperación, complicaciones, resultados y grado de satisfacción. Se encontró un predominio de las edades comprendidas entre 21 y 50 años, y una mejor evolución en los pacientes del sexo femenino. La causa más frecuente de parálisis facial periférica fueron la tipo Bell y la traumática con un 36.66 % del total, respectivamente. El edema del nervio se observó en el 58.33 %, y dentro de la localización traumática la lesión mastoidea en el ámbito de la segunda rodilla se observó en el 81.81 % de los pacientes. El abordaje mastoideo se utilizó en el 91.66 % de los pacientes. La oclusión del párpado y movilidad de la comisura labial fueron los signos con más rápida recuperación. Los resultados mostraron movilidad normal y paresia ligera en 76.76 % de los pacientes operados según los criterios de Jongkees, lo que demostró el valor funcional de la técnica. El grado de satisfacción fue excelente o bueno en el 96.66 % de los pacientes, lo que demuestra el valor inestimable que le confieren los pacientes a este resultado

  15. Evaluation of Variation in the Course of the Facial Nerve, Nerve Adhesion to Tumors, and Postoperative Facial Palsy in Acoustic Neuroma

    OpenAIRE

    Sameshima, Tetsuro; Morita, Akio; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Fukushima, Takanori; Friedman, Allan H.; Zenga, Francesco; DUCATI, Alessandro; Mastronardi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Objective?To investigate the variation in the course of the facial nerve (FN) in patients undergoing acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery, its adhesion to tumors, and the relationship between such adhesions and postoperative facial palsy.

  16. Técnicas de moldagem da máscara facial / Moulage of facial mask techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luana Maria Martins de, Aquino; Milene de, Oliveira; Ana Paula Varela Brown, Martins; Célia Marisa Rizzatti, Barbosa.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Encontram-se descritas na literatura várias técnicas para moldagem da máscara facial com o intuito de obtenção de modelos para confecção de próteses bucomaxilofaciais. OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar duas técnicas de moldagem, a técnica convencional e a técnica convencion [...] al modificada, ressaltando suas vantagens e desvantagens. TÉCNICA: A primeira técnica consiste na deposição do material de moldagem na região de interesse e, posteriormente, na adição da camada de reforço com gesso tipo II. A modificação da técnica convencional inicia?se com a realização de um alívio com algodão nos tecidos faciais a serem moldados, a aplicação de uma camada de gesso tipo II para a construção prévia da camada de reforço e, após sua cristalização, a aplicação do material de moldagem sobre a área a ser moldada, seguida de sua contenção por meio da máscara de gesso. CONCLUSÃO: A escolha da técnica de moldagem e dos materiais utilizados dependerá da habilidade do profissional. O importante é realizar uma moldagem que produza um modelo facial sem distorções para o sucesso da prótese. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: There are described in the literature several techniques for shaping the face mask in order to develop models for fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe two techniques used for facial moulage, the conventional technique and conventional techni [...] que with modification, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. CASE REPORT: In the first technique, the impression material is deposited over the region of interest and then a reinforcement layer of plaster type II is putting to cover the impression material. The modification of the conventional technique begins with a relief with cotton over the facial tissue, applying a layer of plaster type II in order to construct the reinforcement layer and, after its crystallization, the application of impression material over the area to be molded, followed by its plaster mask contention. CONCLUSION: The choice of impression technique and materials used will depend on the ability of the professional. The important thing is to make a moulage in order to get an accurate facial cast for the prosthesis' success.

  17. Analysis of Facial Expression and Recognition Based On Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka R. Londhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial Expression Recognition is rapidly becoming area of interest in computer science and human computer interaction. The most expressive way of displaying the emotions by human is through the facial expressions. In this paper, Recognition of facial expression is studied with the help of several properties associated with the face itself. As facial expression changes, the curvatures on the face and properties of the objects such as, eyebrows, nose, lips and mouth area changes. Similarly, intensity of corresponding pixels of images also changes. We have used statistical parameters to compute these changes and computed results (changes are recorded as feature vectors. Artificial neural network is used to classify these features in to six universal expressions such as anger, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. Two-layered feed forward neural network is trained and tested using Scaled Conjugate Gradient back-propagation algorithm and we obtain 92.2 % recognition rate.

  18. Enfisema subcutáneo facial autoinducido con la finalidad de conseguir deformidad facial y evitar reconocimiento legal / Self-induced facial subcutaneous emphysema with the achieving facial deformity and prevent legal recognition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F., Bedoya; M.J., Leal; N., Lleopart; P.A., Martínez-Carpio; M.T., Marrón.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El enfisema facial subcutáneo se presenta en ocasiones en el marco de procedimientos odontológicos, traumatismos o cirugía. No es habitual que este enfisema sea auto-provocado por el paciente. Se informan tres casos de enfisema facial autoprovocado en reclusos con la intención de deformar la cara y [...] evitar ser reconocidos por testigos en el juzgado. Abstract in english Facial subcutaneous emphysema may occur in the context of dental procedures, trauma or surgery. It is unusual that this emphysema is self-caused by the patient. We report three cases of facial emphysema produced by inmates in the prison with intent to disfigure the face and avoid being recognized by [...] witnesses in court.

  19. Retracción a largo plazo del árbol dendrítico de neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales por lesiones periféricas del nervio facial / Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Urrego; Alejandro, Múnera; Julieta, Troncoso.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Poco se sabe sobre las modificaciones morfológicas de las neuronas de la corteza motora tras lesiones en nervios periféricos, y de la implicancia de dichos cambios en la recuperación funcional tras la lesión. Objetivo. Caracterizar en ratas el efecto de la lesión del nervio facial sobr [...] e la morfología de las neuronas piramidales de la capa V de la corteza motora primaria contralateral. Materiales y métodos. Se reconstruyeron neuronas piramidales teñidas con la técnica de Golgi-Cox, de animales control (sin lesión) y animales con lesiones y sacrificados a distintos tiempos luego de la lesión. Se utilizaron cuatro grupos: sham (control), lesión 1S, lesión 3S y lesión 5S (animales con lesiones y evaluados 1, 3 y 5 semanas después de la lesión irreversible del nervio facial, respectivamente). Se evaluaron mediante el análisis de Sholl, las ramificaciones dendríticas de las células piramidales de la corteza motora contralateral a la lesión. Resultados. Los animales con lesiones presentaron parálisis completa de las vibrisas mayores durante las cinco semanas de observación. Comparadas con neuronas de animales sin lesiones, las células piramidales córtico-faciales de los lesionados mostraron una disminución significativa de sus ramificaciones dendríticas. Esta disminución se mantuvo hasta cinco semanas después de la lesión. Conclusiones. Las lesiones irreversibles de los axones de las motoneuronas del núcleo facial, provocan una retracción sostenida del árbol dendrítico en las neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales. Esta reorganización morfológica cortical persistente podría ser el sustrato fisiopatológico de algunas de las secuelas funcionales que se observan en los pacientes con parálisis facial periférica. Abstract in english Introduction. Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on post lesion functional recovery. Objective. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characteriz [...] ed with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury. Materials and methods. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery), and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial) neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis. Results. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the fiveweek observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury. Discussion. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

  20. Jordan's algebra of a facially homogeneous autopolar cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that a Jordan-Banach algebra with predual may be canonically associated with a facially homogeneous autopolar cone. This construction generalizes the case where a trace vector exists in the cone

  1. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  2. Serial electrophysiological study on two infants with acute facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, T; Takedatsu, M; Yasuhara, A; Kobayashi, Y

    1992-03-01

    Two infants with acute unilateral facial palsy were examined serially as to the electrically and mechanically elicited blink reflex, photo-evoked eyelid microvibration and auditory brainstem response (ABR). The results indicated that in hemifacial palsy beside the affection of the facial nerve also central pathways in the brainstem were involved in the pathogenetic processes. In particular, a neurapraxic change of the facial nerve itself in one case played an important role in pathogenesis, while a wide spread involvement was observed in another case. The clinical recovery of a patient with a wide spread involvement was more prolonged. We suggest that serial determinations of blink reflexes and ABR are helpful in clarifying the underlying pathogenetic processes concerning the brainstem affection during facial nerve palsy. PMID:1555530

  3. Parental consent to cosmetic facial surgery in Down's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    JONES, R.

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested that the practice of attempting to normalise children with Down's syndrome by subjecting them to major facial plastic surgery has no therapeutic benefit, and should be seen as mutilating surgery comparable to female circumcision.

  4. Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons Retracción a largo plazo del árbol dendrítico de neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales por lesiones periféricas del nervio facial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Troncoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on postlesion functional recovery.
    Objective. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characterized with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury.
    Materials and methods. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery, and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis.
    Results. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the fiveweek observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons
    of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury.
    Discussion. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the
    physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

    Introducción. Poco se sabe sobre las modificaciones morfológicas de las neuronas de la corteza motora tras lesiones en nervios periféricos, y de la implicancia de dichos cambios en la recuperación
    funcional tras la lesión.
    Objetivo. Caracterizar en ratas el efecto de la lesión del nervio facial sobre la morfología de las neuronas piramidales de la capa V de la corteza motora primaria contralateral.
    Materiales y métodos. Se reconstruyeron neuronas piramidales teñidas con la técnica de Golgi-Cox, de animales control (sin lesión y animales con lesiones y sacrificados a distintos tiempos luego de la lesión. Se utilizaron cuatro grupos: sham (control, lesión 1S, lesión 3S y lesión 5S (animales con lesiones y evaluados 1, 3 y 5 semanas después de la lesión irreversible del nervio facial, respectivamente. Se evaluaron mediante el análisis de Sholl, las ramificaciones dendríticas de las células piramidales de la corteza motora contralateral a la lesión.
    Resultados. Los animales con lesiones presentaron parálisis completa de las vibrisas mayores durante las cinco semanas de observación. Comparadas con neuronas de animales sin lesiones, las células piramidales córtico-faciales de los lesionados mostraron una disminución significativa de sus ramificaciones dendríticas. Esta disminución se mantuvo hasta cinco semanas después de la lesión.
    Conclusiones. Las lesiones irreversibles de los axones de las motoneuronas del núcleo facial, provocan una retracción sostenida del árbol dendrítico en las neuronas piramidales córtico-faciales.
    Esta reorganización morfológica cortical persistente podría ser el sustrato fisiopatológico de algunas de las secuelas funcionales que se observan en los pacientes con parálisis facial periférica.

  5. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreedhar Bhata; Uday Maitra

    2008-11-01

    A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  6. Atypical trait inferences from facial cues in alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Rebecca; Collins, Fredrika; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    It is often difficult to distinguish strangers' permanent facial shapes from their transient facial expressions, for example, whether they are scowling or have narrow-set eyes. Overinterpretation of ambiguous cues may contribute to the rapid character judgments we make about others. Someone with narrow eyes might be judged untrustworthy, because of strong associations between facial anger and threat. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the trait judgments made by individuals with severe alexithymia, associated with impaired recognition of facial emotion. Consistent with the hypothesis, alexithymic participants demonstrated reduced interrater consistency when judging the character traits of unfamiliar faces, and the presence of subtle emotions. Nevertheless, where alexithymics perceived, or misperceived, emotion cues, the character traits inferred thereafter were broadly typical. The finding that individuals with developmental deficits of emotion recognition exhibit atypical attribution of character traits, confirms the hypothesis that emotion-recognition mechanisms play a causal role in character judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867918

  7. Humans Process Dog and Human Facial Affect in Similar Ways

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B.

    2013-01-01

    Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., so...

  8. Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Rachael E.; Garrod, Oliver G. B.; Yu, Hui; Caldara, Roberto; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2012-01-01

    Since Darwin’s seminal works, the universality of facial expressions of emotion has remained one of the longest standing debates in the biological and social sciences. Briefly stated, the universality hypothesis claims that all humans communicate six basic internal emotional states (happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad) using the same facial movements by virtue of their biological and evolutionary origins [Susskind JM, et al. (2008) Nat Neurosci 11:843–850]. Here, we refute this ass...

  9. Automatic Emotional State Detection using Facial Expression Dynamic in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Hongying Meng; Di Huang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic emotion detection system is built for a computer or machine to detect the emotional state from facial expressions in human computer communication. Firstly, dynamic motion features are extracted from facial expression videos and then advanced machine learning methods for classification and regression are used to predict the emotional states. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, i.e. GEMEP_FERA and AVEC2013, and satisfied performances are achie...

  10. X-ray diagnosis of facial skull deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture presents an analysis of roentgenograms of 3000 patients suffering from congenital facial skull deformations. The roentgenographic data attest that there are different pathogenetic ways of deformity formation at different levels of the facial skull: in its middle third the deformaty development is closely related to the function of skull base synchordroses; in the lower third - to the growth zones in the heads of the mandible

  11. The abnormal nucleus as a cause of congenital facial palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jemec, B; Grobbelaar, A; Harrison, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Congenital facial palsy (CFP) is clinically defined as facial palsy present at birth. It is associated with considerable disfigurement and causes functional and emotional problems for the affected child. The aetiology of the majority of cases however, remains elusive.?AIMS—To investigate the role of a neuroanatomical abnormality as a cause of unilateral CFP.?METHODS—Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed on 21 patients with unilateral CFP. Fifteen ...

  12. A three-dimensional evaluation of human facial asymmetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1995-01-01

    Soft-tissue facial asymmetry was studied in a group of 80 young healthy white Caucasian adults (40 men, 40 women) with no craniofacial, dental or mandibular disorders. For each subject, the 3-dimensional coordinates of 16 standardised soft-tissue facial landmarks (trichion, nasion, pronasale, subnasale, B point, pogonion, eye lateral canthi, nasal alae, labial commissures, tragi, gonia) were measured by infrared photogrammetry by an automated instrument. The form of the right and left hemifac...

  13. Faciale angiofibromer ved tuberøs sklerose behandlet med sirolimussalve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    We present a five-year-old boy with facial angiofibromas associated to tuberous sclerosis successfully treated with topical sirolimus 0.4% applied three times a week for six months. After six months we observed a nearly complete resolution of facial angiofibromas. The blood levels of sirolimus remained under a detectable limit and no side-effects were observed. Topically applied sirolimus seems to be a safe and effective alternative to surgery or laser therapy.

  14. A Facial Expression Parameterization by Elastic Surface Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Yano; Koichi Harada

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel parameterization of facial expressions by using elastic surface model. The elastic surface model has been used as a deformation tool especially for nonrigid organic objects. The parameter of expressions is either retrieved from existing articulated face models or obtained indirectly by manipulating facial muscles. The obtained parameter can be applied on target face models dissimilar to the source model to create novel expressions. Due to the limited number of control poi...

  15. Psychopathy and Identification of Facial Expressions of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Mark E.; Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the association between psychopathy and identification of facial expressions of emotion. Previous research in this area is scant and has produced contradictory findings (Blair et. al., 2001, 2004; Glass & Newman, 2006; Kosson et al., 2002). One hundred and forty-five male jail inmates, rated using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version participated in a facial affect recognition task. Participants were shown faces containing one of five emotions (happiness, sad...

  16. Oro-facial manifestations of 100 leprosy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Jamileh B.; Mortazavi, Hamed; Moshfeghi, Mahkameh; Bakhshi, Mahin; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz; Alirezaei, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the frequency of oral and facial involvement in diagnosed leprosy patients. Study design: This study was performed on 100 leprosy patients (62 male, 38 female, mean ages 51.86±6.1). After explaining the study design, we studied descriptive information including: patient’s sex, age, job, place of birth, familial history of leprosy, types of disease (lepromatous, borderline and tuberculoid leprosy), ocular and oral lesions, facial involvement and neuropathy. The statis...

  17. 4D Facial Expression Recognition by Learning Geometric Deformations

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Drira, Hassen; Berretti, Stefano; Daoudi, Mohamed; Srivastava, Anuj

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic approach for facial expression recognition from 3D video sequences. In the proposed solution, the 3D faces are represented by collections of radial curves and a Riemannian shape analysis is applied to effectively quantify the deformations induced by the facial expressions, in a given subsequence of 3D frames. This is obtained from the \\textit{Dense Scalar Field}, which denotes the shooting directions of the geodesic paths constructed between pairs of cor...

  18. Facial Landmarks Localization Estimation by Cascaded Boosted Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, Louis; Vigouroux, Jean-Ronan; Goguey, Alix; Ozerov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Accurate detection of facial landmarks is very important for many applications like face recognition or analysis. In this paper we describe an efficient detector of facial landmarks based on a cascade of boosted regressors of arbitrary number of levels. We define as many regressors as landmarks and we train them separately. We describe how the training is conducted for the series of regressors by supplying training samples centered on the predictions of the previous levels. We employ gradient...

  19. Categorical representation of facial expressions in the infant brain

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Jukka M.; Richmond, Jenny; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Charles A. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Categorical perception, demonstrated as reduced discrimination of within-category relative to between-category differences in stimuli, has been found in a variety of perceptual domains in adults. To examine the development of categorical perception in the domain of facial expression processing, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methods to assess discrimination of within-category (happy-happy) and between-category (happy-sad) differences in facial expressions in 7-month-old ...

  20. Immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome (ICF)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Kelly; Ehrlich Melanie; Weemaes Corry

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, Facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease described in about 50 patients worldwide and characterized by immunodeficiency, although B cells are present, and by characteristic rearrangements in the vicinity of the centromeres (the juxtacentromeric heterochromatin) of chromosomes 1 and 16 and sometimes 9. Other variable symptoms of this probably under-diagnosed syndrome include mild facial dysmorphism, gro...

  1. Oro-facial-digital syndrome Type 1: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Singh Dhull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oro-Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS is a generic term for group of apparently distinctive genetic diseases that affect the development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. One of these is OFDS type I (OFDS-I which has rarely been reported in Asian countries. This is the case report of a 13 year old patient with OFDS type I who reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, with the complaint of discolored upper front teeth.

  2. Face Identification from Manipulated Facial Images using SIFT

    OpenAIRE

    Chennamma, H. R.; Rangarajan, Lalitha; Veerabhadrappa

    2011-01-01

    Editing on digital images is ubiquitous. Identification of deliberately modified facial images is a new challenge for face identification system. In this paper, we address the problem of identification of a face or person from heavily altered facial images. In this face identification problem, the input to the system is a manipulated or transformed face image and the system reports back the determined identity from a database of known individuals. Such a system can be useful...

  3. Visual Exploration of Emotional Facial Expressions in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Uraina S; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with impairments in facial emotion recognition as well as visual and executive dysfunction. We investigated whether facial emotion categorization impairments in PD are attributable to visual scanning abnormalities by recording the eye movements of 16 non-demented PD and 20 healthy control (HC) participants during an emotion recognition task. We examined the influence of several factors that can affect visual scanning, including oculomotor, basic visual, ...

  4. Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

  5. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal ...

  6. Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory...

  7. Evolution and Trends in Reconstructive Facial Surgery: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Oladimeji A. Akadiri

    2012-01-01

    Surgical correction of congenital and acquired facial deformities has transcended the primitive era of using non biologic materials to current attempts at own face growing through biotechnology. A summative account of this trend is still lacking in the literature. The objective of this article is to present an update on current knowledge in the strides to achieve functionally and aesthetically perfect facial reconstruction. It highlights the impact of advancements in 3D imaging, stereolithogr...

  8. Volitional type of facial palsy associated with pontine ischaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Töpper, R; Kosinski, C; Mull, M

    1995-01-01

    A dissociation between voluntary and emotional facial innervation is described in a patient with a pure motor stroke due to a unilateral ischaemic pontine infarction. Voluntary facial innervation of the contralateral orbicularis oris muscle was affected whereas emotionally induced innervation of the same muscle was spared. This report provides evidence that fibres conveying voluntary and emotional commands are still separated in the pons. Whereas corticobulbar tracts carry the information for...

  9. Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Schriefer, T N; Mills, K R; Murray, N M; Hess, C W

    1988-01-01

    A magnetic stimulator was used for direct transcutaneous stimulation of the intracranial portion of the facial nerve in 15 normal subjects and in patients with Bell's palsy, demyelinating neuropathy, traumatic facial palsy and pontine glioma. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) thus elicited in the orbicularis oris muscle of controls were of similar amplitude but longer latency (1.3 SD 0.15 ms) compared with CMAPs produced by conventional electrical stimulation at the stylomastoid foram...

  10. Attention Orienting by Gaze and Facial Expressions Across Development

    OpenAIRE

    Neath, Karly; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Gittsovich, Katarzyna; Itier, Roxane J.

    2013-01-01

    Processing of facial expressions has been shown to potentiate orienting of attention toward the direction signaled by gaze in adults, an important social–cognitive function. However, little is known about how this social attention skill develops. This study is the first to examine the developmental trajectory of the gaze orienting effect (GOE), its modulations by facial expressions, and its links with theory of mind (ToM) abilities. Dynamic emotional stimuli were presented to 222 participants...

  11. Integration of Facial Information is Sub-Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jason M.; Tjan, Bosco S.; Shotts, Megan

    2009-01-01

    How efficiently do we combine information across facial features when recognizing a face? Previous studies have suggested that the perception of a face is not simply the result of an independent analysis of individual facial features, but instead involves a coding of the relationships amongst features. This additional coding of the relationships amongst features is thought to enhance our ability to recognize a face. In our experiments, we tested whether an observer’s ability to recognize a fa...

  12. Facial Expression Recognition Based on WAPA and OEPA Fastica

    OpenAIRE

    Humayra Binte Ali; Powers, David M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Face is one of the most important biometric traits for its uniqueness and robustness. For this reason researchers from many diversified fields, like: security, psychology, image processing, and computer vision, started to do research on face detection as well as facial expression recognition. Subspace learning methods work very good for recognizing same facial features. Among subspace learning techniques PCA, ICA, NMF are the most prominent topics. In this work, our main focus is on Indepe...

  13. Identification of Emotional Facial Expressions Following Recovery From Depression

    OpenAIRE

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta; Sherdell, Lindsey; Wright, Yamanda; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the identification of facial expressions of emotion in currently nondepressed participants who had a history of recurrent depressive episodes (recurrent major depression; RMD) and never-depressed control participants (CTL). Following a negative mood induction, participants were presented with faces whose expressions slowly changed from neutral to full intensity. Identification of facial expressions was measured by the intensity of the expression at which participants c...

  14. Neural Mechanism of Facial Expression Perception in Intellectually Gifted Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between general intelligence and the three stages of facial expression processing. Two groups of adolescents with different levels of general intelligence were required to identify three types of facial expressions (happy, sad, and neutral faces), which were presented with either inverted or upright orientation. Participants' response times and accuracy were measured and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to evaluate neural dynamic proce...

  15. “ CONGENITAL FACIAL PALSY’’ - A CASE REPORT AND LITER ATURE REVIEW”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Congenital facial paralysis or facial paralysis at bi rth may be partial or complete. It may be idiopathic in nature or secondary to either b irth trauma, tumors or other intrauterine environmental anomalies. Prompt diagnosis and appropri ate timing of surgical intervention would improve quality of life if not complete functi onal restoration. Present article reports one such 60 years old male still waiting for treatment

  16. Disección anatómica de la musculatura mímica facial: revisión iconográfica de apoyo a los tratamientos complementarios en rejuvenecimiento facial / Anatomical dissection of the mimic facial musculature: iconographic review as a support to the complementary treatments in facial rejuvenation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Casado Sánchez; J.R., Martínez Méndez; S., Álvarez García-Peñuela; J., Bonastre Juliá; F., Clascá Cabré; C., Casado Pérez.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A la hora de valorar las múltiples técnicas empleadas en el rejuvenecimiento facial y centrándonos de manera particular en aquellos procedimientos mínimamente invasivos complementarios a las intervenciones habituales en Cirugía Plástica-Estética, cobra especial relevancia el conocimiento exhaustivo [...] de las estructuras musculares implicadas en la mímica facial. A tal efecto, se ha realizado un estudio anatómico en cadáveres frescos, en los que se han disecado las principales estructuras referidas. Se presenta un resumen iconográfico de los músculos faciales implicados, haciendo hincapié en su anatomía descriptiva y funcional, así como un recuerdo de las principales áreas problemáticas por alguna circunstancia especial (presencia de un nervio sensitivo o motor). Abstract in english To value the multiple technologies involved in facial rejuvenation and focusing in those minimally invasive complementary procedures to the usual Plastic and Aesthetic Surgeries, it´s very important the exhaustive knowledge of the muscular structures involved in the facial movements. To such an effe [...] ct, an anatomical study has been realized in fresh corpses, dissecting the principal above-mentioned structures. We present an iconographic summary of the facial implied muscles, emphasizing in his descriptive and functional anatomy, as well as a recollection of the principal problematic areas for some special circumstance (presence of a sensory or motor nerve).

  17. Gadolinium Magnetic resonance with a diagnosis of Bell's facial palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intratemporal pathway of the facial nerve has been prospectively studied by means of gadolinium MR in 12 patients with a diagnosis of Bell's facial palsy. All the cases presented total facial paralysis and were studied in the acute phase of the disease. With MR, the intratemporal pathway of the facial nerve has been viewed before and after the administration of a paramagnetic contrast medium, revealing uptake involving mainly the labyrinthine segment and the geniculate ganglion in every case. In no case did the MR findings influence the therapeutic approach, nor did they provide information of prognostic value. Therefore, this exploration is not considered necessary in the assessment of typical facial paralyses. The possible advantages of an MR study with contrast medium in facial paralysis specially apply to those cases with atypical clinical presentation, making it possible to establish a positive diagnosis, ruling out other lesions that may have a similar clinical presentantion. Thus, for the time being, a diagnosis of Bell's paralysis is not necessarily an exclusion diagnosis. (Author)

  18. Facial Expression Recognition Based on WAPA and OEPA Fastica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayra Binte Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Face is one of the most important biometric traits for its uniqueness and robustness. For this reason researchers from many diversified fields, like: security, psychology, image processing, and computer vision, started to do research on face detection as well as facial expression recognition. Subspace learning methods work very good for recognizing same facial features. Among subspace learning techniques PCA, ICA, NMF are the most prominent topics. In this work, our main focus is on Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Among several architectures of ICA,we used here FastICA and LS-ICA algorithm. We applied Fast-ICA on whole faces and on different facial parts to analyze the influence of different parts for basic facial expressions. Our extended algorithm WAPA-FastICA and OEPA-FastICA are discussed in proposed algorithm section. Locally Salient ICA is implemented on whole face by using 8x8 windows to find the more prominent facial features for facial expression. The experiment shows our proposed OEPA-FastICA and WAPA-FastICA outperform the existing prevalent Whole-FastICA and LS-ICA methods.

  19. The facial evolution: looking backward and moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynam, Gareth; Walters, Mark; Claes, Peter; Kung, Stefanie; LeSouef, Peter; Dawkins, Hugh; Gillett, David; Goldblatt, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) facial analysis is ideal for high-resolution, nonionizing, noninvasive objective, high-throughput phenotypic, and phenomic studies. It is a natural complement to (epi)genetic technologies to facilitate advances in the understanding of rare and common diseases. The face is uniquely reflective of the primordial tissues, and there is evidence supporting the application of 3D facial analysis to the investigation of variation and disease including studies showing that the face can reflect systemic health, provides diagnostic clues to disorders, and that facial variation reflects biological pathways. In addition, facial variation has been related to evolutionary factors. The purpose of this review is to look backward to suggest that knowledge of human evolution supports, and may instruct, the application and interpretation of studies of facial morphology for documentation of human variation and investigation of its relationships with health and disease. Furthermore, in the context of advances of deep phenotyping and data integration, to look forward to suggest approaches to scalable implementation of facial analysis, and to suggest avenues for future research and clinical application of this technology. PMID:23033261

  20. Facial expressions of singers influence perceived pitch relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William Forde; Russo, Frank A; Livingstone, Steven R

    2010-06-01

    In four experiments, we examined whether facial expressions used while singing carry musical information that can be "read" by viewers. In Experiment 1, participants saw silent video recordings of sung melodic intervals and judged the size of the interval they imagined the performers to be singing. Participants discriminated interval sizes on the basis of facial expression and discriminated large from small intervals when only head movements were visible. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed that facial expressions influenced judgments even when the auditory signal was available. When matched with the facial expressions used to perform a large interval, audio recordings of sung intervals were judged as being larger than when matched with the facial expressions used to perform a small interval. The effect was not diminished when a secondary task was introduced, suggesting that audio-visual integration is not dependent on attention. Experiment 4 confirmed that the secondary task reduced participants' ability to make judgments that require conscious attention. The results provide the first evidence that facial expressions influence perceived pitch relations. PMID:20551352

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACIAL ARTERY AND SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.Venugopal,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

  2. Mandibular Branch of the Facial Nerve in Wistar Rats: New Experimental Model to Assess Facial Nerve Regeneration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Raquel, Salomone; Silvia Bona do, Nascimento; Ricardo Jose Rodriguez, Ferreira; Ciro Ferreira da, Silva; Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi, Costa.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar ra [...] ts to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  3. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction?The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective?To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods?Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results?There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion?These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies. PMID:25992106

  4. A Fuzzy Reasoning Model for Recognition of Facial Expressions / Un modelo de razonamiento difuso para reconocimiento de expresiones faciales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oleg, Starostenko; Renan, Contreras; Vicente, Alarcón Aquino; Leticia, Flores Pulido; Jorge, Rodríguez Asomoza; Oleg, Sergiyenko; Vira, Tyrsa.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos un sistema de razonamiento difuso capaz de reconocer y medir la intensidad de cualquier expresión facial prototípica o no prototípica. El modelo propuesto utiliza como entrada las deformaciones faciales codificadas ya sea en términos de AUs (Ekman FACS) o FAPs (MPEG-4) y [...] provee reconocimiento de expresiones faciales utilizando una base de conocimiento la cual fue implementada utilizando el sistema de adquisición de conocimiento y editor de ontologías Protégé. Esta base de conocimiento permite, además de la creación de modelos de características faciales obtenidos a partir de parámetros geométricos y codificados en términos de AUs y FAPs, también la definición de las reglas requeridas para la clasificación de las expresiones. En este artículo también se presenta un framework diseñado para codificación de las variables de entrada al clasificador difuso basado en los resultados obtenidos del análisis estadístico de las emociones expresadas en grabaciones de video en base estándar de caras creada por Cohn-Kanade y Pantic. El sistema propuesto fue evaluado con el propósito de analizar su capacidad de detección, indexado, clasificación e interpretación de expresiones faciales. Abstract in english In this paper we present a fuzzy reasoning model and a designed system for Recognition of Facial Expressions, which can measure and recognize the intensity of basic or non-prototypical emotions. The proposed model operates with encoded facial deformations described in terms of either Ekman's Action [...] Units (AUs) or Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) of MPEG-4 standard and provides recognition of facial expression using a knowledge base implemented on knowledge acquisition and ontology editor Protégé. It allows modeling of facial features obtained from geometric parameters coded by AUs - FAPs and from a set of rules required for classification of measured expressions. This paper also presents a designed framework for fuzzyfication of input variables of a fuzzy classifier based on statistical analysis of emotions expressed in video records of standard Cohn-Kanade's and Pantic's MMI face databases. The proposed system designed according to developed model has been tested in order to evaluate its capability for detection, indexing, classifying, and interpretation of facial expressions.

  5. Caracterização funcional da mímica facial na paralisia facial em trauma de face: relato de caso clínico Functional characterization of facial mimicry in facial paralysis of face trauma: a clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bonfim de Jesus

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: mímica facial na paralisia facial ocasionada por trauma de face. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo de caso da mímica facial de um paciente com paralisia facial periférica no lado direito com sequelas decorrente de trauma por projétil de arma de fogo, adulto jovem do sexo masculino, comerciante autônomo. Foi realizada análise documental e fotográfica por meio de anamnese, avaliação e escala de graduação de da paralisia facial House e Brackmann. RESULTADOS: na avaliação da paralisia facial em repouso encontrou-se no lado direito (lesado: desvio de comissura labial, desvio de filtro, narina mais elevada e olho mais aberto. Em movimento, ainda no lado da lesão, observou-se: abolição de rugas frontais, incompetência no fechamento ocular natural e fechamento completo ao forçar, ausência de elevação de narina, rima naso-labial mais pronunciada, protrusão labial desviada para este lado, pouca retração labial, eversão de lábio inferior, comissura labial elevada, desvio de filtro, reduzida capacidade de inflar bochechas. O paciente apresentou sincinesia de olho/lábios e contratura com hipertonia de frontal, prócero, levantador da asa do nariz, risório, zigomático maior, zigomático menor, levantador do lábio superior, depressor do lábio inferior, mentual no lado da lesão e a fratura ocorreu em côndilo direito e o paciente referiu dor orofacial ao dormir e ao mastigar no lado comprometido. CONCLUSÃO: a lesão do nervo facial associada ao trauma de face provocou a alteração da mímica facial no lado direito o que gerou desfiguramento e distúrbios da mastigação.BACKGROUND: facial mimicry in the paralysis of the face that occurs because of a trauma in the face. PROCEDURES: case study of facial mimicry of a patient with peripheral facial paralysis, on the right side of the face, with sequels that happened because of a trauma because of a fire gun projectile; a young man, a self-employed trader. A documental and photographical analysis was held through the anamnesis and graduation scale of House and Brackmann's facial paralysis. RESULTS: in the evaluation of the facial paralysis, in a resting state, we found on the right side (the injured one: diversion of lip commissure, diversion of the filter, more elevated nostril and more open eye. In movement, yet on the side of the injury, it was observed: elimination of frontal wrinkles , incompetence in the ocular closure and in the complete closure , absence of elevation of the nostril , a more pronounced nasolip rhyme, lip protrusion diverged to this side , little lip retraction , destruction of the inferior lip , elevated lip commissure , diversion of the filter, reduced capacity of inflating the cheeks. The patient presented synkinesia of eyes / lips and contraction with hypertonia of frontal, procerus, lifter of the nose's wing, risorius, higher zygomatic, lower zygomatic, lifter of superior lip, depressive of inferior lip, mentalis on the side of the lesion and the fracture happened on the right condyle and the patient reported orofacial pain when sleeping and chewing on the injured side. CONCLUSION: the lesion of the facial nerve that was associated with the face trauma provoked the alteration of the facial mimicry on the right side and generated disfiguration and disturbances in the chewing act.

  6. Caracterização funcional da mímica facial na paralisia facial em trauma de face: relato de caso clínico / Functional characterization of facial mimicry in facial paralysis of face trauma: a clinical case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leila Bonfim de, Jesus; Daniele Fontes Ferreira, Bernardes.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: mímica facial na paralisia facial ocasionada por trauma de face. PROCEDIMENTOS: estudo de caso da mímica facial de um paciente com paralisia facial periférica no lado direito com sequelas decorrente de trauma por projétil de arma de fogo, adulto jovem do sexo masculino, comerciante autônomo. F [...] oi realizada análise documental e fotográfica por meio de anamnese, avaliação e escala de graduação de da paralisia facial House e Brackmann. RESULTADOS: na avaliação da paralisia facial em repouso encontrou-se no lado direito (lesado): desvio de comissura labial, desvio de filtro, narina mais elevada e olho mais aberto. Em movimento, ainda no lado da lesão, observou-se: abolição de rugas frontais, incompetência no fechamento ocular natural e fechamento completo ao forçar, ausência de elevação de narina, rima naso-labial mais pronunciada, protrusão labial desviada para este lado, pouca retração labial, eversão de lábio inferior, comissura labial elevada, desvio de filtro, reduzida capacidade de inflar bochechas. O paciente apresentou sincinesia de olho/lábios e contratura com hipertonia de frontal, prócero, levantador da asa do nariz, risório, zigomático maior, zigomático menor, levantador do lábio superior, depressor do lábio inferior, mentual no lado da lesão e a fratura ocorreu em côndilo direito e o paciente referiu dor orofacial ao dormir e ao mastigar no lado comprometido. CONCLUSÃO: a lesão do nervo facial associada ao trauma de face provocou a alteração da mímica facial no lado direito o que gerou desfiguramento e distúrbios da mastigação. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: facial mimicry in the paralysis of the face that occurs because of a trauma in the face. PROCEDURES: case study of facial mimicry of a patient with peripheral facial paralysis, on the right side of the face, with sequels that happened because of a trauma because of a fire gun projectile; [...] a young man, a self-employed trader. A documental and photographical analysis was held through the anamnesis and graduation scale of House and Brackmann's facial paralysis. RESULTS: in the evaluation of the facial paralysis, in a resting state, we found on the right side (the injured one): diversion of lip commissure, diversion of the filter, more elevated nostril and more open eye. In movement, yet on the side of the injury, it was observed: elimination of frontal wrinkles , incompetence in the ocular closure and in the complete closure , absence of elevation of the nostril , a more pronounced nasolip rhyme, lip protrusion diverged to this side , little lip retraction , destruction of the inferior lip , elevated lip commissure , diversion of the filter, reduced capacity of inflating the cheeks. The patient presented synkinesia of eyes / lips and contraction with hypertonia of frontal, procerus, lifter of the nose's wing, risorius, higher zygomatic, lower zygomatic, lifter of superior lip, depressive of inferior lip, mentalis on the side of the lesion and the fracture happened on the right condyle and the patient reported orofacial pain when sleeping and chewing on the injured side. CONCLUSION: the lesion of the facial nerve that was associated with the face trauma provoked the alteration of the facial mimicry on the right side and generated disfiguration and disturbances in the chewing act.

  7. Parálisis facial en enfermedad de Lyme. Caso clínico de paciente pediátrico / Facial paralysis secondary to Lyme disease. Pediatric case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilberto Eduardo, Marrugo-Pardo; Melissa, Vargas-Márquez.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 23 meses de edad que desarrolló parálisis facial unilateral secundaria a Enfermedad de Lyme sin síntomas otológicos previos. El caso se presentó en Colombia, considerada un área no endémica. [...] Abstract in english The paper presents the case of a 23 months old child who developed an unilateral facial paralysis secondary to Lyme Disease without previous otologic symptoms. Colombia is not considered an endemic area. [...

  8. Affectiva-MIT Facial Expression Dataset (AM-FED): Naturalistic and Spontaneous Facial Expressions Collected In-the-Wild

    OpenAIRE

    McDuff, Daniel Jonathan; el Kaliouby, Rana; Senechal, Thibaud; Amr, May; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2013-01-01

    Computer classification of facial expressions requires large amounts of data and this data needs to reflect the diversity of conditions seen in real applications. Public datasets help accelerate the progress of research by providing researchers with a benchmark resource. We present a comprehensively labeled dataset of ecologically valid spontaneous facial responses recorded in natural settings over the Internet. To collect the data, online viewers watched one of three intentionally amusing Su...

  9. Utilización de polialcamida en cirugía reconstructiva y estética facial / Use of polyalkylimide in facial reconstructive and cosmetic surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Cuesta Gil; A., Valverde Carrasco; B., Duarte Ruiz; F., Riba García; M., Castrillo Tambay; V. del, Pino.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo y aplicación de biomateriales no reabsorbibles (poliaquilamida) en pacientes con defectos faciales de diversa etiología. Material y métodos. Empleamos poliaquilamida (Bio-Alcamid®) en un total de catorce pacientes. Cuatro pacientes presentaban di [...] stintos grados de lipodistrofia facial secundaria a tratamientos antiretrovirales. Otros cuatro, consultaron porque deseaban mejorar el aspecto de su perfil labial. Tres pacientes habían sido sometidos con anterioridad a exéresis oncológicas, y otros dos mostraban defectos faciales derivados de traumatismos. Finalmente, un paciente presentaba un defecto nasal, secuela de una rinoplastia previa. Resultados. Todos los pacientes mostraron un índice muy elevado de satisfacción. No se registraron complicaciones graves. Queremos señalar la estabilidad y durabilidad del implante. Conclusiones. La seguridad y sencillez de esta técnica asociada al alto grado de satisfacción manifestado por los pacientes, animan al empleo de estas sustancias en la corrección de defectos faciales de diversa etiología. Abstract in english Objectives. To report our experience with the management and application of nonresorbible biomaterials (polyalkylimide) in patients with facial defects of diverse origin. Material and methods. Polyalkylimide (Bio-Alcamid®) was used in fourteen patients. Four patients had different grades of facial l [...] ipodystrophy secondary to antiretroviral treatment. Four patients sought to improve their labial profile. Three patients had previously undergone oncological excision and two had traumatic facial defects. Finally, one patient had a nasal defect due to rhinoplasty. Results. All patients were very satisfied. No serious complications occurred. Implants were stable and durable. Conclusions. The safety and simplicity of this technique, and the high degree of patient satisfaction, encourage the use of these substances to correct facial defects of diverse etiology.

  10. Utilización de polialcamida en cirugía reconstructiva y estética facial Use of polyalkylimide in facial reconstructive and cosmetic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuesta Gil

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Presentar nuestra experiencia en el manejo y aplicación de biomateriales no reabsorbibles (poliaquilamida en pacientes con defectos faciales de diversa etiología. Material y métodos. Empleamos poliaquilamida (Bio-Alcamid® en un total de catorce pacientes. Cuatro pacientes presentaban distintos grados de lipodistrofia facial secundaria a tratamientos antiretrovirales. Otros cuatro, consultaron porque deseaban mejorar el aspecto de su perfil labial. Tres pacientes habían sido sometidos con anterioridad a exéresis oncológicas, y otros dos mostraban defectos faciales derivados de traumatismos. Finalmente, un paciente presentaba un defecto nasal, secuela de una rinoplastia previa. Resultados. Todos los pacientes mostraron un índice muy elevado de satisfacción. No se registraron complicaciones graves. Queremos señalar la estabilidad y durabilidad del implante. Conclusiones. La seguridad y sencillez de esta técnica asociada al alto grado de satisfacción manifestado por los pacientes, animan al empleo de estas sustancias en la corrección de defectos faciales de diversa etiología.Objectives. To report our experience with the management and application of nonresorbible biomaterials (polyalkylimide in patients with facial defects of diverse origin. Material and methods. Polyalkylimide (Bio-Alcamid® was used in fourteen patients. Four patients had different grades of facial lipodystrophy secondary to antiretroviral treatment. Four patients sought to improve their labial profile. Three patients had previously undergone oncological excision and two had traumatic facial defects. Finally, one patient had a nasal defect due to rhinoplasty. Results. All patients were very satisfied. No serious complications occurred. Implants were stable and durable. Conclusions. The safety and simplicity of this technique, and the high degree of patient satisfaction, encourage the use of these substances to correct facial defects of diverse etiology.

  11. Paralisia facial periférica, polineurite e doença de Chagas crônica Peripheral facial paralysis, mixed polyneuritis and chronic Chagas' disease

    OpenAIRE

    J. Fortes-Rêgo

    1985-01-01

    É apresentado o caso de uma paciente com 42 anos, que exibiu paralisia facial periférica direita, polineurite sensitivo-motora e síndrome psicofuncional. Raciocínio clínico foi engendrado, permitindo a formulação diagnóstica da forma nervosa crônica da doença de Chagas, sendo esta posteriormente confirmada pela investigação laboratorial.The author reports the case of a 42-year-old woman who developed right peripheral facial paralysis and mixed polyneuritis in the course of an undiagnosed Chag...

  12. Implicaciones médico legales del trasplante facial / Medicolegal implications in the facial transplantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maikel, Vargas Sanabria.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Un hecho reciente que ha causado revuelo en la comunidad médica internacional ha sido la noticia de la realización del primer trasplante parcial de cara en Francia. Con este hecho se ha vuelto a poner sobre el tapete un tema que desde el punto de vista médico, psicosocial y ético ha generado polémic [...] a. Asimismo, puede tener implicaciones desde el enfoque medicolegal. Los trasplantes han tenido un desarrollo vertiginoso desde los inicios del siglo XX, desarrollando técnicas microquirúrgicas y fármacos inmunomoduladores capaces de garantizar un alto porcentaje de éxito. Sin embargo en este momento el trasplante facial estaría indicado para un reducido número de casos con severas lesiones faciales en los cuales las técnicas convencionales no ofreciesen más ayuda. Además los pacientes tendrían que dar su consentimiento informado a un procedimiento que aún está en fase experimental y del cual no se conocen con certeza las consecuencias a corto, mediano y largo plazo. Desde el punto de vista medicolegal implicaría principalmente la modificación de la evolución usual de los estados secuelares funcionales y estéticos del rostro. Abstract in english A recent fact that has caused commotion in the international medical community has been the news of first partial face transplantation executed in France. With this fact, this theme has been put again on the covering. Since the medical, psychosocial and ethical point of view, it has generated polemi [...] cs. Likewise, it can have medicolegal implications. The transplants have had a giddy development since the starts of the 20th century, when were developed microsurgical techniques and then inmunosuppressant drugs. With both there was a high percentage of transplant success. Nevertheless, at this time, the facial transplant would be indicated for a reduced number of patients with severe facial wounds, in which the conventional techniques don’t offer more helps. Also, it is necessary that the patients give their informed consent for a surgery that is still in experimental phase and of which we don’t know with certainty the consequences to short, medium and long time limit. From the forensic point of view it would mainly imply the modification of the usual evolution of the functional and aesthetic injury consequences.

  13. Implicaciones médico legales del trasplante facial Medicolegal implications in the facial transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Un hecho reciente que ha causado revuelo en la comunidad médica internacional ha sido la noticia de la realización del primer trasplante parcial de cara en Francia. Con este hecho se ha vuelto a poner sobre el tapete un tema que desde el punto de vista médico, psicosocial y ético ha generado polémica. Asimismo, puede tener implicaciones desde el enfoque medicolegal. Los trasplantes han tenido un desarrollo vertiginoso desde los inicios del siglo XX, desarrollando técnicas microquirúrgicas y fármacos inmunomoduladores capaces de garantizar un alto porcentaje de éxito. Sin embargo en este momento el trasplante facial estaría indicado para un reducido número de casos con severas lesiones faciales en los cuales las técnicas convencionales no ofreciesen más ayuda. Además los pacientes tendrían que dar su consentimiento informado a un procedimiento que aún está en fase experimental y del cual no se conocen con certeza las consecuencias a corto, mediano y largo plazo. Desde el punto de vista medicolegal implicaría principalmente la modificación de la evolución usual de los estados secuelares funcionales y estéticos del rostro.A recent fact that has caused commotion in the international medical community has been the news of first partial face transplantation executed in France. With this fact, this theme has been put again on the covering. Since the medical, psychosocial and ethical point of view, it has generated polemics. Likewise, it can have medicolegal implications. The transplants have had a giddy development since the starts of the 20th century, when were developed microsurgical techniques and then inmunosuppressant drugs. With both there was a high percentage of transplant success. Nevertheless, at this time, the facial transplant would be indicated for a reduced number of patients with severe facial wounds, in which the conventional techniques don’t offer more helps. Also, it is necessary that the patients give their informed consent for a surgery that is still in experimental phase and of which we don’t know with certainty the consequences to short, medium and long time limit. From the forensic point of view it would mainly imply the modification of the usual evolution of the functional and aesthetic injury consequences.

  14. Protocolo quirúrgico en la reconstrucción de la parálisis facial: nuestra experiencia tras 140 casos tratados Protocol in surgical treatment of facial paralysis after 140 treated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hontanilla Calatayud

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar nuestro protocolo de actuación en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la parálisis facial tras 140 casos tratados entre los años 2000 y 2007. Este protocolo está basado en los resultados obtenidos con un nuevo sistema de captura del movimiento facial en 3D denominado "Facial Clima", que puede ser considerado como un método objetivo de medición de los resultados en la cirugía de reanimación facial. Así podría compararse en pacientes con parálisis facial, la efectividad de los tratamientos entre distintos centros. Exponemos los resultados obtenidos tanto a nivel de la reconstrucción de la sonrisa como a nivel palpebral.The aim of this study is to present our protocol in the surgical treatment of facial paralysis after 140 treated cases since 2000 to 2007. The protocol is based on the results obtained with a new 3-D capture system of the facial movement called "Facial Clima", that could be considered as the adequate tool to assess the outcome of the facial paralysis reanimation surgery. Thus, patients with facial paralysis could be compared among surgical centres such that effectiveness of facial reanimation operations could be evaluated. The results obtained are exposed for smile and lid reconstruction.

  15. Protocolo quirúrgico en la reconstrucción de la parálisis facial: nuestra experiencia tras 140 casos tratados / Protocol in surgical treatment of facial paralysis after 140 treated cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Hontanilla Calatayud; C., Aubá Guedea; A., Vila Sobral; J., Castro García; A., San Martín Maya; J., Botellé del Hierro; G., Rodríguez Losada; R., Gómez Ruiz; A., Bazán Álvarez.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar nuestro protocolo de actuación en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la parálisis facial tras 140 casos tratados entre los años 2000 y 2007. Este protocolo está basado en los resultados obtenidos con un nuevo sistema de captura del movimiento facial en 3D denominad [...] o "Facial Clima", que puede ser considerado como un método objetivo de medición de los resultados en la cirugía de reanimación facial. Así podría compararse en pacientes con parálisis facial, la efectividad de los tratamientos entre distintos centros. Exponemos los resultados obtenidos tanto a nivel de la reconstrucción de la sonrisa como a nivel palpebral. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to present our protocol in the surgical treatment of facial paralysis after 140 treated cases since 2000 to 2007. The protocol is based on the results obtained with a new 3-D capture system of the facial movement called "Facial Clima", that could be considered as the adequat [...] e tool to assess the outcome of the facial paralysis reanimation surgery. Thus, patients with facial paralysis could be compared among surgical centres such that effectiveness of facial reanimation operations could be evaluated. The results obtained are exposed for smile and lid reconstruction.

  16. Facial patterning and infant emotional expression: happiness, surprise, and fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, S W; Campos, J J; Emde, R N

    1979-12-01

    Although recent studies have convincingly demonstrated that emotional expressions can be judged reliably from actor-posed facial displays, there exists little evidence that facial expressions in lifelike settings are similar to actor-posed displays, are reliable across situations designed to elicit the same emotion, or provide sufficient information to mediate consistent emotion judgments by raters. The present study therefore investigated these issues as they related to the emotions of happiness, surprise, and fear. 27 infants between 10 and 12 months of age (when emotion masking is not likely to confound results) were tested in 2 situations designed to elicit hapiness (peek-a-boo game and a collapsing toy), 2 to elicit surprise (a toy-switch and a vanishing-object task), and 2 to elicit fear (the visual cliff and the approach of a stranger. Dependent variables included changes in 28 facial response components taken from previous work using actor poses, as well as judgments of the presence of 6 discrete emotions. In addition, instrumental behaviors were used to verify with other than facial expression responses whether the predicted emotion was elicited. In contrast to previous conclusions on the subject, we found that judges were able to make all facial expression judgments reliably, even in the absence of contextual information. Support was also obtained for at least some degree of specificity of facial component response patterns, especially for happiness and surprise. Emotion judgments by raters were found to be a function of the presence of discrete facial components predicted to be linked to those emotions. Finally, almost all situations elicited blends, rather than discrete emotions. PMID:535426

  17. Intratemporal and extratemporal facial nerve schwannoma: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the characteristics of CT and MRI findings of facial nerve schwannoma in ten patients. Ten patients with pathologically confirmed facial nerve schwannoma, underwent physical and radilolgic examination. The latter involved MRI in all ten and CT scanning in six. We analyzed the location (epicenter), extent and number of involved segments of tumors, tuumor morphology, and changes in adjacent bony structures. The major symptoms of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve paralysis in seven cases and hearing loss in six. Epicenters were detected at the intraparotid portion in five cases, the intracanalicular portion in two, the cisternal portion in one, and the intratemporal portion in two. The segment most frequently involved was the mastoid (n=6), followed by the parotid (n=5), intracanalicular (n=4), cisternal (n=2), the labyrinthine/geniculate ganglion (n=2) and the tympanic segment (n=1). Tumors affected two segments of the facial nerve in eight cases, only one segment in one, and four continuous segments in one. Morphologically, tumors were ice-cream cone shaped in the cisternal segment tumor (1/1), cone shaped in intracanalicular tumors (2/2), oval shaped in geniculate ganglion tumors (1/1), club shaped in intraparotid tumors (5/5) and bead shaped in the diffuse-type tumor (1/1). Changes in adjacent bony structures involved widening of the stylomastoid foramen in intraparotid tumors (5/5), widening of the internal auditary canal in intracanalicular and cisternal tumors (3/3), bony erosion of the geniculate fossa in geniculate ganglion tumors (2/2), and widening of the facial nerve canal in intratemporal and intraparotid tumors (6/6). The characteristic location, shape and change in adjacent bony structures revealed by facial schwannomas on CT and MR examination lead to correct diagnosis

  18. Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiano Paiva, Vieira; Arnaldo, Pinzan; Guilherme, Janson; Thais Maria Freire, Fernandes; Renata Carvalho, Sathler; Rafael Pinelli, Henriques.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o objetivo desse estudo foi obter os valores médios de normalidade das alturas faciais anterior e posterior de 30 jovens mestiços nipo-brasileiros, descendentes de xantodermas e leucodermas, com oclusão normal, com idade média de 14 anos, e verificar a presença ou ausência de dimorfism [...] o entre os sexos. MÉTODOS: elaborou-se um estudo cefalométrico com as mensurações advindas das análises de Wylie e Johnson, Siriwat e Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield e Horn. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram a presença de dimorfismo entre os sexos para as variáveis AFAT, AFAI, AFA, AFPT e AFPS. CONCLUSÕES: um padrão cefalométrico específico, das alturas faciais anterior e posterior, para os jovens mestiços nipo-brasileiros com oclusão normal, descendentes de xantodermas e leucodermas, foi apresentado e um dimorfismo entre os sexos para cinco das treze variáveis avaliadas foi verificado nessa faixa etária média. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, [...] Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range.

  19. Facial Recognition using OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Emami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in computer vision of the past decade. Fueled by the steady doubling rate of computing power every 13 months, face detection and recognition has transcended from an esoteric to a popular area of research in computer vision and one of the better and successful applications of image analysis and algorithm based understanding. Because of the intrinsic nature of the problem, computer vision is not only a computer science area of research, but also the object of neuro-scientific and psychological studies, mainly because of the general opinion that advances in computer image processing and understanding research will provide insights into how our brain work and vice versa. Because of general curiosity and interest in the matter, the author has proposed to create an application that would allow user access to a particular machine based on an in-depth analysis of a person’s facial features. This application will be developed using Intel’s open source computer vision project, OpenCV and Microsoft’s .NET framework.

  20. Facial Recognition using OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Petrut Suciu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The growing interest in computer vision of the past decade. Fueled by the steady doubling rate of computing power every 13 months, face detection and recognition has transcended from an esoteric to a popular area of research in computer vision and one of the better and successful applications of image analysis and algorithm based understanding. Because of the intrinsic nature of the problem, computer vision is not only a computer science area of research, but also the object of neuro-scientific and psychological studies, mainly because of the general opinion that advances in computer image processing and understanding research will provide insights into how our brain work and vice versa.

    Because of general curiosity and interest in the matter, the author has proposed to create an application that would allow user access to a particular machine based on an in-depth analysis of a person’s facial features. This application will be developed using Intel’s open source computer vision project, OpenCV and Microsoft’s .NET framework.

  1. Trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral episodic facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2015-06-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare cause of episodic unilateral facial pain and often in the initial presentation dental causes need to be eliminated, as it frequently presents in the lower trigeminal divisions. The pain description is characteristic of electric shock-like pain that is light-touch provoked, paroxysmal, and occurring daily; the condition can go into remission for weeks or months, however. The first-line drug is either carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine and has to be started in low doses. Over 70% of patients will initially obtain immediate relief. If efficacy or tolerability becomes a problem, then referral to a secondary care specialist should be made. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can determine if there is a symptomatic cause and whether surgery is indicated. Surgical options provide longest pain relief periods. Patients need to be given information about all treatment options so they can make a decision about treatment. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources. PMID:26095494

  2. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Mey Chew

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the “match” of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized by a single colour. The approaches used in this experiment for analysis are psychology disciplines and colours engineering. These seven emotions are being matched by the subjects with their perceptions and feeling. Then, 12 male and 12 female data are randomly chosen from among the previous data to make a colour perception comparison between genders. The successes or failures in running of this test depend on the possibility of subjects to propose their every single colour for each expression. The result will translate into number and percentage as a guide for colours designers and psychology field.

  3. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. PMID:26336174

  4. Management of the eye in facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Mahsa; Abugo, Usiwoma; Grant, Michael; Merbs, Shannath

    2015-04-01

    Facial nerve palsy, whether the cause is idiopathic, or following such insults as surgery, trauma, or malignancy, places the health of the ocular surface at risk. Reduced or absent orbicularis oculi function results in lagophthalmos and exposure of the cornea, which is exacerbated by eyelid malposition. Management of the exposure keratopathy is paramount to prevent corneal breakdown, scarring, and permanent vision loss. Significant exposure keratopathy can be complicated by loss of corneal sensation, leading to a neurotrophic corneal ulcer. Initial management consists of artificial tear drops and ointment for corneal lubrication and strategies to address the lagophthalmos. Once the condition of the ocular surface has been stabilized, a variety of surgical treatment options are available depending on the severity and persistence of eyelid and ocular findings. The most common surgical options include temporary or permanent tarsorrhaphy for lagophthalmos, upper eyelid weight placement for retraction, and lateral canthoplasty with or without a middle lamellar spacer for lower eyelid retraction. External eyelid loading is a good option in patients who are poor surgical candidates or who have a known temporary palsy of short duration. The goal of all such procedures must be protection of the ocular surface through optimization of eyelid position. PMID:25958900

  5. Childhood Facial Osteosracoma: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid farhangih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Paget’s disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is the main predisposing factor for childhood OS. There is some evidence about the X-ray induced mutation in genomic DNA that leads to osteosarcoma. In the present paper we present a 19-month old girl with a mass located in the inferior margin of the left cheek and orbit. Our case is unique with regard to her young age and sex. Moreover, the tumor was located in an uncommon site and her disease was progressive and resistant.

  6. Mandibular range of motion in patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy / Amplitude mandibular em pacientes com paralisia facial periférica idiopática

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Chiarion, Sassi; Laura Davison, Mangilli; Michele Conceição, Poluca; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Claudia Regina Furquim de, Andrade.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Na atuação fonoaudiológica na paralisia facial, medidas quantitativas da face têm sido cada vez mais utilizadas para avaliação, diagnóstico, prognóstico e planejamento terapêutico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de alterações de amplitude mandibular na paralisia facial periférica de origem. MATERIA [...] L E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Cinquenta e seis indivíduos foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 com 28 pacientes com paralisia facial idiopática (6 homens e 22 mulheres), 14 com comprometimento à direita e 14 à esquerda e tempo de duração da paralisia entre 6 e 12 meses; G2 composto por 28 indivíduos saudáveis pareados por idade e sexo ao G1. Para avaliação da amplitude mandibular, foi utilizado um paquímetro digital, sendo realizadas as seguintes medidas: 1) linha média; 2) abertura oral máxima; 3) lateralização da mandíbula para direita; 4) lateralização da mandíbula para esquerda; 5) protrusão mandibular; 6) trespasse horizontal. RESULTADOS: Foi observada diferença média significante entre os grupos para a abertura oral máxima, lateralização para esquerda e protrusão mandibular. G1 apresentou resultados menores que G2. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes acometidos por paralisia facial apresentam redução significante na amplitude mandibular. Os resultados apoiam a sugestão de que sejam incorporadas às avaliações clínicas da paralisia facial as provas de funcionalidade da articulação têmporo-mandibular. Abstract in english Regarding orofacial motor assessment in facial paralysis, quantitative measurements of the face are being used to establish diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning. AIM: To assess the prevalence of changes in mandibular range of motion in individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. MATERIALS A [...] ND METHODS: Prospective study. We had 56 volunteers, divided in two groups: G1 made up of 28 individuals with idiopathic facial paralysis (6 males and 22 females); 14 with manifestations on the right side of the face and 14 on the left side; time of onset varied between 6-12 months; G2 with 28 healthy individuals paired by age and gender to G1. In order to assess mandibular range of motion, a digital caliper was used. The following measurements were made: 1) middle line; 2) maximum oral opening; 3) lateralization to the right; 4) lateralization to the left; 5) protrusion; 6) horizontal overlap. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for maximum oral opening, lateralization to the left and protrusion. G1 presented smaller measurement values than G2. CONCLUSION: Patients with facial paralysis present significant reduction of mandibular range of motion. The results support the suggestion of incorporating functional evaluation of the temporomandibular joint to the existing facial paralysis clinical assessment protocols.

  7. Mandibular range of motion in patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy Amplitude mandibular em pacientes com paralisia facial periférica idiopática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Chiarion Sassi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding orofacial motor assessment in facial paralysis, quantitative measurements of the face are being used to establish diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning. AIM: To assess the prevalence of changes in mandibular range of motion in individuals with peripheral facial paralysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study. We had 56 volunteers, divided in two groups: G1 made up of 28 individuals with idiopathic facial paralysis (6 males and 22 females; 14 with manifestations on the right side of the face and 14 on the left side; time of onset varied between 6-12 months; G2 with 28 healthy individuals paired by age and gender to G1. In order to assess mandibular range of motion, a digital caliper was used. The following measurements were made: 1 middle line; 2 maximum oral opening; 3 lateralization to the right; 4 lateralization to the left; 5 protrusion; 6 horizontal overlap. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for maximum oral opening, lateralization to the left and protrusion. G1 presented smaller measurement values than G2. CONCLUSION: Patients with facial paralysis present significant reduction of mandibular range of motion. The results support the suggestion of incorporating functional evaluation of the temporomandibular joint to the existing facial paralysis clinical assessment protocols.Na atuação fonoaudiológica na paralisia facial, medidas quantitativas da face têm sido cada vez mais utilizadas para avaliação, diagnóstico, prognóstico e planejamento terapêutico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de alterações de amplitude mandibular na paralisia facial periférica de origem. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Cinquenta e seis indivíduos foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 com 28 pacientes com paralisia facial idiopática (6 homens e 22 mulheres, 14 com comprometimento à direita e 14 à esquerda e tempo de duração da paralisia entre 6 e 12 meses; G2 composto por 28 indivíduos saudáveis pareados por idade e sexo ao G1. Para avaliação da amplitude mandibular, foi utilizado um paquímetro digital, sendo realizadas as seguintes medidas: 1 linha média; 2 abertura oral máxima; 3 lateralização da mandíbula para direita; 4 lateralização da mandíbula para esquerda; 5 protrusão mandibular; 6 trespasse horizontal. RESULTADOS: Foi observada diferença média significante entre os grupos para a abertura oral máxima, lateralização para esquerda e protrusão mandibular. G1 apresentou resultados menores que G2. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes acometidos por paralisia facial apresentam redução significante na amplitude mandibular. Os resultados apoiam a sugestão de que sejam incorporadas às avaliações clínicas da paralisia facial as provas de funcionalidade da articulação têmporo-mandibular.

  8. Facial emotional recognition in schizophrenia: preliminary results of the virtual reality program for facial emotional recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Souto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant deficits in emotional recognition and social perception characterize patients with schizophrenia and have direct negative impact both in inter-personal relationships and in social functioning. Virtual reality, as a methodological resource, might have a high potential for assessment and training skills in people suffering from mental illness. OBJECTIVES: To present preliminary results of a facial emotional recognition assessment designed for patients with schizophrenia, using 3D avatars and virtual reality. METHODS: Presentation of 3D avatars which reproduce images developed with the FaceGen® software and integrated in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Each avatar was presented to a group of 12 patients with schizophrenia and a reference group of 12 subjects without psychiatric pathology. RESULTS: The results show that the facial emotions of happiness and anger are better recognized by both groups and that the major difficulties arise in fear and disgust recognition. Frontal alpha electroencephalography variations were found during the presentation of anger and disgust stimuli among patients with schizophrenia. DISCUSSION: The developed program evaluation module can be of surplus value both for patient and therapist, providing the task execution in a non anxiogenic environment, however similar to the actual experience.

  9. Hemiatrofia facial de romberg: relato de caso Romberg's facial hemiatrophy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicandro De Figueiredo Neto

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam o caso de uma paciente de 45 anos de idade com história de 15 meses de evolução, de hemiatrofia progressiva da face e língua à esquerda. A investigação laboratorial e de imagens foi normal, incluindo exames de sangue de rotina, líquido cerebro-espinhal, provas de função hepática, renal e reumáticas; além de raio X, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética de crânio. A eletroneuromiografia mostrou alterações neurogênicas periféricas dos nervos trigêmio motor e hipoglosso, predominantemente à esquerda. Esses achados são compatíveis com o diagnóstico de hemiatrofia facial de Romberg, motivando a discussão de diversos aspectos desta rara doença de acordo com o relato e com a literatura.The authors report the case of a 45-years-old female patient, with progressive hemiatrophy of the left face and tongue. The laboratorial and image studies were normal, including routine blood exams, cerebral-spinal fluid, hepatic function tests, renal and rheumatic; besides X ray, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance of skull. The electroneuromyography showed peripheral neurogenic alterations of motor trigeminal and hypoglossal nerves, markedly on the left side. Those findings are compatible with Romberg's facial hemiatrophy diagnosis, motivating discussion of several aspects of this rare disease according to the account and literature.

  10. Hemiatrofia facial de romberg: relato de caso / Romberg's facial hemiatrophy: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicandro De, Figueiredo Neto; Johnny Wesley G., Martins; Miguel, Farage Filho; Fernando Guilhon, Henriques.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam o caso de uma paciente de 45 anos de idade com história de 15 meses de evolução, de hemiatrofia progressiva da face e língua à esquerda. A investigação laboratorial e de imagens foi normal, incluindo exames de sangue de rotina, líquido cerebro-espinhal, provas de função hepátic [...] a, renal e reumáticas; além de raio X, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética de crânio. A eletroneuromiografia mostrou alterações neurogênicas periféricas dos nervos trigêmio motor e hipoglosso, predominantemente à esquerda. Esses achados são compatíveis com o diagnóstico de hemiatrofia facial de Romberg, motivando a discussão de diversos aspectos desta rara doença de acordo com o relato e com a literatura. Abstract in english The authors report the case of a 45-years-old female patient, with progressive hemiatrophy of the left face and tongue. The laboratorial and image studies were normal, including routine blood exams, cerebral-spinal fluid, hepatic function tests, renal and rheumatic; besides X ray, computerized tomog [...] raphy and magnetic resonance of skull. The electroneuromyography showed peripheral neurogenic alterations of motor trigeminal and hypoglossal nerves, markedly on the left side. Those findings are compatible with Romberg's facial hemiatrophy diagnosis, motivating discussion of several aspects of this rare disease according to the account and literature.

  11. Fascitis nodular en región facial en edades pediátricas / Nodular fasciitis present in facial area in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dadonim, Vila Morales; Ernesto, Sánchez Cabrales.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Presentar 3 casos de fascitisnodular de región facial. Método: Se realizó un estudio de los pacientes que comprendió examen físico, análisis de laboratorio y radiológico. Se describió la conducta quirúrgica o médica realizada en cada caso y su diagnóstico anatomopatológico. Resultados: Se [...] mostró el método científico como única vía de llegar al diagnóstico certero, a pesar de enfrentar el reto de diagnosticar una entidad nosológica inusual en la cirugía maxilofacial. Se discutió la evolución de cada paciente y la literatura consultada. Conclusiones: Resulta muy útil la presentación de estos casos, pues esta tumoración presenta una localización muy poco frecuente en cara y su rápido crecimiento y evolución clínica son habitualmente difíciles de interpretar. Abstract in english Aim: To present 3 cases of nodular fasciitis in facial area. Method: A study was carried out in patients including physical examination, laboratory and radiologic analysis. Surgical or medical behavior was described present in each case with an anatomical and the pathological diagnosis was made. Res [...] ults: Scientific method was the only route to achieve an accurate diagnosis despite the challenge of diagnosing an uncommon disease entity in maxillofacial surgery. In each patient the course was discussed as well as a literature review. Conclusions: The presentation of these cases is very essential since this tumor has a not much location in the face and its fast developmental and clinical course are often difficult to interpret.

  12. Fascitis nodular en región facial en edades pediátricas Nodular fasciitis present in facial area in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadonim Vila Morales

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Presentar 3 casos de fascitisnodular de región facial. Método: Se realizó un estudio de los pacientes que comprendió examen físico, análisis de laboratorio y radiológico. Se describió la conducta quirúrgica o médica realizada en cada caso y su diagnóstico anatomopatológico. Resultados: Se mostró el método científico como única vía de llegar al diagnóstico certero, a pesar de enfrentar el reto de diagnosticar una entidad nosológica inusual en la cirugía maxilofacial. Se discutió la evolución de cada paciente y la literatura consultada. Conclusiones: Resulta muy útil la presentación de estos casos, pues esta tumoración presenta una localización muy poco frecuente en cara y su rápido crecimiento y evolución clínica son habitualmente difíciles de interpretar.Aim: To present 3 cases of nodular fasciitis in facial area. Method: A study was carried out in patients including physical examination, laboratory and radiologic analysis. Surgical or medical behavior was described present in each case with an anatomical and the pathological diagnosis was made. Results: Scientific method was the only route to achieve an accurate diagnosis despite the challenge of diagnosing an uncommon disease entity in maxillofacial surgery. In each patient the course was discussed as well as a literature review. Conclusions: The presentation of these cases is very essential since this tumor has a not much location in the face and its fast developmental and clinical course are often difficult to interpret.

  13. Medida angular para aferição do tônus muscular na paralisia facial Angular measurement for determining muscle tonus in facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tessitore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: na paralisia facial periférica, a diminuição dos movimentos faciais e as sequelas estéticas resultantes podem ter repercussões emocionais importantes consequentes ao déficit funcional, na dependência da intensidade do quadro clinico. A reabilitação orofacial visa otimizar os movimentos residuais, na paralisia incompleta, e as suas adequações e/ou adaptação às funções orofaciais e da expressividade facial. Entretanto, quantificar o resultado terapêutico é um desafio. Em geral, as graduações utilizadas são generalistas esubjetivas. OBJETIVO: propor o Ângulo da Comissura Labial e avaliar sua confiabilidade como recurso objetivo na avaliação da modificação do tônus da musculatura facial na evolução da paralisia facial. MÉTODO: foram estudados 20 pacientes com paralisia facial periférica - grau IV. O estudo se fez sob imagens da documentação fotográfica de pacientes com paralisia facial, tomadas a partir de quinze dias de instalação e ao final de um ano de acompanhamento clínico. Mediu-se o ângulo por meio de traçados determinados por pontos faciais antropométricos pré-estabelecidos, como a linha entre a glabella e gnation e o cruzamento com os pontos chelion direito e esquerdo, determinando um ângulo medidomanualmente com um transferidor na fotografia. RESULTADOS: a média do Ângulo da Comissura Labial foi de 101,70 nas tomadas iniciais, diminuindo para 93,80 (desvio padrão = 4,3 após um ano de evolução. O teste estatístico revelou diferença estatisticamente significante (P BACKGROUND: the decrease of facial movements in peripheral facial paralysis and the resulting aesthetical sequels may have important emotional repercussions as a consequence to the functional deficit, and depending on the intensity of the clinical condition. Orofacial rehabilitation has as a purpose to favor the recovery of orofacial movements and to adequate and/or adapt orofacial functions and facial mimic. However, quantifying therapeutic results in an attempt to measure the muscle tonus is a challenge. Generally, the used forms of measurement are general and subjective. AIM: to propose the labial commissure angle as an anthropometric marker and to evaluate its reliability as an objective tool to evaluate the modification of the facial muscle tonus after rehabilitation. METHOD: participants of the study were 20 patients presenting peripheral facial paralysis - level IV. The study was conducted using images from the photographical documentation taken fifteen days to one year post-onset of facial paralysis. The angle was measured by tracings determined by pre-established anthropometric facial points, such as the line between the glabella and the gnation and the crossing with the left and right chelion points determining an angle manually measured with a protractor on the photography. RESULTS: The average Labial Commissure Angle before treatment was of 101.70 and after rehabilitation of 93.80 (standard deviation, SD = 4.3. The statistical analysis indicated a significant difference (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: the results obtained suggest that the Labial Commissure Angle allows the objective evaluation of facial muscle tonus modification.

  14. Surgical anatomy of the facial nerve relating to facial rejuvenation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this review was to familiarize the reader with critical facial nerve anatomy relating to facial rejuvenation surgeries. The temporal branch to the upper orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM): The temporal branch was under the temporoparietal fascia above the zygomatic arch and divided into 2 to 4 branches. The highest level of the twigs that entered the OOM on the x axis and the y axis with the origin of the lateral canthus is +2.51 ± 0.23 cm and +2.70 ± 0.35 cm; and the lowest, 0 cm and +2.68 ± 0.32 cm, respectively. The zygomatic and the buccal branch to the lower OOM: All pretarsal and preseptal OOMs were innervated by 5 to 7 terminal twigs of the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve that approached the muscle at a right angle. The medial portion of the lower OOM was innervated by 1 to 2 terminal twigs of the buccal branch, and the middle portion was innervated with 2 to 3 twigs of the zygomatic branch. The lateral portion was supplied by the uppermost zygomatic branch, which split into 2 to 4 twigs. The temporal branch to the corrugator supercilii muscle: A plexus mainly from the inferior ramus partly from the middle ramus of the temporal branch of the facial nerve enters the corrugator supercilii muscle in the supraorbital area. The temporal branch has as many as 4 to 7 rami, with interconnection among them. The buccal branch to the procerus muscle: The buccal branch crosses the intercanthal line (the nasion to the medial canthus) at approximately one third laterally. The nerve entrance was within a circle with a diameter of 5 mm, and its center was located 9 mm lateral and 10 mm superior from the nasion. It was approximately at the midpoint of the lateral half of the intercanthal line and the lower one third between the intercanthal line and the tangential line of the supraorbital rim. The buccal branch, the buccal fat pad, and the parotid duct: The buccal branches and the parotid duct crossed each other within a semicircle with a 30-mm radius. The base (diameter) was parallel to a horizontal line passing the corner of the mouth and 12 mm above. Its center was located 53 mm lateral to it. The buccal branches of the facial nerve have 2 locations at the buccal fat pad: type I, branches crossing superficial to the buccal fat pad in 14 (73.7%) of 19 specimens, and type II, 2 twigs passing through the buccal extension of the buccal fat pad in 5 (26.3%) of 19 specimens. The buccal branch to the upper orbicularis oris muscle: Approximately 4 branches (4.06 ± 0.83) entering the pars marginalis were found. Most ramifying points (14/17, 82%) were located within a circle with a 5-mm radius, and the center was 12 mm lateral and 26 mm superior to the mouth corner. The mandibular branch according to the neck position: At the one-fourth point, the border-nerve distance decreased (4.32 ± 2.60 mm) with the neck in ipsilateral rotation and the border-nerve distance increased (5.97 ± 2.62 mm) with the neck in contralateral rotation. We hope that this knowledge will aid surgeons in achieving successful outcomes. PMID:24926717

  15. A Novel Feature Extraction Technique for Facial Expression Recognition

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    Mohammad Shahidul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new technique to extract the light invariant local feature for facial expression recognition. It is not only robust to monotonic gray-scale changes caused by light variations but also very simple to perform which makes it possible for analyzing images in challenging real-time settings. The local feature for a pixel is computed by finding the direction of the neighboring of the pixel with the particular rank in term of its gray scale value among all the neighboring pixels. When eight neighboring pixels are considered, the direction of the neighboring pixel with the second minima of the gray scale intensity can yield the best performance for the facial expression recognition in our experiment. The facial expression classification in the experiment was performed using a support vector machine on CK+ dataset The average recognition rate achieved is 90.1 3.8%, which is better than other previous local feature based methods for facial expression analysis. The experimental results do show that the proposed feature extraction technique is fast, accurate and efficient for facial expression recognition.

  16. Angioedema por rellenos faciales: Descripción de cinco casos

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    Micaela A. Cosatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha incrementado la utilización de sustancias de relleno facial con fines estéticos. Estos productos, originalmente considerados inertes, se asocian con diversos efectos adversos localizados alrededor del sitio de la aplicación. Describimos a 5 mujeres con antecedentes de inyecciones de sustancia de relleno facial que presentaron como síntoma inicial angioedema facial duro y persistente seguido por la aparición de nódulos subcutáneos. Todas las pacientes fueron derivadas al servicio de alergia por sospecha de angioedema de causa alérgica sin respuesta al tratamiento con antihistamínicos. El angioedema inició 27.6 meses (1 a 48 luego de la inyección del producto, y las pacientes evolucionaron con brotes y remisiones que fueron tratados con corticoides orales y en 2 oportunidades con inyecciones locales. El tiempo medio desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta la remisión del angioedema fue 8.75 meses (1 a 24. A octubre de 2009 cuatro pacientes se mantuvieron en remisión persistente, luego de un seguimiento clínico de 24.5 meses (7 a 36. Una paciente continúa con exacerbaciones luego de 11 meses de iniciados los síntomas. Las sustancias de relleno facial pueden producir angioedema como evento adverso y deben ser consideradas en el diagnóstico diferencial del angioedema persistente. Sólo responden al tratamiento con esteroides y en algunos casos esteroides dependientes, con ciclosporina. La frecuencia de angioedema por rellenos faciales entre pacientes con angioedema asistidos en la Unidad de Asma, Alergia e Inmunología Clínica fue del 0.5%.

  17. Facial Features for Template Matching Based Face Recognition

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    Chai T. Yuen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Template matching had been a conventional method for object detection especially facial features detection at the early stage of face recognition research. The appearance of moustache and beard had affected the performance of features detection and face recognition system since ages ago. Approach: The proposed algorithm aimed to reduce the effect of beard and moustache for facial features detection and introduce facial features based template matching as the classification method. An automated algorithm for face recognition system based on detected facial features, iris and mouth had been developed. First, the face region was located using skin color information. Next, the algorithm computed the costs for each pair of iris candidates from intensity valleys as references for iris selection. As for mouth detection, color space method was used to allocate lips region, image processing methods to eliminate unwanted noises and corner detection technique to refine the exact location of mouth. Finally, template matching was used to classify faces based on the extracted features. Results: The proposed method had shown a better features detection rate (iris = 93.06%, mouth = 95.83% than conventional method. Template matching had achieved a recognition rate of 86.11% with acceptable processing time (0.36 sec. Conclusion: The results indicate that the elimination of moustache and beard has not affected the performance of facial features detection. The proposed features based template matching has significantly improved the processing time of this method in face recognition research.

  18. Facial Performance Transfer via Deformable Models and Parametric Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, A; de la Hunty, M; Dhall, A; Goecke, R

    2012-09-01

    The issue of transferring facial performance from one person's face to another's has been an area of interest for the movie industry and the computer graphics community for quite some time. In recent years, deformable face models, such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM), have made it possible to track and synthesize faces in real time. Not surprisingly, deformable face model-based approaches for facial performance transfer have gained tremendous interest in the computer vision and graphics community. In this paper, we focus on the problem of real-time facial performance transfer using the AAM framework. We propose a novel approach of learning the mapping between the parameters of two completely independent AAMs, using them to facilitate the facial performance transfer in a more realistic manner than previous approaches. The main advantage of modeling this parametric correspondence is that it allows a "meaningful" transfer of both the nonrigid shape and texture across faces irrespective of the speakers' gender, shape, and size of the faces, and illumination conditions. We explore linear and nonlinear methods for modeling the parametric correspondence between the AAMs and show that the sparse linear regression method performs the best. Moreover, we show the utility of the proposed framework for a cross-language facial performance transfer that is an area of interest for the movie dubbing industry. PMID:21931176

  19. Relleno facial con ácido hialurónico: técnica de pilares y malla de sustentación. Principios básicos para obtener una remodelación facial / Facial filling with hyaloronic acid: pillars technique and supporting mesh. Basic principles to obtain a facial remodelling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.J., Erazo; A.C. de, Carvalho; T., Alexander; M., Ramos; P., Vianna.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos dos técnicas de relleno facial utilizando ácido hialurónico y los resultados obtenidos con este método desarrollado por nosotros en base a los principios físicos de sustentación, para optimizar y racionalizar el material de relleno y mejorar los resultados, especialmente la relación cost [...] o-beneficio. Hacemos también una presentación general de los principios básicos para conseguir remodelar el tejido cutáneo empleando técnicas de relleno facial. Señalamos la importancia de la evaluación clínica para llegar a un buen diagnóstico, haciendo hincapié en los límites de selección del paciente y enumeramos los puntos importantes y éticos en el uso de materiales de relleno. Abstract in english We present two techniques of facial injectable resorbable filling, using hyaluronic acid (HA), and the different results obtained with both methods, based on physical principles of sustentation, intending to demonstrate how theese techniques can optimize and rationalize the use of the filling substa [...] nce, contributing to enhance the results and cost-benefit relation. We also make a general presentation of the basic principles that remodel the cutaneous tissue using facial filling methods, as well as the importance of the clinical evaluation to achieve a fine diagnostic, emphasizing the limits when selecting the patient, listing the important and ethical points related to the use of facial filling procedures.

  20. Down syndrome detection from facial photographs using machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Sze, Raymond; Zand, Dina; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

    2013-02-01

    Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition; one in every 691 babies in United States is born with it. Patients with Down syndrome have an increased risk for heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and the early detection of the syndrome is fundamental for managing the disease. Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. In this study, we propose a novel method to detect Down syndrome using photography for computer-assisted image-based facial dysmorphology. Geometric features based on facial anatomical landmarks, local texture features based on the Contourlet transform and local binary pattern are investigated to represent facial characteristics. Then a support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate normal and abnormal cases; accuracy, precision and recall are used to evaluate the method. The comparison among the geometric, local texture and combined features was performed using the leave-one-out validation. Our method achieved 97.92% accuracy with high precision and recall for the combined features; the detection results were higher than using only geometric or texture features. The promising results indicate that our method has the potential for automated assessment for Down syndrome from simple, noninvasive imaging data.

  1. BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES AND FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION-A REVIEW

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    Pooja Nagpal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The type of authentication, the one relies on measurable physical characteristics that can be automatically checked, and is becoming more popular and demanded. It is called biometrics. This study aims to give the basic review on the biometric techniques and discussion to facial expression recognization in still images and in videos also and to discuss both the techniques for intelligent computers or robots that are mind implemented. An automatic system for the recognition of facial expressions is based on a representation of the expression, learned from a training set of preselected meaningful features. As a first we investigate the emotionally intelligent computers which can perceive human emotions. Biometric uses a variety of processes and techniques to analyze the authentication of the living person. Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics such as fingerprints, eye retinas, irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements, for authentication purposes. In this research paper there is a stress on biometric and techniques of biometric also we have discussed facial expression recognition for both static and dynamic techniques to recognize human facial expression to recognize universally recognized five principal emotions namely angry, disgust, happy, sad and surprise along with neutral in still images and also in video sequence.

  2. Use of calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse® for facial augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio F Jacovella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricio F JacovellaHospital de Clinicas, University of Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: Radiesse® (Bioform Inc, USA is a sterile, latex-free, non-pyrogenic, semi-solid, cohesive subdermal, injectable implant, whose principal component is synthetic calcium hydroxylapatite, a biocompatible material with over 20 years of use in medicine. The semi-solid nature of the product is created by suspending calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres of 25–45 microns diameter in a gel carrier of carboxymethylcellulose. The product has FDA approval for esthetic facial augmentation in the US. Such approval includes the long-lasting correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and folds and the treatment of facial fat loss due to immunodeficiency virus infection. Diverse facial regions can be injected in order to ameliorate or enhance some features: glabellar lines, subdermal support of the brows, malar and buccal fat pads, tear troughs, nasolabial folds, nose, lips, perioral region, marionette lines, oral commisures and chin among others, as well as saucerized acne scars. Other medical indications include nipple projection for nipple areolar reconstruction, urinary incontinence, vesicoureteral reflux, vocal cord augmentation, and use as a radiographic tissue marker. The average lasting result is from 12 to 18 months. Radiesse can be considered an effective soft-tissue filler for overall longevity, biocompatibility, and low rate of side effects.Keywords: hydroxylapatite, facial augmentation, Radiesse

  3. A Fuzzy Reasoning Model for Recognition of Facial Expressions

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    Oleg Starostenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos un sistema de razonamiento difuso capaz de reconocer y medir la intensidad de cualquier expresión facial prototípica o no prototípica. El modelo propuesto utiliza como entrada las deformaciones faciales codificadas ya sea en términos de AUs (Ekman FACS o FAPs (MPEG-4 y provee reconocimiento de expresiones faciales utilizando una base de conocimiento la cual fue implementada utilizando el sistema de adquisición de conocimiento y editor de ontologías Protégé. Esta base de conocimiento permite, además de la creación de modelos de características faciales obtenidos a partir de parámetros geométricos y codificados en términos de AUs y FAPs, también la definición de las reglas requeridas para la clasificación de las expresiones. En este artículo también se presenta un framework diseñado para codificación de las variables de entrada al clasificador difuso basado en los resultados obtenidos del análisis estadístico de las emociones expresadas en grabaciones de video en base estándar de caras creada por Cohn-Kanade y Pantic. El sistema propuesto fue evaluado con el propósito de analizar su capacidad de detección, indexado, clasificación e interpretación de expresiones faciales.

  4. Facial sculpting: Comprehensive approach for aesthetic correction of round face

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    M K Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Standards for an aesthetic face are dynamic. The current trend is towards a leaner looking face with preservation of the inverted triangle of youth. Procedures that have been reported to be employed for correction of a chubby face include buccal fat pad excision, facial liposuction and injection lipolysis. In addition to giving the face an aesthetic triangular cut, chin and malar augmentation may be performed. The rounded appearance at the angles may further be reduced by injection of Botulinum toxin into the masseter. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who presented to us for correction of chubby (round faces were analysed and treated by facial sculpting surgery, which included at least two of the procedures in combination. The procedures included facial liposuction, buccal fat pad excision, chin augmentation, malar augmentation and injection lipolysis. All cases were followed-up for a minimum of 6 months after surgery. Results: Aesthetic expectations of the patients were met in 39 cases, one patient complained of facial asymmetry following facial liposuction and was subjected to a touch-up injection lipolysis. Conclusions: A combination of procedures is necessary to give the face an attractive contour. All the individual procedures have stood the test of time and are safe, proven and are put in mainstream. However, a thorough analysis of the face preoperatively and then subjecting the patient to a combination of these procedures in a single surgical sitting has yielded good results as seen in this study.

  5. RECOGNITION OF EYE MOVEMENTS USING FACIAL ACTION CODING SYSTEM

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    PALLAVI S. SALUNKE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is an important research problem spanning numerous fields and disciplines. Face recognition having numerous practical applications such as bankcard identification, access control, Mug shots searching, security monitoring, and surveillance system, is a fundamental human behavior that is essential for effective communications and interactions among people. The human face is involved in a large variety of different activities. It houses the apparatus for speech production as well as the majority of our sensors (eyes, nose, mouth. Besides these biological functions, the human face provides a number of social signals essential for our public life. This paper introduces recognition of eye movements. The ability to recognize facial signals is essential of human facial expression is a challenging problem with many applications. In this paper we use eye movement recognition technique using Facial Action Coding System (FACS is the most widely used and versatile method for measuring and describing facial behaviors. A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.

  6. Use of spherical coordinates to evaluate three-dimension facial changes after orthognathic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Ryu, Sun Youl; Hwang, Hyeon Shik; Kang, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jae [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rui Feng [Dept. of Biologic and Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Palomo, Juan M. [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2014-03-15

    This study aimed to assess the three-dimensional (3D) facial changes after orthognathic surgery by evaluating the spherical coordinates of facial lines using 3D computed tomography (CT). A 19-year-old girl was diagnosed with class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry. Orthognathic surgery was performed after orthodontic treatment. Facial CT scans were taken before and after orthognathic surgery. The patient had a menton deviation of 12.72 mm before surgery and 0.83 mm after surgery. The spherical coordinates of four bilateral facial lines (ramal height, ramal lateral, ramal posterior and mandibular body) were estimated from CT scans before and after surgery on the deviated and opposite side. The spherical coordinates of all facial lines changed after orthognathic surgery. Moreover, the bilateral differences of all facial lines changed after surgery, and no bilateral differences were zero. The spherical coordinate system was useful to compare differences between the presurgical and postsurgical changes to facial lines.

  7. Use of spherical coordinates to evaluate three-dimension facial changes after orthognathic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the three-dimensional (3D) facial changes after orthognathic surgery by evaluating the spherical coordinates of facial lines using 3D computed tomography (CT). A 19-year-old girl was diagnosed with class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry. Orthognathic surgery was performed after orthodontic treatment. Facial CT scans were taken before and after orthognathic surgery. The patient had a menton deviation of 12.72 mm before surgery and 0.83 mm after surgery. The spherical coordinates of four bilateral facial lines (ramal height, ramal lateral, ramal posterior and mandibular body) were estimated from CT scans before and after surgery on the deviated and opposite side. The spherical coordinates of all facial lines changed after orthognathic surgery. Moreover, the bilateral differences of all facial lines changed after surgery, and no bilateral differences were zero. The spherical coordinate system was useful to compare differences between the presurgical and postsurgical changes to facial lines.

  8. Identification of Untrained Facial Image in Combined Global and Local Preserving Feature Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Karuppasamy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In real time applications, biometric authentication has been widely regarded as the most foolproof - or at least the hardest to forge or spoof. Several research works on face recognition based on appearance, features like intensity, color, textures or shape have been done over the last decade. In those works, mostly the classification is achieved by using the similarity measurement techniques that find the minimum distance among the training and testing feature set. When presenting This leads to the wrong classification when presenting the untrained image or unknown image, since the classification process locates at least one wining cluster that having minimum distance or maximum variance among the existing clusters. But for the real time security related applications, these new facial image should be reported and the necessary action has to be taken accordingly. In this paper we propose the following two techniques for this purpose: i. Uses a threshold value calculated by finding the average of the minimum matching distances of the wrong classifications encountered during the training phase. ii. Uses the fact that the wrong classification increases the ratio of within-class distance and between-class distance. Experiments have been conducted using the ORL facial database and a fair comparison is made with these two techniques to show the efficiency of these techniques.

  9. Facial dimensions, bite force and masticatory muscle thickness in preschool children with functional posterior crossbite

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    Paula Midori Castelo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite may affect craniofacial growth and development. Thus, this study aimed to associate facial dimensions (by standardized frontal photographs to masseter and anterior portion of the temporal muscle thickness (by ultrasonography and maximal bilateral bite force in 49 children with deciduous and early mixed dentitions. They were distributed in four groups: deciduous-normal occlusion (DNO, n = 15, deciduous-crossbite (DCB, n = 10, mixed-normal occlusion (MNO, n = 13 and mixed-crossbite (MCB, n = 11. Anterior facial height (AFH, bizygomatic width (FWB, and intergonial width (FWI were determined and associated with muscle thickness and bite force, applying Pearson’s coefficients and multiple logistic regression, with age, gender, body weight and height as the covariates. FWB and FWI were correlated positively with the masseter thickness, whereas AFH/FWB and AFH/FWI ratios had negative correlation, except in the DNO group. The correlation between AFH/FWB and bite force in the MCB group was significantly negative. A higher AFH/FWB in MNO and MCB led to a significantly higher probability for functional crossbite development. In the studied sample, it was observed that children in the early mixed dentition with a long-face trend showed lower bite force and higher probability to present functional posterior crossbite, without significant influence of the covariates.

  10. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

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    Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors.Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice.

  11. Descripción cefalométrica del patrón facial en mordida abierta esqueletal / Cephalometric description of facial patterns in skeletal open bite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria Eréndira, Acuña Dávalos; Mauricio, Ballesteros Lozano; Guillermo, Oropeza Sosa.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Distintos indicadores de mordida abierta han sido descritos, sin embargo, para lograr un tratamiento adecuado y estable, es importante identificar la etiología de dicha maloclusión. El patrón facial, que está directamente relacionado con la dirección de crecimiento, y por lo tanto con el comportamie [...] nto vertical de las bases óseas representa un factor crucial para la expresión de la mordida abierta. La descripción del patrón facial a través de medidas cefalométricas brinda información acerca de la estructura ósea afectada facilitando así el tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar la(s) estructura(s) involucrada(s) en la aparición de la mordida abierta a través del patrón facial mediante la fórmula facial de Bimler. Se determinó el patrón facial mediante el ángulo basal superior, ángulo basal inferior e índice facial suborbital en 40 radiografías laterales de cráneo de pacientes que acudieron a la clínica de Ortodoncia de la DEPeI de la FO UNAM de 2004-2006 diagnosticados con mordida abierta esqueletal mediante indicadores cefalométricos para mordida abierta. El patrón facial dominante en mordida abierta esqueletal corresponde al leptoprosopo. Se encontraron seis diferentes relaciones entre los ángulos basales superior e inferior. La relación de máxima expresión de mordida abierta corresponde al 27.5% (D/L) con ambos maxilares involucrados, seguido en menor severidad por el 40% (M/L), 20% (M/M), 5% (L/L) reflejando la mayor compensación, 5% (D/M) y MM/L con 2.5%. Abstract in english Different open bite indicators have been described in scientific literature. However, to attain proper and stable treatment it is important to be able to identify the etiology of the malocclusion. Facial patterns are directly related to growth direction, and therefore to the vertical behavior of bon [...] e bases. They embody a crucial factor for open bite expression. Description of facial pattern through cephalometric measurements supplies information of affected bone structures, providing thus an easier treatment. The aim of the present study was, using Bimler facial formula, to identify bone structures involved in open bite cases. Facial pattern was determined through upper basal angle, lower basal angle and suborbital facial index. The study encompassed 40 lateral skull x-rays taken from patients attending the Orthodontics clinic at the Graduate School, National School of Dentistry, National University of Mexico, within the 2004-2006 period. Patients had received diagnosis of skeletal open bite. This diagnosis was emitted with the help of open bite cephalometric indicators. Dominant facial pattern in skeletal open bite was leptoprosopic. Six different relationships were found among upper and lower basal angles. Maximum open bite relation was 27.5% with both jaws involved, followed by 40% (M/L) with less severity, 5% (L/L) with greater compensation, 5% (D/M) and m/ML with 2.5%.

  12. Behavioral dissociation between emotional and non-emotional facial expressions in congenital prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Daini, Roberta; Comparetti, Chiara M.; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have shown that facial recognition and emotional expressions are dissociable. However, it is unknown if a single system supports the processing of emotional and non-emotional facial expressions. We aimed to understand if individuals with impairment in face recognition from birth (congenital prosopagnosia, CP) can use non-emotional facial expressions to recognize a face as an already seen one, and thus, process this facial dimension independently fro...

  13. A Motivational Determinant of Facial Emotion Recognition: Regulatory Focus Affects Recognition of Emotions in Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai; Ray, Devin G.; Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined an unexplored motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: observer regulatory focus. It was predicted that a promotion focus would enhance facial emotion recognition relative to a prevention focus because the attentional strategies associated with promotion focus enhance performance on well-learned or innate tasks - such as facial emotion recognition. In Study 1, a promotion or a prevention focus was experimentally induced and better facial emotion recognition...

  14. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition System Based on Geometric and Appearance Features

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaa A.A. Youssif; Wesam A. A. Asker

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer vision system for automatic facial expression recognition (AFER). The robust AFER system can be applied in many areas such as emotion science, clinical psychology and pain assessment it includes facial feature extraction and pattern recognition phases that discriminates among different facial expressions. In feature extraction phase a combination between holistic and analytic approaches is presented to extract 83 facial expression features. Expression recognitio...

  15. The Fate of Porous Hydroxyapatite Granules Used in Facial Skeletal Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelson, Bryan C.; Jacobson, Steve R.; Lavoipierre, Alain M.; Huggins, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Facial appearance is largely determined by the morphology of the underlying skeleton. Hydroxyapatite is one of several materials available to enhance projection of the facial skeleton. This study evaluated the long-term maintenance of augmented bony projection when porous hydroxyapatite granules are used on the facial skeleton. Ten female patients aged 28–58 years were studied following aesthetic augmentation of the facial skeleton at 24 sites using porous hydroxyapatite granules. Postoperati...

  16. Robust Real-time Extraction of Fiducial Facial Feature Points using Haar-like Features

    OpenAIRE

    Commin, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore methods of robustly extracting fiducial facial feature points - an important process for numerous facial image processing tasks. We consider various methods to first detect face, then facial features and finally salient facial feature points. Colour-based models are analysed and their overall unsuitability for this task is summarised. The bulk of the report is then dedicated to proposing a learning-based method centred on the Viola-Jones algorithm. ...

  17. Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Bettina; Ballin, Annelyse Christine; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraff; Hurtado, Johann G. G. Melcherts; Mocellin, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical plann...

  18. A Case of Hemifacial Spasm Caused by an Artery Passing Through the Facial Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Shik; Park, Hyeonseon; Kim, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by unilateral facial nerve dysfunction. The usual cause involves vascular compression of the seventh cranial nerve, but compression by an artery passing through the facial nerve is very unusual. A 20-year-old man presented with left facial spasm that had persisted for 4 years. Compression of the left facial nerve root exit zone by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) was revealed on magnetic resonance angiography. During mi...

  19. What Is Expected of the Facial Nerve in Michel Aplasia? Anatomic Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Zarandy, Masoud Motasaddi; Kouhi, Ali; Kashany, Shervin Sharif; Rabiei, Sohrab; Hajimohamadi, Fatemeh; Rabbani-Anari, Mahtab

    2010-01-01

    We sought better understanding about the facial nerve anatomy in the rare inner ear Michel anomaly to help better define this aplasia and prevent potential complications in surgery on these patients. The data from computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance images of six Michel aplastic ears (three patients) were evaluated for a facial nerve course. Facial nerve course and anatomic landmarks were noted. Based on data obtained from this group of very rare patients, three different facial ...

  20. Investigation of facial motor pathways by electrical and magnetic stimulation: sites and mechanisms of excitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rösler, K M; Hess, C W; Schmid, U D

    1989-01-01

    A refined technique is described for non invasive examination of the facial motor pathways by stimulation of the extra- and intracranial segment of the facial nerve and the facial motor cortex. Surface recordings from the nasalis muscle rather than from the orbicularis oris muscle were used, since the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from this muscle showed a more clearly defined onset. Electrical extracranial stimulation of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid fossa in 14 healthy subj...

  1. Late Onset of Facial Nerve Palsy after Tympanomastoidectomy: HSV-I Activation?

    OpenAIRE

    Akduman, Davut; Haksever, Mehmet; Solmaz, Fevzi; DÖNER, Fehmi

    2015-01-01

    We presented a right peripheral facial palsy occurred 7 days after operation. A 42 year old female patient had an uneventful right tympanomastoidectomy in our clinic.  She developed a Hause-Brackmann Grade II peripheral facial palsy postoperatively. A viral screen was performed using Enzyme Immune Assay. HSV-1 specific antibody titer was determined during the acute phase on the 2nd day of facial palsy, confirming the viral etiology. She was commenced to take steroid therapy. Her facial nerve ...

  2. Facial asymmetry and condylar hyperplasia: considerations for diagnosis in 27 consecutives patients

    OpenAIRE

    Olate, Sergio; Almeida, Andrés; Alister, Juan Pablo; Navarro, Pablo; Netto, Henrique Duque; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Facial asymmetry associated with condylar hyperplasia (CH) has been become the object of study in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of analyzing the presence of CH in cases of facial asymmetry. Twenty-seven consecutive patients were studied without distinction of age or gender; all the patients consulted for treatment of facial and/or mandibular asymmetry and voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. All the patients underwent facial cone beam tomograp...

  3. Asociación entre el biotipo facial y la sobremordida: Estudio piloto / Association between facial biotipe and overbite: Pilot study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Antonio, Sánchez-Tito; Emerson Elecsi, Yañez-Chávez.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el biotipo facial y el nivel de sobremordida. Material y métodos: La muestra estuvo constituida por 152 estudiantes entre 12 y 17 años con dentición permanente. Se tomaron registros fotográficos en norma frontal con los estudiantes en posición natural de la c [...] abeza. Sobre las fotografías impresas se determinó el ángulo de apertura facial para establecer el biotipo facial. El registro de la sobremordida vertical se realizó de forma clínica con la ayuda de un calibrador Vernier y un lápiz dermatográfico Resultados: La distribución del biotipo facial en la muestra fue de 80,3% para los dolicofaciales, seguido por los mesofaciales con 19,7%, no se encontró pacientes de biotipo braquifacial. En el grupo de dolicofaciales hubo una predominancia de sobremordida normal (55,7%), seguido por la mordida profunda (36,9%) y mordida abierta (7,4%). El grupo de mesofaciales presentó mayor frecuencia de sobremordida normal (63,3%), seguido por la mordida profunda (33,3%) y la mordida abierta (3,3%). No se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa (P> 0,05). Conclusiones: Debido a que no se encontraron resultados que respondan a un patrón específico, podemos concluir que los biotipos faciales no están asociados al grado de sobremordida vertical. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association between facial biotype and the degree of overbite. Methods: The sample consisted of 152 students, aged 12-17, with their permanent dentition. Frontal photographs were taken of the students in natural head position. Face opening angle was determined based upon [...] printed photographs in order to establish facial biotypes. Vertical overbite was measured using a Vernier caliper and a dermatograph pencil. Results: Distribution of facial biotypes in the sample was 80.3 per cent for dolichofacials, followed by a 19.7 per cent for mesofacials, with no brachyfacial types found. Among dolichofacials, a normal overbite was found to be predominant (55.7%), followed by a deep bite (36.9%), and an open bite (7.4%). Among mesofacials, a normal overbite was the most frequent finding (63.3%), followed by a deep bite (33.3%), and an open bite (3.3%). No statistically significant association was found (P> 0.05). Conclusions: Since results show no specific patterns, we conclude that facial biotypes are not associated with the degree of vertical overbite.

  4. Extraction of Subject-Specific Facial Expression Categories and Generation of Facial Expression Feature Space using Self-Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishii

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a generation method of a subject-specific Facial Expression Map (FEMap using the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM of unsupervised learning and Counter Propagation Networks (CPN of supervised learning together. The proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the topological change of a face pattern in the expressional process of facial expression is learned hierarchically using the SOM of a narrow mapping space, and the number of subject-specific facial expression categories and the representative images of each category are extracted. Psychological significance based on the neutral and six basic emotions (anger, sadness, disgust, happiness, surprise, and fear is assigned to each extracted category. In the latter step, the categories and the representative images described above are learned using the CPN of a large mapping space, and a category map that expresses the topological characteristics of facial expression is generated. This paper defines this category map as an FEMap. Experimental results for six subjects show that the proposed method can generate a subject-specific FEMap based on the topological characteristics of facial expression appearing on face images.

  5. Anatomy of the Facial Nerve and its Implication in the Surgical Procedures / Anatomía del Nervio Facial y sus Implicancias en los Procedimientos Quirúrgicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio de Castro, Rodrigues; Jesus Carlos, Andreo; Laura de Freitas, Menezes; Tatiana Pimentel, Chinellato; Geraldo Marco, Rosa Júnior.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La parálisis facial, enfermedades de la parótida y otras patologías son una condición clínica relativamente común con una variedad de causas. Independientemente de su etiología, la parálisis facial siempre representa un problema muy serio para el paciente. Las enfermedades de la glándula parótida so [...] n también de una ocurrencia común. En este caso particular, el conocimiento de la anatomía quirúrgica del nervio facial y su correlación con la glándula parótida es de mucha importancia para una adecuada preservación de la misma, en casos de cirugía como tratamiento de enfermedades benignas o malignas. Aunque la anatomía quirúrgica del nervio facial es bien documentada, el concepto de tratamiento quirúrgico para los tumores parotídeos, parálisis facial (técnicas de neurorrafia) y acercamiento quirúrgico submandibular son raramente impugnados hoy en día. Abstract in english Facial palsy, parotid diseases and others are a relatively common clinical condition with a variety of causes. Irrespective of its etiology, facial palsy always represents a very serious problem for the patient. Parotid gland diseases also are very common occurrence. In this particular case, the kno [...] wledge of surgical anatomy of the facial nerve and its correlations with the parotid gland is very important for an adequate preservation in the cases of surgery of benign and malignant diseases of the parotid gland. Although the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve has been well documented, the concept of surgical treatment for parotid tumors, facial palsy (neurorraphy techniques) and submandibular surgical approach are rarely challenged now.

  6. Facial Emotion Recognition Using Context Based Multimodal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Metriand

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a crucial role in person to person interaction. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in improving all aspects of interaction between humans and computers. The ability to understand human emotions is desirable for the computer in several applications especially by observing facial expressions. This paper explores a ways of human-computer interaction that enable the computer to be more aware of the user’s emotional expressions we present a approach for the emotion recognition from a facial expression, hand and body posture. Our model uses multimodal emotion recognition system in which we use two different models for facial expression recognition and for hand gesture recognition and then combining the result of both classifiers using a third classifier which give the resulting emotion . Multimodal system gives more accurate result than a signal or bimodal system.

  7. Analysis of Facial Dynamics Using a Tensor Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gralewski

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that the dynamics of facial motion are important in the perception of gender, identity, and emotion. In this paper we show that it is possible to use a multi-linear tensor framework to extract facial motion signatures and to cluster these signatures by gender or by emotion. Here, we consider only the dynamics of internal features of the face (e.g. eyebrows, eyelids and mouth so as to remove structural and shape cues to identity and gender. Such structural gender biases include jaw width and forehead shape and their removal ensures dynamic cues alone are being used. Additionally, we demonstrate the generative capabilities of using a tensor framework, by reliably synthesising new motion signatures; and find results comparable to human psychology experiments performed on the same facial motion data.

  8. Non-Cooperative Facial Recognition Video Dataset Collection Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Marcia L.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2013-08-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will produce a non-cooperative (i.e. not posing for the camera) facial recognition video data set for research purposes to evaluate and enhance facial recognition systems technology. The aggregate data set consists of 1) videos capturing PNNL role players and public volunteers in three key operational settings, 2) photographs of the role players for enrolling in an evaluation database, and 3) ground truth data that documents when the role player is within various camera fields of view. PNNL will deliver the aggregate data set to DHS who may then choose to make it available to other government agencies interested in evaluating and enhancing facial recognition systems. The three operational settings that will be the focus of the video collection effort include: 1) unidirectional crowd flow 2) bi-directional crowd flow, and 3) linear and/or serpentine queues.

  9. Facial Emotion Recognition Using Context Based Multimodal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Metri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a crucial role in person to person interaction. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in improving all aspects of interaction between humans and computers. The ability to understand human emotions is desirable for the computer in several applications especially by observing facial expressions. This paper explores a ways of human-computer interaction that enable the computer to be more aware of the user’s emotional expressions we present a approach for the emotion recognition from a facial expression, hand and body posture. Our model uses multimodal emotion recognition system in which we use two different models for facial expression recognition and for hand and body posture recognition and then combining the result of both classifiers using a third classifier which give the resulting emotion . Multimodal system gives more accurate result than a signal or bimodal system

  10. Distinct temporal processing of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter J; Koster, Ernst H W; Wessel, Ineke; Martens, Sander

    2014-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which emotional faces automatically attract attention. Using a single-target Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) methodology, it has been found that presentation of task-irrelevant positive or negative emotionally salient stimuli (e.g., negative scenes or erotic pictures) results in a temporary inability to process target stimuli (emotion-induced blindness). In the present study, we sought to examine emotion-induced blindness effects for negative (angry) and positive (happy) facial expressions. Interestingly, task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions facilitated, rather than impaired, target detection when presented in close temporal proximity of the target. Similar facilitation effects were absent for neutral faces or rotated neutral faces that were both included as control stimuli. These results indicate a distinct temporal processing of emotional facial expressions, which accords well with the signal value of emotional expressions in interpersonal situations. PMID:24188063

  11. [Acoustic neurinoma associated with facial neurinoma--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, T; Harano, H; Sugiyama, T; Maeda, M; Iwata, K

    1992-10-01

    A 38-year-old man developing slowly progressive left facial paresis was admitted to our hospital. The clinical diagnosis of "adhesive arachnoiditis was made. The first operation was performed in December 1987, and his symptom disappeared postoperatively. Three years later, left facial paresis recurred together with trunkal ataxia. A computed tomography and magnetic resonance image revealed two tumors located at the left cerebellopontine angle region and in the left middle cerebral fossa. These two tumors were thought to arise in the different cranial nerve. Under the clinical diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma associated with facial nerve neurinoma, the two step-operation was designed for total removal of the tumor in December 1990 and January 1991. Intraoperative finding confirmed that these two tumors had the different origin. Pathologic diagnosis was compatible with neurinoma. This patient had no family history of "Neurofibromatosis". PMID:1285993

  12. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  13. Extraction of facial features as indicators of stress and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediaditis, M; Giannakakis, G; Chiarugi, F; Manousos, D; Pampouchidou, A; Christinaki, E; Iatraki, G; Kazantzaki, E; Simos, P G; Marias, K; Tsiknakis, M

    2015-08-01

    Stress and anxiety heavily affect the human wellbeing and health. Under chronic stress, the human body and mind suffers by constantly mobilizing all of its resources for defense. Such a stress response can also be caused by anxiety. Moreover, excessive worrying and high anxiety can lead to depression and even suicidal thoughts. The typical tools for assessing these psycho-somatic states are questionnaires, but due to their shortcomings, by being subjective and prone to bias, new more robust methods based on facial expression analysis have emerged. Going beyond the typical detection of 6 basic emotions, this study aims to elaborate a set of facial features for the detection of stress and/or anxiety. It employs multiple methods that target each facial region individually. The features are selected and the classification performance is measured based on a dataset consisting 23 subjects. The results showed that with feature sets of 9 and 10 features an overall accuracy of 73% is reached. PMID:26737099

  14. Facial Affect Recognition Using Regularized Discriminant Analysis-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel and effective method for facial expression recognition including happiness, disgust, fear, anger, sadness, surprise, and neutral state. The proposed method utilizes a regularized discriminant analysis-based boosting algorithm (RDAB with effective Gabor features to recognize the facial expressions. Entropy criterion is applied to select the effective Gabor feature which is a subset of informative and nonredundant Gabor features. The proposed RDAB algorithm uses RDA as a learner in the boosting algorithm. The RDA combines strengths of linear discriminant analysis (LDA and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA. It solves the small sample size and ill-posed problems suffered from QDA and LDA through a regularization technique. Additionally, this study uses the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to estimate optimal parameters in RDA. Experiment results demonstrate that our approach can accurately and robustly recognize facial expressions.

  15. Facial recognition deficits as a potential endophenotype in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Esther; Porter, Richard J; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-30

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is considered a highly heritable and genetically complex disorder. Several cognitive functions, such as executive functions and verbal memory have been suggested as promising candidates for endophenotypes. Although there is evidence for deficits in facial emotion recognition in individuals with BD, studies investigating these functions as endophenotypes are rare. The current study investigates emotion recognition as a potential endophenotype in BD by comparing 36 BD participants, 24 of their 1st degree relatives and 40 healthy control participants in a computerised facial emotion recognition task. Group differences were evaluated using repeated measurement analysis of co-variance with age as a covariate. Results revealed slowed emotion recognition for both BD and their relatives. Furthermore, BD participants were less accurate than healthy controls in their recognition of emotion expressions. We found no evidence of emotion specific differences between groups. Our results provide evidence for facial recognition as a potential endophenotype in BD. PMID:26337483

  16. Facial Gesture Recognition Using Correlation And Mahalanobis Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Supriya; Bhatia, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Augmenting human computer interaction with automated analysis and synthesis of facial expressions is a goal towards which much research effort has been devoted recently. Facial gesture recognition is one of the important component of natural human-machine interfaces; it may also be used in behavioural science, security systems and in clinical practice. Although humans recognise facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. The face expression recognition problem is challenging because different individuals display the same expression differently. This paper presents an overview of gesture recognition in real time using the concepts of correlation and Mahalanobis distance.We consider the six universal emotional categories namely joy, anger, fear, disgust, sadness and surprise.

  17. Vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammad

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma most commonly presents with ipsilateral disturbances of acoustic, vestibular, trigeminal and facial nerves. Presentation of vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain is quite uncommon. Case presentation Among 156 cases of operated vestibular schwannoma, we found one case with unusual presentation of contralateral hemifacial pain. Conclusion The presentation of contralateral facial pain in the vestibular schwannoma is rare. It seems that displacement and distortion of the brainstem and compression of the contralateral trigeminal nerve in Meckel's cave by the large mass lesion may lead to this atypical presentation. The best practice in these patients is removal of the tumour, although persistent contralateral pain after operation has been reported.

  18. Application of data fusion in computer facial recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ai Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition rate of single recognition method is inefficiency in computer facial recognition. We proposed a new confluent facial recognition method using data fusion technology, a variety of recognition algorithm are combined to form the fusion-based face recognition system to improve the recognition rate in many ways. Data fusion considers three levels of data fusion, feature level fusion and decision level fusion. And the data layer uses a simple weighted average algorithm, which is easy to implement. Artificial neural network algorithm was selected in feature layer and fuzzy reasoning algorithm was used in decision layer. Finally, we compared with the BP neural network algorithm in the MATLAB experimental platform. The result shows that the recognition rate has been greatly improved after adopting data fusion technology in computer facial recognition.

  19. Identification of emotional facial expressions following recovery from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta; Sherdell, Lindsey; Wright, Yamanda; Gotlib, Ian H

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the identification of facial expressions of emotion in currently nondepressed participants who had a history of recurrent depressive episodes (recurrent major depression; RMD) and never-depressed control participants (CTL). Following a negative mood induction, participants were presented with faces whose expressions slowly changed from neutral to full intensity. Identification of facial expressions was measured by the intensity of the expression at which participants could accurately identify whether faces expressed happiness, sadness, or anger. There were no group differences in the identification of sad or angry expressions. Compared with CTL participants, however, RMD participants required significantly greater emotional intensity in the faces to correctly identify happy expressions. These results indicate that biases in the processing of emotional facial expressions are evident even after individuals have recovered from a depressive episode. PMID:19899852

  20. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Feature extraction from the HSFV is accomplished by employing Radon transform on a waterfall model of the replicated HSFV. The pairwise Minkowski distances are obtained from the Radon image as the features. The authentication is accomplished by a decision tree based supervised approach. The potential of the proposed HSFV biometric for human identification is demonstrated on a public database.

  1. Facial analysis in Down's Syndrome patients / Análise facial em pacientes com Sindrome de Down

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena Nielsen, DAMASCENO; Roberta Tarkany, BASTING.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma análise das características faciais dos pacientes com Síndrome de Down quanto à projeção do nariz, projeção e comprimento dos lábios superior e inferior e projeção do pogônio mole e compará-las com a análise padronizada por Ayala & Gutierrez1. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi comp [...] osta por 20 pacientes portadores da Síndrome de Down com idade entre 8 a 13 anos de ambos os gêneros. A análise foi efetuada por um único ortodontista, utilizando telerradiografias em norma lateral e fotografia em posição natural da cabeça. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados os valores de média das medidas lineares dentro de um intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: As médias (+ desvio padrão) revelaram uma projeção nasal de 10,1 mm (2,4), o lábio superior e inferior à frente da linha de referência vertical, subnasal e pogônio mole com uma retrusão de 4,95 mm (4,6). O comprimento do lábio superior apresentou valor de 20,2mm (2,4) e o comprimento do lábio inferior de 42,5mm (2,9). CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que pacientes com Síndrome de Down apresentaram em sua análise facial ao se comparar com Ayala & Gutierrez1 menor projeção nasal, maior projeção do lábio superior e inferior, mas comprimentos semelhantes ao de indivíduos normais, e maior retrusão do pogônio mole. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the facial features of patients with Down syndrome, such as projection of the nose, projection and length of upper and lower lips, projection of soft pogonion and to compare them with the standardized analysis by Ayala and Gutierrez1. METHODS: Th [...] e sample consisted of 20 patients with Down's Syndrome, between 8 and 13 years-old of both genders. The analysis was performed by one orthodontist, using lateral cephalograms and photography in natural head position. For statistical analysis, the mean values of linear measurements within a range of 95% were used. RESULTS: The mean (± standard deviation) showed a nasal projection of 10.1 mm (2.4), the upper and lower lip in front of the vertical reference line, subnasal and soft pogonion with a retrusion of 4.95 mm (4.6). The length of the upper lip showed a value of 20.2 mm (2.4) and the length of the lower lip of 42.5 mm (2.9). CONCLUSION: The facial analysis of patients with Down's Syndrome, compared with Ayala and Gutierrez1, showed smaller nasal projection, greater projection of the upper and lower lip, but lengths, and retrusion of the soft pogonion, similar to those of normal individuals

  2. Misinterpretation of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Verbal Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Facial emotion perception is significantly affected in autism spectrum disorder, yet little is known about how individuals with autism spectrum disorder misinterpret facial expressions that result in their difficulty in accurately recognizing emotion in faces. This study examined facial emotion perception in 45 verbal adults with autism spectrum…

  3. Facial Structure Analysis Separates Autism Spectrum Disorders into Meaningful Clinical Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Miles, Judith H.; Takahashi, T. Nicole; Qi, Wenchuan; Aldridge, Kristina; Zhang, Minqi; Xin, Shi-Qing; He, Ying; Duan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Varied cluster analysis were applied to facial surface measurements from 62 prepubertal boys with essential autism to determine whether facial morphology constitutes viable biomarker for delineation of discrete Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) subgroups. Earlier study indicated utility of facial morphology for autism subgrouping (Aldridge et al. in…

  4. Comparison of emotion recognition from facial expression and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Tina; Labor, Marina; Juri?, Iva; Dumanci?, Dijana; Ilakovac, Vesna; Heffer, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The recognition of basic emotions in everyday communication involves interpretation of different visual and auditory clues. The ability to recognize emotions is not clearly determined as their presentation is usually very short (micro expressions), whereas the recognition itself does not have to be a conscious process. We assumed that the recognition from facial expressions is selected over the recognition of emotions communicated through music. In order to compare the success rate in recognizing emotions presented as facial expressions or in classical music works we conducted a survey which included 90 elementary school and 87 high school students from Osijek (Croatia). The participants had to match 8 photographs of different emotions expressed on the face and 8 pieces of classical music works with 8 offered emotions. The recognition of emotions expressed through classical music pieces was significantly less successful than the recognition of emotional facial expressions. The high school students were significantly better at recognizing facial emotions than the elementary school students, whereas girls were better than boys. The success rate in recognizing emotions from music pieces was associated with higher grades in mathematics. Basic emotions are far better recognized if presented on human faces than in music, possibly because the understanding of facial emotions is one of the oldest communication skills in human society. Female advantage in emotion recognition was selected due to the necessity of their communication with the newborns during early development. The proficiency in recognizing emotional content of music and mathematical skills probably share some general cognitive skills like attention, memory and motivation. Music pieces were differently processed in brain than facial expressions and consequently, probably differently evaluated as relevant emotional clues. PMID:21648329

  5. Steiner Ratio for Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Cieslik, D.; Ivanov, A. O.; Tuzhilin, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Steiner ratio characterizes the greatest possible deviation of the length of a minimal spanning tree from the length of the minimal Steiner tree. In this paper, estimates of the Steiner ratio on Riemannian manifolds are obtained. As a corollary, the Steiner ratio for flat tori, flat Klein bottles, and projective plane of constant positive curvature are computed. Steiner ratio - Steiner problem - Gilbert--Pollack conjecture - surfaces of constant curvature

  6. Female Buying Behaviour Related to Facial Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kokoi, Isa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the buying behaviour of Finnish women related to facial skin care products. The primary purpose of the study is to discover the similarities and differences in the buying behaviour of young and middle-aged women when purchasing facial skin care products. The objective is to study what kinds of factors affect the buying behaviour of both young (20 to 35 years old) and middle-aged (40 to 60 years old) women and then compare the findings from both groups. Furthermore, the aim...

  7. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedla?ková syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an expansive phenotype with more than 180 clinical features described that involve essentially every organ and system. The syndrome has drawn considerable atte...

  8. [Bilateral peripheral facial paralysis secondary to Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater Latorre, E; Castillo Ruiz, A; Alba García, J R; Armengot Carceller, M; Sancho Rieger, J; Basterra Alegría, J

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral facial paralisis (SBFP) occurs in 0.3-2% of all facial paralisis. We report a case of SBFP in association with Lyme disease. A review of literature about SBFP is made, studing specially the one caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. We present a diagnostic guideline of SBFP. Suspect diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical and epidemiological criteria. Culture isolation of this bacteria is difficult, therefore serologic testing is required. Neuroborreliosis treatment is intravenous Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime. Oral Doxycycline is useful in the treatment of neuritis without central nervous system involvement. PMID:15566265

  9. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE RECOGNITION OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS FELIPE PARDO-VÉLEZ

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the recognition of facial expressions of anger, happiness and sadness wereresearched in students 18-25 years of age. A reaction time procedure was used, and the percentage ofcorrect answers when recognizing was also measured. Though the work hypothesis expected genderdifferences in facial expression recognition, results suggest that these differences are not significant at alevel of 0.05%. Statistical analysis shows a greater easiness (at a non-significant level for women torecognize happiness expressions, and for men to recognize anger expressions. The implications ofthese data are discussed, and possible extensions of this investigation in terms of sample size andcollege major of the participants.

  10. Hypertrichosis, pigmentary retinopathy, and facial anomalies: a new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnick, E K; Wilroy, R S; Martens, P R; Teather, T C; Hashimoto, K

    1996-04-24

    We report on a 22-month-old male with congenital hypertrichosis of the face, arms, legs, shoulders, back, and buttocks, abnormal facial appearance, dolichocephaly, and pigmentary retinopathy. Symmetrical hyperpigmentation is present on the sideburn areas of his face, and hyperpigmented streaks are seen on arms and legs. Biopsy of the hyperpigmented' skin showed many separate bundles of smooth muscles in the dermis. No relative had hypertrichosis or other birth defects. To our knowledge, the syndrome of facial anomalies, pigmentary retinopathy, and congenital hypertrichosis has not been reported previously. PMID:8723069

  11. A FACIAL ANIMATION FRAMEWORK WITH EMOTIVE/EXPRESSIVE CAPABILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Giuseppe Riccardo; Cosi, Piero

    2011-01-01

    LUCIA is an MPEG-4 facial animation system developed at ISTC-CNR.. It works on standard Facial Animation Parameters and speaks with the Italian version of FESTIVAL TTS. To achieve an emotive/expressive talking head LUCIA was build from real human data physically extracted by ELITE optotracking movement analyzer. LUCIA can copy a real human by reproducing the movements of passive markers positioned on his face and recorded by the ELITE device or can be driven by an emotional XML tagged input t...

  12. [Therapeutic approaches for the treatment of facial aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, G G; Podda, M

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few decades, a magnitude of novel therapeutic approaches to battle the signs of facial aging have become available in esthetic dermatology. Comprehensive research in this area has significantly improved our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of facial aging. In order to successfully address age-related alterations in the human face, today's anti-aging treatment frequently necessitates multifaceted options. Alongside botulinum toxin and fillers, a plethora of different modalities are currently available to complete our esthetic portfolio, which are discussed in this review. PMID:26349682

  13. A classification and construction of congenital lateral facial clefts

    OpenAIRE

    Butow, Kurt-Wilhelm; Botha, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repair of the lateral or transverse facial cleft is a surgical challenge on the account of the abnormal positioning and appearance of the cleft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a twenty-seven year period, 22 lateral facial cleft cases were evaluated at a cleft lip (CL) and palate clinic and seven children underwent reconstruction of the lateral CL. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 3187 (0.69%) cases presented with a lateral CL. Five of these 22 cases (23%) had a bilateral, eight...

  14. Analysis of Facial Dynamics Using a Tensor Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Gralewski; Neill Campbell; Edward Morrison; Ian Penton-Voak

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that the dynamics of facial motion are important in the perception of gender, identity, and emotion. In this paper we show that it is possible to use a multi-linear tensor framework to extract facial motion signatures and to cluster these signatures by gender or by emotion. Here, we consider only the dynamics of internal features of the face (e.g. eyebrows, eyelids and mouth) so as to remove structural and shape cues to identity and gender. Such structural gender biases inc...

  15. Lipoescultura facial: técnica quirúrgica y revisión bibliográfica / Facial liposculpture: surgical technique and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jordi, Rodríguez Flores; María Angustias, Palomar Gallego; Ignacio Ismael, García Recuero; Ana Isabel, Romance García; José Javier, Bara Casaus; Jesús, Torres García-Denche.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión presenta la infiltración de grasa autóloga como un procedimiento de gran utilidad para el relleno de las partes blandas faciales con objetivos estéticos o reconstructivos. Se ha realizado una revisión sobre los procedimientos de lipoescultura de la literatura publicada en PubMed. Se de [...] scriben la técnica de Coleman, la técnica subdérmica, y la infiltración intramuscular, así como sus principales modificaciones, y los agentes estudiados y usados para incrementar la tasa de mantenimiento del injerto graso. Abstract in english This review shows that autologous fat grafting is useful for filling the soft tissues of the face for cosmetic and reconstructive purposes. The literature on liposculpture techniques published on PubMed was reviewed. The Coleman technique, subdermal technique, and intramuscular infiltration are desc [...] ribed, in addition to their primary modifications, and the agents used to improve fat graft maintenance were studied.

  16. Parálisis facial periférica: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico / Peripheral facial paralysis: Surgical treatment outcomes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Santana Álvarez; María de los Ángeles, Miranda Ramos; Lisandro, Vilas Martínez; Geldis María, Rivero Hernández; María Antonieta, Álvarez Urbay.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio tipo explicativo, longitudinal y aplicado en 120 pacientes con parálisis facial periférica de causa variable a los que se les realizó exploración y tratamiento quirúrgico. La investigación se llevó a cabo en el Hospital Militar Docente Clínico Quirúrgico «Dr. Octavio de la Conc [...] epción y de la Pedraja» de la ciudad de Camagüey, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 1989 a enero de 2007. Los pacientes fueron remitidos a la consulta de Otorrinolaringología donde se definieron los criterios para la intervención quirúrgica y conducta según la lesión encontrada; después de operados fueron evaluados por un período de un año y se recogió la evolución de los signos clínicos, tiempo de recuperación, complicaciones, resultados y grado de satisfacción. Se encontró un predominio de las edades comprendidas entre 21 y 50 años, y una mejor evolución en los pacientes del sexo femenino. La causa más frecuente de parálisis facial periférica fueron la tipo Bell y la traumática con un 36.66 % del total, respectivamente. El edema del nervio se observó en el 58.33 %, y dentro de la localización traumática la lesión mastoidea en el ámbito de la segunda rodilla se observó en el 81.81 % de los pacientes. El abordaje mastoideo se utilizó en el 91.66 % de los pacientes. La oclusión del párpado y movilidad de la comisura labial fueron los signos con más rápida recuperación. Los resultados mostraron movilidad normal y paresia ligera en 76.76 % de los pacientes operados según los criterios de Jongkees, lo que demostró el valor funcional de la técnica. El grado de satisfacción fue excelente o bueno en el 96.66 % de los pacientes, lo que demuestra el valor inestimable que le confieren los pacientes a este resultado Abstract in english An explanatory longitudinal type study, applied in 120 patients with peripheral facial paralysis of variable cause to which an exploration and surgical treatment was performed. The investigation was carried out at «Dr. Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja» Surgical Clinical Educational Military [...] Hospital of Camagüey city, from October 1989 to January 2007. Patients were remitted to the Otorhinolaryngology consultation where was defined the surgical intervention criteria and behavior according to the lesion found; after surgery, patients were evaluated by a period of one year and the evolution of the clinical signs, recovery time, complications, outcomes and satisfaction degree were collected. There was a predominance of ages between 21 and 50 years old, and better outcomes for female patients. The most frequent cause of peripheral facial paralysis were the Bell type and the traumatic one with a 36.66% of the total, respectively. The edema of the nerve was observed in the 58.33%, and within the traumatic localization mastoid lesion in the second knee was observed in the 81.81% of the patients. The mastoid approach was utilized in the 91.66% of the patients. The occlusion of the eyelid and mobility of the commissure of lips were signs with faster recovery. Results showed normal mobility and slight paresis in 76.76% of the patients operated according to Jongkees´ criteria, what showed the functional value of the technique. The satisfaction degree was excellent or good in the 96.66% of patients, what shows the invaluable value that patients to this result confer

  17. Paralisia Facial Periférica Diagnóstico, Tratamento e Orientação / Peripheral facial palsy - diagnosis, treatment and follow up

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tiago, Correia; M. João, Sampaio; Rui, Almeida; Cristina, Garrido.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica (PFP) é frequente em idade pediátrica. Inerente à sua designação existe um conceito anatómico que pressupõe a localização da lesão distalmente aos núcleos do sétimo nervo craniano. Contudo, define-se melhor pela clínica, consistindo na parésia dos músculos da mímica fac [...] ial da hemiface ipsilateral à lesão, associada ou não a hiperacúsia, xeroftalmia e perda do paladar nos dois terços anteriores da língua. As principais causas médicas são a PFP idiopática ou de Bell (65%) e o Herpes Zoster Ótico (12%). Em áreas endémicas, também a doença de Lyme pode ter um papel relevante. Sendo um tema de consensos difíceis, os autores apresentam uma revisão da literatura e propõem um protocolo de actuação na perspectiva do diagnóstico, tratamento e orientação. Abstract in english Facial palsy (FP) is a common disorder in children. It is caused by an aggression to the seventh cranial nerve distally to its emergence from the pons. The best way to de?ne FP is by its clinical manifestations: paralisis of the muscles of the ipsilateral side of the face with or without hyperacusis [...] , decreased production of tears, and loss of taste at the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The most common medical causes are idiopathic FP, also known as Bell’s palsy (65%) and herpes zoster oticus (12%). In endemic areas, Lyme disease is also an important etiology. As this is a controversial subject, the authors present a review of the most recent literature and propose a protocol to guide diagnosis, treatment and follow up.

  18. Achados fonoaudiológicos em pacientes submetidos a anastomose hipoglosso facial / Phonoaudiological findings in patients submitted to hypoglossal-facial anastomosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisabete C. C. F., Silva; José R.G., Testa; Yotaka, Fukuda.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A anastomose hipoglosso-facial (AHF) tem sido realizada em pacientes com lesão dos segmentos mais proximais do nervo facial em que outros procedimentos cirúrgicos não foram possíveis ou não obtiveram êxito. OBJETIVO: O objetivo atual da pesquisa é verificar as alterações na mobilidade dos órgãos fon [...] oarticulatórios, quanto à função da fala, mastigação e da deglutição, em pacientes submetidos a AHF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 8 pacientes, com paralisia facial periférica (PFP), submetidos a AHF, na UNIFESP/EPM, no período de 1998 a 2000, sendo 6 do sexo feminino e 2 do sexo masculino, idades entre 21 e 71 anos e mediana de 50 anos. Desses, 5 pós-exerése do Schwannoma do Nervo Vestibular, 1 pós-exerése de Fibrossarcoma, 1 pós-ferimento por arma de fogo e 1 pós-paralisia facial idiopática de má evolução. Na avaliação fonoaudiológica, o protocolo consta de: dados de identificação; classificação da recuperação do nervo facial; tratamentos realizados; simetria facial no repouso e no movimento voluntário; sincinesias para olho, boca, nariz e bochechas; distúrbios fonoarticulatórios e da motricidade da língua; alteração na mastigação e do paladar, e questionário referente ao parecer dos respectivos distúrbios para serem respondidos pelo paciente. RESULTADO: O grau de paralisia pós-anastomose e reabilitação variou para os olhos entre II e V e para a boca entre III e V (House & Brackemann, 1985). Concluímos que recuperação foi satisfatória e importante, mas a expectativa de melhora foi inferior ao esperado pelos pacientes. Foram observados: imprecisão articulatória, disfunção mastigatória, escape bucal de alimentos e disfagia. Abstract in english The hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (HFA) have been related in patients with facial nerve lesion where proximal segment more other surgical produceres had been faited or had not been possible success. AIM: The objective of the present research is to verify the evidence of mobility in the phonoarticul [...] ate organs, speech function, chew and swallowing in patients sujected to HFA. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eight patients with peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) were evaluated and subjected to HFA at UNIFESP/EPM in the period from 1989 to 2000, with 6 females and 2 males, aged between 21 and 71 years with an average of 50 years. Of these, 5 after exeresis of Acoustic Neurinoma, 1 after exeresis of Fibrosarcoma, 1 after a gunshot wound and 1 after idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis of poor evolution. In the phonoaudiological evaluation, the protocol used involved identification data; classification of the facial nerve; treatments carried out; facial symmetry in repose and on voluntary movement; synhinesis of the eyes, mouth, nose and cheeks; phonoarticulate and tongue disorders; changes in chew and of the palate and a questionary concerning the appearence of the respective disturbances. RESULTS: The degree of pos anastomosis and reabilitation ranged to the eyes between II and V and to the mouth between III and V (House & Brakemann, 1985). We came to the conclusion that the recover was satisfactory and important but patients'recover expectation were inferior. There have been noted: articulatory imprecision chewing disfunction, deficit sphincteral function of oral muscles and disphage.

  19. Achados fonoaudiológicos em pacientes submetidos a anastomose hipoglosso facial Phonoaudiological findings in patients submitted to hypoglossal-facial anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete C. C. F. Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A anastomose hipoglosso-facial (AHF tem sido realizada em pacientes com lesão dos segmentos mais proximais do nervo facial em que outros procedimentos cirúrgicos não foram possíveis ou não obtiveram êxito. OBJETIVO: O objetivo atual da pesquisa é verificar as alterações na mobilidade dos órgãos fonoarticulatórios, quanto à função da fala, mastigação e da deglutição, em pacientes submetidos a AHF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 8 pacientes, com paralisia facial periférica (PFP, submetidos a AHF, na UNIFESP/EPM, no período de 1998 a 2000, sendo 6 do sexo feminino e 2 do sexo masculino, idades entre 21 e 71 anos e mediana de 50 anos. Desses, 5 pós-exerése do Schwannoma do Nervo Vestibular, 1 pós-exerése de Fibrossarcoma, 1 pós-ferimento por arma de fogo e 1 pós-paralisia facial idiopática de má evolução. Na avaliação fonoaudiológica, o protocolo consta de: dados de identificação; classificação da recuperação do nervo facial; tratamentos realizados; simetria facial no repouso e no movimento voluntário; sincinesias para olho, boca, nariz e bochechas; distúrbios fonoarticulatórios e da motricidade da língua; alteração na mastigação e do paladar, e questionário referente ao parecer dos respectivos distúrbios para serem respondidos pelo paciente. RESULTADO: O grau de paralisia pós-anastomose e reabilitação variou para os olhos entre II e V e para a boca entre III e V (House & Brackemann, 1985. Concluímos que recuperação foi satisfatória e importante, mas a expectativa de melhora foi inferior ao esperado pelos pacientes. Foram observados: imprecisão articulatória, disfunção mastigatória, escape bucal de alimentos e disfagia.The hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (HFA have been related in patients with facial nerve lesion where proximal segment more other surgical produceres had been faited or had not been possible success. AIM: The objective of the present research is to verify the evidence of mobility in the phonoarticulate organs, speech function, chew and swallowing in patients sujected to HFA. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eight patients with peripheral facial paralysis (PFP were evaluated and subjected to HFA at UNIFESP/EPM in the period from 1989 to 2000, with 6 females and 2 males, aged between 21 and 71 years with an average of 50 years. Of these, 5 after exeresis of Acoustic Neurinoma, 1 after exeresis of Fibrosarcoma, 1 after a gunshot wound and 1 after idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis of poor evolution. In the phonoaudiological evaluation, the protocol used involved identification data; classification of the facial nerve; treatments carried out; facial symmetry in repose and on voluntary movement; synhinesis of the eyes, mouth, nose and cheeks; phonoarticulate and tongue disorders; changes in chew and of the palate and a questionary concerning the appearence of the respective disturbances. RESULTS: The degree of pos anastomosis and reabilitation ranged to the eyes between II and V and to the mouth between III and V (House & Brakemann, 1985. We came to the conclusion that the recover was satisfactory and important but patients'recover expectation were inferior. There have been noted: articulatory imprecision chewing disfunction, deficit sphincteral function of oral muscles and disphage.

  20. Aspectos indicativos de envelhecimento facial precoce em respiradores orais adultos Indicative factors of early facial aging in mouth breathing adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cabral de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: envelhecimento facial precoce em respiradores orais adultos. OBJETIVO: verificar a presença de aspectos indicativos de envelhecimento facial precoce e caracterizar morfometricamente as medidas da projeção do sulco nasogeniano ao tragus e da largura facial (distância entre os bucinadores em respiradores orais e nasais adultos. MÉTODO: foi realizada, em 60 indivíduos, observação de aspectos indicativos de envelhecimento facial precoce (presença de olheiras, rugas embaixo dos olhos, rugas mentuais e sulco mentual. Em seguida, foram tomadas medidas da projeção do sulco nasogeniano ao tragus e da largura facial (distância entre os bucinadores utilizando-se paquímetro eletrônico digital. Posteriormente, os voluntários foram submetidos às avaliações fonoaudiológica (anamnese e avaliação miofuncional orofacial e otorrinolaringológica (anamnese, avaliação clínica e exame de videonasofaringolaringoscopia para diagnóstico da respiração oral. Após os dados obtidos serem caracterizados com a utilização de técnicas de estatística descritiva, aplicou-se os testes de aderência de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e Shapiro-Wilk e os testes de hipótese Qui-quadrado, Mann-Withney e o teste T de Student para variáveis independentes. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas para valores de p menores que 0,05 e o erro beta admitido foi de 0,1. RESULTADOS: a amostra foi composta apenas por voluntários do sexo feminino. Verificou-se, no grupo teste (respiradores orais, média de idade de 22,04 ± 2,25 anos e, no grupo controle (respiradores nasais, 21,94 ± 2,03 anos. Observou-se, no grupo de respiradores orais, um percentual mais elevado da presença de aspectos indicativos de envelhecimento facial precoce quando comparado aos respiradores nasais, bem como maiores diferenças entre as projeções dos sulcos nasogenianos nas hemifaces direita e esquerda. Entretanto, foram observados maiores valores de largura facial nos respiradores nasais, configurando faces discretamente mais alargadas na região das bochechas. CONCLUSÃO: no presente estudo foram observados maiores indícios de envelhecimento facial precoce no grupo de respiradores orais.BACKGROUND: early facial aging in mouth breathing adults. AIM: to verify the presence of indicative factors of early facial aging and to characterize the measurements of the projection of the nasogeniane fold to the tragus and of the face width in mouth and nose breathing adults. METHOD: aspects of early facial aging were observed in 60 individuals (presence of dark circles and wrinkles under the eyes, mentual wrinkles and mentual ridges. Measurements of the projection of the nasogeniane fold to the tragus and of the face width (distance between the buccinators were taken using a digital caliper. Later, the volunteers were submitted to speech-language evaluations (anamneses and orofacial myofuntional assessment and to an otolaryngology inspection in order to establish the diagnosis of mouth breathing (anamneses, clinical evaluation and video laryngoscopy. The obtained data were analyzed according to descriptive statistics and to the following statistic tests: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, Qui-square, Mann-Withney and the T-Student test for independent variables. Differences were considered significant when the p value was inferior to .05 and the accepted beta error was of .1. RESULTS: the research sample consisted only of female volunteers. For the research group (mouth breathers the age average was of 22.04 ± 2.25 years and, for the control group (nose breathers the age average was of 21.94 ± 2.03 years. The presence of a high percentage of indicative factors of early facial aging was observed for the group of mouth breathers when compared to the group of nose breathers. Greater differences between the projections of the nasogenianos ridges in right and left side of the face was also observed for the group of mouth breathers. However, higher values of face widths were observed for the nose breathing individuals, configuring a discreetly more wid