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1

Facial width-to-height ratio relates to alpha status and assertive personality in capuchin monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical "cue"). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans. PMID:24705247

Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A D; Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C

2014-01-01

2

Self-fulfilling prophecies as a link between men's facial width-to-height ratio and behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been identified as a reliable predictor of men's behavior, with researchers focusing on evolutionary selection pressures as the underlying mechanism explaining these relationships. In this paper, we complement this approach and examine the extent to which social processes also determine the extent to which men's fWHR serves as a behavioral cue. Specifically, we propose that observers' treatment of target men based on the targets' fWHR subsequently affects behavior, leading the targets to behave in ways that are consistent with the observers' expectations (i.e., a self-fulfilling prophecy). Results from four studies demonstrate that individuals behave more selfishly when interacting with men with greater fWHRs, and this selfish behavior, in turn, elicits selfish behavior in others. PMID:24015226

Haselhuhn, Michael P; Wong, Elaine M; Ormiston, Margaret E

2013-01-01

3

The facial width-to-height ratio shares stronger links with judgments of aggression than with judgments of trustworthiness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in the facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio) is associated with judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness made by observers when viewing men's faces. Although judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness are correlated, they represent distinct constructs. We thus investigated the hypothesis that judgments of aggression share stronger associations with the face ratio than judgments of trustworthiness, and that judgments of aggression mediate the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Across 4 separate studies, involving 129 observers rating subsets of 141 photographs (original photographs of individuals who provided consent for their use) of clean-shaven (65 faces), unshaved (22 faces), or digitized male faces (54 faces; digitized faces were creating using facial modeling software), this hypothesis was supported. The correlations between the face ratio and judgments of aggression were moderate to strong in all 4 studies (rs = .45 to .70). Reaction time was measured in Study 4: Participants judged aggression faster than trustworthiness; thus, temporal precedence also supports the hypothesis that aggression mediates the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Sensitivity to the face ratio may therefore be part of a perceptual mechanism specialized to assess aggressiveness rather than trustworthiness in others, likely because of the greater necessity for rapid judgments of aggressive potential than trustworthiness. PMID:24820443

Geniole, Shawn N; Molnar, Danielle S; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

2014-08-01

4

The Face-Time Continuum: Lifespan Changes in Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Impact Aging-Associated Perceptions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging influences how a person is perceived on multiple dimensions (e.g., physical power). Here we examined how facial structure informs these evolving social perceptions. Recent work examining young adults' faces has revealed the impact of the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) on perceived traits, such that individuals with taller, thinner faces are perceived to be less aggressive, less physically powerful, and friendlier. These perceptions are similar to those stereotypically associated with older adults. Examining whether fWHR might contribute to these changing perceptions over the life span, we found that age provides a shifting context through which fWHR differentially impacts aging-related social perceptions (Study 1). In addition, archival analyses (Study 2) established that fWHR decreases across age, and a subsequent study found that fWHR mediated the relationship between target age and multiple aging-related perceptions (Study 3). The findings provide evidence that fWHR decreases across age and influences stereotypical perceptions that change with age. PMID:25278108

Hehman, Eric; Leitner, Jordan B; Freeman, Jonathan B

2014-12-01

5

Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men). PMID:24754804

Alrajih, Shuaa; Ward, Jamie

2014-05-01

6

Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes. PMID:25339656

Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S

2014-10-01

7

A lack of sexual dimorphism in width-to-height ratio in white European faces using 2D photographs, 3D scans, and anthropometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial width-to-height ratio has received a great deal of attention in recent research. Evidence from human skulls suggests that males have a larger relative facial width than females, and that this sexual dimorphism is an honest signal of masculinity, aggression, and related traits. However, evidence that this measure is sexually dimorphic in faces, rather than skulls, is surprisingly weak. We therefore investigated facial width-to-height ratio in three White European samples using three different methods of measurement: 2D photographs, 3D scans, and anthropometry. By measuring the same individuals with multiple methods, we demonstrated high agreement across all measures. However, we found no evidence of sexual dimorphism in the face. In our third study, we also found a link between facial width-to-height ratio and body mass index for both males and females, although this relationship did not account for the lack of dimorphism in our sample. While we showed sufficient power to detect differences between male and female width-to-height ratio, our results failed to support the general hypothesis of sexual dimorphism in the face. PMID:22880088

Kramer, Robin S S; Jones, Alex L; Ward, Robert

2012-01-01

8

Estimating aggression from emotionally neutral faces: which facial cues are diagnostic?  

Science.gov (United States)

The facial width-to-height ratio, a size-independent sexually dimorphic property of the human face, is correlated with aggressive behaviour in men. Furthermore, observers' estimates of aggression from emotionally neutral faces are accurate and are highly correlated with the facial width-to-height ratio. We investigated whether observers use the facial width-to-height ratio to estimate propensity for aggression. In experiments 1a-1c, estimates of aggression remained accurate when faces were blurred or cropped, manipulations that reduce featural cues but maintain the facial width-to-height ratio. Accuracy decreased when faces were scrambled, a manipulation that retains featural information but disrupts the facial width-to-height ratio. In experiment 2, computer-modeling software identified eight facial metrics that correlated with estimates of aggression; regression analyses revealed that the facial width-to-height ratio was the only metric that uniquely predicted these estimates. In experiment 3, we used a computer-generated set of faces varying in perceived threat (Oosterhof and Todorov, 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 11087-11092) and found that as emotionally neutral faces became more 'threatening', the facial width-to-height ratio increased. Together, these experiments suggest that the facial width-to-height ratio is an honest signal of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:20465172

Carré, Justin M; Morrissey, Mark D; Mondloch, Catherine J; McCormick, Cheryl M

2010-01-01

9

Detection of Propensity for Aggression based on Facial Structure Irrespective of Face Race  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The human face provides a wealth of information pertaining to the internal state and life-stage history of an individual. Facial width-to-height ratio is a size-independent sexually dimorphic trait, and estimates of aggression made by untrained adults judging own-race faces were positively associated with both facial width-to-height ratio and actual aggressive behavior. Given the significant adaptive value of accurately detecting aggressiveness based on facial appearance, we hypothesized that...

Short, Lindsey A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Mccormick, Cheryl M.; Carre?, Justin M.; Ma, Ruqian; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

2012-01-01

10

Detection of Propensity for Aggression based on Facial Structure Irrespective of Face Race.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human face provides a wealth of information pertaining to the internal state and life-stage history of an individual. Facial width-to-height ratio is a size-independent sexually dimorphic trait, and estimates of aggression made by untrained adults judging own-race faces were positively associated with both facial width-to-height ratio and actual aggressive behavior. Given the significant adaptive value of accurately detecting aggressiveness based on facial appearance, we hypothesized that aggression estimates made by adults and 8-year-olds would be highly correlated with male facial width-to-height ratio even for a face category with which they had minimal experience-other-race faces. For each of the four race and age groups, estimates of aggression were positively correlated with facial width-to-height ratio irrespective of rating own-or other-race faces. Overall, the correlations between facial width-to-height ratio and ratings of aggression were stronger for adults than for children. Sensitivity to facial width-to-height ratio appears to be part of an evolved mechanism designed to detect threats in the external environment. This mechanism is likely broadly tuned and functions independently of experience. PMID:22611331

Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; McCormick, Cheryl M; Carré, Justin M; Ma, Ruqian; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

2012-03-01

11

Facial structure is a reliable cue of aggressive behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial width-to-height ratio is a sexually dimorphic metric that is independent of body size and may have been shaped by sexual selection. We recently showed that this metric is correlated with behavioral aggression in men. In Study 1, observers estimated the propensity for aggression of men photographed displaying neutral facial expressions and for whom a behavioral measure of aggression was obtained. The estimates were correlated strongly with the facial width-to-height ratio of the stimulus faces and with the actual aggression of the men. These results were replicated in Study 2, in which the exposure to each stimulus face was shortened to 39 ms. Participants' estimates of aggression for each stimulus face were highly correlated between Study 2 (39-ms exposure) and Study 1 (2,000-ms exposure). These findings suggest that the facial width-to-height ratio may be a cue used to predict propensity for aggression in others. PMID:19686297

Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M; Mondloch, Catherine J

2009-10-01

12

In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial characteristics are an important basis for judgements about gender, emotion, personality, motivational states and behavioural dispositions. Based on a recent finding of a sexual dimorphism in facial metrics that is independent of body size, we conducted three studies to examine the extent to which individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were associated with trait dominance (using a questionnaire) and aggression during a behavioural task and in a naturalistic setting (varsity and professional ice hockey). In study 1, men had a larger facial width-to-height ratio, higher scores of trait dominance, and were more reactively aggressive compared with women. Individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio predicted reactive aggression in men, but not in women (predicted 15% of variance). In studies 2 (male varsity hockey players) and 3 (male professional hockey players), individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were positively related to aggressive behaviour as measured by the number of penalty minutes per game obtained over a season (predicted 29 and 9% of the variance, respectively). Together, these findings suggest that the sexually dimorphic facial width-to-height ratio may be an 'honest signal' of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:18713717

Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

2008-11-22

13

Facial structure and its association with behaviour in men and women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been found that the structure of the face can be cues to behaviours such as aggression, violence and social dominance. Using a finding by Carré and McCormick (2008) that the facial width to height ratio (WHR) could be one of these cues, we also look at two other known facial measures that have been found to differ between men and women to see if these relate to expressions of behaviour. In this study we examine the extent to which facial cues of WHR, facial masculinity, face width to ...

Warriner-gallyer, Genevieve Estelle

2013-01-01

14

Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank. PMID:23658003

Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B

2013-08-23

15

Judging a man by the width of his face: the role of facial ratios and dominance in mate choice at speed-dating events.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has shown that men with higher facial width-to-height ratios (fWHRs) have higher testosterone and are more aggressive, more powerful, and more financially successful. We tested whether they are also more attractive to women in the ecologically valid mating context of speed dating. Men's fWHR was positively associated with their perceived dominance, likelihood of being chosen for a second date, and attractiveness to women for short-term, but not long-term, relationships. Perceived dominance (by itself and through physical attractiveness) mediated the relationship between fWHR and attractiveness to women for short-term relationships. Furthermore, men's perceptions of their own dominance showed patterns of association with mating desirability similar to those of fWHR. These results support the idea that fWHR is a physical marker of dominance. This is the first study to show that male dominance and higher fWHRs are attractive to women for short-term relationships in a controlled and interactive situation that could actually lead to mating and dating. PMID:24458269

Valentine, Katherine A; Li, Norman P; Penke, Lars; Perrett, David I

2014-03-01

16

Body mass index and facial cues in sasang typology for young and elderly persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial characteristics may provide reliable information giving an insight into the inner nature of an individual. This study examines the differences in widely used facial metrics, including cheek-to-jaw width ratio (CJWR), width-to-height ratio (WHR), perimeter-to-area ratio (PAR), and facial masculinity indexes across Sasang constitutional types, to investigate the association between these facial cues and body mass index (BMI) and develop a predictive model for Sasang typing. 2D images of 911 participants were analyzed. The results indicated that TaeEum (TE) type generally has a squarer face, with the male TE type having a squarer and wider face than that of both SoYang (SY) and SoEum (SE) types. Male TE type has longer eyes than that of the SE type, and the lower face of the female TE type is longer than that of the SY type. PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size had associations with BMI, and the magnitude of correlation of CJWR in Korean men were twofold higher than that of the Caucasian and African men. BMI and facial metrics including PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size were good predictors for TE type, and the most parsimonious model for TE typing included BMI and CJWR with high predictive performances. PMID:21423637

Pham, Duong Duc; Do, Jun-Hyeong; Ku, Boncho; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Honggie; Kim, Jong Yeol

2011-01-01

17

Bad to the bone: facial structure predicts unethical behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers spanning many scientific domains, including primatology, evolutionary biology and psychology, have sought to establish an evolutionary basis for morality. While researchers have identified social and cognitive adaptations that support ethical behaviour, a consensus has emerged that genetically determined physical traits are not reliable signals of unethical intentions or actions. Challenging this view, we show that genetically determined physical traits can serve as reliable predictors of unethical behaviour if they are also associated with positive signals in intersex and intrasex selection. Specifically, we identify a key physical attribute, the facial width-to-height ratio, which predicts unethical behaviour in men. Across two studies, we demonstrate that men with wider faces (relative to facial height) are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation, and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gain. Importantly, we provide evidence that the link between facial metrics and unethical behaviour is mediated by a psychological sense of power. Our results demonstrate that static physical attributes can indeed serve as reliable cues of immoral action, and provide additional support for the view that evolutionary forces shape ethical judgement and behaviour. PMID:21733897

Haselhuhn, Michael P; Wong, Elaine M

2012-02-01

18

Facial structure is indicative of explicit support for prejudicial beliefs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present three studies examining whether male facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is correlated with racial prejudice and whether observers are sensitive to fWHR when assessing prejudice in other people. Our results indicate that males with a greater fWHR are more likely to explicitly endorse racially prejudicial beliefs, though fWHR was unrelated to implicit bias. Participants evaluated targets with a greater fWHR as more likely to be prejudiced and accurately evaluated the degree to which targets reported prejudicial attitudes. Finally, compared with majority-group members, racial-minority participants reported greater motivation to accurately evaluate prejudice. This motivation mediated the relationship between minority- or majority-group membership and the accuracy of evaluations of prejudice, which indicates that motivation augments sensitivity to fWHR. Together, the results of these three studies demonstrate that fWHR is a reliable indicator of explicitly endorsed racial prejudice and that observers can use fWHR to accurately assess another person's explicit prejudice. PMID:23389425

Hehman, Eric; Leitner, Jordan B; Deegan, Matthew P; Gaertner, Samuel L

2013-03-01

19

Facial paralysis  

Science.gov (United States)

... otherwise healthy, facial paralysis is often due to Bell's palsy . This is a condition in which the facial ... speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell's palsy lasts for more than 6 - 12 months, plastic ...

20

Facial Cleanliness  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Home ...

 
 
 
 
21

Granuloma Faciale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Granuloma faciale is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown aetiology, usually characterized by a solitary reddish-brown plaque or a nodule on the face. We report an unusual case of granuloma facial where the lesions were multiple and they responded to intralesional triamcinolone injections.

Sarkar Rashmi

2002-01-01

22

Facial Schwannoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the presence of normal facial function is difficult. Case: A 19-year-old girl with all above symptoms in the right side except loss of taste is diagnosed having facial schwannoma with full examination, audiometric, and radiological tests. She underwent surgery. In follow-up facial function were mostly restored. Conclusion: The need for careful assessment of patients with Bell's palsy cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the negative results if still there is any suspicoin, total facial nerve exploration is necessary.

Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani

2005-06-01

23

Facial Plastic Surgery Today  

Science.gov (United States)

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... information on facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Facial Plastic Surgery Today features three articles on facial plastic surgery ...

24

Facial Cosmetic Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ...

25

Facial Sports Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

26

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that ...

27

Facial attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans in societies around the world discriminate between potential mates on the basis of attractiveness in ways that can dramatically affect their lives. From an evolutionary perspective, a reasonable working hypothesis is that the psychological mechanisms underlying attractiveness judgments are adaptations that have evolved in the service of choosing a mate so as to increase gene propagation throughout evolutionary history. The main hypothesis that has directed evolutionary psychology research into facial attractiveness is that these judgments reflect information about what can be broadly defined as an individual's health. This has been investigated by examining whether attractiveness judgments show special design for detecting cues that allow us to make assessments of overall phenotypic condition. This review examines the three major lines of research that have been pursued in order to answer the question of whether attractiveness reflects non-obvious indicators of phenotypic condition. These are studies that have examined facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sex characteristics as hormone markers. PMID:10562724

Thornhill; Gangestad

1999-12-01

28

Facial features  

Science.gov (United States)

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

29

Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: male facial width and trustworthiness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decisions about whom to trust are biased by stable facial traits such as attractiveness, similarity to kin, and perceived trustworthiness. Research addressing the validity of facial trustworthiness or its basis in facial features is scarce, and the results have been inconsistent. We measured male trustworthiness operationally in trust games in which participants had options to collaborate for mutual financial gain or to exploit for greater personal gain. We also measured facial (bizygomatic) width (scaled for face height) because this is a sexually dimorphic, testosterone-linked trait predictive of male aggression. We found that men with greater facial width were more likely to exploit the trust of others and that other players were less likely to trust male counterparts with wide rather than narrow faces (independent of their attractiveness). Moreover, manipulating this facial-width ratio with computer graphics controlled attributions of trustworthiness, particularly for subordinate female evaluators. PMID:20424067

Stirrat, M; Perrett, D I

2010-03-01

30

Facial expression arousal level modulates facial mimicry.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of facial expression arousal level and mode of presentation on facial mimicry. High- and low-arousal facial expressions indicating pleasant and unpleasant emotions were presented both statically and dynamically. Participants' facial electromyographic (EMG) reactions were recorded from the zygomatic major and corrugator supercilii muscles. Stronger zygomatic major muscle activity was evoked for high- compared to low-arousal pleasant expressions. Comparable activity was induced in the corrugator supercilii muscle in response to both high- and low-arousal unpleasant expressions, and this was true for both dynamic and static presentations. These results suggest that the arousal levels of pleasant, but not unpleasant, facial expressions can enhance facial mimicry. PMID:20206213

Fujimura, Tomomi; Sato, Wataru; Suzuki, Naoto

2010-05-01

31

Preservation of Facial Nerve Function Repaired by Using Fibrin Glue-Coated Collagen Fleece for a Totally Transected Facial Nerve during Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the increasing rates of facial nerve preservation after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have been achieved. However, the management of a partially or completely damaged facial nerve remains an important issue. The authors report a patient who was had a good recovery after a facial nerve reconstruction using fibrin glue-coated collagen fleece for a totally transected facial nerve during VS surgery. And, we verifed the anatomical preservation and functional outcome of the facial nerve with postoperative diffusion tensor (DT) imaging facial nerve tractography, electroneurography (ENoG) and House-Brackmann (HB) grade. DT imaging tractography at the 3rd postoperative day revealed preservation of facial nerve. And facial nerve degeneration ratio was 94.1% at 7th postoperative day ENoG. At postoperative 3 months and 1 year follow-up examination with DT imaging facial nerve tractography and ENoG, good results for facial nerve function were observed. PMID:25024825

Choi, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Min-Su; Jang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Oh-Lyong

2014-04-01

32

Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for fe...

Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

2010-01-01

33

[Peripheral facial nerve palsy].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are different etiological factors concerning the acute peripheral facial nerve palsy. In the majority of the cases, however, no etiological factor can be found. These cases are called idiopathic facial palsy or Bells palsy. Perhaps local anaesthetics could play a role as an etiological factor. By means of a case-report this form of facial nerve palsy will be discussed. PMID:11908448

Nauta, J M; Timmenga, N M; Cats, H

1993-04-01

34

Facial nerve paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotions are communicated through facial expression. Happiness, confusion, and frustration can be expressed with a slight smile, eyebrow shift, or wrinkled nose. Injury to the facial nerve and subsequent inability of perform volitional mimetic movement can provoke anxiety. This article explores the causes, treatment, and prevention of facial nerve paralysis. PMID:18436002

Danner, Christopher J

2008-06-01

35

Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for feature extraction and creates a dynamic spatiotemporal representation of the face, followed by classification into one of the expression classes. The algorithm achieves an accuracy of 81.0% for facial expression recognition fromgrayscale image.

Neeta Sarode

2010-08-01

36

Fuzzy and entropy facial recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper suggests an effective method for facial recognition using fuzzy theory and Shannon entropy. Combination of fuzzy theory and Shannon entropy eliminates the complication of other methods. Shannon entropy calculates the ratio of an element between faces, and fuzzy theory calculates the member ship of the entropy with 1. More details will be mentioned in Section 3. The learning performance is better than others as it is very simple, and only need two data per learning...

Lee, Jaejun; Yun, Taeseon

2014-01-01

37

Familial facial palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial palsy is a sporadic disease related to cold exposure, infections and psychogenic factors. In this case report, we present a 14 years old boy with familial facial palsy. Familial cases had been rarely reported. Risk of recurrence is increased at familial cases. Sporadic and familial cases must be treated with same approach. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 64-6

Bar?? Ekici

2012-03-01

38

Facial talon cusps.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

McNamara, T

1997-12-01

39

PCA facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

40

Face structure predicts cooperation: men with wider faces are more generous to their in-group when out-group competition is salient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male facial width-to-height ratio appears to correlate with antisocial tendencies, such as aggression, exploitation, cheating, and deception. We present evidence that male facial width-to-height ratio is also associated with a stereotypically male prosocial tendency: to increase cooperation with other in-group members during intergroup competition. We found that men who had wider faces, compared with men who had narrower faces, showed more self-sacrificing cooperation to help their group members when there was competition with another group. We propose that this finding makes sense given the evolutionary functions of social helpfulness and aggression. PMID:22623509

Stirrat, M; Perrett, D I

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Blink detection robust to various facial poses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications based on eye-blink detection have increased, as a result of which it is essential for eye-blink detection to be robust and non-intrusive irrespective of the changes in the user's facial pose. However, most previous studies on camera-based blink detection have the disadvantage that their performances were affected by the facial pose. They also focused on blink detection using only frontal facial images. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed a new method for blink detection, which maintains its accuracy despite changes in the facial pose of the subject. This research is novel in the following four ways. First, the face and eye regions are detected by using both the AdaBoost face detector and a Lucas-Kanade-Tomasi (LKT)-based method, in order to achieve robustness to facial pose. Secondly, the determination of the state of the eye (being open or closed), needed for blink detection, is based on two features: the ratio of height to width of the eye region in a still image, and the cumulative difference of the number of black pixels of the eye region using an adaptive threshold in successive images. These two features are robustly extracted irrespective of the lighting variations by using illumination normalization. Thirdly, the accuracy of determining the eye state - open or closed - is increased by combining the above two features on the basis of the support vector machine (SVM). Finally, the SVM classifier for determining the eye state is adaptively selected according to the facial rotation. Experimental results using various databases showed that the blink detection by the proposed method is robust to various facial poses. PMID:20826183

Lee, Won Oh; Lee, Eui Chul; Park, Kang Ryoung

2010-11-30

42

Facial Pain (TMJ)  

Science.gov (United States)

... facial pain is a group of conditions called temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMJDs). These disorders cause recurrent or chronic pain ... thirds of those with TMJ disorders will seek treatment. Among these, approximately 15% will develop chronic TMJD. ...

43

Facial duplication: case, review, and embryogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The craniofacial anatomy of an infant with facial duplication is described. There were four eyes, two noses, two maxillae, and one mandible. Anterior to the single pituitary the brain was duplicated and there was bilateral arhinencephaly. Portions of the brain were extruded into a large frontal encephalocele. Cases of symmetrical facial duplication reported in the literature range from two complete faces on a single head (diprosopus) to simple nasal duplication. The variety of patterns of duplication suggests that the doubling of facial components arises in several different ways: Forking of the notochord, duplication of the prosencephalon, duplication of the olfactory placodes, and duplication of maxillary and/or mandibular growth centers around the margins of the stomatodeal plate. Among reported cases, the female:male ratio is 2:1. PMID:6808690

Barr, M

1982-04-01

44

Enhanced facial EMG activity in response to dynamic facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suggestion that dynamic facial expressions of emotion induce more evident facial mimicry than static ones remains controversial. We investigated this issue by recording EMG from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major. Dynamic and static facial expressions of anger and happiness were presented. Dynamic presentations of angry expressions induced stronger EMG activity from the corrugator supercilii than static presentations, while dynamic presentations of happy expressions induced stronger EMG activity from the zygomatic major compared to static presentations. These results indicate that dynamic facial expressions induce facial EMG activity interpretable as facial mimicry more evidently than static expressions. PMID:18598725

Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Suzuki, Naoto

2008-10-01

45

Intraoperative continuous monitoring of facial motor evoked potentials in acoustic neuroma surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preservation of facial nerve function is one of the primary objectives in acoustic neuroma surgery. We detail our method of continuous intraoperative facial motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring and present criteria for the preservation of facial nerve function to avoid postoperative facial nerve palsy. Our study population was comprised of 15 patients who did not (group 1), and 20 who did (group 2) undergo facial MEP monitoring during surgery to remove acoustic neuromas. In group 2, we continuously stimulated the facial motor cortex at 5- or 10-s intervals throughout surgery. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the contralateral orbicularis oculi- and orbicularis oris muscles. Optimal anode and cathode placement was at the facial motor cortex and the vertex, respectively. Postoperative facial palsy occurred in 8 of the 15 group 1 patients; in 2 it improved to grade II at 6 months after the operation. Of the 20 group 2 patients, 7 suffered postoperative facial palsy. At 6 months after the operation, their facial nerve function was normal. At the end of the operation, the ratio of the amplitude of the supramaximal EMG to the amplitude at the dural opening was 39.6 % in patients with- and 94.3 % in patients without transient postoperative facial palsy. Continuous facial MEP monitoring not only alerts to surgical invasion of the facial nerves but also helps to predict postoperative facial nerve function. To preserve a minimum amplitude ratio of 50 %, even transient postoperative facial palsy must be avoided. MEP monitoring is an additional useful modality for facial nerve monitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:25015389

Tokimura, Hiroshi; Sugata, Sei; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Yunoue, Shunji; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Arita, Kazunori

2014-10-01

46

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial expression database and Japanese Female Facial Expression database. The results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy

2012-01-01

47

[Idiopathic facial paralysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Although acute idiopathic facial paresis is often labelled "Bell's palsy", historical studies show that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) from Würzburg was the first physician to describe the typical symptoms of the disorder in 1797, approximately 24 years prior to the paper published by Sir Charles Bell. Diagnostics has now improved to the extent that acute idiopathic facial palsy can more frequently be assigned to etiologies caused by inflammatory disorders. Herpes simplex virus type I and Borrelia burgdorferi are particularly relevant. Underestimation of the degree of paresis is, particularly in children, a drawback of the clinical examination. "Incomplete eyelid closure" is not a reliable indicator of remaining nerve function. For this reason complete electromyography (EMG) is recommended in all cases of severe facial paresis. Since electroneurography does not reliably reflect the degree of denervation present, needle EMG is preferred. The therapy of the facial palsy of unclear etiology is still not well defined. Nevertheless, we recommend that a combined treatment should be used early, at least in patients with disfiguring pareses. Combinations may consist of cortisone, virostatic agents and hemorrheologic substances and possibly antibiotics. Surgical decompression of the facial nerve remains controversial, since positive surgical results lack statistical support. Individual instructions for facial exercises, massage and muscle relaxation can support rehabilitation and possibly reduce the production of pathological synkinesia. Electrical stimulation should not be used. There are a number of possibilities available to reduce the effects of misdirected reinnervation, especially the use of botulinum-A-toxin. However, intensive diagnosis and therapy in the early phase of paresis are decisive in obtaining a favorable outcome. Further refinements in rehabilitation and comparative multicenter controlled studies are still required for future improvements in affected patients. PMID:9816532

Wolf, S R

1998-09-01

48

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facia...

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani

2012-01-01

49

Intermittent facial swelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermittent facial swelling is an unusual presentation in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis may range from a variety of causes. Most common differential diagnosis is angio-oedema. However, more serious presentations such as superior venacaval obstruction must not be ignored. This case report presents a patient who was investigated in the hospital for 2?weeks (2 admissions) with intermittent facial swelling. He presented to the emergency department (3rd admission) and was diagnosed to have superior venacaval obstruction secondary to metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma. He underwent emergency endovascular stenting; however, he died within a few weeks. PMID:25326556

Pope, Charlie; Gopala Pillai, Suresh Kumar

2014-01-01

50

Synthetic facial implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a range of synthetic implant materials for use in facial plastic surgery. The authors discuss alternatives to autogenous tissue transfer in terms of biocompatibility, technique, complications, controversies, and cautions. The reader is presented information about a range of synthetic implant materials such as silicone, polyester fiber, polyamide mesh, metal, polyethylene, polyacrylamide gel, hydroxyapatite, polylactic acid, collagen, and others. PMID:18063244

Quatela, Vito C; Chow, Jen

2008-02-01

51

Facial Cues in Lipreading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four hearing-impaired subjects (mean age 67 years) were tested for lipreading skills under 3 conditions (full face, eyes masked, only lips visible). Results show no significant association between facial visibility and lipreading ability. Results are interpreted in the context of the phonological and semantic components of speech.…

Grove, Carl; And Others

1991-01-01

52

Análisis Facial, Dentario y Radiográfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La estética y armonía facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepción y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estéticos por medio de cirugías para obtener una valoración positiva de sí mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la percepción, autoestima y deseo de cambio estético; y puntos antropométricos, cefalométricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 años de edad, en las cuales se realizó una encuesta sobre la autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial, deseo de cambio estético y cambio de autoestima posterior a una cirugía, éstas se asociaron a través de un análisis de chi2, regresión logística de multivariado y ANOVA, con las distancias entre puntoantropométricos objetivos basados en estudios de Farkas y entre puntos cefalométricos basados en Epker y Fish; y entre ellas a través de un análisis. La normalidad facial se ve afectada principalmente por clases caninas derecha (p=0,02 e izquierda (p=0,015 y molares derecha (p=0,015 e izquierda (p=0,04; y además el apiñamiento dentario (p=0,012. Mientras el aumento en la distancia de exocantios (p=0,04, bases alares (p=0,03, proporción glabela subnasal y subnasal mentón (p=0,02 se asocian a una percepción de anormalidad. La autoestima puede variar de forma positiva posterior a un cambio estético, a través de cirugía o tratamiento de ortodoncia. Los parámetros dentomaxilares y craneofaciales son determinantes en la percepción de normalidad estética de estas mujeres, siendo los relacionados con nariz y altura facial los de mayor influencia en este estudio. Son necesarios futuros estudios para evaluar autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial y proporciones estéticas.Aesthetics and facial harmony are directly related to self-esteem and perception individuals have of themselves. There is often a desire to make overall aesthetic changes through surgery in order to get a positive assessment of oneself. The aim of this study was to research the relationship between perception, self-esteem and desire for change; and points aesthetic anthropometric and cephalometric points, as well as malocclusions in a group of women. Twenty nine (29Chilean women between 20 and 25 years of age were chosen, taking part in a survey on self-esteem, self-perception of facial normalcy, the desire for aesthetic change, and changes of self-esteem following surgery. These were subsequently associated through Chi2 analysis, logistic multi variant regression and ANOVA, with distances between objective anthropometric marks based on Farkas research, and between cephalometric points based in Epker and Fish study. Facial normalcy seems mainly affected by right canine class (p=0.02, and left (p=0.015; right molar class (p=0.015 and left (p=0.04, as well as dental crowding (p=0.012. While greater exocanthion distance (p=0.04, alar base (p=0.03, subnasal glabella and subnasal menton ratios (p=0.02, are related to a perception of abnormality. Self esteem perception can vary in positive ways following an aesthetic change through surgery or orthodontic treatment. Dental, maxillary and craniofacial parameters are determinants of the aesthetic normalcy perception of these women, with nose and facial height having the most influence in this study. Further research is necessary to evaluate self- esteem and self perception of facial normalcy, as well as aesthetic ratios.

Claudio Huentequeo-Molina

2013-03-01

53

Análisis Facial, Dentario y Radiográfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres / Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La estética y armonía facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepción y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estéticos por medio de cirugías para obtener una valoración positiva de sí mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la pe [...] rcepción, autoestima y deseo de cambio estético; y puntos antropométricos, cefalométricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 años de edad, en las cuales se realizó una encuesta sobre la autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial, deseo de cambio estético y cambio de autoestima posterior a una cirugía, éstas se asociaron a través de un análisis de chi2, regresión logística de multivariado y ANOVA, con las distancias entre puntoantropométricos objetivos basados en estudios de Farkas y entre puntos cefalométricos basados en Epker y Fish; y entre ellas a través de un análisis. La normalidad facial se ve afectada principalmente por clases caninas derecha (p=0,02) e izquierda (p=0,015) y molares derecha (p=0,015) e izquierda (p=0,04); y además el apiñamiento dentario (p=0,012). Mientras el aumento en la distancia de exocantios (p=0,04), bases alares (p=0,03), proporción glabela subnasal y subnasal mentón (p=0,02) se asocian a una percepción de anormalidad. La autoestima puede variar de forma positiva posterior a un cambio estético, a través de cirugía o tratamiento de ortodoncia. Los parámetros dentomaxilares y craneofaciales son determinantes en la percepción de normalidad estética de estas mujeres, siendo los relacionados con nariz y altura facial los de mayor influencia en este estudio. Son necesarios futuros estudios para evaluar autoestima, autopercepción de normalidad facial y proporciones estéticas. Abstract in english Aesthetics and facial harmony are directly related to self-esteem and perception individuals have of themselves. There is often a desire to make overall aesthetic changes through surgery in order to get a positive assessment of oneself. The aim of this study was to research the relationship between [...] perception, self-esteem and desire for change; and points aesthetic anthropometric and cephalometric points, as well as malocclusions in a group of women. Twenty nine (29)Chilean women between 20 and 25 years of age were chosen, taking part in a survey on self-esteem, self-perception of facial normalcy, the desire for aesthetic change, and changes of self-esteem following surgery. These were subsequently associated through Chi2 analysis, logistic multi variant regression and ANOVA, with distances between objective anthropometric marks based on Farkas research, and between cephalometric points based in Epker and Fish study. Facial normalcy seems mainly affected by right canine class (p=0.02), and left (p=0.015); right molar class (p=0.015) and left (p=0.04), as well as dental crowding (p=0.012). While greater exocanthion distance (p=0.04), alar base (p=0.03), subnasal glabella and subnasal menton ratios (p=0.02), are related to a perception of abnormality. Self esteem perception can vary in positive ways following an aesthetic change through surgery or orthodontic treatment. Dental, maxillary and craniofacial parameters are determinants of the aesthetic normalcy perception of these women, with nose and facial height having the most influence in this study. Further research is necessary to evaluate self- esteem and self perception of facial normalcy, as well as aesthetic ratios.

Claudio, Huentequeo-Molina; Pablo, Navarro; Bélgica, Vásquez; Sergio, Olate.

54

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

55

Management of facial trauma in children: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender minds of young children and their parents. This case report documents the trauma and follow up care of a 4-year-old patient with maxillofacial injuries.

Das U

2006-09-01

56

Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

J. Fortes-Rego

1975-12-01

57

Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

J. Fortes-Rego

1976-03-01

58

Skull and facial trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with skull and facial trauma are frequently unstable clinically and unable to cooperate in a manner necessary to obtain quality radiographs. Patients motion makes images difficult to obtain, regardless of the technique (x-ray, computed tomography, tomography). Difficulty in obtaining adequate images can be discouraging; however, the severity of injury and frequency of associated spinal injury dictate that persistence and proper imaging techniques be used

59

Some issues in facial transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human facial transplantation, a form of composite tissue allotransplantation, has now become a clinical reality. We carried out the world's second partial facial transplantation in April 2006. We reviewed some issues associated with facial transplantation, especially focusing on the individual who underwent the transplant in our department. We discussed surgical indications, techniques, risks versus benefits, informed consent and psychosocial, societal and financial issues of facial transplantation. In our opinion, with the progresses in composite tissue allotransplantation, partial or full facial transplantation is becoming a timely and effective remedy for the significantly disfigured patients. However, there are a lot of problems unsolved, and as we have performed the transplant on only three individuals, no long-term outcome data are available. Facial transplantation needs further research. PMID:18828775

Chenggang, Y; Yan, H; Xudong, Z; Binglun, L; Hui, Z; Xianjie, M; Li, Y; Xing, F; Yunjing, L; Kaihua, L; Huiyuan, L; Yan, Z; Guoyou, Z; Shuzhong, G

2008-10-01

60

Facial Expression Recognition System :Basics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As an important part of technology for humanmachine interface, FER draws much attention recently and numerous methods are proposed .For human beings ,facial expressions is one of the most powerful, natural and non verbal way to communicate their emotions and intensions. A human being can detect facial expression without efforts, but for a machine it is very difficult. This paper describes the problem of facial expression recognition in the field of computer vision .Firstly, the psychologica...

Tanvi Srivastava

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is u...

Devi Arumugam; Purushothaman, Dr S.

2011-01-01

62

Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

2014-01-01

63

[Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

Koyama, Shinichi

2014-04-01

64

Facial reanimation with jump interpositional graft hypoglossal facial anastomosis and hypoglossal facial anastomosis: evolution in management of facial paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

When viable proximal facial nerve is inacessible, facial nerve paralysis has been classically managed with the hypoglossal facial anastomosis (HFA) for at least the past 70 years. While this procedure has proven its reliability, its problems with hemilingual atrophy (speech deglutition, drooling, mastication), hypertonia, synkinesis, and mimetic deficits indicate the need for a more perfect solution for facial paralysis. The jump interpositional graft hypoglossal facial anastomosis (JIGHFA) along with gold weight lid implantation and electromyographic (EMG) rehabilitation achieves substantial facial reanimation without hemilingual deficits. We present our results in 18 patients who underwent JIGHFA along with gold weight lid implantation and EMG rehabilitation for facial paralysis. These results were compared with those from published series of 30 patients treated with HFA with EMG rehabilitation evaluated with objective (House-Brackmann) criteria. Anonymous retrospective information from questionnaires from 22 of 48 patients who were treated with the classic HFA was also presented. In properly selected patients, the JIGHFA technique is capable of achieving substantial facial reinnervation (House-Brackmann grade III or better) in 83.3% of the patients without hemilingual sequelae which was seen in 45% of the HFA patients. In contrast to the HFA, this procedure can be used by patients with concomitant lower cranial nerve paralysis (except hypoglossal), and bilateral facial paralysis. Hypertonia, synkinesis, and lagophthalmus were less symptomatic in the JIGHFA patients. Mimetic expression was not improved in the JIGHFA population compared with the HFA group. PMID:10884169

Hammerschlag, P E

1999-02-01

65

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão suprageniculada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial.The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Ricardo E. Bento

1985-09-01

66

Topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica / Topodiagnostics of peripheral facial palsies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A importância do topodiagnóstico na paralisia facial periférica é a localização anatômica precisa da lesão neural. Consiste ele na realização de testes clínicos para avaliar as funções de cada um dos ramos do nervo. O Grupo de Paralisia Facial do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Uni [...] versidade de São Paulo, com estatística de 873 pacientes, demonstra que praticamente 50% dos casos, das mais diversas etiologias, apresentavam lesão suprageniculada. A importância desse dado é a indicação da via de acesso, quando necessária a exploração cirúrgica do nervo facial. Abstract in english The topodiagnosis allows the physician to determine the topographic localization of pathology involving the facial nerve. It is based on clinical tests that evaluate the function of each one of the rami of the facial nerve. With a statistic of 873 patients, the Facial Nerve Group of Hospital das Clí [...] nicas, São Paulo University, found that suprageniculate lesions are responsible for 50% of the facial nerve involvement of several etiologies. Based on these results, the physician is able to develop a rationale for therapy and surgical access for facial nerve lesions.

Ricardo E., Bento; Eduardo A. S., Vellutini; Felix H., Pahl; A. J., Tedesco-Marchese; Gilberto S., Formigoni; Hector C., Navarro; A., Miniti.

67

Facial cancer: radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred and six facial skin cancer treated by radiation therapy in 97 patients were studied. Recurrence rate was 9.4% for all tumors; 1.2% for basal cell carcinoma and 30.0% for squamous cell tumor. Excluding four severe cases of squamous cell carcinoma, the cure and cosmetic results were very good to excellent. Low daily doses and increased number of applications allowed better cosmetic results. Complications of radiation therapy in five cases (4.7%) were not significant. Radiation therapy should be considered for treatment of selected sites of the face as eyelids, nose and ears mainly if better cosmetic results are desired. (author)

68

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

69

Facial Expression Recognition from Speech  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this document, we present a facial expression recognition method developed during the ReV-TV project by the Metiss team. First we detail the representation of facial expressions, then the database construction, the audio features and the classifier used.

Lejan, Guylaine; Souviraa?-labastie, Nathan; Bimbot, Fre?de?ric

2013-01-01

70

[Emotional impact of facial palsy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial palsy is not only a movement disorder but leads also to an emotional and communicative disorder in chronic stage but also in some patients already during the acute phase of the disease. The present review describes the current knowledge of the neurobiological and psychological fundamentals on the relation of facial movement and its emotional context. So far there is not much knowledge on the impact of a facial palsy on the interaction between facial movement, emotional processing and communicative skills of the patient. The emotional contagion seems to be reduced in patients with facial palsy. The ability to express emotions seems also to be reduced. Moreover, the patients feel to be perceived negatively. In fact, most of the expressions of patients with facial palsy are allocated with a negative affect even when the patients are smiling. Patients with facial palsy react with negative stress, anxiety and depression. The patients avoid social contacts. In turn, this reinforces the communicative disorder. The otorhinolaryngologist can use the Facial Disability Index as a simple questionnaire to detect such dysfunctions. Diagnostics that are necessary to develop a therapy program are presented in this review. Standardized therapy concepts that are not only treat the movement disorder but also the emotional context is missing so far. Finally, the review will give an outlook on potential therapy strategies. PMID:23065673

Dobel, C; Miltner, W H R; Witte, O W; Volk, G F; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2013-01-01

71

Human facial dysostoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human facial dysostoses can be subdivided into mandibulofacial dysostoses (MFDs) and acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs). The craniofacial phenotypes of the two groups of patients are similar. Both types are thought to be related to abnormal migration of neural crest cells to the pharyngeal arches and the face. The craniofacial anomalies shared by the two groups consist of downslanting palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower eyelid, from which the eyelashes medial to the defect may be absent, hypoplasia of the zygomatic complex, micrognathia, and microtia, which is often associated with hearing loss. These facial deformities are associated with limb anomalies in the AFDs. All MFDs present with the typical craniofacial phenotype, but some have additional features that help to distinguish them clinically: intellectual disability, microcephaly, chest deformity, ptosis, cleft lip/palate, macroblepharon, or blepharophimosis. The limb anomalies in the AFDs can be classified into pre-axial, post-axial, and others not fitting into the first two AFD types. Of the pre-axial types, Nager syndrome and of the post-axial types, Miller syndrome are the best-known disorders of their AFD subgroups. Several other AFDs with unknown molecular genetic bases, including lethal ones, have been described. This article reviews the MFDs and AFDs published to date. PMID:23565775

Wieczorek, D

2013-06-01

72

Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial / Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A eti [...] opatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial) juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural) e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas. Abstract in english Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic) and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiolo [...] gy can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%). The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves) and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa; Andy de Oliveira, Vicente; Carlos E.C., Abreu; Simone F., Benbassat; Marcos L., Antunes; Flávia A., Barros.

73

Parotidectomía y vena facial / Parotidectomy and facial vein  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cirugía de los tumores benignos de la parótida, es una cirugía de relaciones con estructuras fundamentalmente nerviosas cuyo daño, representa un gravísimo problema psicosomático por definirlo de una manera genérica. Para ayudar al manejo quirúrgico del nervio facial periférico, es por lo que en e [...] l presente artículo tratamos de enfatizar la importancia de la vena facial en la disección y conservación del nervio, precisamente donde su disección suele ser más comprometida, esto es en las ramas más caudales. El trabajo que vamos a desarrollar hay que verlo pues, como un ensalzamiento de las estructuras venosas en el seguimiento y control del nervio facial periférico y de porqué no, el nervio auricular mayor no siempre suficientemente valorado en la cirugía de la parótida al perder protagonismo con el facial. Abstract in english Benign parotid tumor surgery is related to fundamental nervous structures, defined simply: that when damaged cause great psychosomatic problems. In order to make peripheral facial nerve surgery easy to handle for the surgeon this article emphasizes the importance of the facial vein in the dissection [...] and conservation of the nerve. Its dissection can be compromised if the caudal branches are damaged. The study that we develop should be seen as praise for the vein structures in the follow up and control of the peripheral facial nerve, and the main auricular nerve that is often undervalued when it is no longer the protagonist in the face.

F., Hernández Altemir; S., Hernández Montero; S., Hernández Montero; E., Hernández Montero.

74

MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

1996-10-01

75

MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

76

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample compris [...] ed four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment.

Jesus Claudio, Gabana-Silveira; Laura Davison, Mangilli; Fernanda C., Sassi; Arnaldo Feitosa, Braga; Claudia Regina Furquim, Andrade.

2014-08-01

77

Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed andevaluated.Key WordsArtificial Muscles, facial prosthetics, stroke rehabilitation,facial paralysis, computer vision, automated facialrecognition.

Fergal Coulter

2011-10-01

78

Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparam...

Sumathi, C. P.; Santhanam, T.; Mahadevi, M.

2013-01-01

79

Prosthetic therapy of the lateral facial defect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Facial defects may arise as a result of head and neck trauma or facial tumor ablation. Minor defects can be reconstructed surgically while large defects usually need combined surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. The aim of this study was to present the prosthetic reconstruction of the lateral facial defect using facial colored acrylic prosthesis. Case Report. A male patient with a maxillary defect on the left side and a large lateral facial defect on the same side recei...

Lazi? Vojkan; ?or?evi? Igor

2012-01-01

80

Rehabilitation Strategies for Facial Nerve Injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many treatment techniques, including exercise, electrical stimulation, biofeedback, and neuromuscular retraining, have been described for the treatment of patients with facial paresis. The degree of nerve injury determines the recovery of the facial muscles. Patients with a Sunderland third-degree injury benefit most from therapy to maximize facial nerve function. Following a facial nerve palsy, many patients present with facial muscle weakness in addition to aberrant synkinetic movements. Th...

Novak, Christine B.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cranio-Facial Fibrous Dysplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An unusual case offibrous dysplasia involving leftcranio-facial region in an adult male is reported.The clinical features, radiological findings and the treatment have been discussed.

Parmod Kalsotra, Monica Manhas

1999-07-01

82

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

Zhihong Zeng

2006-08-01

83

Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is used to identify the person’s emotional state through facial expression such as angry, disgust, happy. This can be done with different age group of people with different situation. We Used a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN for classification and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for feature selection.

Devi Arumugam

2011-08-01

84

A REVIEW ON FACIAL NEURALGIAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial neuralgias are produced by a change in neurological structure or function. This type of neuropathic pain affects the mental health as well as quality of life of patients. There are different types of neuralgias affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. These unusual pains are linked to some possible mechanisms. Various diagnostic tests are done to diagnose the proper cause of facial neuralgia and according to it the medical and surgical treatment is done to provide relief to patient.

Gaurav Solanki

2012-11-01

85

Auto zoom crop from face detection and facial features  

Science.gov (United States)

The automatic recomposition of a digital photograph to a more pleasing composition or alternate aspect ratio is a very powerful concept. The human face is arguably one of the most frequently photographed and important subjects. Although evidence suggests only a minority of photos contain faces, the vast majority of images used in consumer photobooks contain faces. Face detection and facial understanding algorithms are becoming ubiquitous to the computational photography community and facial features have a dominating influence on both aesthetic and compositional properties of the displayed image. We introduce a fully automatic recomposition algorithm, capable of zooming in to a more pleasing composition, re-trimming to alternate aspect ratios, or a combination thereof. We use facial bounding boxes, input and output aspect ratios, along with derived composition rules to introduce a facecrop algorithm with superior performance to more complex saliency or region of interest detection algorithms. We further introduce sophisticated facial understanding rules to improve user satisfaction further. We demonstrate through psychophysical studies the improved subjective quality of our method compared to state-of-the-art techniques.

Ptucha, Raymond; Rhoda, David; Mittelstaedt, Brian

2013-02-01

86

Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" / "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz d [...] e lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior). Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porción inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior). Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayoría de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscópico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los párpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ángulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog) se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. También las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz también en ritidectomías secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutáneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos así como en las desproporciones esqueléticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras óseas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas según convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplásticos. Los procedimientos endoscópicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstrucción del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil. Abstract in english Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal l [...] ifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the fa

O. M., Ramírez; A., Novo Torres; Ch. R., Volpe.

2007-03-01

87

Facial neuroma masquerading as acoustic neuroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion. PMID:24775608

Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T

2014-10-01

88

Pregnancy and facial diplegia: A rare case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial paralysis is seen more commonly in the womenduring pregnancy compared to their peers. Facial diplegiais a more common condition than facial paralysis.In etiology, many reasons such as Moebius syndrome,Guillain-Barre syndrome, sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis,bilateral temporal bone fractures, Lyme diseaseand multiple sclerosis might be responsible. While facialparalysises are generally observed as idiopathically, asmall part of facial diplegias is idiopathic. Diagnosis of idiopathicfacial diplegia is possible only after an extensiveinvestigation. In this case, clinical follow-up and treatmentof pregnant women diagnosed as idiopathic facial diplegiawas evaluated.Key words: Pregnancy, facial diplegia, prednisolone

Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

2012-09-01

89

A theoretical and experimental study on meridional-facial isomerization of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq?).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rationale behind the stereospecific synthesis of a facial isomer of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq3) is studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict the favourable influence of an H3O(+) ion on the distribution ratio between a meridional and a thermodynamically unstable facial isomer. PMID:25033089

Iwakura, I; Ebina, H; Komori-Orisaku, K; Koide, Y

2014-09-14

90

Compound facial expressions of emotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

2014-04-15

91

Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism  

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This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a static control. Overall, c...

Tardif, Carole; Laine?, France; Rodriguez, Me?lissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

92

Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparameterization using Facial Action Coding System(FACS action units and the methods whichrecognizes the action units parameters using facial expression data that are extracted. Various kinds offacial expressions are present in human face which can be identified based on their geometric features,appearance features and hybrid features . The two basic concepts of extracting features are based onfacial deformation and facial motion. This article also identifies the techniques based on thecharacteristics of expressions and classifies the suitable methods that can be implemented.

C.P. Sumathi

2013-01-01

93

Facial Recognition Vendor Test, 2000. Evaluation Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biggest change in the facial recognition community since the completion of the FERET program has been the introduction of facial recognition products to the commercial market. Open market competitiveness has driven numerous technological advances in a...

D. M. Blackburn, M. Bone, P. J. Phillips

2001-01-01

94

Do facial expressions develop before birth?  

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Background: Fetal facial development is essential not only for postnatal bonding between parents and child, but also theoretically for the study of the origins of affect. However, how such movements become coordinated is poorly understood. 4-D ultrasound visualisation allows an objective coding of fetal facial movements. Methodology/Findings: Based on research using facial muscle movements to code recognisable facial expressions in adults and adapted for infants, we defined two dist...

Reissland, Nadja; Francis, Brian; Mason, James; Lincoln, Karen

2011-01-01

95

Do facial expressions develop before birth ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Fetal facial development is essential not only for postnatal bonding between parents and child, but also theoretically for the study of the origins of affect. However, how such movements become coordinated is poorly understood. 4-D ultrasound visualisation allows an objective coding of fetal facial movements. Methodology/Findings: Based on research using facial muscle movements to code recognisable facial expressions in adults and adapted for infants, we defined two dist...

2011-01-01

96

Facial Expression Synthesis Based on Imitation  

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Full Text Available It is an interesting and challenging problem to synthesise vivid facial expression images. In this paper, we propose a facial expression synthesis system which imitates a reference facial expression image according to the difference between shape feature vectors of the neutral image and expression image. To improve the result, two stages of postprocessing are involved. We focus on the facial expressions of happiness, sadness, and surprise. Experimental results show vivid and flexible results.

Yihjia Tsai

2012-10-01

97

Recurrent Idiopathic Facial Paralysis: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Idiopathic facial paralysis is the mononeuropathy Multiple recurrences of idiopathic facial paralysis in a patient may be the sign or sympton of a serious illness. therefore; in recurrent cases, family history, systemic diseases and malignancy must be investigated. In this report, a case of recurrent idiopathic facial paralysis is presented.

Hale Hekim Balo?lu

2010-09-01

98

Texture and shape information fusion for facial expression and facial action unit recognition  

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A novel method based on fusion of texture and shape information is proposed for facial expression and Facial Action Unit (FAU) recognition from video sequences. Regarding facial expression recognition, a subspace method based on Discriminant Non-negative Matrix Factorization (DNMF) is applied to the images, thus extracting the texture information. In order to extract the shape information, the system firstly extracts the deformed Candide facial grid that corresponds to the facial expression d...

Kotsia, I.; Zafeiriou, St; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

99

Avaliação do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo Evaluation of facial aging related to cigarette smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo é responsável por diversas doenças crônicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e não fumantes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 não tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excluídos aqueles com exposição solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento estético da face. As alterações faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de características da pele da face descrita por Model (fácies de tabagismo. Os indivíduos tabagistas e não tabagistas foram avaliados de acordo com o tempo e a quantidade de cigarros fumados, o sexo, a cor da pele e a idade. RESULTADOS: A comparação quanto ao escore da fácies de tabagismo evidenciou que o grupo tabagista apresentou maior escore que o grupo não tabagista (p=0,021. Foram observadas diferenças significativas de escore na comparação entre as faixas etárias (p=0,004 e a cor (p BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular and lung diseases, and skin aging. OBJECTIVE:To compare the facial skin of smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: The survey included 77 patients aged 40-60 years and excluded those who had been submitted to esthetic facial treatment, who had been exposed to sun over 2 hours/day and who were alcoholic. There were 34 smokers and 43 nonsmokers. The skin alterations were evaluated and classified according to Model (smoker's face. The patients were assessed considering sex, race, age and pack-years of smoking. RESULTS: We compared the total score of smoker's face in the two groups: smokers and nonsmokers, the latter had less alterations of the skin (p=0.021. There were significant statistical differences as to age (p=0.004 race (p<0.01. No differences were observed regarding sex and pack-years of smoking. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that cigarette smoking (odds ratio (OR=3.49, race (OR=8.10 and age (OR=1.21 were independent factors for facial aging. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for facial aging. This finding could be useful in antismoking campaigns, especially those more interested in appearance than in internal damage.

Letícia Yumi Suehara

2006-02-01

100

Bilateral facial synkinesis in leprosy  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy is an important cause of cranial nerve palsy in endemic areas where it may be seen in upto 17.6% patients. The authors herein describe a rare case of bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis with video documentation and modified blink reflex. A 35-year-old gentleman presented with numbness involving right half of his face for 8 months and abnormal stretching sensations over both sides of his nose for one and a half months. Sensory and motor involvement of the right trigeminal nerve was detected along with bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis involving orbicularis oculi and nasalis. R1 and R2 responses consistent with mis-reinnervation were recorded on the left-side using orbicularis oculi and nasalis muscles. Skin biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli and sural nerve biopsy, the presence of granulomas. After 3 months of follow-up on WHO multi-drug therapy, an improvement in facial sensations was observed but without any change in facial synkinetic movements. PMID:22669019

Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Jain, Amita; Gupta, Arvind; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Gyan Prakash

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Epidemiologia do trauma facial / Epidemiology of facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. O [...] s dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78%) e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%), seguida de queda (26,2%), atropelamento (6,4%), esporte (5,4%), acidente de carro (4,2%), acidente de motocicleta (3,1%), impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%), acidente de trabalho (1,8%), ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%), inespecífica (1,2%). As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%), seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%), nasal (11,6%), zigoma (10,3%), dental (9,1%), órbita (4,9%) e maxila (0,6%). Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and ski [...] n color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78%) and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%), followed by fall (26.2%), run overs 6.4%), sports (5.4%), car accidents (4.2%), motorcycle accidents (3.1%), non-fall impacts (2.4%), occupational injuries (1.8%), gunshot wounds (1.2%), unspecific (1.2%). Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%), followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%), nasal bones (11.6%), zygoma (10.3%), tooth (9.1%), orbit (4.9%) and maxilla (0.6%). Associated injuries Epidemiologia do trauma facial occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

Marcelo, Wulkan; José Gustavo, Parreira Jr; Denise Aparecida, Botter.

102

Epidemiologia do trauma facial / Epidemiology of facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. O [...] s dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78%) e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%), seguida de queda (26,2%), atropelamento (6,4%), esporte (5,4%), acidente de carro (4,2%), acidente de motocicleta (3,1%), impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%), acidente de trabalho (1,8%), ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%), inespecífica (1,2%). As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%), seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%), nasal (11,6%), zigoma (10,3%), dental (9,1%), órbita (4,9%) e maxila (0,6%). Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and ski [...] n color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78%) and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%), followed by fall (26.2%), run overs 6.4%), sports (5.4%), car accidents (4.2%), motorcycle accidents (3.1%), non-fall impacts (2.4%), occupational injuries (1.8%), gunshot wounds (1.2%), unspecific (1.2%). Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%), followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%), Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%), nasal bones (11.6%), zygoma (10.3%), tooth (9.1%), orbit (4.9%) and maxilla (0.6%). Associated injuries Epidemiologia do trauma facial occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

Marcelo, Wulkan; José Gustavo, Parreira Jr; Denise Aparecida, Botter.

2005-10-01

103

Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements  

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Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

Kensaku Miki

2014-07-01

104

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

Science.gov (United States)

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

105

Deciphering faces: quantifiable visual cues to weight.  

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Body weight plays a crucial role in mate choice, as weight is related to both attractiveness and health. People are quite accurate at judging weight in faces, but the cues used to make these judgments have not been defined. This study consisted of two parts. First, we wanted to identify quantifiable facial cues that are related to body weight, as defined by body mass index (BMI). Second, we wanted to test whether people use these cues to judge weight. In study 1, we recruited two groups of Caucasian and two groups of African participants, determined their BMI and measured their 2-D facial images for: width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio. All three measures were significantly related to BMI in males, while the width-to-height and cheek-to-jaw-width ratios were significantly related to BMI in females. In study 2, these images were rated for perceived weight by Caucasian observers. We showed that these observers use all three cues to judge weight in African and Caucasian faces of both sexes. These three facial cues, width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio, are therefore not only related to actual weight but provide a basis for perceptual attributes as well. PMID:20301846

Coetzee, Vinet; Chen, Jingying; Perrett, David I; Stephen, Ian D

2010-01-01

106

Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

Matsuura Naomi

2009-09-01

107

Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40?mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years. PMID:25336000

Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

2014-10-01

108

Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

109

Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

2014-02-01

110

Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives  

Science.gov (United States)

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

2014-01-01

111

Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population  

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Full Text Available Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have differentclinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflectsthe flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protectedenvironments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performeda retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatricpopulation.Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years,with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. Thefollowing parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associatedinjuries, treatment and complications.Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girlswas 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years ofage (36.3%. The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the mostcommon type of fracture (69% and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%.Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%.Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea.Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shifttowards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these agegroups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpfulin further evaluation and management.

Sang Hun Kim

2012-11-01

112

Reconhecimento facial e autismo / Facial recognizing and autism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através da apresentação de quatro figuras com expressões faciais diversas, avaliamos a capacidade de reconhecimento de crianças autistas, comparando-as com crianças de inteligência normal e adultos normais. A comparação dos resultados obtidos foi realizada através do teste do qui-quadrado. As difere [...] nças observadas mostraram-se significativas, reforçando a idéia de que existe uma dificuldade da percepção das expressões faciais nas crianças autistas, o que interfere diretamente nos relacionamentos sociais. Abstract in english Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic childrens recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, s [...] howing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

FRANCISCO B., ASSUMPÇÃO JR; MARIA HELENA, SPROVIERI; EVELYN, KUCZYNSKI; VERA, FARINHA.

113

Reconhecimento facial e autismo Facial recognizing and autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através da apresentação de quatro figuras com expressões faciais diversas, avaliamos a capacidade de reconhecimento de crianças autistas, comparando-as com crianças de inteligência normal e adultos normais. A comparação dos resultados obtidos foi realizada através do teste do qui-quadrado. As diferenças observadas mostraram-se significativas, reforçando a idéia de que existe uma dificuldade da percepção das expressões faciais nas crianças autistas, o que interfere diretamente nos relacionamentos sociais.Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic childrens recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, showing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

FRANCISCO B. ASSUMPÇÃO JR

1999-12-01

114

Reconhecimento facial e autismo / Facial recognizing and autism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Através da apresentação de quatro figuras com expressões faciais diversas, avaliamos a capacidade de reconhecimento de crianças autistas, comparando-as com crianças de inteligência normal e adultos normais. A comparação dos resultados obtidos foi realizada através do teste do qui-quadrado. As difere [...] nças observadas mostraram-se significativas, reforçando a idéia de que existe uma dificuldade da percepção das expressões faciais nas crianças autistas, o que interfere diretamente nos relacionamentos sociais. Abstract in english Through the presentation of four facial expressions' illustrations, we evaluate the capacity of autistic childrens recognition, comparing with normal intelligence children and adults. The comparison of results was accomplished through the qui-square test. The differences observed were significant, s [...] howing that a disturbance of the facial expressions' perception is present in autistic children, and that it interferes directly in the social relationships.

FRANCISCO B., ASSUMPÇÃO JR; MARIA HELENA, SPROVIERI; EVELYN, KUCZYNSKI; VERA, FARINHA.

1999-12-01

115

Automatic Facial Measurements for Quantitative Analysis of Rhinoplasty  

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Full Text Available Proposing automated algorithms for quantitative analysis of facial images based on facial features may assist surgeons to validate the success of nose surgery in objective and reproducible manner. In this paper, we attempt to develop automatic procedures for quantitative analysis of rhinoplasty operation based on several standard linear and spatial features. The main processing steps include image enhancement, "ncorrection of varying illumination effect, automatic facial skin detection, automatic feature extraction, facial measurements and surgery analysis. For quantitative analysis of nose surgery, we randomly selected 100 patients from the database provided by the ENT division of Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The frontal and profile images of these patients before and after rhinoplasty were available for experiments. For statistical analysis of nasal two clinical parameters, i.e., Nasolabial Angle and Nasal Projection ratio are computed. The mean and standard deviation of Nasolabial Angle by manual measurement of a specialist was 95.98?(±9.58? and 111.02?(±10.07? before and after nose surgery, respectively. The proposed algorithm has automatically computed this parameter as 94.12? (±8.86? and 109.65? (±8.86? before and after nose surgery. In addition, the proposed algorithm has automatically computed the Nasal Projection by Good's method as 0.584(±0.0491 and 0.537(±0.066 before and after nose surgery, respectively. Meanwhile, this parameter has manually been measured by a specialist as 0.576(±0.052 and 0.537(±0.077 before and after nose surgery, respectively. The result of the proposed facial skin segmentation, feature detection algorithms, and estimated values for the above two clinical parameters in the presence of the mentioned datasets declare that the techniques are applicable in the common clinical practice of the nose surgery.

Mousa Shamsi

2007-08-01

116

Sympathicotomy for Isolated Facial Blushing: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period. Quality of life (QOL) was investigated preoperatively and after 12 months by Short Form 36. Local effects and side effects were assessed by questionnaire. Results. The male/female ratio was 27/73. The median age was 29 years (range, 18-56 years. The response rate was 93%. QOL increased significantly in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient experienced Horner's syndrome. Compensatory sweating occurred in 93% of patients, gustatory sweating 36%, and dry hands in 66%; 13% of patients regretted the operation despite thorough preoperative selection and information. Conclusions. There were no significant differences in local effects or side effects between R2 and R2-R3 sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing. Both were effective, and QOL increased significantly. Despite very frequent side effects, the vast majority of patients were satisfied. Surprisingly, many patients experienced mild recurrent symptoms within the first year; this should always be discussed with patients preoperatively. (Ann Thorac Surg 2012;94:401-5) (c) 2012 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Licht, P. B.; Pilegaard, Hans

2012-01-01

117

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients’ cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are analyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

Joa?o Paulo Machado de Sousa and Jaime Eduardo Ceci?lio Hallak

2008-01-01

118

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients' cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are a [...] nalyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

João Paulo Machado de, Sousa; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak.

119

Visual processing of facial affect.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the role of the fusiform gyrus in identifying and processing facial emotional expression in humans, MEG data were collected while six healthy subjects judged whether photographs of faces displayed emotion (happiness or disgust) compared to neutral faces and equiluminant scrambled faces. For all six subjects, a magnetic source localizing to right fusiform gyrus was evident approximately 150 ms following presentation of face stimuli, but not following non-face stimuli. MEG source strength for this component was greatest for happy, intermediate for disgust, and lowest for neutral facial expressions, suggesting that activity in fusiform gyrus is sensitive to both face-specific stimuli and to the affective content of the face. These findings are considered in the context of a specialized neural face-dependent information system. PMID:14534432

Lewis, Stephen; Thoma, Robert J; Lanoue, Marianna D; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Edgar, Christopher; Huang, Minxiong; Weisend, Michael P; Irwin, Jessica; Paulson, Kim; Cañive, José M

2003-10-01

120

Facial information processing in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients' cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are a [...] nalyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

João Paulo Machado de, Sousa; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak.

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radiologic evaluation of facial injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed radiological investigation of the maxillofacial injuries is essential to achieve good treatment results. The images should identify every lesion and guide the treatment, thus improving esthetic and functional results. With the aim of simplifying the diagnostic task, the face may be seen as a five regions structure that may suffer a regional fracture or combined fractures involving the adjacent regions. These regions represent areas of focus for pre surgical planning and are as follows: nasal, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular. In order to understand the injury mechanisms and their consequences it is useful to know the supporting buttresses, which are divided in five sagittal planes, three horizontal planes and two coronal planes. We reviewed the cases of patients with facial trauma treated at Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A review of the relevant issues concerning radiological investigation of these injuries is presented. This study allowed standardization and ordering of the radiological investigation in patients with facial trauma. (author)

122

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels ...

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; Debruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

123

Perineural extension of facial melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

2005-05-01

124

3D statistical facial reconstruction  

CERN Document Server

The aim of craniofacial reconstruction is to produce a likeness of a face from the skull. Few works in computerized assisted facial reconstruction have been done in the past, due to poor machine performances and data availability, and major works are manually reconstructions. In this paper, we present an approach to build 3D statistical models of the skull and the face with soft tissues from the skull of one individual. Results on real data are presented and seem promising.

Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

2005-01-01

125

Relative Facial Action Unit Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a subject-independent facial action unit (AU) detection method by introducing the concept of relative AU detection, for scenarios where the neutral face is not provided. We propose a new classification objective function which analyzes the temporal neighborhood of the current frame to decide if the expression recently increased, decreased or showed no change. This approach is a significant change from the conventional absolute method which decides about A...

Khademi, Mahmoud; Morency, Louis-philippe

2014-01-01

126

Cultural perspectives in facial allotransplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

Tan, Pearlie W W; Patel, Ashish S; Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

127

Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls, n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio. Results: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Carvalho, Bettina

2012-01-01

128

Automatic facial responses to near-threshold presented facial displays of emotion: imitation or evaluation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic facial reactions to near-threshold presented facial displays of emotion can be due to motor-mimicry or evaluation. To examine the mechanisms underlying such automatic facial responses we presented facial displays of joy, anger, and disgust for 16.67ms with a backwards masking technique and assessed electromyographic activity over the zygomaticus major, the levator labii, and the corrugator supercilii. As expected, we found that participants responded to displays of joy with contractions of the zygomaticus major and to expressions of anger with contractions of the corrugator supercilii. Critically, facial displays of disgust automatically activated the corrugator supercilii rather than the levator labii. This supports the notion that evaluative processes mediate facial responses to near-threshold presented facial displays of emotion rather than direct mimicry of emotional facial features. PMID:24370542

Neumann, Roland; Schulz, Stefan M; Lozo, Ljubica; Alpers, Georg W

2014-02-01

129

Facial action recognition for facial expression analysis from static face images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic recognition of facial gestures (i.e., facial muscle activity) is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in the research field of machine vision. In this paper, we present an automated system that we developed to recognize facial gestures in static, frontal- and/or profile-view color face images. A multidetector approach to facial feature localization is utilized to spatially sample the profile contour and the contours of the facial components such as the eyes and the mouth. From the extracted contours of the facial features, we extract ten profile-contour fiducial points and 19 fiducial points of the contours of the facial components. Based on these, 32 individual facial muscle actions (AUs) occurring alone or in combination are recognized using rule-based reasoning. With each scored AU, the utilized algorithm associates a factor denoting the certainty with which the pertinent AU has been scored. A recognition rate of 86% is achieved. PMID:15484916

Pantic, Maja; Rothkrantz, Leon J M

2004-06-01

130

A Software Tool for Facial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An accurate and thorough facial analysis is needed for the formulation of treatment plan in rhinoplastic, dental and aesthetic surgical procedures. The analysis process is not difficult but tedious due to accuracy requirements. Before technological advances, facial analysis was done manually to detect and interpret facial characteristics. This procedure is often time consuming with greater error due to parallax and approximation. The object of this study is to introduce a software tool design to simplify the analysis of facial parameters. 2D photographic images of the face captured under varying condition of illumination where analyzed with the aid of standard anatomical landmarks. Facial dimensions obtained where less time consuming and accurate. The software is capable of depicting and quantifying craniofacial dimensions and facial soft tissue profile at an increased speed and accuracy.

Fawehinmi Babatude Hakeem

2012-03-01

131

Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15

132

Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders

133

Facial EMG responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions in boys with disruptive behavior disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the assumption that facial mimicry is a key factor in emotional empathy, and clinical observations that children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are weak empathizers, the present study explored whether DBD boys are less facially responsive to facial expressions of emotions than normal controls. Facial electromyographic (EMG) activity in the zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii muscle regions, and heart rate activity were studied in 22 clinically referred 8–...

Wied, M. A.; Boxtel, A.; Zaalberg, R.; Goudena, P. P.; Matthys, W. C. H. J.

2006-01-01

134

Discriminant Graph Structures for Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a series of advances in elastic graph matching for facial expression recognition are proposed. More specifically, a new technique for the selection of the most discriminant facial landmarks for every facial expression (discriminant expression-specific graphs) is applied. Furthermore, a novel kernel-based technique for discriminant feature extraction from graphs is presented. This feature extraction technique remedies some of the limitations of the typical kernel Fisher discrimi...

Zafeiriou, S.; Pitaw, I.

2010-01-01

135

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, ...

Shiqing Zhang; Xiaoming Zhao; Bicheng Lei

2012-01-01

136

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

137

Rinoplastia e assimetria facial: análise de fatores subjetivos e antropométricos no nariz caucasiano / Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Proporções antropométricas e simetria são consideradas determinantes de beleza. Tais parâmetros têm importância significativa em cirurgia plástica facial, notadamente na Rinoplastia. Sendo o nariz o órgão central da face, ele tem especial importância na determinação da simetria facial, t [...] anto através da percepção de um nariz torto quanto através da determinação do crescimento facial. A avaliação da presença de assimetrias faciais tem grande relevância no pré-operatório, tanto para planejamento cirúrgico quanto aconselhamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e documentar a presença de assimetria facial em pacientes com plano de Rinoplastia e correlacionar as medidas antropométricas com percepção de assimetria ou simetria facial, avaliando se há uma maior prevalência de assimetria facial entre esses pacientes em comparação com voluntários sem queixa nasal. MÉTODO: trabalho prospectivo, realizado através de comparação de fotografias, em pacientes com Pré-operatório de Rinoplastia e voluntários (controles), n=201, através de controle de medidas antropométricas tomadas de uma linha passando pelo centro da face, até: tragus, canto medial, canto lateral, margem alar, e comissura oral, de cada lado da face, por meio de testes estatísticos (teste Z e Odds ratio). RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes ou voluntários apresentou valores totalmente simétricos. Subjetivamente, 59% dos pacientes foram percebidos como assimétricos, contra 54%dos voluntários. Objetivamente, mais de 89% dos pesquisados tiveram medidas assimétricas. Os pacientes apresentaram RLMTr (Razão Linha Média Tragus) mais assimétrica que os voluntários, com diferença estatisticamente significativa. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÃO: assimetrias faciais são muito frequentes em pacientes que procuram Rinoplastia, portanto, especial atenção deve ser dada a estes aspectos, tanto para o planejamento cirúrgico, quanto para orientação aos pacientes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both th [...] rough the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. METHODS: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). RESULTS: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Bettina, Carvalho; Annelyse Christine, Ballin; Renata Vecentin, Becker; Cezar Augusto Sarraff, Berger; Johann G. G. Melcherts, Hurtado; Marcos, Mocellin.

138

Rinoplastia e assimetria facial: análise de fatores subjetivos e antropométricos no nariz caucasiano / Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Proporções antropométricas e simetria são consideradas determinantes de beleza. Tais parâmetros têm importância significativa em cirurgia plástica facial, notadamente na Rinoplastia. Sendo o nariz o órgão central da face, ele tem especial importância na determinação da simetria facial, t [...] anto através da percepção de um nariz torto quanto através da determinação do crescimento facial. A avaliação da presença de assimetrias faciais tem grande relevância no pré-operatório, tanto para planejamento cirúrgico quanto aconselhamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e documentar a presença de assimetria facial em pacientes com plano de Rinoplastia e correlacionar as medidas antropométricas com percepção de assimetria ou simetria facial, avaliando se há uma maior prevalência de assimetria facial entre esses pacientes em comparação com voluntários sem queixa nasal. MÉTODO: trabalho prospectivo, realizado através de comparação de fotografias, em pacientes com Pré-operatório de Rinoplastia e voluntários (controles), n=201, através de controle de medidas antropométricas tomadas de uma linha passando pelo centro da face, até: tragus, canto medial, canto lateral, margem alar, e comissura oral, de cada lado da face, por meio de testes estatísticos (teste Z e Odds ratio). RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes ou voluntários apresentou valores totalmente simétricos. Subjetivamente, 59% dos pacientes foram percebidos como assimétricos, contra 54%dos voluntários. Objetivamente, mais de 89% dos pesquisados tiveram medidas assimétricas. Os pacientes apresentaram RLMTr (Razão Linha Média Tragus) mais assimétrica que os voluntários, com diferença estatisticamente significativa. DISCUSSÃO/CONCLUSÃO: assimetrias faciais são muito frequentes em pacientes que procuram Rinoplastia, portanto, especial atenção deve ser dada a estes aspectos, tanto para o planejamento cirúrgico, quanto para orientação aos pacientes. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both th [...] rough the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. METHODS: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls), n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio). RESULTS: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio) asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

Bettina, Carvalho; Annelyse Christine, Ballin; Renata Vecentin, Becker; Cezar Augusto Sarraff, Berger; Johann G. G. Melcherts, Hurtado; Marcos, Mocellin.

2012-12-01

139

Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. This facial feedback-impairment enhances our understanding of the social and emotional lives of individuals with ASD. PMID:18293075

van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

2008-01-01

140

Facial expressions, emotions, and sign languages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as ‘surprise’ to complex and culture specific concepts such as ‘carelessly’. The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by positing three dimensions; semantic, iconic and compositional.

EevaAnitaElliott

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695...3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that is...

2010-04-01

142

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance...Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation...

2010-04-01

143

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

144

Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion ierve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author)

145

Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age. PMID:24269646

Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yi?it, B

2014-07-01

146

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

147

Idiopathic facial paralysis in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated for Bell's palsy. Material and Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2011, pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated with the diagnosis of idiopathic facial paralysis were enrolled for this study. All the subjects' medical records were reviewed for demographic data, history of upper respiratory infection, family history, and severity of initial paralysis, treatment and outcomes. All subjects received high dose steroid therapy (methyl prednisolone 1mg/kg-in decreasing doses with medications for eye and gastric protection. Results: 61 subjects with 66 facial paralysis episode were evaluated. The mean age was 8.73±3.11 (range 2-14. Thirty seven (60% out of 61 subjects were male whereas remaining 24 (40% were female. Thirty seven (56.1% out of 66 episodes were seen on left side whereas remaining 29 (43.9% episodes were seen on left. 72.7% of the admissions were within first 24 hour. (mean 1,45±0.64, range 1-4 days. In five (8.2% cases family history was positive. In 19 (28. 8% cases upper respiratory infection history was positive. The initial facial paralysis grade was grade 2 in 3 (4.5%, grade 3 in 6 (9.11%, grade 4 in 16 (24.2%, grade 5 in 37 (56.1%, grade 6 in 4 (6.1% episodes. 56 (84.9% subjects were completely recovered at the end of 6 month. Eight (12.1% subjects were remained with grade 1, 2 subjects were remained with grade 2 paralysis. Conclusions: Our results indicate that Bell's palsy has a favorable prognosis. But even with steroid therapy some patients heal with sequelae.

?brahim Say?n

2012-01-01

148

Depth Detection of Facial feature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main problem in computer vision is to calculate depth using two images.This paper aims in calculating the depth of facial feature(i.e nose),using left and right images. This left and right images are captured by left and right camera which are mounted horizontally separated by slight distance such that they are able to capture image from left and right camera .The extracted correspondent feature point(i.e nose)from both left and right image is used and triangulation method is used to calc...

Sushma.H.R

2013-01-01

149

Depth Detection of Facial feature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main problem in computer vision is to calculate depth using two images.This paper aims in calculating the depth of facial feature(i.e nose,using left and right images. This left and right images are captured by left and right camera which are mounted horizontally separated by slight distance such that they are able to capture image from left and right camera .The extracted correspondent feature point(i.e nosefrom both left and right image is used and triangulation method is used to calculate 3D distance of nose.The triangulation method requires disparity map along with correspondence points.

Sushma.H.R

2013-07-01

150

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE) syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

Nagdeve N; Mudkhedkar K

2009-01-01

151

Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

Nagdeve N

2009-01-01

152

Classification Algorithms Research on Facial Expression Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the reliability of facial expression recognition system, and reduce the chance of false positives caused by error, classification strategy is important in recognition process. In the process, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is improved. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is excellent when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

Ou, Jun

153

Computer-Aided Forensic Facial Comparison  

CERN Document Server

Based on the quantification and analysis of more than 3000 facial images, this work lays the foundation for future forensic facial comparison, computer applications development, and research in face shape variation and analysis. It also includes two DVDs which contain the raw 3D landmark datasets for 3000 faces

Evison, Martin Paul

2010-01-01

154

Facial palsy: interpretation of neurologic findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the otoneurologic findings in 500 patients with facial paralysis revealed their importance for diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the pathophysiology of Bell's palsy. Diagnosis. The presence of simultaneous bilateral palsy, facial paralysis associated with lateral rectus palsy, slowly progressive facial weakness with or without hyperkinesis, and facial paralysis that showed no recovery after six months excluded Bell's palsy from the diagnosis. Ipsilateral recurrent palsies were another indication to suspect an underlying cause, since a tumor of the facial nerve caused the paralysis in 30% of the patients with this finding. Signs such as intact forehead movement, alterations in facial sensation, and corneal hypesthesia--although often associated with lesions in the cerebral cortex, cerebellopontine angle, or internal auditory canal--were also found in patients with Bell's palsy. Prognosis. A spontaneous complete recovery following Bell's palsy occurs in about 70% of the patients; but in the presence of a dry eye or dysacousis, the prognosis for a complete recovery drops 10 and 25%, respectively. Pathophysiology. It is proposed that the wide range of neurologic findings associated with Bell's palsy is due to a viral polyneuropathy. This is a disorder that primarily involves sensory nerves, and the facial motor deficit results from involvement of the sensory fibers carried with the facial nerve within the fallopian canal. PMID:672368

May, M; Hardin, W B

1978-08-01

155

Localization of facial region in digital images  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

2011-06-01

156

Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of a facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main research effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face construction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and analyzes the facial components from a face image by an efficient technique. The Fuzzy model, designed in this paper, takes crisp value of width and height of a facial component and produces the crisp value of Shape for different facial components. This method is designed using Matlab 6.5 and Visual Basic 6.0 and tested with the facial components extracted from 200 male and female face images of different ages from different face databases.

Halder, S; Nasipuri, M; Basu, D K; Kundu, M

2010-01-01

157

A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, human–computer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

ANITHA C,

2010-10-01

158

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

Shiqing Zhang

2012-03-01

159

Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV of the statistical shape model (SSM built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have been used for the testing. The experimental results show that the SSV not only controls the shape variations but also captures the expressive characteristic of the faces and can be used as a significant feature for facial expression recognition. Finally the paper suggests improvements of the SSV discriminatory characteristics by using 3D facial sequences rather than 3D stills.

Djamel Ait-Boudaoud

2009-01-01

160

Navigation aided surgery for facial fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A navigation system that has been developed in neurosurgery has recently been applied in the maxillofacial region. We introduced a navigation system (Stealth Station, Medtronic) in the maxillofacial region. As preoperative preparation, CT scanning was performed with a slice of 1 mm. Navigation aided surgery was performed in 11 patients with facial fractures between April 2005 and July 2006. Navigation aided reduction of the bone segment was performed by comparing with the sound site on the screen. Facial symmetry was recovered in 10 of 11 cases. Facial asymmetry in 1 case (midfacial multiple fractures) remained, because the system did not work after the surgeon contacted the reference frame during the operation. The navigation system is useful for repairing facial fractures, especially for verifying facial symmetry. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

162

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

163

2D:4D and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The second-to-fourth-digit ratio (2D:4D) may be related to prenatal testosterone and estrogen levels and pubertal face growth. Several studies have recently provided evidence that 2D:4D is associated with other-rated facial masculinity and dominance, but not with facialmetric measures of masculinity. We found that localized face shape differences, shown here to be sexually dimorphic and related to ratings of dominance, were associated with direct and indirect measurements of 2D:4D. In this study we examined various localized features of the face, showing nose width, jaw angle, and lip height to be sexually dimorphic. We then had faces rated for dominance and saw that the most dimorphic characteristics were those most associated with rated dominance, with typically masculine characteristics tending to be associated with high ratings of dominance. Finally, 2D:4D measurements were made using three different techniques. High (feminine) values of 2D:4D were associated with feminine facial characteristics in women, but not in men. It was concluded that certain aspects of facial development are governed by factors that are established prenatally. These aspects may be associated with perceptions of the self by others that are important in the social environment, particularly in terms of intra-sexual competition and mate acquisition. PMID:17203400

Burriss, Robert P; Little, Anthony C; Nelson, Emma C

2007-06-01

164

Palatability of tastes is associated with facial circulatory responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine whether various types of taste stimuli in the oral cavity elicit unique changes in facial skin blood flow (SkBF) according to the palatability perceived by an individual, the facial SkBF was observed by laser speckle flowgraphy in 15 healthy subjects (11 males and 4 females) before and during the ingestion of bitter tea, chilli sauce, coffee, orange juice, soup, and a water control. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and SkBF in the index finger were recorded continuously. Subjects reported their subjective palatability and taste intensity scores after each stimulus. The vascular conductance indexes (CIs) in the face and finger were calculated as ratios of SkBF to MAP. CI in the eyelid increased significantly in response to chilli sauce, orange juice, and soup, whereas CIs in the forehead, nose, and cheek decreased in response to bitter tea. There was a significant correlation between the palatability scores and CI values in the eyelid when changes induced by chilli sauce were excluded. These results suggest that the facial circulatory response reflects the degree of palatability of a foodstuff. PMID:24391145

Kashima, Hideaki; Hamada, Yuka; Hayashi, Naoyuki

2014-03-01

165

The perception of facial aesthetics in a young Spanish population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved facial aesthetics is one aim of orthodontic treatment. This study was designed to determine if the faces considered more beautiful in a young population exhibit the same parameters used by orthodontists to assess successful results. A panel of 34 laypeople (30 females and 4 males) evaluated a set containing one frontal, one frontal during smiling, and one profile photograph of 89 students (77 females and 12 males) on a 5-point attractiveness scale, in relation to a set of reference photographs. For each photographic set, the mean and final scores were calculated. Once the sample was established, 11 subjects (9 females and 2 males) with the highest final facial aesthetic score were selected and cephalometric analysis was performed. All cephalometric measurements were within the norm for the total sample. When the sample was divided by gender, Wilcoxon's W non-parametric test showed significant differences between the male and female photographs; while females tended to a Class II malocclusion, with the mandible slightly retrusive to the maxilla, males tended to a Class III and showed a straighter profile with a prominent chin; the face height ratio was higher in males. There were no significant differences between genders for lower lip to E plane. The findings show that the faces considered more attractive fulfilled the cephalometric and facial norms. PMID:21447783

Macías Gago, Ana B; Romero Maroto, Martín; Crego, Antonio

2012-06-01

166

Medidas faciais antropométricas de adultos segundo tipo facial e sexo Adult facial anthropometric measurements according to facial type and gender  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever medidas antropométricas faciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4% homens e 71 (67,6% mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram comparados os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo de face com sete medidas antropométricas faciais diretas: altura facial anterior- násio ao mentoniano; distância bizigomática- zigomático esquerdo ao direito; altura do terço facial inferior- subnasal ao mentoniano; altura da face média- násio ao estômio; altura do queixo- supramentoniano ao mentoniano; altura da face inferior- estômio ao mentoniano; e altura facial posterior- condílio ao gônio. RESULTADOS: para o sexo masculino, os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para os valores médios das medidas antropométricas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média e altura da face inferior. Para o sexo feminino, diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram encontradas nas medidas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média, altura da face inferior e altura facial posterior. CONCLUSÃO: houve dimorfismo sexual para todas as medidas antropométricas obtidas, as quais tiveram valores médios maiores para o sexo masculino quando comparados ao feminino. Os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para quatro medidas antropométricas do sexo masculino e cinco do feminino.PURPOSE: to describe anthropometric measurements in adults according to facial type and gender. METHODS: 105 Caucasian adults took part, 34 male (32.4% and 71 female (67.6% with ages between 20 and 40-year old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings from the cephalometric analysis were compared for determining facial type with seven direct anthropometric measurements: anterior face height- nasion to menton; distance bizygomatique- zygion left to right; lower face height- subnasale to menton; middle face height- nasion to stomion; chin height- supramenton to menton; inferior face height- stomion to menton; and posterior face height- condylion to gonion. RESULTS: for male, the facial types classified by means of cephalometry had significant statistical differences for the average values of the anthropometric measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height and inferior face height. For female, significant statistical differences were found in the following measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height, inferior face height and posterior face height. CONCLUSION: there was sexual dimorphism for all collected anthropometric measurements. The male showed higher average values when compared with the female. The facial types classified by means of cephalometry showed significant statistical differences in four anthropometric measurements, for male and five for female.

Rossana Ribeiro Ramires

2011-04-01

167

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD, genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

Dallapiccola Bruno

2010-09-01

168

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

Science.gov (United States)

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (?5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation. PMID:22135150

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

169

Trends in the Pattern of Facial Fractures in Different Countries of the World / Tendencias en el Patrón de Fracturas Faciales en Diferentes Países del Mundo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los cambios en el patrón de las fracturas maxilofaciales entre los países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo en dos períodos de tiempo (1987-1999) y (2000-2007). Una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en PubMed se llevó a cabo entre las publicaciones de lesi [...] ones maxilofaciales publicados durante los últimos 20 años. Sólo 45 artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, y los textos completos de estos artículos fueron examinados a fondo. En cada uno de los estudios incluidos se registraron diferentes parámetros. Se calculó el porcentaje de "peso" de cada parámetro a través del número total de pacientes. La mandíbula fue el hueso facial más fracturado (57%). En todo el periodo evaluado, la media de edad de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue de 24,4 años y la incidencia de las fracturas faciales fue mayor en hombres (81,3%) que en mujeres. La razón hombre-mujer de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue mayor en los países en vías de desarrollo (5,1:1,0) que en los países desarrollados (3,7:1,0) en todo el período. Las lesiones relacionadas con accidentes de tránsito disminuyeron considerablemente en los países desarrollados, mientras que aumentó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. Sin embargo, las lesiones faciales relacionadas con asaltos aumentaron considerablemente en los países desarrollados y disminuyó en los países en vías de desarrollo durante los dos períodos. El cuerpo de la mandíbula fue el sitio de fractura más común (27,2%). Se concluyó que las fracturas mandibulares son las lesiones más comunes en el tercio medio del esqueleto facial. La mayoría de los pacientes afectados por fracturas faciales en los diferentes países fueron hombres jóvenes. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999) and (2000-2007). A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injur [...] ies published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included studies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%). In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3%) than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0) than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0) in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%). It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.

Mohammad, Shayyab; Firas, Alsoleihat; Sukaina, Ryalat; Ameen, Khraisat.

2012-06-01

170

Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than 10 weeks were, respectively, 68.6% and 77.4%.

H. Madokoro

2012-08-01

171

Orbital abscess after facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta um caso de abscesso agudo em cavidade orbitária, após 2 dias de trauma facial, sem a presença de fratura óssea, ocorrido em uma mulher da raça negra com 20 anos de idade. Os sintomas se intensificaram nas últimas 24 h com o desenvolvimento de distúrbios visuais do tipo diplopia [...] e fotofobia. Durante exame clínico foi constatado a presença de febre, edema e eritema periorbitário, ptose, proptose e limitação de movimentação ocular para cima, baixo, lado direto e esquerdo. A tomografia computadorizada evidenciava proptose associada a edema considerável, dos tecidos moles no lado esquerdo da face, sem fratura do complexo zigomático-orbitário. A internação hospitalar e o início da antibioticoterapia endovenosa foram realizados, e o tratamento cirúrgico de incisão e drenagem do abscesso sob anestesia geral foi conduzido, sendo realizado por meio de incisão na pálpebra superior e inferior para acesso a cavidade orbitária e por acesso de Caldwell-Luc para o seio maxilar. No pós-operatório imediato foi observada rápida melhora dos sintomas inicialmente relatados pela paciente. Após 2 dias da intervenção cirúrgica foi observado melhora na movimentação ocular e na acuidade visual, retornando ao normal. No décimo segundo dia pós-operatório, a paciente apresentou melhora significativa com relação à ptose palpebral e a proptose, com adequado processo de cicatrização. Abstract in english This paper reports a rare case of acute severe orbital abscess manifested 2 days after a facial trauma without bone fracture in a 20-year-old Afro-American female. The symptoms worsened within the 24 h prior to hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. The [...] clinical findings at the first consultation included fever, periorbital swelling and redness, ptosis, proptosis and limitation of ocular movements upwards, downwards, to the right and to the left. Computed tomography scan showed proptosis with considerable soft tissue swelling on the left side and no fracture was evidenced in the facial skeleton, including the zygomatic-orbital complex. After hospital admission and antibiotic therapy intravenously the patient was conducted to the operation room and submitted to incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The orbit was approached thorough both eyelids and the maxillary sinus was reached only through the Caldwell-Luc approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. Visual acuity and ocular motility returned to the normal ranges within 2 days after the surgical intervention. After 12 postoperative days, the patient presented with significative improvement in the ptosis and proptosis, and acceptable scars.

Elis Cristina Sousa, Serra; Cassio Edvard, Sverzut; Alexandre Elias, Trivellato.

172

Radiologic finding of facial nerve schwannoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyze the radilologic findings of facial nerve schwannoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT and/or MR images and clinical history of eight patients with histologically proven facial nerve schwannama. After classifying this extratemporal and intratemporal types, clinical and radilologic findings were analysed. The most common clinical findings of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve palsy and hearing impairment in an intratemporal schwannoma(4/5), and a palpable parotid mass in an extratemporal schwannoma(3/3). On CT, each involved segment of intratemporal schwannomas(five cases) showed characteristic radilologic findings, while extratemporal schwannomas(three cases) showed masses of various types. On MRI, all tumors(two cases) showed hypointensity of T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI, and strong enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas can be easily diagnosed by characteristic clinical and radilologic findings. Extratemporal facial nerve schwannomas show nonspecific findings. However, if the tumor is located between the superficial and the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extends to the posterior portion of the styloid process, then facial nerve schwannoma is strongly suspected

173

The identification of unfolding facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

2012-01-01

174

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

Science.gov (United States)

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

175

[Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral facial nerve palsy may (secondary) or may not have a detectable cause (idiopathic facial palsy or Bell's palsy). Idiopathic facial palsy is the common form of facial palsy. It remains diagnosis by exclusion. The prognosis is more favourable in children than in adults. We present current diagnostic procedures and recommendations regarding treatment in children. PMID:25048647

Tabarki, B

2014-10-01

176

An evaluation of facial prostheses.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to evaluate patient reactions to facial prostheses that were provided to 143 patients in the past 7 years at Roswell Park Memorial Institute. Of the 76 patients who responded, 38 patients were wearing their prostheses and 38 patients were not wearing their prostheses. Reasons cited by the patients for not using their prosthesis included lack of retention, additional surgery, discomfort, and irritation. Most of the prostheses were prepared in silicone rubber with color characterization accomplished by the tattooing method. More than 69% of the prostheses were remade within a year because of rapid changes in the defect, prosthesis material, or prosthesis color. The study revealed the need for improvement in materials, adhesive techniques, and the psychological orientation of the patient. This project was conducted at a teaching and research institute. No fees for the patients were required. Therefore our data might differ from that collected from a private practice or clinic. PMID:274548

Jani, R M; Schaaf, N G

1978-05-01

177

Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

2011-05-01

178

Effect of Different Occlusion on Facial Expressions Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occlusions around facial parts complicate the task of recognizing facial expressions from their facial images. We propose facial expressions recognition method based on local facial regions, which provides better recognition rate in the presence of facial occlusions. Proposed method uses Uniform Local Binary pattern as a feature extractor, which extract discriminative features from some important parts of facial image. Feature vectors are classified using simplest classifier that is template matching with chi square distance measure. Extensive experiments are performed on JAFFE database.

Ankita Vyas

2014-10-01

179

Giant sialocele following facial trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Lesões na região parotídea e massetérica podem causar danos importantes secundariamente à injúrias de estruturas anatômicas nobres. A sialocele é observada como um aumento de volume facial associado a ruptura do ducto parotídeo devido a trauma. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso de sialocele [...] parotídea gigante traumática, por arma branca, em uma paciente de 40 anos de idade. Em virtude do insucesso de medidas conservadoras de tratamento, uma intervenção cirúrgica por meio de instalação de um dreno à vácuo foi proposta. Sob anestesia local, uma pequena incisão foi realizada adjacente ao ducto da papila parotídea, seguida de divulsão do plano muscular e drenagem de quantidade significativa de saliva. Um dreno à vácuo foi instalado e mantido por 15 dias objetivando formar um novo ducto salivar. Esta técnica se mostrou segura, efetiva e de baixo custo, proporcionando a completa resolução do caso; não sendo observada recidiva em acompanhamento de 28 meses. Abstract in english Injuries in the parotid and masseter region can cause serious impairment secondary to damage of important anatomical structures. Sialocele is observed as facial swelling associated with parotid duct rupture due to trauma. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a giant traumatic sialocele in th [...] e parotid gland, secondary to a knife lesion in a 40-year-old woman. Conservative measures could not promote clinical resolution and a surgical intervention for the placement of a vacuum drain was selected. Under local anesthesia, a small incision was performed adjacent to parotid duct papilla, followed by muscular divulsion and draining of significant amount of saliva. An active vacuum suction drain was placed for 15 days, aiming to form a new salivary duct. This technique was shown to be a safe, effective and low-cost option, leading to complete resolution and no recurrence after 28 months of follow up.

Rui, Medeiros Júnior; Alípio Miguel da, Rocha Neto; Isaac Vieira, Queiroz; Antônio de Figueiredo, Cauby; Luiz Alcino Monteiro, Gueiros; Jair Carneiro, Leão.

180

Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood.

Kalaydjieva Luba

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one?s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

De Sousa Avinash

2010-01-01

182

Facial reanimation procedures depicted on radiologic imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various facial reanimation procedures can be performed for treating patients with chronic facial nerve paralysis. The radiologic imaging features of static and dynamic techniques are reviewed in this article with clinical correlation, including brow lift, eyelid weights and springs, gracilis free flaps, fascia lata grafts, temporalis flaps, and Gore-Tex suspension slings. Although the anatomic alterations resulting from facial reanimation surgery may not necessarily be the focus of the imaging examination, it is important to recognize such changes and be familiar with MR imaging compatibility of the associated implanted materials. Furthermore, imaging is sometimes used to specifically evaluate the postoperative results, such as vessel patency following free gracilis transfer. PMID:23945230

Ginat, D T; Bhama, P; Cunnane, M E; Hadlock, T A

2014-09-01

183

3-facial colouring of plane graphs  

CERN Document Server

A plane graph is l-facially k-colourable if its vertices can be coloured with k colours such that any two distinct vertices on a facial segment of length at most l are coloured differently. We prove that every plane graph is 3-facially 11-colourable. As a consequence, we derive that every 2-connected plane graph with maximum face-size at most 7 is cyclically 11-colourable. These two bounds are for one off from those that are proposed by the (3l+1)-Conjecture and the Cyclic Conjecture.

Havet, F; Skrekovski, R; Sereni, Jean-S\\'{e}bastien; Skrekovski, Riste

2006-01-01

184

Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three selection methods. It was found out that fusing the facial features gives better recognition rate than either facial feature used individually regardless of the landmark selection method.

Jamal Ahmad Dargham

2012-06-01

185

Computed tomography of the facial canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively. (author)

186

Intraparotid Facial Nerve Neurofibroma: an Uncommon Neoplasm / Neurofibroma Intraparotídeo del Nervio Facial: una Neoplasia Poco Frecuente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los neurofibromas intraparotídeos del nervio facial son una entidad poco frecuente, macroscópicamente e histopatológicamente diferentes de los comparativamente más frecuentes schwannomas. Se presenta un caso raro de un neurofibroma del nervio facial con extensión intraparotídea intratemporal en una [...] mujer de 48 años de edad. El tumor se extirpó quirúrgicamente con injerto del nervio facial. La electroneurografía puede llegar a ayudar en el diagnóstico preoperatorio. La resección del nervio facial debe ser realizada con mayor facilidad en un paciente con neurofibroma que en un paciente con schwannoma, sin embargo, la preservación del nervio facial con electroneurografía de seguimiento y tomografía computarizada sigue siendo una opción viable en pacientes con pequeños neurofibromas del nervio facial, cuando las pruebas eléctricas revelan mínima evidencia de degeneración neuronal progresiva. Una estrecha vigilancia, especialmente en los neurofibromas asociados con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen es fundamental debido al aumento del riesgo de degeneración sarcomatosa. Abstract in english Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibromas are a rare entity, and are grossly and histopathologically distinct from the comparatively more prevalent schwannomas. We report a rare case of an intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma with intratemporal extension in a 48-year-old female. The tumor was surgic [...] ally excised with cable grafting of the facial nerve. Electroneurography may eventually assist in the preoperative diagnosis. Facial nerve resection should be more readily contemplated in a patient with neurofibroma than in a patient with schwannoma; however, facial nerve preservation with serial follow-up electroneurography and computerized tomography remains a viable option in patients with small facial nerve neurofibromas when electrical testing reveals minimal evidence of progressive neural degeneration. Close monitoring, especially in neurofibromas associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease, is mandatory because of an increased risk of sarcomatous degeneration.

Ashwani, Sethi; Shamit, Chopra; J. C, Passey; A. K, Agarwal.

187

An analysis of facial expression recognition under partial facial image occlusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, an analysis of the effect of partial occlusion on facial expression recognition is investigated. The classification from partially occluded images in one of the six basic facial expressions is performed using a method based on Gabor wavelets texture information extraction, a supervised image decomposition method based on Discriminant Non-negative Matrix Factorization and a shape-based method that exploits the geometrical displacement of certain facial features. We demonstrate h...

Kotsia, I.; Buciu, I.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

188

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks.

Si, Hariharan; Reddy Narender P; Kulkarni Saket S

2009-01-01

189

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à compressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades t...

Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi Costa; Ciro Ferreira da Silva; Gustavo Polacow Korn; Paulo Roberto Lazarini

2006-01-01

190

Facial Behaviometrics: the Case of Facial Deformation in Spontenaous Smile/Laughter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we explore the use of dense facial deformation in spontaneous smile/laughter as a biometric signature. The facial deformation is calculated between a neutral image (as neutral we define the least expressive image of the smile/laughter episode) and the apex of spontaneous smile/laughter (as apex we define the frame of the maximum facial change/deformation) and its complex representation is regarded. Subsequently, supervised and unsupervised complex dimensionality reduction techni...

Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

2011-01-01

191

A Comprehensive Study of Major Techniques of Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial Expression Recognition is one of thechallenging and active research topic in the recent years. FacialExpression Recognition System comprises the detection of face,facial feature extraction and classification of facial expressionfrom still images. This paper summarizes the major techniquesto recognize the facial expressions from still images. Thetechniques included in this paper are Principal ComponentAnalysis, Singular Value Decomposition, Neural Network,Cloud Model, Fuzzy Model and K-...

Tanvi Sheikh, Shikha Agrawal

2012-01-01

192

Recognition of Asymmetric Facial Action Unit Activities and Intensities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most automatic facial expression analysis systems try to analyze emotion categories. However, psychologists argue that there is no straight forward way to classify emotions from facial expressions. Instead, they propose FACS (Facial Action Coding System), a de-facto standard for categorizing facial actions independent from emotional categories. We describe a system that recognizes asymmetric FACS Action Unit activities and intensities without the use of markers. Facial expression extraction i...

Fasel, B.; Luettin, Juergen

2000-01-01

193

Recognition of Asymmetric Facial Action Unit Activities and Intensities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most automatic facial expression analysis systems try to analyze emotion categories. However, psychologists argue that there is no straight forward way to classify emotions from facial expressions. Instead, they propose FACS (Facial Action Coding System), a de-facto standard for categorizing facial actions independent from emotional categories. We describe a system that recognizes asymmetric FACS Action Unit activities and intensities without the use of markers. Facial expression extraction i...

Fasel, B.; Luettin, Juergen

1999-01-01

194

Facial nerve palsy associated with leptospirosis / Paralisia facial associada à leptospirose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este relato de caso descreve os achados de um homem de 27 anos, residente na Bahia, Brasil, que desenvolveu paralisia facial durante a fase de convalescença da leptospirose. O paciente se recuperou sem sequela neurológica. Este trabalho chama atenção para uma possível associação entre leptospirose e [...] paralisia facial. Abstract in english This case report describes the findings of a 27-year-old black male from Bahia, Brazil, who developed facial palsy during the convalescence phase of leptospirosis. The patient recovered without neurological sequel. This work calls attention to a possible association between leptospirosis and facial [...] palsy.

Everaldo, Costa; Edilson, Sacramento; Antonio Alberto, Lopes; José Carlos, Bina.

195

Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

2010-11-01

196

Distraction osteogenesis in complex facial asymmetry corrections.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article highlights the authors' experience in the management of facial asymmetries with the use of distraction osteogenesis. It is a narrative based on the clinical experience at the Meenakshi Cleft & Craniofacial Center at Chennai. PMID:25203568

Ramanathan, Manikandhan; Anantanarayanan, Parameswaran; Kumar, J Naveen; Sneha, Pendem

2014-09-01

197

Co2 Laser Resurfacing for Facial Rhytides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resurfacing of facial rhytides (periorbital crow-feet wrinkles) was performed in three cases by carbon dioxide laser (Sharplan® 1030 machine). Good to excellent results were observed. However, erythema and postinflammatory pigmentation were important side effects.

Jain, Vinod K.; Ghiya, B. C.; Gupta, Dhruv; Singhi, Mahendra K.

2008-01-01

198

Research on Dynamic Facial Expressions Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these eigen-sequences, and recognize six universal facial expressions: angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. And we developed an experimental system based on our algorithm. The experimental results show that the computing time and the error of vector quantization is reduced, while the classification efficiency is improved.

Xiaoning Peng

2009-04-01

199

Biometrics: A Look at Facial Recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the 2002 General Assembly, Delegate H. Morgan Griffith sponsored legislation that would set legal parameters for public sector use of facial recognition technology in Virginia. The legislation, known as House Bill No. 454 (included as an Appendix),...

J. D. Woodward, C. Horn, J. Gatune, A. Thomas

2003-01-01

200

Laptop Computer: Based Facial Recognition System Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrollin...

R. A. Cain, G. B. Singleton

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Facial cleft syndrome--a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare case of facio-orbital anamoly having dermolipoma with posterior extension, lid notch, ectropion, assymetric hypertelorism and lipoma of corpus callosum is presented. The classification of the facial cleft deformities and the surgical management is highlighted. PMID:2086478

Betharia, S M; Kumar, S

1990-01-01

202

Transient Facial Nerve Baroparesis: Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a rare case of facial paralysis that was unusual not only in its causation but also in its rapidity of onset and recovery. We describe a rare case history of this accruing in 35 years old women traveling at the high altitude mountain road referred to ENT clinic with sudden symptoms of middle ear effusion and facial nerve paralysis. Patient had undergone medical systemic steroid treatment and after 3-4 weeks she had a good recovery of facial palsy with a minimum remnant of sensory neural hearing loss. Facial nerve paralysis resulting from a barotrauma of the middle ear is suggested. The correct diagnosis of this condition is important and unnecessary treatment should be avoided.

M.M. Ardehali

2009-01-01

203

[Facial paralysis: functional and aesthetic rehabilitation techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis of a permanent facial paralysis can be devastating to a patient, because of the cosmetic, functional and psychological disorders. Our society places on physical appearance and leads to isolation of patients who are embarrassed with their paralyzed face. The objectives of the facial rehabilitation is to correct the functional and cosmetic losses of the patient. The main functional goals are to protect the eye and reestablish oral competence. The primary cosmetic goals are to create balance and symmetry of the face at rest and to reestablish the coordinated movement of the facial musculature. The surgeon should be familiar with the variety of options available so that an individual plan can be developed based on each patient's clinical picture. History of the facial paralysis, its etiology and the duration of the paralysis are of particular interest as they orientate the rehabilitation plan strategy. PMID:16886538

Deveze, A; Paris, J

2006-01-01

204

Facial Expression Driven Mobile Learning System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processing human facial expressions is a computer vision challenge in a mobile technology environment. On the other hand, facial expression is an effective tool in behavioral studies on learning environment. Since, mobile technologies possess educating potential for today’s generation, the introduction of behavior as a consideration for mobile user opens up many opportunities for the design and development of a mobile learning system that can cater personalized learning. This undertaking was concerned with the enhancement of learners’ learning engagement and the enrichment of learners’ benefits. The mobile learning system approximates the learners’ facial expressions. The facial expressions will be used to identify the learning moods that will then be used to match the appropriate learning materials and activities of the learners. These steps are done to achieve optimal experience in learning. Approximation of learners’ facial expressions, learning moods, and matching of learning materials and activities to the learners are done through the use of intelligent computing techniques. In order for the stated endeavors to be achieved this undertaking considered three (3 stages of actions. Stage one focused on identifying the requirements needed to design, develop and assess the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. The second stage focused on the actual design and development of a prototype for the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system and the third stage focused on the assessment of the prototype of the proposed facial expression driven mobile learning system. Assessment was done by pilot testing the mobile learning system prototype to a student sample from the researchers’ locality.

Jeffrey S. Ingosan

2014-02-01

205

Management of the Midface During Facial Rejuvenation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endoscopic midface lift procedure has evolved from experience with postreduction soft tissue repair after facial fracture fixation. The procedure elevates and repositions midface soft tissue, which descends with facial aging; as well, it can correct periorbital congenital abnormalities, such as exorbitism and lateral canthal displacement. The procedure has been refined by the senior author to employ a temporal endoscopic approach alleviating the need for a lower eyelid incision. The plane...

Trussler, Andrew P.; Byrd, H. Steve

2009-01-01

206

A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - defi...

ANITHA C,; Venkatesha, M. K.; Suryanarayana Adiga, B.

2010-01-01

207

Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI) environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction a...

Spiros Ioannou; George Caridakis; Kostas Karpouzis; Stefanos Kollias

2007-01-01

208

Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

2009-12-01

209

Facial Component Detection in Thermal Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the problem of detecting facial components in thermal imagery (specifically eyes, nostrils and mouth). One of the immediate goals is to enable the automatic registration of facial thermal images. The detection of eyes and nostrils is performed using Haar features and the GentleBoost algorithm, which are shown to provide superior detection rates. The detection of the mouth is based on the detections of the eyes and the nostrils and is performed using measures of entropy and ...

Martinez, Brais; Binefa, Xavier; Pantic, Maja

2010-01-01

210

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

211

Facial profile-esthetics and acceptance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human face influences and moulds one's personality and behaviour. The facial profile has become an important field of investigation by sculptors, artists, physiotherapists, orthodontists and maxillo-facial surgeons. The present study was conducted to understand the facial profile acceptance of 55 girls from silhouettee photographs judged by 3 orthodontists, 3 artists and 3 common men. To find out who appreciates the profile change the most, the chi-square test was applied to distribution of 3 professionally different groups for various occlusal categories. It was found that common bases for judging the profile do exist amongst the professionally different groups, however the public is more astute analyst of the face. Two profiles which got all acceptable votes were associated with malocclusion. Attempts were made to find out which areas on the facial outline alter the most between the acceptable and non-acceptable groups. It was concluded that the lip outline and the chin are chiefly responsible for profile acceptance while the nose alone, of its own, does not play important role. The only way by which the nose affects the facial profile is its relative position as compared to the position of the chin. Thus if the lip posture and the chin position can be corrected, a poor facial profile may be converted into a good and pleasing one. PMID:2490120

Bhatia, A F

1989-01-01

212

Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation. PMID:22575677

Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

2012-08-01

213

Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest, happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ?a? like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It?s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

Mahyar Hamedi

2011-01-01

214

Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in facial nerve paralysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GD-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging was used to evaluate 11 patients with facial nerve paralysis (five acute idiopathic facial palsy (Bell palsy), three chronic recurrent facial palsy, one acute facial palsy after local radiation therapy, one chronic facial dyskinesia, and one facial neuroma). In eight of 11 patients, there was marked enhancement of the infratemporal facial nerve from the labyrinthine segment to the stylomastoid foramen. Two patients had additional contrast enhancement in the internal auditory canal segment. In one patient, enhancement persisted (but to a lesser degree) 8 weeks after symptoms had resolved. In one patient, no enhancement was seen 15 months after resolution of Bell palsy. The facial neuroma was seen as a focal nodular enhancement in the mastoid segment of the facial nerve

215

Parálisis facial: ¿siempre parálisis de Bell? / Facial paralysis: always Bell's palsy?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La parálisis facial periférica es un motivo de consulta relativamente frecuente en Atención Primaria, afectando de forma similar a hombres y mujeres. La parálisis facial periférica más frecuente es la de causa idiopática o parálisis de Bell, en un 70% de los casos. Otras etiologías menos frecuentes [...] son los traumatismos, infección por virus o la posible causa neoplásica, ya sea por un tumor intracraneal o extracraneal. La sintomatología clínica más relevante es la afectación de la musculatura facial existiendo una recuperación completa hasta en el 80% de los casos. El tratamiento depende de la etiología, siendo el más aceptado para la parálisis de Bell el uso de corticoides. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven con parálisis facial refractaria al tratamiento en Atención Primaria. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis is a relatively common reason for primary care consultations, affecting males and females similarly. The most common peripheral facial paralysis is that of idiopathic origin or Bell's palsy, in 70% of cases. Other less frequent aetiologies are injuries, viral infections o [...] r a possible neoplastic cause, whether from an intra-cranial or extra-cranial tumour. The most important clinical symptom is that affecting the facial muscles, with a full recovery in up to 80% of cases. Treatment is dependent on aetiology, with the most widely accepted being that for Bell's palsy; the use of corticosteroids. We present the case of a young female patient with refractory facial paralysis under primary healthcare treatment.

Jonathan, Valdez González; Francisco José, Román Pérez; Beatriz, Ponce Moreno; Elena, Pérez Guerra; Vicente, Martín Díaz.

2013-10-01

216

The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation  

Science.gov (United States)

We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

2005-01-01

217

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided.

Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.

2014-01-01

218

Facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve palsy: a case report with literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

Gv, Sowmya; Bs, Manjunatha; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-08-01

219

Medidas faciais antropométricas de adultos segundo tipo facial e sexo / Adult facial anthropometric measurements according to facial type and gender  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: descrever medidas antropométricas faciais de adultos, segundo tipo facial e sexo. MÉTODOS: participaram 105 adultos leucodermas, 34 (32,4%) homens e 71 (67,6%) mulheres, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos, de uma clínica particular de ortodontia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram comparados [...] os achados da análise cefalométrica para determinação do tipo de face com sete medidas antropométricas faciais diretas: altura facial anterior- násio ao mentoniano; distância bizigomática- zigomático esquerdo ao direito; altura do terço facial inferior- subnasal ao mentoniano; altura da face média- násio ao estômio; altura do queixo- supramentoniano ao mentoniano; altura da face inferior- estômio ao mentoniano; e altura facial posterior- condílio ao gônio. RESULTADOS: para o sexo masculino, os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para os valores médios das medidas antropométricas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média e altura da face inferior. Para o sexo feminino, diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram encontradas nas medidas: altura facial anterior, altura do terço facial inferior, altura da face média, altura da face inferior e altura facial posterior. CONCLUSÃO: houve dimorfismo sexual para todas as medidas antropométricas obtidas, as quais tiveram valores médios maiores para o sexo masculino quando comparados ao feminino. Os tipos faciais classificados por meio da cefalometria apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para quatro medidas antropométricas do sexo masculino e cinco do feminino. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe anthropometric measurements in adults according to facial type and gender. METHODS: 105 Caucasian adults took part, 34 male (32.4%) and 71 female (67.6%) with ages between 20 and 40-year old, in a private orthodontic clinic in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The findings f [...] rom the cephalometric analysis were compared for determining facial type with seven direct anthropometric measurements: anterior face height- nasion to menton; distance bizygomatique- zygion left to right; lower face height- subnasale to menton; middle face height- nasion to stomion; chin height- supramenton to menton; inferior face height- stomion to menton; and posterior face height- condylion to gonion. RESULTS: for male, the facial types classified by means of cephalometry had significant statistical differences for the average values of the anthropometric measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height and inferior face height. For female, significant statistical differences were found in the following measurements: anterior face height, lower face height, middle face height, inferior face height and posterior face height. CONCLUSION: there was sexual dimorphism for all collected anthropometric measurements. The male showed higher average values when compared with the female. The facial types classified by means of cephalometry showed significant statistical differences in four anthropometric measurements, for male and five for female.

Rossana Ribeiro, Ramires; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira; Irene Queiroz, Marchesan; Débora Martins, Cattoni; Marta Assumpção de, Andrada e Silva.

2011-04-01

220

Reconstrução da estrutura facial por biomateriais: revisão de literatura / Facial structure reconstruction by biomaterials: literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A região facial apresenta um desafio único para o implante de biomateriais, porque o esforço de tração dos músculos dessa região produz carregamento variável em diferentes regiões. Este trabalho apresenta as causas do amplo uso de biomateriais na reconstrução facial, descrevendo as características, [...] as vantagens e as desvantagens de cada tipo específico de material para cada região da face. Abstract in english The facial region presents an unique challenge for implantable biomaterials because the pull of the facial muscles produces variable loading in different regions. This work presents the reasons of the wide use of biomaterial in facial reconstruction, pointing out the advantages and the disadvantages [...] of each specific material type for each face region.

Mário, Maia; Emília Silva, Klein; Tatiana Verastegui, Monje; Carlos, Pagliosa.

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India  

CERN Document Server

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

2010-01-01

222

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda / Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação d [...] e patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman) e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman). O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável. Abstract in english Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this associati [...] on, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman) and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman). Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Fernando Kaoru, Yonamine; Juliane, Tuma; Rogério Fernandes Nunes da, Silva; Maria Claudia Mattos, Soares; José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa.

223

Paralisia facial associada à otite média aguda / Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A otite média aguda com paralisia facial não é uma associação muito freqüente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evolução da paralisia facial decorrente de otite média aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associação d [...] e patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste período no setor de distúrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiológicos, prognósticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia foi súbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperação foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman) e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman). O tratamento foi clínico com antibiótico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognóstico elétrico a descompressão do nervo facial fez com que a evolução fosse favorável. Abstract in english Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this associati [...] on, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman) and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman). Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

Fernando Kaoru, Yonamine; Juliane, Tuma; Rogério Fernandes Nunes da, Silva; Maria Claudia Mattos, Soares; José Ricardo Gurgel, Testa.

2009-04-01

224

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequência de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%, a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5% tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8% pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita.BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facial paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2% underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5% showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8% sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Kátia Torres Batista

2011-12-01

225

3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease.

Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hyun Ung; Moon, Woong Jae [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1994-10-15

226

3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease

227

Risk factors associated with facial fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a < 0.05, univariate and multivariate Poisson distributions and the logistic regression analysis (p < 0.20. Maxillofacial trauma was recorded in 790 charts (70.5%, with 393 (35.1% charts reporting facial fractures. Motorcycle accidents were found to be the main risk factor for mandibular fractures (PR = 1.576, CI = 1.402-1.772 and simultaneous fractures of more than one facial bone (OR = 4.625, CI = 1.888-11.329 as well as the only risk factor for maxillary bone fractures (OR = 11.032, CI = 5.294-22.989. Fractures of the zygomatic and nasal bones were mainly associated with accidents involving animals (PR = 1.206, CI = 1.104-1.317 and sports (OR = 8.710, CI = 4.006-18.936, respectively. The determinant for the majority of facial fractures was motorcycle accidents, followed by accidents involving animals and sports.

Anne Margareth Batista

2012-04-01

228

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication. PMID:23505959

Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

2013-01-01

229

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação / Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequê [...] ncia de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%), a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5%) tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8%) pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facia [...] l paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2%) underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5%) showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8%) sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Kátia Torres, Batista.

2011-12-01

230

Paralisia facial: análise epidemiológica em hospital de reabilitação / Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A paralisia facial é a perda temporária ou permanente dos movimentos da mímica facial em decorrência do acometimento do nervo facial. São vários os fatores que influenciam a evolução das lesões do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiológicos e a frequê [...] ncia de sequelas após paralisia facial em um serviço de reabilitação. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitação no período de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduação funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evolução, seguimento e intervenções cirúrgicas. Para realização da análise estatística utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info versão 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitação 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitação e 29 (10,2%), a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5%) tiveram recuperação gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clínico ou fisioterápico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8%) pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversível. CONCLUSÕES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a déficits neurológicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congênita. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facia [...] l paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2%) underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5%) showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8%) sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

Kátia Torres, Batista.

231

Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN  

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Full Text Available An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something about the human’s emotions and mood. This paper focuses on the novel Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm (HFGA and comparative analysis of Facial Geometry algorithm and HFGA for facial feature extraction and its use to classify facial expressions. Feed forward back propagation neural network (BPNN and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS are used as classifiers for expression classification and recognition. Experimentations are carried out using Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Experimental results shows that average recognition efficiency from 95.33% to 93.33% is achieved for 30 to 75 test samples using BPNN and 95.71% to 95.33% with ANFIS approach.

Sunanda P. Khandait

2013-03-01

232

A Study of Techniques for Facial Detection and Expression Classification  

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Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions is an important component for human-machine interfaces. It has lot of attraction in research area since 1990's.Although humans recognize face without effort or delay, recognition by a machine is still a challenge. Some of its challenges are highly dynamic in their orientation, lightening, scale, facial expression and occlusion. Applications are in the fields like user authentication, person identification, video surveillance, information security, data privacy etc. The various approaches for facial recognition are categorized into two namely holistic based facial recognition and feature based facial recognition. Holistic based treat the image data as one entity without isolating different region in the face where as feature based methods identify certain points on the face such as eyes, nose and mouth etc. In this paper, facial expression recognition is analyzed with various methods of facial detection,facial feature extraction and classification.

G.Hemalatha

2014-04-01

233

A newborn with facial hemangioma and sternal defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large facial segmental hemangiomas tend to be associated with extracutaneous abnormalities. We report a case of large progressive segmental facial hemangioma, sternal cleft and talipes equinovarus deformity. PMID:25024982

Nour, Islam; Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez

2014-04-01

234

Solitary Intraparotid Facial Nerve Plexiform Neurofibroma  

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Full Text Available Solitary intraparotid facial nerve plexiform neurofibromas are extremely rare. These tumors arise from Schwann cells. The plexiform variant is recognized by tortuous and multinodular gross and microscopic lesions. It has a high risk of malignant transformation. We report a case of a solitary plexiform neurofibroma in a 5-year-old Italian male, who initially presented a right parotid mass of four-month duration. He had not pain, trismus, facial weakness or previous trauma. There was not familiar history of Von Recklinghausen’s disease. TC and MRI scans revealed a mass in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland. A partial parotidectomy was performed. Histopatological examination indicated plexiform neurofibroma. The incidence, presentation, diagnosis and surgical treatment of this lesion are discussed. In our case, the tumor could be readily separated from the main trunk, and facial movement was completely preserved owing to the rich neural network around the mass.

Massimo Mesolella

2014-09-01

235

Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

236

Facial Reconstruction after a Complicated Gunshot Injury  

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Full Text Available Facial gunshot injuries are unusual and complicated clinical entities. Because of themechanism of injury, early aggressive primary reconstruction might not be ideal. Initial conservativemanagement followed by staged secondary reconstruction could be performed toobtain satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Reconstruction of the cranio-maxillofacialdeformities requires a multi-disciplinary approach, the same way as for patients withcleft lip/palate deformities. We present a male patient with severe facial gunshot injuries. Ateam approach revealed maxilla recession, dental malocclusion, a large oronasal fistula overhis hard palate, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and a stable psychosocial status. His mainconcern was facial appearance, which included the nose, lip, and scars. Staged reconstructionswere performed, consisting of orthognathic surgery, rhinoplasty, lip-switch flap, andrevisions of scars. A satisfactory outcome was obtained. The results indicated the importanceof preoperative evaluation and treatment planning for this uncommon problem.

Vanna Long

2002-08-01

237

Bilateral facial palsy associated with leptospirosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. It is an acute feverish disease with a broad clinical spectrum and follows a characteristic biphasic course. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical condition and the differential diagnosis of its [...] causes is extensive. The objective of this exploratory study, presented as a case report, is to describe the occurrence of bilateral facial palsy as an unusual manifestation of leptospirosis. This suggestion should not be overlooked when analyzing the causes for bilateral facial palsy, and should be considered with other possible differential diagnoses, some of which are potentially fatal.

Andressa Alves da, Silva; Marcelo, Ducroquet; Jeff Chandler, Pedrozo Junior.

238

Robust Automatic Facial Expression Detection Method  

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Full Text Available Recently, the recognition of occluded facial expressions attract more and more people’s attention. Sparse representation based classification (SRC method gives good performance on face recognition (FR and facial expression recognition (FER, well-known for its robustness to occlusion. Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG descriptors are very efficient to represent the shape information of different facial expressions and robust to various illumination. Since, this paper proposes a novel method by using HOG descriptors conjunction with SRC framework for FER. Experiment results show that the proposed method gives better performance than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is not only robust to assigned occlusions, but also to random occlusions.

Yan OuYang

2013-07-01

239

Manifold based methods in facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel method for facial expression recognition based on non-linear manifold techniques. The graph-based algorithms are designed to treat structure in data, and regularize accordingly. This same goal is shared by several other algorithms, from linear method principal components analysis (PCA) to modern variants such as Laplacian eigenmaps. In this paper we focus on manifold learning for dimensionality reduction and clustering using Laplacian eigenmaps for facial expression recognition. We evaluate the algorithm by using all the pixels and selected features respectively and compare the performance of the proposed non-linear manifold method with the previous linear manifold approach, and the non linear method produces higher recognition rate than the facial expression representation using linear methods.

Xie, Kun

2013-07-01

240

Automatic Facial Spots and Acnes Detection System  

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Full Text Available Recently medical cosmetic has attracted significant business opportunity. Micro cosmetic surgery usually involves invasive cosmetic procedures such as non-ablative laser procedure for skin rejuvenation. However, to select an appropriate treatment for skin relies on accurate preoperative evaluations. In this paper, an automatic facial skin defects detection and recognition method is proposed. The system first locates the facial region from the input image. Then, the shapes of faces were recognized using a contour descriptor. The facial features are extracted to define regions of interest and an image segment method is used to extract potential defect. A support-vector-machine-based classifier is then used to classify the potential defects into spots, acnes and normal skin. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

Chuan-Yu Chang

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Facial Animation Based on Feature Points  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for synthesizing natural animation of facial expression with data from motion capture. The captured expression was transferred from the space of source performance to that of a 3D target face using an accurate mapping process in order to realize the reuse of motion data. The transferred animation was then applied to synthesize the expression of the target model through a framework of two-stage deformation. A local deformation technique preliminarily considered a set of neighbor feature points for every vertex and their impact on the vertex. Furthermore, the global deformation was exploited to ensure the smoothness of the whole facial mesh. The experimental results show our hybrid mesh deformation strategy was effective, which could animate different target face without complicated manual efforts required by most of facial animation approaches.

Beibei Li

2013-01-01

242

Bilateral facial palsy associated with leptospirosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. It is an acute feverish disease with a broad clinical spectrum and follows a characteristic biphasic course. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical condition and the differential diagnosis of its [...] causes is extensive. The objective of this exploratory study, presented as a case report, is to describe the occurrence of bilateral facial palsy as an unusual manifestation of leptospirosis. This suggestion should not be overlooked when analyzing the causes for bilateral facial palsy, and should be considered with other possible differential diagnoses, some of which are potentially fatal.

Andressa Alves da, Silva; Marcelo, Ducroquet; Jeff Chandler, Pedrozo Junior.

2009-08-01

243

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice  

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Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3?/? mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2?/? (recombination activating gene-2-deficient mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3?/? mice, but not in CCR3?/? mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

Derek A Wainwright

2009-12-01

244

Aspectos neurofisiológicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial / Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: revisão teórica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiológicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial periférica. MÉTODOS: revisão da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos periódicos n [...] acionais e internacionais e nos livros científicos sobre o tema, no período entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referências neste trabalho. Destas, 20 sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em três grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Características morfológicas e histoquímicas dos músculos da face e III - Denervação e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impressão dos autores, são relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitação da paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international [...] journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophysiology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nisan, Pfelsticker; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

2008-03-01

245

Aspectos neurofisiológicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: revisão teórica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiológicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitação na paralisia facial periférica. MÉTODOS: revisão da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos periódicos nacionais e internacionais e nos livros científicos sobre o tema, no período entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referências neste trabalho. Destas, 20 sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em três grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Características morfológicas e histoquímicas dos músculos da face e III - Denervação e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impressão dos autores, são relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitação da paralisia facial.PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophysiology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

Adriana Tessitore

2008-03-01

246

Facial Expression Recognition based on Affine Moment Invariants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial Expression Recognition is rapidly becoming area of interest in computer science and human computer interaction because the most expressive way of displaying the emotions by human is through the facial expressions. In this paper, recognition of facial expression is studied with the help of several properties associated with the face itself. As facial expression changes, the curvatures on the face and properties of the objects such as, eyebrows, nose, lips and mouth area changes. We have...

Londhe, Renuka R.; Pawar, Vrushsen P.

2012-01-01

247

Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other proposed methods as shown in experiment results.

Dr.R.Parthasarathi

2011-01-01

248

Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other p...

Parthasarathi, Dr R.; V.Lokeswar Reddy,; K.Vishnuthej,; Vishnu Vandan, G.

2011-01-01

249

The Effects of Pose On Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research into facial expression recognition has predominantly been based upon near frontal view data. However, a recent 3D facial expression database (BU-3DFE database) has allowed empirical investigation of facial expression recognition across pose. In this paper, we investigate the effects of pose from frontal to profile view on facial expression recognition. Experiments are carried out on 100 subjects with 5 yaw angles over 6 prototypical expressions. Expressions have 4 leve...

Moore, S.; Bowden, R.

2009-01-01

250

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: naturalistic and dynamic behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendations for accomplishing a better facial expression measurement technology are outlined. PMID:19884145

Pantic, Maja

2009-12-12

251

Dento-facial proportions analysis of maxillary anterior teeth in Khuisf dental students  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Shape and size of upper anterior teeth are important in dental and facial beauty. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between dental and facial indexes and to evaluate whether there is a golden ratio and its relationship with the proportions measured.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, digital images of 34 female and 30 male dental students were taken at maximum smile in a similar manner. Then the images were assessed with Photoshop CS5 and ACDSee computer programs and measurements were made with AutoCAD 2011 software. Data was analyzed with independent t-test and means were compared with a constant.Results: The entire variable means did not demonstrate any significant differences between males and females (p value > 0.05. The inter-pupillary to inter-canine distance ratio did not reveal any significant differences with the golden proportion of 1.618 between males and females (p value > 0.05. Only the ratios of inter-pupillary, inter-canthus and inter-zygomatic distances to maxillary central widths in females, and the ratios of inter-zygomatic and inter-alar distances to maxillary central widths in males were not significant.Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, it was concluded that dento-facial proportions are not significantly different between males and females and the golden ratio applies in the inter-pupillary to apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth proportion. Facial indices are appropriate measures to measure the apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth and can be used as a standard for Iranian dentists and surgeons. Key words: Anterior teeth, Dental position, Diastema, Proportion.

Nasim Esnaashari Esfahani

2011-01-01

252

PFAPA with facial swelling- a new association?  

Science.gov (United States)

PFAPA (periodic fever, apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) is a rare condition of unknown cause affecting children. Although the exact etiology is unknown, inflammatory, immunological or genetic causes have been suggested. The diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes of periodic fever. Although management is essentially symptomatic, single corticosteroid dose, tonsillectomy and Cimetidine has been shown to be associated with resolution of symptoms. Although abdominal pain and genital ulcers have been reported in association with PFAPA, unilateral transient facial swelling has not been previously reported. The authors present a hitherto unreported association of PFAPA with recurrent episodes of unilateral facial swelling. PMID:22528696

Khodaghalian, B; Tewary, K K; Narchi, H

2013-05-01

253

Risk factors associated with facial fractures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of [...] residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a

Anne Margareth, Batista; Fernanda de Oliveira, Ferreira; Leandro Silva, Marques; Maria Letícia, Ramos-Jorge; Meire Coelho, Ferreira.

254

Risk factors associated with facial fractures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of [...] residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a

Anne Margareth, Batista; Fernanda de Oliveira, Ferreira; Leandro Silva, Marques; Maria Letícia, Ramos-Jorge; Meire Coelho, Ferreira.

2012-04-01

255

Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

2001-03-01

256

Facial porokeratosis: A series of six patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porokeratosis is a disorder of epidermal keratinization characterized by annular plaques with an atrophic centre and hyperkeratotic edges, and includes a heterogeneous group of disorders that are mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Facial porokeratosis is rare and is not well documented. We present six cases of facial porokeratosis seen over a period of 15 years in a hospital in Lima, Peru. In most of the cases, porokeratosis was found in younger women without any significant past medical history. Oral isotretinoin showed moderate improvement in two of our patients. PMID:20695858

Gutierrez, Ericson L; Galarza, Carlos; Ramos, Willy; Tello, Mercedes; De Paz, Patricia Chávez; Bobbio, Lucia; Barquinero, Alicia; Ronceros, Gerardo; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G

2010-08-01

257

Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W

2014-08-01

258

Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

Joseph B

2002-07-01

259

From facial mimicry to emotional empathy: A role for norepinephrine?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tendency to mimic others’ emotional facial expressions predicts empathy and may represent a physiological marker of psychopathy. Anatomical connectivity between amygdala, cingulate motor cortex (M3, M4), and facial nucleus demonstrates a potential neuroanatomical substrate for mimicry, though pharmacological influences are largely unknown. Norepinephrine modulation selectively impairs negative emotion recognition, reflecting a potential role in processing empathy-eliciting facial expression...

Harrison, Neil A.; Morgan, Robert; Critchley, Hugo D.

2010-01-01

260

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Enhancement of the facial nerve at MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

istration. Sixteen patients (42%) showed right-to-left asymmetry in facial nerve enhancement. The facial nerves showed enhancement in the geniculate, tympanic, and fallopian portions; the facial nerve within the IAC showed no enhancement. This corresponded exactly with the topographic features of a circummeural arterial/venous plexus seen on the anatomic preparations

262

A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of facial expression feature and the relationship between them based on cloud model, including the new method of facial expression synthesis with the uncertainty. It proposes the method of facial expression feature synthesis by cloud model, using the three numerical characteristics (Expectation, Entropy and Hyper Entropy as the features and concepts of facial expression with its fuzziness, randomness and certain relevance in them. Through such three numerical characteristics, it introduces the framework of facial expression synthesis and the detail procedures based on cloud model. It puts forward the synthesis method of facial expression and gives the concrete realization and the implementation process. The facial expressions after synthesis can express the different expressions for one person, and it can meet a variety of demands for facial expression. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective in facial expression synthesis.

Juebo Wu

2011-04-01

263

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-01-01

264

Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group. PMID:22090764

Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

2011-07-01

265

Reduced cholinergic and glutamatergic synaptic input to regenerated motoneurons after facial nerve repair in rats: potential implications for recovery of motor function.  

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Deafferentation of motoneurons after facial nerve injury is a well-documented phenomenon but whether synaptic inputs to facial motoneurons are completely restored after reinnervation is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in motor performance after transection/suture of the facial nerve (facial-facial anastomosis, FFA) in adult rats are associated with incomplete recovery of synaptic inputs. At 2 months after FFA, we found, in congruence with previous results, that the amplitude of whisking had recovered to only 31 % of control (sham operation). In the same FFA-treated rats, estimates of number of chemically defined synaptic terminals in the facial nucleus by immunohistochemistry and stereology showed a significant loss, compared with sham controls, of glutamatergic terminals (-26 %) and cholinergic perisomatic boutons (-31 %), but not inhibitory (GABA/glycinergic) terminals (-14 %). Synaptic deficits were accompanied by persistent microgliosis in the facial nucleus but soma area, dendritic arbor volume, and total number of motoneurons were normal. Correlation analyses revealed significant co-variations of whisking amplitude with number of glutamatergic and cholinergic synapses. Compared with 2 months, analyses of animals at 4 months after FFA showed no attenuation of the functional deficit and structural aberrations with one exception, increase of inhibitory terminal numbers beyond control level (+11 %) leading to further reduction of the excitatory/inhibitory terminal ratio. We suggest that deficits in motoneuron innervation in the regenerated facial nucleus-reduced glutamatergic and cholinergic input and reduced excitatory/inhibitory terminal ratio-could attenuate the motor output and, thus, negatively impact the functional performance after facial nerve regeneration. PMID:23543131

Raslan, Abdulrahman; Ernst, Philipp; Werle, Marlen; Thieme, Heike; Szameit, Katja; Finkensieper, Mira; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Irintchev, Andrey

2014-05-01

266

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice  

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We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron) survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system)-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+...

Wainwright, Derek A.; Junping Xin; Mesnard, Nichole A.; Beahrs, Taylor R.; Politis, Christine M.; Sanders, Virginia M.; Jones, Kathryn J.

2009-01-01

267

Postoperative care of the facial laceration.  

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The purpose of this investigation is to examine factors involved in the postoperative care of traumatic lacerations. An evidence-based comprehensive literature review was conducted. There are a limited number of scientifically proven studies that guide surgeons and emergency room physicians on postoperative care. Randomized controlled trials must be conducted to further standardize the postoperative protocol for simple facial lacerations. PMID:22132257

Medel, Nicholas; Panchal, Neeraj; Ellis, Edward

2010-12-01

268

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces. PMID:24550859

Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

2014-01-01

269

Facial classification using artificial neural network techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in illumination condition, pose, facial expression and others are challenging task in recognizing face images. Solving these problems requires a feature extractor that can generate distinct features for each class of image as well as classifier that able to recognize and classify the face image precisely. This paper presents a facial recognition system using Artificial Neural network (ANN) techniques namely Radial basis function and Feed forward neural networks. Invariant continuous orthogonal moment that is Zernike moment (ZM) at order 2 to 12 is used to extract 47 features which are the inputs to the neural network. The experiments were carried out on the database face images from the AT&T Laboratories Cambridge University consisting of 40 distinct subjects of 10 non-similar images each. For some subjects, the images were taken at different times, varying the lighting, facial expressions (open/closed eyes, smiling/not smiling), facial details (with and without spectacles) and different face scale. From the experiments, Radial basis function outperforms feed forward in terms of percentage classification. However the classification error of feed forward neural network is below 5%.

Nor'aini, A. J.; Fatimah, Z.; Norzilah, R.

2011-10-01

270

Facial cleft syndrome-A case report  

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Full Text Available A rare case of facio-orbital anamoly having dermolipoma with posterior extension, lid notch, ectropion, assymetric hypertelorism and lipoma of corpus callosum is presented. The classification of the facial cleft deformities and the surgical management is highlighted.

Betharia S

1990-01-01

271

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions.Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers’ age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces.

MaraFölster

2014-02-01

272

Stereotactic mesencephalotomy for cancer - related facial pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won; Son, Byung-Chul

2014-07-01

273

Children's Spontaneous Control of Facial Expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous expressive control of negative emotion was examined in two studies of children three- to nine-years-old using an experimental "disappointing" situation. Study 1 examined facial expressions, verbalizations, and spontaneous references to emotional expression control. Study 2 examined the expressive behavior of 20 preschool girls in the…

Cole, Pamela M.

1986-01-01

274

?-Facial Selectivity of Diels-Alder Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions for organic synthesis. In this chapter we review the studies of the ?-facial selectivity in the Diels-Alder reactions of the dienes having unsymmetrical ?-plane. The theories proposed as the origin of the selectivity are discussed.

Ishida, Masaru; Inagaki, Satoshi

275

[Corneal acid burning after facial peeling].  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the case of a 66-year-old woman who had previously undergone facial peeling and developed severe bilateral corneal burn due to direct contact Exopeel((R)) with her eyes. Despite medical treatment and an amniotic membrane graft, deep stromal opacity persisted in one eye. PMID:12048516

Zidi, M; Bourcier, T; Legall, J C; Touzeau, O; Borderie, V; Laroche, L

2002-05-01

276

Degloving facial injury treated with hydroconductive dressing.  

Science.gov (United States)

COMPLEX, OPEN MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES ARE OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY EXTENSIVE CONTAMINATION, CRUSH, OR AVULSION OF THE OVERLYING SOFT TISSUE, THERE HAVE BEEN TWO ALTERNATIVES TO TREATMENT: either radical debridement of all contaminated tissue, fixation of the underlying fractures, and soft tissue closure by pedicle flap or graft is done; or more conservative debridement is repeated multiple times until the contaminated tissue is removed and fracture fixation is deemed safe. Debridement is usually accomplished by sharp debridement or with high-pressure intermittent irrigation or some combination of both modalities. The problems with this standard treatment in the face are that facial features may be distorted, superficial branches of the facial and/or trigeminal nerve can be inadvertently sacrificed (even with the use of nerve stimulators), and scarring can distort contours and radically change facial appearance. A serious facial degloving injury with necrotic malodorous tissue and no clear anatomical delineations demanded special attention. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the management of a soft tissue avulsive contaminated injury of the face with underlying maxillofacial fractures. PMID:23662267

Perumal, Colin; Bouckaert, Michael; Robson, Martin

2013-01-01

277

Expression and communication of doubt/uncertainty through facial expression  

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Full Text Available There is a wide debate on the mental state of doubt/uncertainty; one wonders whether it is a predominantly cognitive or emotional state of mind and whether typical facial expressions communicate doubt/uncertainty. To this purpose,through a role playing procedure, a large sample of expressions were collected and afterwards evaluated through a combination of encoding and decoding procedures,including also FACS (Facial Action Coding System analysis. The results have partially confirmed our hypothesis, identifying two typical facial expressions of doubt/uncertainty, which share the same facial actions in the inferior part of the face and show differential facial actions in the upper face.

Pio E. Ricci Bitti

2014-04-01

278

Bell's palsy: a facial nerve paralysis diagnosis of exclusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bell's Palsy is not synonymous with facial nerve paralysis. While it is a common cause of facial nerve paralysis, it is a diagnosis of exclusion and other causes of facial nerve paralysis should be ruled out by appropriate evaluation and follow-up. A case report is presented of a patient with a facial nerve paralysis, which was initially diagnosed as Bell's Palsy, but which was found to be a poorly differentiated parotid malignancy causing facial nerve paralysis. A review and discussion of Bells Palsy, evaluation and treatment is presented. PMID:2362620

Yetter, M F; Ogren, F P; Moore, G F; Yonkers, A J

1990-05-01

279

Fourier analysis of human soft tissue facial shape: sex differences in normal adults.  

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Sexual dimorphism in human facial form involves both size and shape variations of the soft tissue structures. These variations are conventionally appreciated using linear and angular measurements, as well as ratios, taken from photographs or radiographs. Unfortunately this metric approach provides adequate quantitative information about size only, eluding the problems of shape definition. Mathematical methods such as the Fourier series allow a correct quantitative analysis of shape and of its...

Ferrario, V. F.; Sforza, C.; Schmitz, J. H.; Miani, A.; Taroni, G.

1995-01-01

280

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos / Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à com [...] pressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Abstract in english Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression les [...] ion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p

Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi, Costa; Ciro Ferreira da, Silva; Gustavo Polacow, Korn; Paulo Roberto, Lazarini.

 
 
 
 
281

Facial expression (mood recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases, from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection.

Hariharan SI

2009-08-01

282

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos / Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à com [...] pressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Abstract in english Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression les [...] ion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p

Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi, Costa; Ciro Ferreira da, Silva; Gustavo Polacow, Korn; Paulo Roberto, Lazarini.

2006-12-01

283

A novel human-machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multichannel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Fron-tails and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passes through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs. rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. (author)

284

Facial harmony in orthodontic diagnosis and planning  

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Full Text Available Facial Harmony is one of the main goals of orthodontic treatment, and it is not always correlated with the attainment of cephalometric objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two groups of subjects presenting a clinically balanced soft tissue profile using cephalometric radiographs. Thirty lateral cephalometric radiographs of white females, divided in two groups, one with excellent facial profile (Group 1, and the other with good facial profile (Group 2 were used. Student's t-test (P?< .05 was used to compare the cephalometric parameters of the 2 groups. Linear regression analysis was also performed between 1.NB and SnV-Pog and between AB horizontal and SnV-Pog'. Group 2 showed higher mean values than group 1 for ANB (p = 0.002, AB horizontal (p < 0.001, 1.NB (p < 0.001, and a lower mean value for SnV-Pog (p = 0.003. The higher the SnV-Pog value, the lower the 1.NB value, no matter what group was evaluated. For each 1 mm increase in SnV-Pog, a 0.61º decrease could be expected in 1.NB (p = 0.003. The higher the SnV-Pog value, the lower the AB horizontal value, although group 2 presented greater AB horizontal values. For each 1 mm increase in SnV-Pog, a 0.24 mm decrease could be expected in AB horizontal (p = 0.019. We concluded that women with good facial profile do not necessarily present the same cephalometric values, and facial analysis should be the main reference in planning orthodontic treatments and should be considered together with cephalometric analysis in an individualized way.

João Batista de Paiva

2010-03-01

285

Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expression Changes for Person Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new method for analyzing dynamics of facial expression changes to identify persons. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor because an input face image does not always contain the same facial expression as training images. However, the dynamics of facial expression changes are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are extracted using Active Appearance Models (AAMs) in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade (LK) based feature point tracking method. Next, the starting and ending frames of facial expression changes are extracted by differences in the facial feature points' position between two successive frames. Finally, a feature vector is obtained as the sequence of the 2D coordinate variations of facial feature points. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching (DP matching). We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using facial expression videos of the Facial Expressions and Emotions Database from Technical University of Munich (FEEDTUM database).

Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

286

Recognition of 3D facial expression from posed data  

Science.gov (United States)

Although recognition of facial expression in 3D facial images has been an active research area, most of the prior works are limited to using full frontal facial images. These techniques primarily project 3D facial image on 2D and manually select landmarks in 2D projection to extract relevant features. Face recognition in 2D images can be challenging due to unconstrained conditions such as head pose, occlusion, and resulting loss of data. Similarly, pose variation in 3D facial imaging can also result in loss of data. In most of the current 3D facial recognition works, when 3D posed face data are projected onto 2D, additional data loss may render 2D facial expression recognition even more challenging. In comparison, this work proposes novel feature extraction directly from the 3D facial posed images without the need of manual selection of landmarks or projection of images in 2D space. This feature is obtained as the angle between consecutive 3D normal vectors on the vertex points aligned either horizontally or vertically across the 3D facial image. Our facial expression recognition results show that the feature obtained from vertices aligned vertically across the face yields the best accuracy for classification with an average 87.8% area under the ROC. The results further suggest that the same feature outperforms its horizontal counterpart in recognizing facial expressions for pose variation between 35º - 50º with average accuracy of 80% - 60%, respectively.

Samad, Manar D.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

2013-05-01

287

Perceptually Valid Facial Expressions for Character-Based Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of creating facial expression of mixed emotions in a perceptually valid way. The research has been done in the context of a “game-like” health and education applications aimed at studying social competency and facial expression awareness in autistic children as well as native language learning, but the results can be applied to many other applications such as games with need for dynamic facial expressions or tools for automating the creation of facial animations. Most existing methods for creating facial expressions of mixed emotions use operations like averaging to create the combined effect of two universal emotions. Such methods may be mathematically justifiable but are not necessarily valid from a perceptual point of view. The research reported here starts by user experiments aiming at understanding how people combine facial actions to express mixed emotions, and how the viewers perceive a set of facial actions in terms of underlying emotions. Using the results of these experiments and a three-dimensional emotion model, we associate facial actions to dimensions and regions in the emotion space, and create a facial expression based on the location of the mixed emotion in the three-dimensional space. We call these regionalized facial actions “facial expression units.”

2009-03-01

288

Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions  

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Full Text Available Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dynamics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. The system automatically detects frontal faces in the video stream and coded each frame with respect to 20 Action units. The approach applies machine learning methods such as support vector machines and AdaBoost, to texture-based image representations. The output margin for the learned classifiers predicts action unit intensity. Frame-by-frame intensity measurements will enable investigations into facial expression dynamics which were previously intractable by human coding.

Marian Stewart Bartlett

2006-09-01

289

An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However, the irradiated graft group had a greater proportion of patients with pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p = 0.007) and unfavorable type of nerve graft (p = 0.04). Although the irradiated graft cohort had more potentially negative prognostic factors, there was no difference in functional outcome (H-B Grade III or IV) between irradiated and unirradiated graft patients. H-B Grades III, IV, V, and VI were the best postoperative facial nerve functions achieved in 35%, 39%, 13%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The patient with preoperative radiotherapy never recovered any facial nerve function (H-B Grade VI). Median time to best facial nerve function after surgery was longer in the irradiated patients (13.1 vs. 10.8 months), but this was not statistically significant (p 0.10). Presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy (p = 0.005), duration of preoperative palsy (p = 0.003), and age greater than 60 years at the time of grafting (p = 0.04) were all negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve on univariate analysis. Analysis of age as a continuous variable (p = 0.12) and pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p 0.1) revealed a trend toward negative prognostic factors. Gender, number of previous operations in the parotid bed, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, and type of grafting procedure were not significant prognostic factors. Whether radiotherapy was delivered less than 6 weeks after nerve grafting or more than 6 weeks had no impact on achievement of a functional facial nerve. Conclusion: Negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve in our series include the presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy, and age greater than 60 years. Radiotherapy was not a negative prognostic factor. Comparing irradiated and unirradiated grafts revealed no difference in best facial nerve function achieved, despite the presence of a greater proportion of negative prognostic factors in the irradiated group. Therefore, planned postoperative radiation therapy is not a contraindication t

290

A comparison of facial expression properties in five hylobatid species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about facial communication of lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) and how their facial expressions (and use of) relate to social organization. We investigated facial expressions (defined as combinations of facial movements) in social interactions of mated pairs in five different hylobatid species belonging to three different genera using a recently developed objective coding system, the Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We described three important properties of their facial expressions and compared them between genera. First, we compared the rate of facial expressions, which was defined as the number of facial expressions per units of time. Second, we compared their repertoire size, defined as the number of different types of facial expressions used, independent of their frequency. Third, we compared the diversity of expression, defined as the repertoire weighted by the rate of use for each type of facial expression. We observed a higher rate and diversity of facial expression, but no larger repertoire, in Symphalangus (siamangs) compared to Hylobates and Nomascus species. In line with previous research, these results suggest siamangs differ from other hylobatids in certain aspects of their social behavior. To investigate whether differences in facial expressions are linked to hylobatid socio-ecology, we used a Phylogenetic General Least Square (PGLS) regression analysis to correlate those properties with two social factors: group-size and level of monogamy. No relationship between the properties of facial expressions and these socio-ecological factors was found. One explanation could be that facial expressions in hylobatid species are subject to phylogenetic inertia and do not differ sufficiently between species to reveal correlations with factors such as group size and monogamy level. PMID:24395677

Scheider, Linda; Liebal, Katja; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne; Waller, Bridget

2014-07-01

291

Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous analysis and symptom correlation of the fracture patterns seen in facial nerve canal injury in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy is helpful for treatment planning and prognosis

292

Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous analysis and symptom correlation of the fracture patterns seen in facial nerve canal injury in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy is helpful for treatment planning and prognosis.

Seo, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Hyun Min; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

293

The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

294

Dynamics of facial expression: recognition of facial actions and their temporal segments from face profile image sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic analysis of human facial expression is a challenging problem with many applications. Most of the existing automated systems for facial expression analysis attempt to recognize a few prototypic emotional expressions, such as anger and happiness. Instead of representing another approach to machine analysis of prototypic facial expressions of emotion, the method presented in this paper attempts to handle a large range of human facial behavior by recognizing facial muscle actions that produce expressions. Virtually all of the existing vision systems for facial muscle action detection deal only with frontal-view face images and cannot handle temporal dynamics of facial actions. In this paper, we present a system for automatic recognition of facial action units (AUs) and their temporal models from long, profile-view face image sequences. We exploit particle filtering to track 15 facial points in an input face-profile sequence, and we introduce facial-action-dynamics recognition from continuous video input using temporal rules. The algorithm performs both automatic segmentation of an input video into facial expressions pictured and recognition of temporal segments (i.e., onset, apex, offset) of 27 AUs occurring alone or in a combination in the input face-profile video. A recognition rate of 87% is achieved. PMID:16602602

Pantic, Maja; Patras, Ioannis

2006-04-01

295

Anatomic study of full facial and scalp allografts without cutaneous facial scars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional reconstructive procedures for face and scalp reconstruction fall short of aesthetic and functional goals because of the unique quality and quantity of facial and scalp soft tissue. The purpose of this cadaver study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a flap design for full face and scalp composite tissue allotransplantation, without cutaneous facial scars. Six fresh human cadavers were dissected with sagittal scalp and mucosal incisions for full face and scalp harvest without cutaneous facial incisions. Sub-galeal and sub-SMAS dissection allowed for inclusion of the external carotid and internal jugular systems. Time of facial-scalp flap harvesting, length of the arterial and venous pedicles, length of sensory nerves (that were included in the facial flaps) and approximate surface area of the flaps were measured. Three of six flaps were transferred to recipient cadavers and the time of transfer was recorded. As a proof of concept, the external carotid arteries of one of six cadavers was flushed to remove clots and perfused with a radio-opaque latex polymer, Microfil (Flow Tech Inc.), to study flap perfusion by X-ray imaging. In the donor cadaver, the mean harvesting time of the total facial-scalp flap was 105 ± 19 minutes. The mean length of the supraorbital, infraorbital, mental and great auricular nerves were 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The mean length of the external carotid artery and external jugular vein were 8.7 ± 0.3 and 9.2 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. The approximate area of the harvested flap was 1063 ± 60 cm(2). In preparation for full face and scalp allotransplantation in humans, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of a full face and scalp flap without visible facial incisions. PMID:23647571

Bastidas, Nicholas; Runyan, Christopher M; Jones, Donna C; Taylor, Jesse A

2013-12-01

296

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

Science.gov (United States)

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O'Brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

297

Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

Tomomi Okamura

2011-04-01

298

Results and complications of facial reanimation following cerebellopontine angle surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the results of a group of patients following treatment for cerebellopontine angle lesions who developed postoperative facial palsy and underwent facial nerve repair in order to reanimate the muscles of facial expression. A retrospective study was performed on 23 patients treated between 1988 and 1997 at the 2nd and 4th ENT chairs of University "La Sapienza" of Rome for facial palsy following cerebellopontine angle surgery. Tumors included acoustic neuromas (n = 3). Seventeen patients underwent hypoglossal-facial anastomoses [10 with end-to-end anastomoses, 4 with May's interposition "jump-nerve" grafts and 3 with partial (30%) use of the hypoglossal nerve plus a facial cross-over]. The remaining patients were operated on using a cable graft with the sural nerve (n = 2) and the great auricular nerve (n = 4). Postoperative facial function was determined by the House-Brackmann 6-scale classification The hypoglossal-facial anastomoses resulted in long-term grade III or IV findings. Cable grafts improved facial function from grade VI to grade III. None of the patients operated on with the modfied VII-XII anastomosis developed swallowing disturbances. The ten patients having traditional hypoglossal-facial anastomoses showed different degrees of tongue disability and retention of residue in the oral cavity. Surgical recovery of postoperative facial palsy can be obtained with various techniques according to the availability of the proximal facial nerve stump at the brain stem. Since a traditional hypoglossal-facial anastomosis procedure can be a source of a separate disability for the patient, techniques are preferred that leave the hypoglossal nerve mostly intact and uncompromised. PMID:11271435

Magliulo, G; D'Amico, R; Forino, M

2001-01-01

299

Relación entre la porciónextracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático: triángulo cigomático-facial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo.Determinar larelación entre la porción extracraneana del nervio facial y el arco cigomático.Método. Estudiamos 4 cabezas cadavéricas (8 regiones parotídeas),fijadas en formol e inyectadas con silicona coloreada.Resultados. El nervio facial tiene 6 porciones. La extracraneanacomienza cuando [...] el nervio atraviesa el foramen estilomasteoideo y corre dentrode la parótida. Anterior al trago el nervio se ubica a 26,88 mm debajo del arcosuperior del arco cigamático. Desde ese punto el nervio toma una direcciónsuperoanterior, cruzando el cigoma 18,65 mm por delante del trago. Así dibujaun triángulo (cigomático-facial), con 3 puntos: a) sobre el borde superior delcigoma, a nivel del borde anterior del trago; b) 26 mm por debajo del punto a)y c) 18 mm por delante del punto a) podemos trazar un área de trabajo libre,sin riesgo de dañar el facial.Conclusión. El triángulo cigomaticofacial es un reparo útil paratrabajar debajo del arco cigomático con bajo riesgo de dañar al facial. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the relationship between the extracranialportion of the seventh nerve and the zygomatic arch.Method: We studied 4 cadaveric heads (8 parotid regions) formaline fixedand injected with coloured silicone. A surgical microscope was used to performthe disections. Measures were tak [...] en with a caliper.Results: The facial nerve has 6 portions. The extracranial portionstarts when the nerve traverses the stylomastoid foramen, running inside theparotid gland. Just anterior to the tragus, the nerve is located 26.88 mm belowthe superior edge of the zygomatic arch. From that point, the nerve takes asuperior and anterior direction, crossing the zygomatic arch 18.65 mm ahead ofthe tragus. Thus, drawing a triangle (zygomatic-facial triangle), with threepoints: a) over the superior edge of the zygomatic arch, at the level of theanterior border of the tragus, b) 26 mm below the point a, and c) 18 mm aheadthe point a, we can trace a safe area of working, without risk of damage of thefacial nerve.Conclusion: The zygomatic-facial triangle is a very useful landmark forto work below the zygomatic arch with a low risk of damage of the facial nerve.

Álvaro, Campero; Abraham, Campero; Rafael, Torino; Mariano, Socolovsky; Conrado, Rivadeneira.

300

Técnicas de confección de prótesis faciales / Techniques used for making of facial prostheses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las prótesis faciales constituyen parte integrante de la rehabilitación de pacientes que sufrieron daños en la cara, sea de origen patológica, traumática o congénita. Aunque el éxito del tratamiento con prótesis faciales está asociado con la capacidad artística del profesional en reproducir las estr [...] ucturas perdidas, no se puede descuidar la buena adaptabilidad de las prótesis en cuanto a la asociación de materiales y técnicas empleadas para la confección de prótesis buco-maxilofaciales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, mediante la revisión de la literatura, mostrar los principales conceptos relacionados con las técnicas de confección de prótesis faciales y asociar nuestra experiencia clínica con el pronóstico de las prótesis Abstract in english Facial prostheses are a integral part of rehabilitation of patients underwent face damages, being of pathologic, traumatic or congenital origin. Although success of treatment with facial prostheses is associated with artistic ability of professional to reproduce lost structures, we can not to obviat [...] e the good adaptability of prostheses regards association of material and techniques used to make buccomaxillofacial prostheses.

Marcelo, Coelho Goiato; Eduardo, Vedovatto; José Vitor, Quinelli Mazaro; Marcelo, Matida Hamata; Humberto, Gennari Filho; Rose Mary, Falcón; Daniela Micheline, dos Santos.

 
 
 
 
301

Facial tolerability of topical retinoid therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The facial tolerability of various topical retinoids was evaluated in 253 healthy volunteers in a series of split-face, randomized, investigator-masked studies-all conducted at the same site by the same investigator. Four variables were evaluated to determine if they influenced tolerability-retinoid concentration, formulation vehicle, skin sensitivity, and individual retinoid. Lower retinoid concentrations were associated with less irritation. Vehicle influenced tolerability but whether a gel or cream formulation was better tolerated varied from retinoid to retinoid. Tolerability was superior on normal skin than "sensitive skin." On normal skin, tazarotene cream was better tolerated than tretinoin cream whereas adapalene and tretinoin microsponge gels were better tolerated than tazarotene gel. On sensitive skin, tazarotene and adapalene creams were better tolerated than tretinoin cream whereas adapalene gel was better tolerated than tazarotene gel. Retinoid concentration, vehicle, skin sensitivity, and retinoid can all affect facial tolerability. Skin vulnerability may be the most important factor. PMID:15624747

Leyden, James; Grove, Gary; Zerweck, Charles

2004-01-01

302

Comparison of hemihypoglossal-facial nerve transposition with a cross-facial nerve graft and muscle transplant for the rehabilitation of facial paralysis using the facial clima method.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare quantitatively the results obtained after hemihypoglossal nerve transposition and microvascular gracilis transfer associated with a cross facial nerve graft (CFNG) for reanimation of a paralysed face, 66 patients underwent hemihypoglossal transposition (n = 25) or microvascular gracilis transfer and CFNG (n = 41). The commissural displacement (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) in the two groups were compared using the system known as Facial clima. There was no inter-group variability between the groups (p > 0.10) in either variable. However, intra-group variability was detected between the affected and healthy side in the transposition group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively). The transfer group had greater symmetry in displacement of the commissure (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) than the transposition group and patients were more satisfied. However, the transposition group had correct symmetry at rest but more asymmetry of CCV and CD when smiling. PMID:22455573

Hontanilla, Bernardo; Vila, Antonio

2012-02-01

303

Classification of Facial Expression Using Transformed Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic identification of facial expressions structures the elementary nature of a variety of next generation computing devices together with sentimental computing expertise, intellectual tutoring methods, and patient sketch delicate wellness scrutinize methods etc. Therefore, we have proposed a facial expression recognition system that has the aptitude of incrementally learning and thus can learn all possible patterns of expressions that may be generated in feature. Proposed system consists of different phases including face detection, features extraction and classification. First of all, face detection has been performed by using Voila & Jones method which is robust and then transformed features has been extracted for classification using local window. Three types of features have been extracted using Discrete Cosine Transform, Haar Wavelet transform, and Gabor Wavelet. Then these features have been fused and used for classification. The results of proposed technique are compared using different quantitative measures with some of the existing techniques which show its performance.

M. Arfan Jaffar

2014-07-01

304

Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

2014-06-01

305

Clinic-Radiological Study of facial paralysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have gathered 159 cases of facial paralysis from recent records in our hospital, including paralyses of central as well as peripheral origin, and presenting as the only symptom or as one of several major symptoms of the discomfort of each patient. Sixty-four percent of them were studied by CT scan and/or MR, confirming the existence of alterations in the pathway of nerve pair VII in 50% of the patients who underwent radiological study. Idiopathic facial paralysis was the most common type (42% of the total); while tumors and post-traumatic findings were the most constant radiological findings. From the analysis of the data, the importance of the clinical criteria for selection of the patients in the study and the protocol for radiological diagnosis employed can be deduced. (author)

306

Female intrasexual competition decreases female facial attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary theory predicts that female intrasexual competition will occur when males of high genetic quality are considered to be a resource. It is probable that women compete in terms of attractiveness since this is one of the primary criteria used by men when selecting mates. Furthermore, because hormones influence the mate-selection process, they may also mediate competition. One competitive strategy that women use is derogation--any act intended to decrease a rival's perceived value. To investigate intrasexual competition through derogation, the influence of oestrogen on women's ratings of female facial attractiveness was examined. During periods of high oestrogen, competition, and hence derogation, increased, as evidenced by lower ratings of female facial attractiveness. By contrast, oestrogen levels did not significantly affect ratings of male faces. These findings support the theory of female intrasexual competition with respect to attractiveness. PMID:15503995

Fisher, Maryanne L

2004-08-01

307

Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

Bakshi S

1992-07-01

308

Face Recognition Based on Facial Features  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commencing from the last decade several different methods have been planned and developed in the prospect of face recognition that is one of the chief stimulating zone in the area of image processing. Face recognitions processes have various applications in the prospect of security systems and crime investigation systems. The study is basically comprised of three phases, i.e., face detection, facial features extraction and face recognition. The first phase is the face detection process where ...

Muhammad Sharif; Muhammad Younas Javed; Sajjad Mohsin

2012-01-01

309

Radiological observation of the facial bone fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomography has played an important role in diagnosis of facial bone fracture. Nowadays, it still acts as a inevitable process in decision of adequate treatment in patient with facial bone fracture. At the Department of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, 74 patients who have facial bone fracture, were observed and analyzed with simple skull films, mainly skull A-P, lateral and Water's view, after comparison with tomographic findings. The results were as follows: 1. Male was in 90.5% incidence. Most frequent age distribution was 21 to 40 years and marked 62.2%. 2. Most frequent cause of trauma was traffic accident as 41 cases and the next one was fall down as 13 cases. Other cause were blunt trauma such as first, stone, heavy metal etc. and explosion. 3. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were painful swelling, abrasion, ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage in almost all patient. 4. Fracture distribution was 22 cases in simple fracture and 52 cases in complex fractures which were 26 cases in Tripod fractures, 14 cases in Le Fort fractures and 12 cases in combined complex fractures. 5. The radiologic findings on tomography were opacity of orbit or P.N.S. 87.8%, regional soft tissue swelling 85.1%, displacement of bony fragment 56.8%, abnormal linear density in orbit or P.N.S. 48.6%, bony fragment in orbit or P.N.S. 47.3% change of size of orbit or P.N.S. 40.5%, foreign body in orbit of P.N.S. 16.2%, and others 27.0%. These radiologic findings of simple fracture were less than those of complex fracture. 6. Radiologic findings of facial bone fracture on simple films were analyzed after comparison with tomographs. Detectable possibility of obvious fracture lines such as cortical disruption or separation was 67.6% on simple films

310

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

311

Donor Nerve Selection in Facial Reanimation Surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motor components of local cranial nerves provide a series of options for the surgical rehabilitation of the paralyzed face. Nerve donor sites vary with respect to their motor power, functional deficit, and synergy with facial expression. A thorough understanding of each donor nerve's strengths and weaknesses facilitates the selection process. Technical modifications to reduce donor site morbidity and the emerging role of the masseter nerve are examined.

Klebuc, Michael; Shenaq, Saleh M.

2004-01-01

312

Facial expression of pain: an evolutionary account.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes that human expression of pain in the presence or absence of caregivers, and the detection of pain by observers, arises from evolved propensities. The function of pain is to demand attention and prioritise escape, recovery, and healing; where others can help achieve these goals, effective communication of pain is required. Evidence is reviewed of a distinct and specific facial expression of pain from infancy to old age, consistent across stimuli, and recognizable as pain by...

Williams, A. C.

2002-01-01

313

Dentigerous cyst presenting as facial pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rare case is presented in which a maxillary dentigerous cyst had eroded the posterior wall of the right maxillary sinus into the pterygo-palatine fossa causing facial pain due to pressure on the nerves. It had also eroded the lateral wall of sinus and into the oral cavity and got infected resulting in foul smelling oral discharge. The case was dealt with complete removal of cyst using Caldwell Luc's approach. (author)

314

Geometric facial gender scoring: objectivity of perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

315

Interfacing Assessment Using Facial Expression Recognition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most important issues in gaming is deciding about the employed interfacing technology. Gamepad has traditionally been a popular interfacing technology for the gaming industry, but, recently motion controlled interfacing has been used widely in this industry. This is exactly the purpose of this paper to study whether the motion controlled interface is a feasible alternative to the gamepad, when evaluated from a user experience point of view. To do so, a custom game has been developed and 25 test subjects have been asked to play the game using both types of the interfaces. To evaluate the users experiences during the game, their hedonic and pragmatic quality are assessed using both subjective and objective evaluation methods in order to cross-validate the obtained results. An application of computer vision, facial expression recognition, has been used as a non-obtrusive objective and hedonic measure. While, the score obtained by the user during the game has been used as a pragmatic quality measure. The use of facial expression recognition has, to the best of our knowledge, not been used before to assess the hedonic quality of interfaces for games. The thorough experimental results show that the user experience of the motion controlled interface is significantly better than the gamepad interface, both in terms of hedonic and pragmatic quality. The facial expression recognition system proved to be a useful non-obtrusive way to objectively evaluate the hedonic quality of the interfacing technologies.

Albjerg Andersen, Rune; Nasrollahi, Kamal

2014-01-01

316

Laypersons' perception of facial and dental asymmetries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article was to determine the individual visual perception thresholds of certain facial and dental discrepancies for a symmetric face model (SFM). A facial photograph of a female subject's smile was digitally manipulated into an artificially symmetric picture. Modifications were made on the SFM for shifts in the dental midline, nose, and chin (group 1) and cants of dental midline and incisal plane (group 2), resulting in a total of 24 different images divided into two groups. One-hundred randomly selected laypersons divided into two groups were used to evaluate each image according to their own personal beauty and esthetic criteria using a visual analog scale. The visual perception thresholds found for the SFM were 2 mm for a dental midline shift, 4 mm for nose deviation, 5 degrees for dental midline cant, and 3 degrees for frontal incisal plane cant. Chin deviations of 6 mm or less were not noticed. Dental midline shift, nose deviation, dental midline cant, and incisal plane cant relative to an SFM have an impact on the perception of facial attractiveness. Chin deviations did not have a statistically significant impact. PMID:24116371

Silva, Bruno Pereira; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Martinez-de-Fuentes, Rafael; Greenberg, Joseph R; Chu, Stephen

2013-01-01

317

Voiceless Arabic vowels recognition using facial EMG.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work attempts to recognize the Arabic vowels based on facial electromyograph (EMG) signals, to be used for people with speech impairment and for human computer interface. Vowels were selected since they are the most difficult letters to recognize by people in Arabic language. Twenty subjects (7 females and 13 males) were asked to pronounce three Arabic vowels continuously in a random order. Facial EMG signals were recorded over three channels from the three main facial muscles that are responsible for speech. The EMG signals are then pre-processed to eliminate noise and interference signals. Segmentation procedure was implemented to extract the time event that corresponds to each vowel based on a moving standard deviation window. The accuracy of the segmentation procedure was found to be 94%. The recognition of the vowels was carried out by extracting features from the EMG in three domains: the temporal, the spectral, and the time frequency using the wavelet packet transform. Classification of the extracted features was then finally performed using different classification methods implemented in the WEKA software. The random forest classifier with time frequency features showed the best performance with an accuracy of 77% evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. PMID:21409427

Fraiwan, Luay; Lweesy, Khaldon; Al-Nemrawi, Ayat; Addabass, Sondos; Saifan, Rasha

2011-07-01

318

Evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography  

Science.gov (United States)

Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire topography to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire topography is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.

Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu

1991-08-01

319

A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF FACIAL FRACTURE ETIOLOGIES.  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of mechanism of injury and type and location of the facial injury. Material and Methods: The medical records of 276 patients with 216 facial fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Fracture patterns were classified based on the presence or absence of fractures of the orbit, zygoma, maxilla, mandible and nose. Results: The most common etiology of trauma was assault (42.6% followed by car accident (23.1%, fall (16.2%, sports (5%, occupational (2%, and gunshot wound (0.9% (fig. 1. The most common fracture type was mandible fractures (31.1%, followed by nasal bone fracture (29.3% (fig. 2. Car accident was found to be a significant predictor of panfacial fractures or associated injury, as was GSW. Sports injuries were a significant predictor of isolated upper midface fractures, and assault was a significant predictor for isolated mandible and nasal bones fractures. Car accident and GSW each were found to lead to significantly higher severity of injury than assault, fall, and sports. Conclusion: The results confirm intuitive aspects of the etiology of facial fractures that have been anecdotally supported in the past .

Elitsa Deliverska

2012-02-01

320

Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

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Full Text Available TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes.BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. The evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

Lucila Leal Calais

2005-08-01

322

Avaliação funcional da mímica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular / Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese TEMA:avaliação funcional da mímica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central após acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Serviço [...] de Neurologia. A avaliação enfocou movimentos espontâneos, reflexos e voluntários. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentação voluntária e involuntária das pálpebras e testa, mas a movimentação dos lábios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localização e extensão da lesão. CONCLUSÃO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentação da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntários, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes. Abstract in english BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. Th [...] e evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

Lucila Leal, Calais; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Luiz Roberto, Comerlatti.

2005-08-01

323

An Improved Conditional Regression Forests for Facial Feature Points Detection  

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Full Text Available In order to improve the detection accuracy of facial feature points even on deformed and low quality image. This study proposed a new method which combined the constrained local model and conditional regression forests voting. Firstly, the method used the constrained local model to build head pose as global characteristic. This could provide holistic constraint for facial feature points detection. Then conditional regression forests voting was used to train the decision trees which express the relationship between facial image patches and the location of feature points. The resulted decision trees, together with the global face characteristic trained by constrained local model, could be used to fastly and accurately cast votes for the optimal facial feature position. Experimental results show that the algorithm can mark the facial feature points quickly and robustly. The accuracy is improved by 6% in general compared to other methods for facial feature detection.

Xukang Wang

2014-01-01

324

A Novel Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Method Based on AAM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes anovel method to recognize facial expression through ActiveAppearance Model (AAMto extract facial regions based on Facial Action CodingSystem (FACS. Itis composed of three parts: extractionof facial regions based on AAM,extraction of facial featuresby Gabor wavelettransformation, and expressionrecognition through Support Vector Machines (SVMs.AAM has better performance thanother methodsin eliminations of the influenceof different facialregion size, head pose and lighting condition and thus can effectively increase the recognitionaccuracy. Therefore it is usedto extract facial regions before extracting features by Gabor wavelettransformation. Finally, SVMsis appliedto recognize expression for its advantage of solvingthe problems of small sample size and overfitting. The feasibility and effectiveness of this method are evaluated and verified by experiments, and satisfactoryresults are achieved.

Li Wang

2014-03-01

325

Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N?=?18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing. PMID:23428082

Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

2012-01-01

326

Morphometric analysis of facial landmark data to characterize the facial phenotype associated with fetal alcohol syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Procrustes analysis and principal component analysis were applied to stereo-photogrammetrically obtained landmarks to compare the facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in subjects with FAS and normal controls. Two studies were performed; both compared facial landmark data of FAS and normal subjects, but they differed in the number of landmarks chosen. The first study compared landmarks representing palpebral fissure length, upper lip thinness and philtrum smoothness and revealed no significant difference in shape. The second study added to the landmarks used in the first those affected by mid-face hypoplasia, and revealed significant differences in shape between the two groups, broadly confirming the FAS gestalt reported in the literature. Some disagreement in the characteristic FAS facial shape between our results and those reported in the literature may be due to ethnic variation. PMID:17310546

Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Douglas, Tania S

2007-01-01

327

Paralisia facial periférica e gestação: abordagem e tratamento / Facial palsy and pregnancy: management and treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar o grau da paralisia facial periférica de gestantes e puérperas no momento da admissão e na alta e avaliar outros fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, com análise dos prontuários de gestantes e puérperas atendidas no ambulatório de paralisia facial, em um [...] período de 12 meses, com aplicação de protocolo padronizado de avaliação das pacientes e da escala de House-Brackmann na primeira consulta e na data da alta. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 6 pacientes, com média de idade de 22,6 anos. Cinco casos foram classificados com estadiamento IV e um com II na escala de House-Brackmann, sendo que duas eram puérperas e quatro gestantes. Todas evoluíram com melhora na escala de House-Brackmann. CONCLUSÃO: A paralisia de Bell tem bom prognóstico mesmo em gestantes e puérperas, sendo importante realizar tratamento adequado para diminuir as sequelas neste grupo apontado como mais susceptível à paralisia facial periférica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To compare the degree of peripheral facial palsy of pregnant women and puerperae at admission and at discharge and to evaluate related factors. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, with analysis of medical records of pregnant and postpartum women with facial palsy, over a period o [...] f 12 months, with application of a standardized protocol for patient evaluation and of the House-Brackmann scale on the occasion of the first visit and at discharge. RESULTS: Six patients were identified, mean age of 22.6 years. Five cases were classified as stage IV and one as stage II on the House-Brackmann scale, being two of them puerperae and four pregnant. All showed improvement on the House-Brackmann scale. CONCLUSION: The Bell's palsy has a good prognosis even in pregnant and postpartum women, being important to perform the correct treatment to reduce the sequelae in this group identified as more susceptible to peripheral facial palsy.

Maria Augusta Aliperti, Ferreira; Milena, Lavori; Guilherme Machado de, Carvalho; Alexandre Caixeta, Guimarães; Vanessa Golçalves, Silva; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

328

Desfiguramento facial adquirido: breve revisão narrativa / Acquired facial disfigurement: a brief narrative review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 2010, o Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Portugal (INE) indicou que anualmente se realizam cerca de 40 000 médias e grandes cirurgias reconstrutiva e estética. Apesar da sua etiologia, justifica-se uma maior dedicação na investigação de indivíduos que por trauma ou doença perderam a sua “iden [...] tidade” apresentando um desfiguramento facial. Pretende-se com o presente artigo apresentar uma breve contextualização que descreva o desenvolvimento sobre o desfiguramento facial adquirido causado pela doença (cancro cabeça e pescoço) ou originado pelo trauma (queimados, agressão, outros), recorrendo a literatura publicada em livros e artigos científicos, fazendo também referência a instrumentos validados para a população portuguesa que permitem avaliar o investimento da imagem corporal (ASI-R) e avaliar a autoconsciência da aparência (DAS-24). Referenciar as necessidades e questões psicossociais mais comuns, o tipo de intervenção, a importância do apoio social e quais as estratégias de coping mais frequentes no ajustamento ao desfiguramento facial adquirido. Abstract in english In 2010, the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE) pointed out that 40,000 medium and large reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries are performed annually. Regardless of its etiology, a stronger focus on investigating individuals that have lost their "identity" due to trauma or disease, thus featu [...] ring a facial disfigurement, is justified. The intention of this paper to present a brief context that describes the development of the acquired facial disfigurement caused by the disease (cancer of the head and neck) or originated by trauma (burns) using published literature in books and articles scientific, also making reference to instruments validated for the Portuguese population for assessing investment body image (ASI-R) and to evaluate the self-consciousness of appearance (DAS-24). Identify the need and psychosocial issues most common type of intervention, the importance of social support and coping strategies which frequently in adjustment to acquired facial disfigurement.

José Carlos da Silva, Mendes; Maria João, Figueiras.

329

Regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits  

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Full Text Available A paralisia facial periférica traumática constitui-se em afecção freqüente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regeneração pós-traumática do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliação funcional histológica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à compressão do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados após duas (grupo AL, quatro (BL e seis (CL semanas da lesão. A comparação entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axônios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATÍSTICO: método de Tukey (p Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression lesion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL, four (BL and six (CL weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p<0.05. RESULTS:There was partial functional recovery after two weeks, and complete recovery after five weeks. Qualitative analysis demonstrated a degenerative pattern in the AL group, with an increased tissue inflammatory process. Evident regeneration signs were observed in the BL group, and almost complete regeneration was seen in the CL group. Normal nerves (N had an average TD of 15705.59 and average PD of 21800.75. The BL group had an average TD of 10818.55 and an average PD of 15340.56. The CL group had an average TD of 13920.36 and an average PD of 16589.15. The BL group had an average TD of N equal to 68.88%, and the CL group had an average TD of N equal to 88,63% (statistically significant. N showed a significant higher PD than injured nerves. However, this was not statistically different between BL and CL subgroups. Nerve DT was a more reliable method than PD in this study.

Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi Costa

2006-12-01

330

Desfiguramento facial adquirido: breve revisão narrativa / Acquired facial disfigurement: a brief narrative review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 2010, o Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Portugal (INE) indicou que anualmente se realizam cerca de 40 000 médias e grandes cirurgias reconstrutiva e estética. Apesar da sua etiologia, justifica-se uma maior dedicação na investigação de indivíduos que por trauma ou doença perderam a sua “iden [...] tidade” apresentando um desfiguramento facial. Pretende-se com o presente artigo apresentar uma breve contextualização que descreva o desenvolvimento sobre o desfiguramento facial adquirido causado pela doença (cancro cabeça e pescoço) ou originado pelo trauma (queimados, agressão, outros), recorrendo a literatura publicada em livros e artigos científicos, fazendo também referência a instrumentos validados para a população portuguesa que permitem avaliar o investimento da imagem corporal (ASI-R) e avaliar a autoconsciência da aparência (DAS-24). Referenciar as necessidades e questões psicossociais mais comuns, o tipo de intervenção, a importância do apoio social e quais as estratégias de coping mais frequentes no ajustamento ao desfiguramento facial adquirido. Abstract in english In 2010, the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE) pointed out that 40,000 medium and large reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries are performed annually. Regardless of its etiology, a stronger focus on investigating individuals that have lost their "identity" due to trauma or disease, thus featu [...] ring a facial disfigurement, is justified. The intention of this paper to present a brief context that describes the development of the acquired facial disfigurement caused by the disease (cancer of the head and neck) or originated by trauma (burns) using published literature in books and articles scientific, also making reference to instruments validated for the Portuguese population for assessing investment body image (ASI-R) and to evaluate the self-consciousness of appearance (DAS-24). Identify the need and psychosocial issues most common type of intervention, the importance of social support and coping strategies which frequently in adjustment to acquired facial disfigurement.

José Carlos da Silva, Mendes; Maria João, Figueiras.

2013-11-01

331

Parotid abscess: an unusual cause of facial nerve palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial nerve palsy with a parotid mass is usually associated with malignant neoplasm of parotid gland. Its occurrence as a complication of parotid abscess is extremely rare. A literature review revealed only 16 cases of facial nerve palsy associated with suppurative parotitis or parotid abscess were reported. We present a case of deep parotid abscess which is complicated by facial nerve dysfunction. Underlying neoplasia was excluded. PMID:20058583

Noorizan, Y; Chew, Y K; Khir, A; Brito-Mutunayagam, S

2009-06-01

332

Facial Features for Template Matching Based Face Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Template matching had been a conventional method for object detection especially facial features detection at the early stage of face recognition research. The appearance of moustache and beard had affected the performance of features detection and face recognition system since ages ago. Approach: The proposed algorithm aimed to reduce the effect of beard and moustache for facial features detection and introduce facial features based template matching as the c...

Yuen, Chai T.; Rizon, M.; San, Woo S.; Seong, Tan C.

2009-01-01

333

Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifyi...

G.Sofia,; Mohamed Sathik, Dr M.

2010-01-01

334

Facial Expression Recognition under Noisy Environment Using Gabor Filters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expression recognition is a major task concerning human-computer interaction issue. Plenty of techniques were proposed to recognize an expression either in still images or image sequences. However, most of them were applied for images recorded under controlled recording conditions. This paper aims at describing Gabor filters’ application to extract facial features required to classify facial expression when the images are disturbed by various noise levels. The experiments indicate a ...

Buciu, I.; Nafornita, I.; Pitas, I.

2010-01-01

335

Regression-based Multi-View Facial Expression Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a regression-based scheme for multi-view facial expression recognition based on 2-D geometric features. We address the problem by mapping facial points (e.g. mouth corners) from non-frontal to frontal view where further recognition of the expressions can be performed using a state-of-the-art facial expression recognition method. To learn the mapping functions we investigate four regression models: Linear Regression (LR), Support Vector Regression (SVR), Relevance Vector Regression ...

Rudovic, Ognjen; Patras, Ioannis; Pantic, Maja

2010-01-01

336

Facial Expression Recognition Using New Feature Extraction Algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a method for facial expression recognition. Facial feature vectors are generated from keypoint descriptors using Speeded-Up Robust Features. Each facial feature vector is then normalized and next the probability density function descriptor is generated. The distance between two probability density function descriptors is calculated using Kullback Leibler divergence. Mathematical equation is employed to select certain practicable probability density function descriptors for...

Huang, Hung-fu

2012-01-01

337

Dynamic facial expression recognition with a discrete choice model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a dynamic facial expression recognition framework based on discrete choice models (DCM). We model the choice of a person who has to label a video sequence representing a facial expression. The originality is based on the explicit modeling of causal effects between the facial features and the recognition of the expression. Three models are proposed. The first assumes that only the last frame of the video triggers the choice of the expression. The second model is composed of two part...

Robin, Thomas; Bierlaire, Michel; Cruz, Javier

2010-01-01

338

A clinician's dilemma: Sturge-Weber syndrome ‘without facial nevus’!!  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare, sporadic neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by a classical triad of facial port wine nevus, ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomatosis (LAM) and glaucoma. The incidence of SWS is 1/50,000 live births, although it is more often underreported. The incidence of SWS without facial nevus is not known, although very few patients without facial nevus have been reported. In these patients, the diagnosis of SWS is made by the findings of computed tomography, ma...

Jagtap, Sujit A.; Srinivas, G.; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Harsha, K. J.

2013-01-01

339

Facial nerve canal: CT analysis of the protruding tympanic segment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and subsequent course of the facial nerve canal are complex. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an opportunity for the study of this often perplexing structure. Normal anatomy and normal variations of the facial nerve canal must be considered when examining patients who have facial nerve palsy referrable to the temporal bone. The author recommends direct axial and coronal imaging supplemented by sagittal and possibly oblique reformations

340

[Aspects of diagnosis and treatment of the facial nerve neuropathy].  

Science.gov (United States)

As many as 86 patients with neuropathy of the facial nerve complicated by development of postneuritic muscular contractures were examined. Based on the clinical-and-neurophysiological investigation, findings from rheoencephalography, electroencephalography, echoencephaloscopy, electrodiagnosis of the facial nerve, clinical variants of the facial nerve function return to normal were defined together with causes of development of muscular contractures. Efficiency is shown of use of acupuncture and magnetotherapy combined in treatment of the above trouble. PMID:12442521

Mironenko, T V; Korotnev, V N

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Heritability of Individual Differences in Cortical Processing of Facial Affect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial expression of emotion is a key mechanism of non-verbal social communication in humans. Deficits in processing of facial emotion have been implicated in psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal social behavior, such as autism and schizophrenia. Identification of genetically transmitted variability in the neural substrates of facial processing can elucidate the pathways mediating genetic influences on social behavior and provide useful endophenotypes for psychiatric genetic resear...

Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

342

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: Naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendati...

Pantic, Maja

2009-01-01

343

Injury to the Intratemporal Facial Nerve: Report of a Case  

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Full Text Available Injury to the intratemporal facial nerve is caused most commonly by temporal bone fractures resulting from trauma sustained in motor vehicle accidents. Most cases of facial paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture are caused by longitudinal fractures of this bone. We report a 13 year-old girl with paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture. After removal of the bone fragments, we observed that the continuity of the facial nerve was intact.

N Saki

2001-07-01

344

Enhancing Facial Aesthetics with Muscle Retraining Exercises-A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. ‘Smile’ is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects.

D'souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D'souza, Henston; Shetty, Omkar

2014-01-01

345

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available information which is belong to original semantic web, reduces the complexity and indirectly analysis the national facial features. Lastly, the effectiveness of our experiment is demonstrated by some real-word data sets.  

LI Zedong

2013-09-01

346

Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right  

CERN Document Server

The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

Osipa, Jason

2010-01-01

347

Bilateral transverse facial cleft as an isolated deformity: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transverse facial clefts are rare deformities, these mostly occur as part of syndromes such as facial dysostosis and branchial arch syndrome. This is a report of a case of isolated, asyndromic bilateral facial cleft seen at a semi-urban specialist hospital. Congenital facial defects remain sources of mental and social stress to the families. Infanticide, perhaps a thing of the past in the developed world may still be practiced in cases of congenital deformities in the developing countries, hence the need for early involvement of social workers and clinical psychologist in management.

Akinmoladun V

2007-03-01

348

Facial Expression Recognition Analysis with Muti-Scale Filter  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of filters is the key step of facial expression extraction. Frequency and orientation of the filters can simulate those of the human visual system, and they have the characteristics of being particularly appropriate for texture representation and discrimination. The paper presents the wavelet filter provided with 3 frequencies, 8 orientations. In according to actual demand, it can extract the feature of low quality facial expression image target, and have good robust for automatic facial expression recognition. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed filter achieved excellent average recognition rates, when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

Ou, Jun

349

A clinician's dilemma: Sturge-Weber syndrome 'without facial nevus'!!  

Science.gov (United States)

Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare, sporadic neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by a classical triad of facial port wine nevus, ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomatosis (LAM) and glaucoma. The incidence of SWS is 1/50,000 live births, although it is more often underreported. The incidence of SWS without facial nevus is not known, although very few patients without facial nevus have been reported. In these patients, the diagnosis of SWS is made by the findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathology. Here, we report three patients with SWS from our cohort of 28 patients with SWS without facial nevus and discuss their clinical profile and outcome. PMID:23661980

Jagtap, Sujit A; Srinivas, G; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Harsha, K J

2013-01-01

350

Three-dimensional cranio-facial computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography allows today to reconstruct three-dimensional (eD) images fram axial scans. The authors report their experience in cranio-facial pathology achived in two Departments of Radiology (University of Trieste, Italy and University of Standford, California). 3D images have been realized using two different softwares, one of which allows to reconstruct both soft tissue and bone structures. The application in maxillo-facial traumas, cranio-facial malformations and head tumours are disscussed. 3D images turned out to be very useful for the optimal visualization and for the spatial demostration of the lesion and have potential applications in cranio-facial surgery and radiotherapy

351

Paralisia facial periférica e otite média tuberculosa / Peripheric facial paralysis and tuberculous otitis media: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores apresentam um caso de paralisia facial periférica devido a uma otite média tuberculosa. Chamam atenção para a raridade atual da otite tuberculosa e para a freqüência com que esta afecção compromete o nervo facial. A regressão da paralisia após tratamento cirúrgico (mastoidectomia e descom [...] pressão do nervo facial) e medicamentoso específico foi assinalada. Abstract in english In reporting on a case of peripherical facial paralysis due to tuberculous otitis media attention is called both to the present rarity of tuberculous otitis and to the frequency of the attack of this infection to the facial nerve, emphasis being made on the paralysis regression following surgical tr [...] eatment (mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression) and use of specific medication.

José Geraldo Camargo, Lima; Nelson Alvares, Cruz.

352

Paralisia facial periférica e otite média tuberculosa Peripheric facial paralysis and tuberculous otitis media: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de paralisia facial periférica devido a uma otite média tuberculosa. Chamam atenção para a raridade atual da otite tuberculosa e para a freqüência com que esta afecção compromete o nervo facial. A regressão da paralisia após tratamento cirúrgico (mastoidectomia e descompressão do nervo facial e medicamentoso específico foi assinalada.In reporting on a case of peripherical facial paralysis due to tuberculous otitis media attention is called both to the present rarity of tuberculous otitis and to the frequency of the attack of this infection to the facial nerve, emphasis being made on the paralysis regression following surgical treatment (mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression and use of specific medication.

José Geraldo Camargo Lima

1974-09-01

353

Angioedema por rellenos faciales: Descripción de cinco casos Facial angioedema after filler injections: Description of five cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En los últimos años se ha incrementado la utilización de sustancias de relleno facial con fines estéticos. Estos productos, originalmente considerados inertes, se asocian con diversos efectos adversos localizados alrededor del sitio de la aplicación. Describimos a 5 mujeres con antecedentes de inyecciones de sustancia de relleno facial que presentaron como síntoma inicial angioedema facial duro y persistente seguido por la aparición de nódulos subcutáneos. Todas las pacientes fueron ...

Cosatti, Micaela A.; Ferna?ndez Romero, Diego S.; María Cecilia Juri; Alejandro Malbrán

2010-01-01

354

Silent intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma associated with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A rare presentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facial palsy is a common manifestation of intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma. Review of English literature describes intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma presenting as vertigo, tinnitus (without facial palsy) which were diagnosed on CT scan or MRI of temporal bone. We are presenting two cases of asymptomatic facial nerve schwannoma without facial palsy presenting only as Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM), which were diagnosed incidentally during surgery.

Phaniendra, V.; Pratinidhi, Santosh K.; Renuka, I. V.

2007-01-01

355

Measurement of facial movements with Photoshop software during treatment of facial nerve palsy*  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Evaluating the function of facial nerve is essential in order to determine the influences of various treatment methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess the agreement of Photoshop scaling system versus the facial grading system (FGS). METHODS: In this semi-experimental study, thirty subjects with facial nerve paralysis were recruited. The evaluation of all patients before and after the treatment was performed by FGS and Photoshop measurements. RESULTS: The mean values of FGS before and after the treatment were 35 ± 25 and 67 ± 24, respectively (p < 0.001). In Photoshop assessment, mean changes of face expressions in the impaired side relative to the normal side in rest position and three main movements of the face were 3.4 ± 0.55 and 4.04 ± 0.49 millimeter before and after the treatment, respectively (p < 0.001). Spearman's correlation coefficient between different values in the two methods was 0.66 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating the facial nerve palsy using Photoshop was more objective than using FGS. Therefore, it may be recommended to use this method instead. PMID:22973325

Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Zadmehr, Hassan; Hossaini, Mohsen

2011-01-01

356

Guide of maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns Guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The guide for maxillofacial trauma intervention for diagnosis and treatment of facial burns has been developed on the basis of the results obtained in a retrospective descriptive study of a series of patients for facial burns, were treated in serving Burned Cienfuegos University General Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "between January 2005 and September 2007. The document describes the set of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, both general and local, to treat patients with facial burns depending on the extent and depth of burns, also describes some special considerations depending on their location in central facial structures (eyelids, flag ear, nose, mouth, neck. It took into account national guidelines and the Pan American Health Organization, were also consulted experts and specialists in the field. The guide was approved by the scientific council of the institution cited above.La guía de intervención en traumatología máxilo facial para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las quemaduras faciales ha sido elaborada sobre la base de los resultados obtenidos en un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de una serie de pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario de Cienfuegos “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. El documento describe el conjunto de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos, tanto generales como locales, para tratar a los pacientes con quemaduras faciales según la extensión y profundidad de las quemaduras, además se describen algunas consideraciones especiales según su localización en estructuras centro faciales (párpados, pabellón auricular, nariz, boca, cuello. Se tuvieron en cuenta los lineamientos nacionales y de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, también fueron consultados expertos y especialistas en el tema. La guía fue aprobada por el consejo científico de la institución antes citada.

Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

2010-07-01

357

Concordância dos ortodontistas no diagnóstico do padrão facial Agreement among orthodontists regarding facial pattern diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância de ortodontistas treinados no diagnóstico do Padrão Facial, por meio da avaliação morfológica da face. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais de frente, perfil e sorriso de 105 indivíduos selecionados aleatoriamente entre pacientes que procuraram tratamento ortodôntico, as quais foram enviadas a ortodontistas treinados na classificação do Padrão Facial. A concordância intraexaminador, dos examinadores com o Padrão-Ouro e interexaminadores foi avaliada por meio do Índice Kappa. RESULTADOS: a concordância na avaliação intraexaminador foi quase perfeita, com Índice Kappa 0,85. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro foi moderada (Kappa 0,48, sendo mais alta no Padrão I (Kappa 0,62 e mais baixa no Padrão Face Curta (Kappa 0,33. A concordância entre os examinadores foi substancial (Kappa 0,61, mais alta que a concordância com o Padrão-Ouro em todos os Padrões. CONCLUSÃO: os critérios utilizados pelos examinadores para determinação do Padrão Facial foram os mesmos na primeira e na segunda avaliação. A concordância entre os examinadores e o Padrão-Ouro é moderada, e eles apresentam maior concordância entre si que com o Padrão-Ouro.OBJECTIVE To assess agreement among orthodontists trained in facial pattern diagnosis through the morphological evaluation of the face. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken in front and side view, as well as photos of the smiles of 105 individuals randomly selected among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The photos were sent to orthodontists trained in facial pattern classification. Intra-rater agreement, agreement between raters and the Gold Standard, as well as inter-rater agreement were assessed using the Kappa index. RESULTS: Intra-rater agreement was almost perfect, with Kappa index reaching 0.85. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate (Kappa = 0.48, higher for Pattern I (Kappa = 0.62 and lower for the short face pattern (Kappa = 0.33. Agreement between raters was significant (Kappa = 0.61 and even higher than agreement with the Gold Standard for all patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The criteria used by raters to determine the facial pattern were the same in the first and second evaluation. Agreement between raters and the Gold Standard was moderate, with raters exhibiting greater agreement between them than with the Gold Standard.

Sílvia Augusta Braga Reis

2011-08-01

358

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica / Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e [...] divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They wer [...] e separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée, Mory; Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nizam, Pfeilsticker; Euro de Barros, Couto Junior; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

359

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica / Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e [...] divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003) nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002). CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They wer [...] e separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003) in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002). CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée, Mory; Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nizam, Pfeilsticker; Euro de Barros, Couto Junior; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

2013-04-01

360

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na Paralisia Facial Periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Mastigação, deglutição e suas adaptações na paralisia facial periférica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigação, fase oral da deglutição e possíveis adaptações funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Periférica. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivíduos com Paralisia Facial Periférica grau IV, com história de até 30 dias, sem distinção de etiologia e divididos em três grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em até 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funções mastigação e fase oral da deglutição foram avaliadas tanto com alimento sólido e como com água natural. Os indivíduos responderam questões relacionadas às dificuldades imediatamente após a instalação da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razão de Verossimilhança e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alterações nas funções de mastigação e fase oral da deglutição pela diminuição do tônus no músculo orbicular dos lábios e do músculo bucinador, que diminuindo a pressão intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e líquido. À observação da Fonoaudióloga a variável "derrama líquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos três grupos estudados. A variável "acúmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: os indivíduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatórios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de língua para limpeza de resíduos retidos no vestíbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este é o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contínua. Desenvolvem adaptações para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

Marion Renée Mory

2013-04-01

362

Intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial trauma: CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three patients with delayed frontal intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial injury are presented. In one patient an unusual appearance of bilateral and symmetrical frontal lobe pneumatoceles was demonstrated. While diagnosis is not difficult on routine radiographs, CT is valuable for determining effects on the brain and clearly delineating the fracture site; CT shows the location of the pneumatocele and may show an associated air-fluid level, mass effect or surrounding edema, or rim enhancement following administration of contrast material. The radiological appearances in conjunction with the clinical findings are highly characteristic and should not be mistaken for gas-forming cerebral abscesses

363

Management strategy for facial arteriovenous malformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis; haemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolisation (super-selective followed by complete resection 24-48 hours later. We treated 20 patients with facial arteriovenous malformation by using this method. Most of the lesions (80% were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure related complications and cosmetic results were excellent.

Bhandari P

2008-01-01

364

An approach to bilateral facial paralysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Möbius syndrome is characterised by a congenital paralysis of the Facial and Abducens nerves. Treatment centres around functional free muscle transfers. We present 20 cases of Möbius reanimation, currently the largest published series. Our preferred approach has evolved over time to be a single stage bilateral procedure using segmental Latissimus dorsi muscles driven by the masseteric branch of the Trigeminal nerve. All cases showed significant improvement when reviewed by the senior surgeon and independent panel of observers. It was the senior authors' opinion that a more spontaneous smile was achieved in patients under ten years of age. PMID:20206590

Woollard, Alex C S; Harrison, Douglas H; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

2010-09-01

365

An Active Model for Facial Feature Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a system for finding and tracking a face and extract global and local animation parameters from a video sequence. The system uses an initial colour processing step for finding a rough estimate of the position, size, and inplane rotation of the face, followed by a refinement step drived by an active model. The latter step refines the pre­vious estimate, and also extracts local animation parame­ters. The system is able to track the face and some facial features in near real-time, and can compress the result to a bitstream compliant to MPEG-4 face and body animation.

Ahlberg Jörgen

2002-01-01

366

[Progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two children with progressive facial atrophia are described. In both asymmetria of the face was the reason for neuropediatric examination. Discrete neurological symptoms of this neurocutaneous syndrome were found. In patient 1 atrophia of one side of the face had developed shortly after surgical treatment of a mandibular exostose on the other side of the face. In patient 2 first signs of hemifacial atrophia were found in the newborn. Both children showed only discrete neurological symptoms. Etiology of this rare disease is still unknown, causal treatment is not possible. PMID:8114772

Menges-Wenzel, E M; Kurlemann, G; Pawlowitzki, J H

1993-12-01

367

Reconstruction of facial deformities in leprosy patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost all the parts of the face may be involved in deformities caused by leprosy. Reconstructive surgery can be undertaken after the disease is arrested by medical treatment. Reconstruction of nose can be done by augmentation with autogenous bone graft, retronasal inlay graft, etc. Loss of eyebrows can be reconstructed with hair bearing skin with hair follicles. Sagging face can be corrected by nasolabial face-lift with correction of glabellar folds. Blepharoplasty is done for correction of some conditions. The temporal muscle sling is a dynamic procedure to reconstruct facial nerve palsy. PMID:15871355

Banerjee, Samir

2004-12-01

368

Parálisis facial en otitis media: Revisión bibliográfica Facial paralysis in otitis media: Literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La parálisis facial secundaria a una otitis media es una conocida complicación de infecciones agudas y crónicas. Su fisiopatología es desconocida pero la presión elevada en el oído medio, la osteítis, la invasión bacteriana y la neurotoxicidad, podrían estar involucradas. Los exámenes de laboratorio no entregan mayor información para determinar la etiología de la parálisis facial y la tomografía computada de oídos sería el estudio radiológico de elección ya que permite identificar el compromiso óseo, la extensión de la enfermedad y posibles alteraciones anatómicas existentes, además de ser utilizado para el diagnóstico de eventuales complicaciones intracraneales. El tratamiento de la parálisis en el curso de una otitis media aguda es médico, con antibióticos y esteroides, con buen pronóstico de recuperación; mientras en una otitis media crónica el tratamiento es quirúrgico y el pronóstico global peorFacial paralysis secondary to otitis media is a well known complication of acute and chronic infection. The physiopathology of facial nerve paralysis secondary to otitis media of not known, but high middle ear pressure, osteitis, direct bacterial invasion and neurotoxicity could be involved. Laboratory studies have failed to provide clues as to determining the etiology of facial nerve palsy. Ear CT is the radiologic study of choice, as it allows the identification of bone destruction, disease extension and possible anatomic alterations, and may also be used as a screening for intracranial complications. Acute otitis media treatment is medical with antibiotics and steroids, with good prognosis, whereas in chronic otitis media the treatment is surgical, with worst global prognosis

Michel Royer F

2007-12-01

369

Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our external appearance plays a key role in everyday life's social interactions. Hence, taking care of our appearance allows us to adjust and protect ourselves, as well as communicate emotional disposition (i.e. sympathy or aversion) and social information (i.e. values, status). However, some discrete body parts or characteristics appear to be more salient than others in contributing to global body image. For example, authors showed that facial attractiveness is one of the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness and represent one of the primary factors influencing global self-esteem. Make-up is therefore ought to play a major influence in these parameters. Moreover, in a previous study whose subject was to explain the reasons that motivate women to make-up, we showed a high implication of specific psychological traits in correlation with two make-up functions (i.e. psycho-behavioural profiles 'Seduction' and 'Camouflage'; group S and group C, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess the possible relation between our two psycho-behavioural profiles and some morphological parameters know to be involved in facial attraction (i.e. facial asymmetry and skin visual quality). First of all, our study revealed for women from the group C a greater asymmetry of the lower face (i.e. mouth area) that could be related to a possible larger amount of negative emotional experiences. Concerning make-up behaviour, women from the group S more extensively manipulated their relative facial attractiveness, by using a large range of colours, but also through a significantly longer make-up process used to adjust their visual asymmetry and therefore increase their potential of attractiveness. On the overall, our results suggest that make-up is used differentially, according to stable psychological profiles of women, to manipulate specific visual/morphological facial features involved in attractiveness. PMID:21284661

Korichi, R; Pelle-de-Queral, D; Gazano, G; Aubert, A

2011-08-01

370

Eletromiografia de superfície em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial periférica / Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomáticos, orbicular da boca em indivíduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o índice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superf [...] ície, seis indivíduos sem histórico de alteração na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial periférica. Para a avaliação eletromiográfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforço máximo): elevação da testa, fechamento de olhos, protrusão labial e retração labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivíduos normais a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial é fundamental para o equilíbrio da mímica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a média dos potenciais eletromiográficos para ambos os lados da face é significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervação neural). CONCLUSÃO: os resultados eletromiográficos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivíduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients we [...] re evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles). CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

Daniele Fontes Ferreira, Bernardes; Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento.

2010-02-01

371

Simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry of male and female avatar characters. During Differentiation presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system.

PeterWeyers

2012-07-01

372

Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

2010-01-01

373

Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

2007-01-01

374

Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous studies show that candidates’ facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates’ attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from candidates’ faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties’ nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates’ attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantlythese relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties’ nomination strategies and candidates’ age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and electoral success is highly robust.

Laustsen, Lasse

2013-01-01

375

Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: An anatomical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smile is one of the most natural and important expressions of human emotion. Man uses his lips mainly to register his emotions. Thus, the slightest asymmetry or weakness around the lips and mouth may transform this pleasant expression into embarrassment and distortion. The circumoral musculature, the major part of which is supplied by the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve, is the main factor in this expression. Therefore, an injury to this nerve during a surgical procedure can distort the expression of the smile as well as other facial expressions. This nerve often gets injured by surgeons in operative procedures in the submandibular region, like excision of the submandibular gland due to lack of accurate knowledge of variations in the course, branches and relations. In the present study, 50 facial halves were dissected to study the origin, entire course, termination, branches, muscles supplied by it, its anastomoses with other branches of facial nerve on the same as well as on the opposite side and its relations with the surrounding structures. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was found superficial to the facial artery and (anterior facial vein in all the cases (100%. Thus the facial artery can be used as an important landmark in locating the marginal mandibular nerve during surgical procedures. Such a study can help in planning precise and accurate incisions and in preventing the unrecognized severance of this nerve during surgical procedures.

Batra Arvinder

2010-01-01

376

Genetics Home Reference: Oral-facial-digital syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... a group of related conditions that affect the development of the oral cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits ( ... most forms of this disorder involve problems with development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. Most forms are also ...

377

[Parameters of OEMG for Judgement of Facial Function (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to test the function of facial nerve in Bells palsy we used three methods, the function test of Schubert-Cobet, the nerve excitability test and the surface electromyography. We could find a correlation in the parameters of this methods in judgement of facial nerve function. PMID:138040

Demus, H G; Skurczynski, W

1976-12-01

378

Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

Shprintzen, Robert J.

2008-01-01

379

Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

2010-01-01

380

Facial Nerve Paralysis seen in Pseudomonas sepsis with ecthyma gangrenosum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin lesion which is created by pseudomonas auriginosa. Peripheral facial paralysis and mastoiditis as a rare complication of otitis media induced by pseudomonas auriginosa.In this study, 4 months child who has ecthyma gangrenosum and facial nerve paralysis was reported. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 126-130

Suleyman Ozdemir

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
381

Self-Esteem and Facial Attractiveness in Learning Disabled Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 55 learning-disabled children ages 8 to 13 years completed a self-esteem measure, and photographs of their faces were rated for attractiveness by adults and peers. Found relationships between children's facial attractiveness and self-esteem and between adult and peer ratings of facial attractiveness. Found no gender differences in…

Cooper, Patricia S.

1993-01-01

382

Meta-Analysis of the First Facial Expression Recognition Challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic facial expression recognition has been an active topic in computer science for over two decades, in particular facial action coding system action unit (AU) detection and classification of a number of discrete emotion states from facial expressive imagery. Standardization and comparability have received some attention; for instance, there exist a number of commonly used facial expression databases. However, lack of a commonly accepted evaluation protocol and, typically, lack of sufficient details needed to reproduce the reported individual results make it difficult to compare systems. This, in turn, hinders the progress of the field. A periodical challenge in facial expression recognition would allow such a comparison on a level playing field. It would provide an insight on how far the field has come and would allow researchers to identify new goals, challenges, and targets. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the first such challenge in automatic recognition of facial expressions, held during the IEEE conference on Face and Gesture Recognition 2011. It details the challenge data, evaluation protocol, and the results attained in two subchallenges: AU detection and classification of facial expression imagery in terms of a number of discrete emotion categories. We also summarize the lessons learned and reflect on the future of the field of facial expression recognition in general and on possible future challenges in particular. PMID:22736651

Valstar, Michel F; Mehu, Marc; Jiang, Bihan; Pantic, Maja; Scherer, Klaus

2012-06-20

383

A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expressions of six basic emotions. Facial dynamics can be explicitly analyzed by detecting the constituent temporal segments in Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Action Units (AUs)-onset, apex, and offset. In this paper, we present a novel approach to explicit analysis of temporal dynamics of facial actions using the dynamic appearance descriptor Local Phase Quantization from Three Orthogonal Planes (LPQ-TOP). Temporal segments are detected by combining a discriminative classifier for detecting the temporal segments on a frame-by-frame basis with Markov Models that enforce temporal consistency over the whole episode. The system is evaluated in detail over the MMI facial expression database, the UNBC-McMaster pain database, the SAL database, the GEMEP-FERA dataset in database-dependent experiments, in cross-database experiments using the Cohn-Kanade, and the SEMAINE databases. The comparison with other state-of-the-art methods shows that the proposed LPQ-TOP method outperforms the other approaches for the problem of AU temporal segment detection, and that overall AU activation detection benefits from dynamic appearance information. PMID:23757539

Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

2014-02-01

384

Facial shaping: beyond lines and folds with fillers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial attractiveness is the most important determinant of physical attractiveness, and an important factor in social and interpersonal interactions. The field of facial rejuvenation using minimally invasive procedures has expanded exponentially over the last decade. Historically, aging and the resulting changes were primarily attributed to changes in the skin and the underlying musculoskeletal system. However, more recent understanding of the changes associated with facial aging has shifted the focus to changes in the distribution of subcutaneous fat. With the introduction of seemingly endless varieties of fillers over the last decade, restoration of volume loss by subcutaneous fat, and to some extent bone, has never been easier. Here, the authors review the basic principles that govern facial beauty, facial anatomy, the aging process, and the wide variety of fillers available on the market today that enable a dermatologic surgeon to revitalize the face. PMID:20715395

Patel, Utpal; Fitzgerald, Rebecca

2010-08-01

385

Facial Expression Recognition based on Independent Component Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an important part of artificial intelligence and pattern recognition, facial expression recognition has drawn much attention recently and numerous methods have been proposed. Feature extraction is the most important part which directly affects the final recognition results. Independent component analysis (ICA is a subspace analysis method, which is also a novel statistical technique in signal processing and machine learning that aims at finding linear projections of the data that maximize their mutual independence. In this paper, we introduce the basic theory of ICA algorithm in detail and then present the process of facial expression recognition based on ICA model. Finally, we use PCA and ICA algorithm to extract facial features, and then SVM classifier is used for facial expression recognition. Experimental results show ICA is a real effective facial expression recognition method and the recognition rate based on ICA is greater than based on PCA and 2DPCA

XiaoHui Guo

2013-08-01

386

A Comprehensive Study of Major Techniques of Facial Expression Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial Expression Recognition is one of thechallenging and active research topic in the recent years. FacialExpression Recognition System comprises the detection of face,facial feature extraction and classification of facial expressionfrom still images. This paper summarizes the major techniquesto recognize the facial expressions from still images. Thetechniques included in this paper are Principal ComponentAnalysis, Singular Value Decomposition, Neural Network,Cloud Model, Fuzzy Model and K-Means ClusteringAlgorithm. The performance of these techniques is good enoughand almost effective also except fuzzy model. Fuzzy model doesnot classify the expressions exactly. The main purpose of thisresearch work is to present the major techniques of automaticfacial expression recognition in a single view.

Tanvi Sheikh, Shikha Agrawal

2012-10-01

387

Communal and agentic behaviour in response to facial emotion expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial emotions are important for human communication. Unfortunately, traditional facial emotion recognition tasks do not inform about how respondents might behave towards others expressing certain emotions. Approach-avoidance tasks do measure behaviour, but only on one dimension. In this study 81 participants completed a novel Facial Emotion Response Task. Images displaying individuals with emotional expressions were presented in random order. Participants simultaneously indicated how communal (quarrelsome vs. agreeable) and how agentic (dominant vs. submissive) they would be in response to each expression. We found that participants responded differently to happy, angry, fearful, and sad expressions in terms of both dimensions of behaviour. Higher levels of negative affect were associated with less agreeable responses specifically towards happy and sad expressions. The Facial Emotion Response Task might complement existing facial emotion recognition and approach-avoidance tasks. PMID:24754806

aan het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen; Gesing, Christina M

2014-05-01

388

Parameterized Facial Expression Synthesis Based on MPEG-4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of MPEG-4, one can include applications where virtual agents, utilizing both textual and multisensory data, including facial expressions and nonverbal speech help systems become accustomed to the actual feelings of the user. Applications of this technology are expected in educational environments, virtual collaborative workplaces, communities, and interactive entertainment. Facial animation has gained much interest within the MPEG-4 framework; with implementation details being an open research area (Tekalp, 1999. In this paper, we describe a method for enriching human computer interaction, focusing on analysis and synthesis of primary and intermediate facial expressions (Ekman and Friesen (1978. To achieve this goal, we utilize facial animation parameters (FAPs to model primary expressions and describe a rule-based technique for handling intermediate ones. A relation between FAPs and the activation parameter proposed in classical psychological studies is established, leading to parameterized facial expression analysis and synthesis notions, compatible with the MPEG-4 standard.

Amaryllis Raouzaiou

2002-10-01

389

Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

390

Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation  

CERN Document Server

Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

1994-01-01

391

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

WataruSato

2014-09-01

392

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

393

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

394

An anatomic and histologic analysis of the alar-facial crease and the lateral crus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The key to achieving an excellent result following rhinoplasty lies in a strong fundamental knowledge of nasal anatomy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the anatomic and histologic relationship of the nose to the alar-facial crease. Fifteen cadaver noses were dissected and a total of thirty lower lateral cartilages were measured. Two fresh cadaver noses were fixed in neutral buffer formalin and embedded in paraffin. They were then sectioned into 6-mu coronal and sagittal sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Eosin von Geison, and safranin to evaluate for collagen, elastin and muscle, respectively. Measurements of the lower lateral cartilages showed the average lateral crural height was 23.5 mm (+/- 2.5 mm), lateral crus width was 11.7 mm (+/- 1.5 mm), lateral domal width was 5.7 mm (+/- 0.9 mm), and intercrural distance was 20.2 mm (+/- 3.2 mm). No statistical differences were noted between male and female cadaver measurements. Histologic sections showed the area of the alar-facial crease to have a greater quantity of elastin fibers compared with muscle, collagen, or cartilage. These elastin fibers were predominantly orientated vertically (anterior-posterior) rather than horizontally (cephalo-caudad). This study demonstrates a higher ratio of elastin to collagen fibers in the region of the alar-facial crease. PMID:15084881

Patel, Jagruti C; Fletcher, James W; Singer, David; Sullivan, Patrick; Weinzweig, Jeffrey

2004-04-01

395

[Facial asymmetries and their skeletal component].  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis and treatment of facial asymmetries is one of the most difficult challenges in orthognathic surgery. In some cases, the involvement of soft tissue defects or, in other cases, an associated basi-cranial asymmetry can complicate the management. The influence of various components of the cephalic end in the development of the face requires a thorough clinical and radiographic examination including the overall posture of the patient. The causes are multiple: congenital, constitutional, acquired with an important esthetic, functional, and psychological and social impact. The classification of these asymmetries can only be incomplete and purely didactic because of the multiplicity of clinical forms. Two elements are mandatory for the diagnosis and surgical treatment: first, the anterior clinical and radiological "craniofacial cross" established from the midline or midplane of the face; second, the clinical and radiological orientation of the maxillary and mandibular occlusal transverse and sagittal planes. The surgical techniques are the same as in conventional orthognathic surgery except for those used for the correction of the vertical posterior dimension of the face: condylectomy, lengthening osteotomy of the mandibular ramus, costochondral graft, and free flap. The contribution of 3D vision of the facial skeleton and its possibilities of measurement have improved the assessment of skeletal structure displa