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Sample records for facial width-to-height ratio

  1. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio (fWHR) Is Not Associated with Adolescent Testosterone Levels.

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Hanson Sobraske, Katherine N; Samore, Theodore; Gurven, Michael; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2016-01-01

    Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic signal in humans that develops under the influence of pubertal testosterone (T); however, no studies have examined the association between fWHR and T during the phase in which facial growth is canalized-adolescence. In a sample of adolescent Tsimane males, we evaluate the relationship between T, known T-derived traits (i.e. strength and voice pitch), and craniofacial measurements. If fWHR variation derives from T's effect on craniofacial growth during adolescence, several predictions should be supported: 1) fWHR should increase with age as T increases, 2) fWHR should reflect adolescent T (rather than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should show strong associations with other T-derived traits. Only prediction 4 was observed. Additionally, we examined three alternative facial masculinity ratios: facial width/lower face height, cheekbone prominence, and facial width/full face height. In contrast to fWHR, all three alternative measures show a strong age-related trend and are associated with both T and T-dependent traits. Overall, our results question the status of fWHR as a sexually-selected signal of pubertal T and T-linked traits. PMID:27078636

  2. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio (fWHR) Is Not Associated with Adolescent Testosterone Levels

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R.; Hanson Sobraske, Katherine N.; Samore, Theodore; Gurven, Michael; Gaulin, Steven J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic signal in humans that develops under the influence of pubertal testosterone (T); however, no studies have examined the association between fWHR and T during the phase in which facial growth is canalized—adolescence. In a sample of adolescent Tsimane males, we evaluate the relationship between T, known T-derived traits (i.e. strength and voice pitch), and craniofacial measurements. If fWHR variation derives from T’s effect on craniofacial growth during adolescence, several predictions should be supported: 1) fWHR should increase with age as T increases, 2) fWHR should reflect adolescent T (rather than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should show strong associations with other T-derived traits. Only prediction 4 was observed. Additionally, we examined three alternative facial masculinity ratios: facial width/lower face height, cheekbone prominence, and facial width/full face height. In contrast to fWHR, all three alternative measures show a strong age-related trend and are associated with both T and T-dependent traits. Overall, our results question the status of fWHR as a sexually-selected signal of pubertal T and T-linked traits. PMID:27078636

  3. Evidence from Meta-Analyses of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio as an Evolved Cue of Threat.

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR is the width of the face divided by the height of the upper face. There is mixed evidence for the hypothesis that the FWHR is a cue of threat and dominance in the human face. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of all peer-reviewed studies (and 2 unpublished studies to estimate the magnitude of the sex difference in the FWHR, and the magnitude of the relationship between the FWHR and threatening and dominant behaviours and perceptions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the authors reported an analysis involving the FWHR. Our analyses revealed that the FWHR was larger in men than in women (d = .11, n = 10,853, cued judgements of masculinity in men (r = .35, n of faces = 487; n of observers = 339, and was related to body mass index (r = .31, n = 2,506. Further, the FWHR predicted both threat behaviour in men (r = .16, n = 4,603 and dominance behaviour in both sexes (r = .12, n = 948 across a variety of indices. Individuals with larger FWHRs were judged by observers as more threatening (r = .46, n of faces = 1,691; n of observers = 2,076 and more dominant (r = .20, n of faces = 603; n of observers = 236 than those with smaller FWHRs. Individuals with larger FWHRs were also judged as less attractive (r = -.26, n of faces = 721; n of observers = 335, especially when women made the judgements. These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that the FWHR is part of an evolved cueing system of intra-sexual threat and dominance in men. A limitation of the meta-analyses on perceptions of threat and dominance were the low number of stimuli involving female and older adult faces.

  4. Written on the Writer's Face: Facial Width-to-Height Ratio among Nominees and Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature

    Lebuda, Izabela; Karwowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), an established marker of testosterone level and dominance, and eminent writers' achievement. The fWHR of laureates (N = 39) and nominees (N = 247) of the Nobel Prize in Literature 1901-1950 was measured together with historiometric data. It was demonstrated that…

  5. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  6. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

    Gamal Rashed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  7. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

    Gamal Rashed; Syd S. Peng

    2015-01-01

    abstract Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H) ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  8. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; BASRI, REHANA; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurem...

  9. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    Mohammad Khursheed Alam

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian, with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25. Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI, Malaysian Chinese (MC and Malaysian Malay (MM were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05 but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1% were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5% short and 81 (28.3% long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts.1 Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%; 2 Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3 Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4 All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5 No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  10. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S.F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T C

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but ...

  11. Identification of facial shape by applying golden ratio to the facial measurements: An interracial study in Malaysian population

    Vasanthakumar Packiriswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The "golden ratio" is considered as a universal facial aesthetical standard. Researcher′s opinion that deviation from golden ratio can result in development of facial abnormalities. Aims: This study was designed to study the facial morphology and to identify individuals with normal, short, and long face. Materials and Methods: We studied 300 Malaysian nationality subjects aged 18-28 years of Chinese, Indian, and Malay extraction. The parameters measured were physiognomical facial height and width of face, and physiognomical facial index was calculated. Face shape was classified based on golden ratio. Independent t test was done to test the difference between sexes and among the races. Results: The mean values of the measurements and index showed significant sexual and interracial differences. Out of 300 subjects, the face shape was normal in 60 subjects, short in 224 subjects, and long in 16 subjects. Conclusion: As anticipated, the measurements showed variations according to gender and race. Only 60 subjects had a regular face shape, and remaining 240 subjects had irregular face shape (short and long. Since the short and long shape individuals may be at risk of developing various disorders, the knowledge of facial shapes in the given population is important for early diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  12. Sex ratio influences the motivational salience of facial attractiveness

    Hahn, A. C; Fisher, C. I.; DeBruine, L. M.; Jones, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did thi...

  13. Body mass index and facial cues in sasang typology for young and elderly persons.

    Pham, Duong Duc; Do, Jun-Hyeong; Ku, Boncho; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Honggie; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Facial characteristics may provide reliable information giving an insight into the inner nature of an individual. This study examines the differences in widely used facial metrics, including cheek-to-jaw width ratio (CJWR), width-to-height ratio (WHR), perimeter-to-area ratio (PAR), and facial masculinity indexes across Sasang constitutional types, to investigate the association between these facial cues and body mass index (BMI) and develop a predictive model for Sasang typing. 2D images of 911 participants were analyzed. The results indicated that TaeEum (TE) type generally has a squarer face, with the male TE type having a squarer and wider face than that of both SoYang (SY) and SoEum (SE) types. Male TE type has longer eyes than that of the SE type, and the lower face of the female TE type is longer than that of the SY type. PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size had associations with BMI, and the magnitude of correlation of CJWR in Korean men were twofold higher than that of the Caucasian and African men. BMI and facial metrics including PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size were good predictors for TE type, and the most parsimonious model for TE typing included BMI and CJWR with high predictive performances. PMID:21423637

  14. Body Mass Index and Facial Cues in Sasang Typology for Young and Elderly Persons

    Duong Duc Pham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial characteristics may provide reliable information giving an insight into the inner nature of an individual. This study examines the differences in widely used facial metrics, including cheek-to-jaw width ratio (CJWR, width-to-height ratio (WHR, perimeter-to-area ratio (PAR, and facial masculinity indexes across Sasang constitutional types, to investigate the association between these facial cues and body mass index (BMI and develop a predictive model for Sasang typing. 2D images of 911 participants were analyzed. The results indicated that TaeEum (TE type generally has a squarer face, with the male TE type having a squarer and wider face than that of both SoYang (SY and SoEum (SE types. Male TE type has longer eyes than that of the SE type, and the lower face of the female TE type is longer than that of the SY type. PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size had associations with BMI, and the magnitude of correlation of CJWR in Korean men were twofold higher than that of the Caucasian and African men. BMI and facial metrics including PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size were good predictors for TE type, and the most parsimonious model for TE typing included BMI and CJWR with high predictive performances.

  15. Facial masculinity: how the choice of measurement method enables to detect its influence on behaviour.

    Santiago Sanchez-Pages

    Full Text Available Recent research has explored the relationship between facial masculinity, human male behaviour and males' perceived features (i.e. attractiveness. The methods of measurement of facial masculinity employed in the literature are quite diverse. In the present paper, we use several methods of measuring facial masculinity to study the effect of this feature on risk attitudes and trustworthiness. We employ two strategic interactions to measure these two traits, a first-price auction and a trust game. We find that facial width-to-height ratio is the best predictor of trustworthiness, and that measures of masculinity which use Geometric Morphometrics are the best suited to link masculinity and bidding behaviour. However, we observe that the link between masculinity and bidding in the first-price auction might be driven by competitiveness and not by risk aversion only. Finally, we test the relationship between facial measures of masculinity and perceived masculinity. As a conclusion, we suggest that researchers in the field should measure masculinity using one of these methods in order to obtain comparable results. We also encourage researchers to revise the existing literature on this topic following these measurement methods.

  16. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  17. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  18. Facial Transplantation.

    Russo, Jack E; Genden, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of severe facial deformities poses a unique surgical challenge: restoring the aesthetic form and function of the face. Facial transplantation has emerged over the last decade as an option for reconstruction of these defects in carefully selected patients. As the world experience with facial transplantation grows, debate remains regarding whether such a highly technical, resource-intensive procedure is warranted, all to improve quality of life but not necessarily prolong it. This article reviews the current state of facial transplantation with focus on the current controversies and challenges, with particular attention to issues of technique, immunology, and ethics. PMID:27400850

  19. Facial Schwannoma

    Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the presence of normal facial function is difficult. Case: A 19-year-old girl with all above symptoms in the right side except loss of taste is diagnosed having facial schwannoma with full examination, audiometric, and radiological tests. She underwent surgery. In follow-up facial function were mostly restored. Conclusion: The need for careful assessment of patients with Bell's palsy cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the negative results if still there is any suspicoin, total facial nerve exploration is necessary.

  20. Facial trauma

    Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFort injuries ... Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  1. Facial trauma

    Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 23. Mayersak RJ. Facial trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  2. Facial Sports Injuries

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  3. Facial blindsight

    Marco eSolcà

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people’s categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex.

  4. Facial blindsight.

    Solcà, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people's categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  5. Reconocimiento facial

    Urtiaga Abad, Juan Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto trata sobre uno de los campos más problemáticos de la inteligencia artificial, el reconocimiento facial. Algo tan sencillo para las personas como es reconocer una cara conocida se traduce en complejos algoritmos y miles de datos procesados en cuestión de segundos. El proyecto comienza con un estudio del estado del arte de las diversas técnicas de reconocimiento facial, desde las más utilizadas y probadas como el PCA y el LDA, hasta técnicas experimentales que utilizan ...

  6. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    Duchovičová Soňa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  7. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    Duchovičová Soňa; Zahradníková Barbora; Schreiber Peter

    2014-01-01

    Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  8. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    ... the Campaign Campaign Update Member Donors Corporate Partners Recognition Program Planned Giving 1887 Annual Giving Annual Report Donate Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision ...

  9. Facial Orf

    Enver Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions.

  10. Facial transplantation.

    Siemionow, Maria; Kulahci, Yalcin

    2007-11-01

    The face has functional and aesthetic importance. It represents the most identifiable aspect of an individual's physical being. Its role in a person's identity and ability to communicate can therefore not be overstated. The face also plays an important role in certain functional needs such as speech, communicative competence, eye protection, and emotional expressiveness. The latter function bears significant social and psychological import, because two thirds of our communication takes place through nonverbal facial expressions. Accordingly, the significance of reconstruction of the face is indisputable. Yet despite application of meticulous techniques and the development of innovative approaches, full functional and aesthetic reconstruction of the face remains challenging. This is because optimal reconstruction of specialized units of the face have to address both the functional and aesthetic roles of the face. PMID:20567679

  11. Facial Recognition

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  12. Modelling human facial UV exposure

    There are strong links between exposure to UV radiation and both adverse health outcomes (eg. skin cancer, cataracts) and protective health outcomes (e.g. the production of vitamin D). The aim of our research is to develop methods of estimating cumulative UV exposure in a manner suitable for risk-factor epidemiology. We have developed a flexible computer model that determines UV exposure over the human facial region (utilising exposure ratios as determined by polysuphone dosimeters) for various solar zenith angles (SZA). By adjusting latitude and time of year, researchers can estimate cumulative facial UV exposure for particular geographical locations and time periods. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. Facial Orf

    Enver Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 58-60

  14. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ...

  15. Facial Expression Recognition

    Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for fe...

  16. Facial Expression Analysis

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial compon

  17. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.

    Shah H; Kantharia C; Shenoy A

    1997-01-01

    Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

  18. Surgical-allogeneic facial reconstruction: facial transplants.

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA, which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life.

  19. Kinect driven facial animation

    Ojeda Noda, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Kinect es un dispositivo que se presenta en el ámbito de la industria de la animación como una alternativa económica. Haciendo uso de él, este proyecto desarrolla una aplicación de animación facial que aplique las expresiones faciales del usuario a un modelo 3D. Nowadays, facial animation is a core part of the character animation industry. From movies to video games, facial animation is done by most companies with the help of expensive equipment that capture real people's facial expression...

  20. Overview of facial aging.

    Beer, Kenneth; Beer, Jacob

    2009-12-01

    Facial aging is a multidimensional, multifactorial process. The aging face has traditionally been treated by each specialty in a different manner. However, by understanding the process from the perspective of different specialties, each physician may better treat the spectrum of facial aging. Whether or not the facial plastic surgeon injects products to restore volume, uses lasers to resurface the epidermis and dermis, incorporates cosmeceuticals to enhance and maintain improvements in the skin integrity and appearance, or relaxes muscles with botulinum toxins, he or she can best advise patients and address facial aging by having a functional understanding of these various modalities. With this knowledge, the facial plastic surgeon can parse the component of facial aging that enables him or her to correct each with the appropriate treatment. PMID:20024868

  1. Facial Nerve Neuroma Management

    Weber, Peter C; Osguthorpe, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The second patient underwent facial neuroma resection with cable graft reconstruction, but the permanent sections were positive. The last patient had a massive neuroma in which grafting versus other f...

  2. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

  3. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries.

  4. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Using Features of Salient Facial Patches

    Happy, S L; Routray, Aurobinda

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of discriminative features from salient facial patches plays a vital role in effective facial expression recognition. The accurate detection of facial landmarks improves the localization of the salient patches on face images. This paper proposes a novel framework for expression recognition by using appearance features of selected facial patches. A few prominent facial patches, depending on the position of facial landmarks, are extracted which are active during emotion elicitation. ...

  5. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature. PMID:27093062

  6. Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier

    Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

    2009-10-01

    Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

  7. Facial talon cusps.

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  8. Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.

    Fabrizio, Tommaso

    2013-10-01

    The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps. PMID:24037925

  9. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Meek, Marcel F.

    2009-01-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two

  10. Facial Expression Recognition Using 3D Facial Feature Distances

    Soyel, Hamit; Hasan DEMIREL

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we have shown that probabilistic neural network classifier can be used for the 3D analysis of facial expressions without relying on all of the 84 facial features and errorprone face pose normalization stage. Face deformation as well as facial muscle contraction and expansion are important indicators for facial expression and by using only 11 facial feature points and symmetry of the human face, we are able to extract enough information from a from a face image. Our results sho...

  11. Live facial feature extraction

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  12. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  13. Surface Detail Capturing for Realistic Facial Animation

    Pei-Hsuan Tu; I-Chen Lin; Jeng-Sheng Yeh; Rung-Huei Liang; Ming Ouhyoung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a facial animation system is proposed for capturing both geometrical information and illumination changes of surface details, called expression details, from video clips simultaneously, and the captured data can be widely applied to different 2D face images and 3D face models. While tracking the geometric data,we record the expression details by ratio images. For 2D facial animation synthesis, these ratio images are used to generate dynamic textures. Because a ratio image is obtained via dividing colors of an expressive face by those of a neutral face, pixels with ratio value smaller than one are where a wrinkle or crease appears. Therefore, the gradients of the ratio value at each pixel in ratio images are regarded as changes of a face surface, and original normals on the surface can be adjusted according to these gradients. Based on this idea, we can convert the ratio images into a sequence of normal maps and then apply them to animated 3D model rendering. With the expression detail mapping, the resulted facial animations are more life-like and more expressive.

  14. Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces

    Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani

    2012-01-01

    A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâs facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial exp...

  15. Persistent facial pain conditions

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  16. The Facially Disfigured Child.

    Moncada, Georgia A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)

  17. Facial soft tissue segmentation

    Majeed, Tahir

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the face for socio-ecological interaction is the cause for a high demand on any surgical intervention on the facial musculo-skeletal system. Bones and soft-tissues are of major importance for any facial surgical treatment to guarantee an optimal, functional and aesthetical result. For this reason, surgeons want to pre-operatively plan, simulate and predict the outcome of the surgery allowing for shorter operation times and improved quality. Accurate simulation requires exact...

  18. Facial Data Field

    WANG Shuliang; YUAN Hanning; CAO Baohua; WANG Dakui

    2015-01-01

    Expressional face recognition is a challenge in computer vision for complex expressions. Facial data field is proposed to recognize expression. Fundamentals are presented in the methodology of face recognition upon data field and subsequently, technical algorithms including normalizing faces, generating facial data field, extracting feature points in partitions, assigning weights and recog-nizing faces. A case is studied with JAFFE database for its verification. Result indicates that the proposed method is suitable and eff ective in expressional face recognition con-sidering the whole average recognition rate is up to 94.3%. In conclusion, data field is considered as a valuable alter-native to pattern recognition.

  19. Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change

    Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

  20. Paralisia facial bilateral

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.

  1. Treatment of Facial Injury

    ... in combat hospitals during World War II, Korea, Vietnam and today’s international conflicts. Treating Facial Injury One ... when being fitted for a mouth protector. The device should be: • Fitted so that ... a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It is provided to ...

  2. Management of facial blushing

    Licht, Peter B; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2008-01-01

    people. Side effects are frequent, but most patients are satisfied with the operation. In the short term, the key to success in sympathetic surgery for facial blushing lies in a meticulous and critical patient selection and in ensuring that the patient is thoroughly informed about the high risk of side...

  3. Emotional mimicry signals pain empathy as evidenced by facial electromyography.

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Yu-Zheng; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Facial mimicry has been suggested to be a behavioral index for emotional empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the link between facial muscle activity and empathy for pain by facial electromyographic (EMG) recording while observers watched videos depicting real-life painful events. Three types of visual stimulus were used: an intact painful scene and arm-only (needle injection) and face only (painful expression) scenes. Enhanced EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles was found when observers viewed others in pain, supporting a unique pain expression that is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. In the intact video stimulus condition, CS activity was correlated positively with the empathic concern score and ZM activity, suggesting facial mimicry mediated empathy for pain. Cluster analysis of facial EMG responses revealed markedly different patterns among stimulus types, including response category, ratio, and temporal dynamics, indicating greater ecological validity of the intact scene in eliciting pain empathy as compared with partial scenes. This study is the first to quantitatively describe pain empathy in terms of facial EMG data. It may provide important evidence for facial mimicry as a behavioral indicator of pain empathy. PMID:26647740

  4. Management of facial trauma in children: A case report

    Das U

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender minds of young children and their parents. This case report documents the trauma and follow up care of a 4-year-old patient with maxillofacial injuries.

  5. Oral and Facial Pain

    Mock, David

    1988-01-01

    Diagnosis of oral and facial pain is often difficult because several anatomical structures within this small area are capable of producing similar symptoms, and pain referred from cranial or distant sites and emotional or psychiatric disturbances complicate matters further. This article summarizes some of the more common causes of orofacial pain, with the exception of disorders of the temporomandibular joint and associated musculature, which are covered in a separate article.

  6. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective

    Neena Khanna; Seemab Rasool

    2011-01-01

    Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl′s melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure...

  7. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  8. Facial animation of game characters

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesk’s 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  9. Techniques in Facial Expression Recognition

    Avinash Prakash Pandhare; Umesh Balkrishna Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is gaining widespread importance as the applications related to Human – Computer interactions are increasing. This paper mentions various techniques and approaches that have been used in the field of facial expression recognition. Facial expression recognition takes place in various stages and these stages have been implemented by various approaches. Viola and Jones for face detection, Gabor filters for feature extraction, SVM classifiers for classifi...

  10. Measuring facial expression of emotion

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This rev...

  11. Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation

    Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Gabriel F Santiago; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of...

  12. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  13. Plastic Changes of Synapses and Excitatory Neurotransmitter Receptors in Facial Nucleus Following Facial-facial Anastomosis

    Pei CHEN; Jun SONG; Linghui LUO; Shusheng GONG

    2008-01-01

    The remodeling process of synapses and eurotransmitter receptors of facial nucleus were observed. Models were set up by facial-facial anastomosis in rat. At post-surgery day (PSD) 0, 7, 21 and 60, synaptophysin (p38), NMDA receptor subunit 2A and AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GIuR2) were observed by immunohistochemical method and emi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Meanwhile, the synaptic structure of the facial motorneurons was observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The intensity of p38 immunoreactivity was decreased, reaching the lowest value at PSD day 7, and then increased slightly at PSD 21. Ultrastructurally, the number of synapses in nucleus of the operational side decreased, which was consistent with the change in P38 immhnoreactivity. NMDAR2A mRNA was down-regulated significantly in facial nucleus after the operation (P000.05). The synapses innervation and the expression of NMDAR2A and AMPAR2 mRNA in facial nucleus might be modified to suit for the new motor tasks following facial-facial anastomosis, and influenced facial nerve regeneration and recovery.

  14. [Facial femalization in transgenders].

    Yahalom, R; Blinder, D; Nadel, S

    2015-07-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder in which there is a strong desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex. In male-to-female transsexuals with strong masculine facial features, facial feminization surgery is performed as part of the gender reassignment. A strong association between femininity and attractiveness has been attributed to the upper third of the face and the interplay of the glabellar prominence of the forehead. Studies have shown that a certain lower jaw shape is characteristic of males with special attention to the strong square mandibular angle and chin and also suggest that the attractive female jaw is smaller with a more round shape mandibular angles and a pointy chin. Other studies have shown that feminization of the forehead through cranioplasty have the most significant impact in determining the gender of a patient. Facial feminization surgeries are procedures aimed to change the features of the male face to that of a female face. These include contouring of the forehead, brow lift, mandible angle reduction, genioplasty, rhinoplasty and a variety of soft tissue adjustments. In our maxillofacial surgery department at the Sheba Medical Center we perform forehead reshaping combining with brow lift and at the same surgery, mandibular and chin reshaping to match the remodeled upper third of the face. The forehead reshaping is done by cranioplasty with additional reduction of the glabella area by burring of the frontal bone. After reducing the frontal bossing around the superior orbital rims we manage the soft tissue to achieve the brow lift. The mandibular reshaping, is performed by intraoral approach and include contouring of the angles by osteotomy for a more round shape (rather than the manly square shape angles), as well as reshaping of the bone in the chin area in order to make it more pointy, by removing the lateral parts of the chin and in some cases performing also genioplasty reduction by AP osteotomy. PMID

  15. Deciphering faces: quantifiable visual cues to weight.

    Coetzee, Vinet; Chen, Jingying; Perrett, David I; Stephen, Ian D

    2010-01-01

    Body weight plays a crucial role in mate choice, as weight is related to both attractiveness and health. People are quite accurate at judging weight in faces, but the cues used to make these judgments have not been defined. This study consisted of two parts. First, we wanted to identify quantifiable facial cues that are related to body weight, as defined by body mass index (BMI). Second, we wanted to test whether people use these cues to judge weight. In study 1, we recruited two groups of Caucasian and two groups of African participants, determined their BMI and measured their 2-D facial images for: width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio. All three measures were significantly related to BMI in males, while the width-to-height and cheek-to-jaw-width ratios were significantly related to BMI in females. In study 2, these images were rated for perceived weight by Caucasian observers. We showed that these observers use all three cues to judge weight in African and Caucasian faces of both sexes. These three facial cues, width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio, are therefore not only related to actual weight but provide a basis for perceptual attributes as well. PMID:20301846

  16. Facial asymmetry in ocular torticollis.

    Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Khorrami Nejad, Masoud; Askarizadeh, Farshad; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh; Ranjbar Pazooki, Mahsa; Moeinitabar, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Torticollis can arise from nonocular (usually musculoskeletal) and ocular conditions. Some facial asymmetries are correlated with a history of early onset ocular torticollis supported by the presence of torticollis on reviewing childhood photographs. When present in an adult, this type of facial asymmetry with an origin of ocular torticollis should help to confirm the chronicity of the defect and prevent unnecessary neurologic evaluation in patients with an uncertain history. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physical examination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging and facial morphometry are helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the facial asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. The facial asymmetry in congenital superior oblique palsy is typically manifested by midfacial hemihypoplasia on the side opposite the palsied muscle, with deviation of the nose and mouth toward the hypoplastic side. Correcting torticollis through strabismus surgery before a critical developmental age may prevent the development of irreversible facial asymmetry. Mild facial asymmetry associated with congenital torticollis has been reported to resolve with continued growth after early surgery, but if asymmetry is severe or is not treated in the appropriate time, it might remain even with continued growth after surgery. PMID:27239567

  17. Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression

    Pickin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

  18. Tracking facial features with occlusions

    MARKIN Evgeny; PRAKASH Edmond C.

    2006-01-01

    Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face.The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial expression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions and self-occlusions. In this paper we propose a solution to improve the accuracy of fitting technique. The idea is to include occluded images into AAM training data. We demonstrate the results by running ex periments using gradient descent algorithm for fitting the AAM. Our experiments show that using fitting algorithm with occluded training data improves the fitting quality of the algorithm.

  19. Odontogenic Facial Cellulitis

    Yordany Boza Mejias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: odontogenic facial cellulitis is an acute inflammatory process manifested in very different ways, with a variable scale in clinical presentation ranging from harmless well defined processes, to diffuse and progressive that may develop complications leading the patient to a critical condition, even risking their lives. Objective: To characterize the behavior of odontogenic facial cellulitis. Methods: A descriptive case series study was conducted at the dental clinic of Aguada de Pasajeros, Cienfuegos, from September 2010 to March 2011. It included 56 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Variables analyzed included: sex, age, teeth and regions affected, causes of cellulite and prescribed treatment. Results: no sex predilection was observed, lower molars and submandibular anatomical region were the most affected (50% and 30 4% respectively being tooth decay the main cause for this condition (51, 7%. The opening access was not performed to all the patients in the emergency service. The causal tooth extraction was not commonly done early, according to the prescribed antibiotic group. Thermotherapy with warm fomentation and saline mouthwash was the most prescribed and the most widely used group of antibiotics was the penicillin. Conclusions: dental caries were the major cause of odontogenic cellulite. There are still difficulties with the implementation of opening access.

  20. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its

  1. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  2. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    O. M. Ramírez; A. Novo Torres; Ch. R. Volpe

    2007-01-01

    Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tra...

  3. Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

  4. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  5. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  6. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  7. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  8. Imaging investigation of facial neuroma

    Objective: To investigate imaging methods and imaging findings of facial neuroma to promote its diagnostic accuracy. Methods: CT was performed in all 10 patients with facial neuroma confirmed by pathology and surgery. Of all 10 patients, plain and enhanced MRI was performed in 6 patients. CT and MRI findings were analysed and compared retrospectively. Results: Ten facial neuromas consisted of 6 schwannoma and 4 neurofibroma. The tumor affected the horizontal segment of facial nerve in 8 cases, anterior genu in 6, mastoid segment in 4, labyrinth segment in 2, internal auditory canal segment in 3, intra-parotid segment in 2, and cistern segment in 1. On CT, enlargement of fallopian canal was seen in 9 cases, soft tissue mass in tympanum in 7 cases, destruction of auditory ossicles in 5, and bone destruction with soft tissue mass in mastoid region in 4. MRI demonstrated enlargement of facial nerve in 6 cases, soft tissue mass in tympanum, mastoid region and jugular fossa in 2, and soft tissue mass only in tympanum in 2. In 3 of 6 patients, the soft tissue mass was slightly hypointense and inhomogeneous on T1WI, hyperintense on T2WI and heterogeneous enhancement after administration of contrast medium. However, in other 3 cases, the soft tissue mass showed isointense signal on T1-and T2-weighted images and homogeneous enhancement alter contrast. 2 neuroma involving internal auditory canal segment of facial nerve was clearly demonstrated on postcontrast T1WI but not shown on pre-contrast T1-and T2-images. CT missed 3 neuromas found with MRI, 2 involving internal auditory canal segment and 1 involving tympanum segment. For the small facial neuroma, CT found enlargement and/or destruction of fallopian canal only, but MRI could demonstrated enlarged facial nerve itself. Conclusion: CT and MRI, especially postcontrast T1WI, can accurately display shape, location, extension, and structure of facial neuroma, which contribute to diagnose the lesion and provide evidence for

  9. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective

    Neena Khanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial melanoses (FM are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl′s melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP, erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl′s melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ, which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion.

  10. Sleep Wrinkles: Facial Aging and Facial Distortion During Sleep.

    Anson, Goesel; Kane, Michael A C; Lambros, Val

    2016-09-01

    Wrinkles are just one indicator of facial aging, but an indicator that is of prime importance in our world of facial aesthetics. Wrinkles occur where fault lines develop in aging skin. Those fault lines may be due to skin distortion resulting from facial expression or may be due to skin distortion from mechanical compression during sleep. Expression wrinkles and sleep wrinkles differ in etiology, location, and anatomical pattern. Compression, shear, and stress forces act on the face in lateral or prone sleep positions. We review the literature relating to the development of wrinkles and the biomechanical changes that occur in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences. We explore the possibility that compression during sleep not only results in wrinkles but may also contribute to facial skin expansion. PMID:27329660

  11. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    Wenfeng eChen; Chang Hong eLiu; Huiyun eLi; Ke eTong; Naixin eRen; Xiaolan eFu

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the ...

  12. Facial expression at retrieval affects recognition of facial identity

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong; Li, Huiyun; Tong, Ke; Ren, Naixin; Fu, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the ...

  13. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  14. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather; Albrecht, Beate; Bijlsma, Emilia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Donti, Emilio; Fitzpatrick, David; Isidor, Bertrand; Lachlan, Katherine; Le Caignec, Cedric; Prontera, Paolo; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Rogaia, Daniela; van Bon, Bregje; Aradhya, Swaroop; Crocker, Susan F; Jarinova, Olga; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Boycott, Kym; Bulman, Dennis; Fagerberg, Christina

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...... heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate that...

  15. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    Vasanth P.C.; Nataraj. K. R

    2015-01-01

    Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels...

  16. Fast Facial Detection by Depth Map Analysis

    Ming-Yuan Shieh; Tsung-Min Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain correct facial recognition results, one needs to adopt appropriate facial detection techniques. Moreover, the effects of facial detection are usually affected by the environmental conditions such as background, illumination, and complexity of objectives. In this paper, the proposed facial detection scheme, which is based on depth map analysis, aims to improve the effectiveness of facial detection and recognition under different environmental illumination conditions. The pro...

  17. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    Carré, Justin M.; Murphy, Kelly R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, ...

  18. Treatment of Infected Facial Implants.

    Mohan, Kriti; Cox, Joshua A; Dickey, Ryan M; Gravina, Paula; Echo, Anthony; Izaddoost, Shayan A; Nguyen, Anh H

    2016-05-01

    Alloplastic facial implants have a wide range of uses to achieve the appropriate facial contour. A variety of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and synthetic injectable fillers are available to the reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon. Besides choosing the right surgical technique and the adequate material, the surgeon must be prepared to treat complications. Infection is an uncommon but serious complication that can cause displeasing consequences for the patient. There are few references in literature regarding treatment and management of facial implant-related infections. This study aims to discuss the role of biofilm in predisposing alloplastic materials to infection, to provide a review of literature, to describe our own institutional experience, and to define a patient care pathway for facial implant-associated infection. PMID:27152100

  19. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Zhihong Zeng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

  20. Imaging of the facial nerve.

    Veillona, F; Ramos-Taboada, L; Abu-Eid, M; Charpiot, A; Riehm, S

    2010-05-01

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve. PMID:20456888

  1. Imaging of the facial nerve

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  2. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  3. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level...... of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year...... between R2 and R2-R3 sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing. Both were effective, and QOL increased significantly. Despite very frequent side effects, the vast majority of patients were satisfied. Surprisingly, many patients experienced mild recurrent symptoms within the first year; this should...

  4. Schizotypy and facial emotion processing

    Coy, Abbie L

    2013-01-01

    The ability to accurately interpret facial emotion is crucial to social being and our capacity to correctly interpret threat-related expressions has obvious adaptive value. Healthy individuals appear to process facial emotions rapidly, accurately and effortlessly, while individuals with schizophrenia often present with marked impairment in emotion processing. The hypothesis of continuity between schizophrenia and normal behaviour suggests that the signs and symptoms of the disorder also occur...

  5. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Roisman, Glenn I.; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

    2006-01-01

    Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are exp...

  6. Acro-cardio-facial syndrome

    Dallapiccola Bruno; Digilio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD), genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have b...

  7. Neuroprotective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on facial motoneurons after facial nerve injury in rats

    Yubing Dai; Wenlong Luo; Hongjiang Chen; Jianghua Nie; Li Fang; Xiaofei Lai; Jingjing Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) inhibit apoptosis of motor neurons caused by spinal cord injury and brain damage in rats. However, it still remains to be shown whether rhEPO can protect facial motoneurons (FMNs) as well.OBJECTIVE: To test the neuroprotective effects of rhEPO on injured FMNs, as well as the influence on Caspase-3 expression.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, animal experiment. This study was performed at the Central Laboratory of Basic Medical College, Chongqing Medical University from January to October 2007.MATERIALS: Seventy-five female SD rats, weighing 210-230g. rhEPO injection was provided by Sansheng pharmaceuticals company, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, China, and the License number was HMLN S20010001.METHODS: A total of 75 female rats were randomly divided into rhEPO treatment, control, and sham operation groups, with 25 rats in each group. Rat models of facial nerve injury were established in the rhEPO treatment group and the control group by crushing the main trunk of the left facial nerve. Surgical microscopic observation of the facial nerve damage displayed perineurial disruption. The left stylomastoid foramen of the sham operation group were only exposed, but without nerve injury. The rhEPO treatment group was treated with rhEPO (5000U/kg, i. p.) once following injury and once a day for two weeks. The control and sham operation groups were treated with the same dose of normal saline (i. p.), once following injury and once a day for two weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rats were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury, FMN survival after facial nerve injury was analyzed by Toluidine blue staining, and then survival ratios (L/R) were calculated. The number of apoptotic profiles in the injured FMNs were evaluated by TUNEL staining. Expression of Caspase-3 in the facial nucleus was detected by immunohistochemistry methods.RESULTS: A total of 75 rats were included in the final

  8. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. PMID:26088742

  9. Cortical control of facial expression.

    Müri, René M

    2016-06-01

    The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1578-1585, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26418049

  10. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    International audience This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a ...

  11. Facial Expression Recognition from World Wild Web

    Mollahosseini, Ali; Hassani, Behzad; Salvador, Michelle J.; Abdollahi, Hojjat; Chan, David; Mahoor, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing facial expression in a wild setting has remained a challenging task in computer vision. The World Wide Web is a good source of facial images which most of them are captured in uncontrolled conditions. In fact, the Internet is a Word Wild Web of facial images with expressions. This paper presents the results of a new study on collecting, annotating, and analyzing wild facial expressions from the web. Three search engines were queried using 1250 emotion related keywords in six diffe...

  12. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) developed by Ekman and Friesen, which decomposes the face into 46 action units (AU) and is usually performed by a human observer. Each AU is related to the contraction of one or more...

  13. Classifying Chimpanzee Facial Expressions Using Muscle Action

    Parr, Lisa A.; Bridget M Waller; Vick, Sarah J.; Bard, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categor...

  14. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  15. Control de accesos mediante reconocimiento facial

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    En esta memoria expone el trabajo que se ha llevado a cabo para intentar crear un sistema de reconocimiento facial. This paper outlines the work carried out in the attempt of creating a facial recognition system. En aquesta memòria exposa el treball que s'ha dut a terme en l'intent de crear un sistema de reconeixement facial.

  16. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  17. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune;

    2015-01-01

    traits in a linear regression. We show in this proof-of-concept study for facial trait prediction from genome-wide SNP data that some facial characteristics can be modeled by genetic information: facial width, eyebrow width, distance between eyes, and features involving mouth shape are predicted with...

  18. Unifying Geometric Features and Facial Action Units for Improved Performance of Facial Expression Analysis

    Ghayoumi, Mehdi; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous approaches to model and analyze facial expression analysis use three different techniques: facial action units, geometric features and graph based modelling. However, previous approaches have treated these technique separately. There is an interrelationship between these techniques. The facial expression analysis is significantly improved by utilizing these mappings between major geometric features involved in facial expressions and the subset of facial action units whose presence or...

  19. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  20. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    José Antonio Muñoz-Reyes

    Full Text Available Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  1. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    O. M. Ramírez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior

  2. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  3. Facial Pyoderma Gangrenosum in Senescence

    Kratzsch, Dorothea; Ziemer, Mirjana; Milkova, Linda; Wagner, Justinus A.; Simon, Jan C.; Kendler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Clinically, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is characterized by a rapidly progressive, painful cutaneous ulcer with an irregular, violaceous and undermined border. PG occurs most frequently on the lower extremities and the trunk of middle-aged individuals. The face is only very rarely affected. We present an 89- and a 90-year-old patient, who developed a facial ulcer consistent with PG.

  4. Epidemiologia do trauma facial Epidemiology of facial trauma

    Marcelo Wulkan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. Os dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78% e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%, seguida de queda (26,2%, atropelamento (6,4%, esporte (5,4%, acidente de carro (4,2%, acidente de motocicleta (3,1%, impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%, acidente de trabalho (1,8%, ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%, inespecífica (1,2%. As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%, seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%, Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%, nasal (11,6%, zigoma (10,3%, dental (9,1%, órbita (4,9% e maxila (0,6%. Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão.OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and skin color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78% and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%, followed by fall (26.2%, run overs 6.4%, sports (5.4%, car accidents (4.2%, motorcycle accidents (3.1%, non

  5. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  6. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell’s palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers

  7. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  8. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  9. Facial expression recognition on a people-dependent personal facial expression space (PFES)

    Chandrasiri, N. P.; Park, Min Chul; Naemura, Takeshi; Harashima, Hiroshi

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, a person-specific facial expression recognition method which is based on Personal Facial Expression Space (PFES) is presented. The multidimensional scaling maps facial images as points in lower dimensions in PFES. It reflects personality of facial expressions as it is based on the peak instant of facial expression images of a specific person. In constructing PFES for a person, his/her whole normalized facial image is considered as a single pattern without block segmentation and differences of 2-D DCT coefficients from neutral facial image of the same person are used as features. Therefore, in the early part of the paper, separation characteristics of facial expressions in the frequency domain are analyzed using a still facial image database which consists of neutral, smile, anger, surprise and sadness facial images for each of 60 Japanese males (300 facial images). Results show that facial expression categories are well separated in the low frequency domain. PFES is constructed using multidimensional scaling by taking these low frequency domain of differences of 2-D DCT coefficients as features. On the PFES, trajectory of a facial image sequence of a person can be calculated in real time. Based on this trajectory, facial expressions can be recognized. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method.

  10. Effect of Different Occlusion on Facial Expressions Recognition

    Ankita Vyas; Ramchand Hablani

    2014-01-01

    Occlusions around facial parts complicate the task of recognizing facial expressions from their facial images. We propose facial expressions recognition method based on local facial regions, which provides better recognition rate in the presence of facial occlusions. Proposed method uses Uniform Local Binary pattern as a feature extractor, which extract discriminative features from some important parts of facial image. Feature vectors are classified using simplest classifier th...

  11. Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population

    Sang Hun Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have differentclinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflectsthe flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protectedenvironments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performeda retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatricpopulation.Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years,with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. Thefollowing parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associatedinjuries, treatment and complications.Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girlswas 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years ofage (36.3%. The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the mostcommon type of fracture (69% and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%.Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%.Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea.Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shifttowards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these agegroups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpfulin further evaluation and management.

  12. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    Wenfeng eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neutral learning face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral learning faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is influenced by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions affect the retrieval process in identity recognition, and identity recognition does not rely on emotional association between learning and test faces.

  13. Automatic Facial Measurements for Quantitative Analysis of Rhinoplasty

    Mousa Shamsi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Proposing automated algorithms for quantitative analysis of facial images based on facial features may assist surgeons to validate the success of nose surgery in objective and reproducible manner. In this paper, we attempt to develop automatic procedures for quantitative analysis of rhinoplasty operation based on several standard linear and spatial features. The main processing steps include image enhancement, "ncorrection of varying illumination effect, automatic facial skin detection, automatic feature extraction, facial measurements and surgery analysis. For quantitative analysis of nose surgery, we randomly selected 100 patients from the database provided by the ENT division of Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The frontal and profile images of these patients before and after rhinoplasty were available for experiments. For statistical analysis of nasal two clinical parameters, i.e., Nasolabial Angle and Nasal Projection ratio are computed. The mean and standard deviation of Nasolabial Angle by manual measurement of a specialist was 95.98˚(±9.58˚ and 111.02˚(±10.07˚ before and after nose surgery, respectively. The proposed algorithm has automatically computed this parameter as 94.12˚ (±8.86˚ and 109.65˚ (±8.86˚ before and after nose surgery. In addition, the proposed algorithm has automatically computed the Nasal Projection by Good's method as 0.584(±0.0491 and 0.537(±0.066 before and after nose surgery, respectively. Meanwhile, this parameter has manually been measured by a specialist as 0.576(±0.052 and 0.537(±0.077 before and after nose surgery, respectively. The result of the proposed facial skin segmentation, feature detection algorithms, and estimated values for the above two clinical parameters in the presence of the mentioned datasets declare that the techniques are applicable in the common clinical practice of the nose surgery.

  14. Facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea

    Capistrano, Anderson; Cordeiro, Aldir; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Almeida, Veridiana Correia; Silva, Priscila Izabela de Castro e; Martinez, Sandra; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between facial morphological patterns (I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face) as well as facial types (brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients attending a center specialized in sleep disorders. Methods: Frontal, lateral and smile photographs of 252 patients (157 men and 95 women), randomly selected from a polysomnography clinic, with mean age of 40.62 years, were evaluated. In order to obtain diagnosis of facial morphology, the sample was sent to three professors of Orthodontics trained to classify patients' face according to five patterns, as follows: 1) Pattern I; 2) Pattern II; 3) Pattern III; 4) Long facial pattern; 5) Short facial pattern. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by means of Kappa index. The professors ranked patients' facial type based on a facial index that considers the proportion between facial width and height. Results: The multiple linear regression model evinced that, when compared to Pattern I, Pattern II had the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) worsened in 6.98 episodes. However, when Pattern II was compared to Pattern III patients, the index for the latter was 11.45 episodes lower. As for the facial type, brachyfacial patients had a mean AHI of 22.34, while dolichofacial patients had a significantly statistical lower index of 10.52. Conclusion: Patients' facial morphology influences OSA. Pattern II and brachyfacial patients had greater AHI, while Pattern III patients showed a lower index. PMID:26691971

  15. Do facial expressions develop before birth?

    Nadja Reissland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal facial development is essential not only for postnatal bonding between parents and child, but also theoretically for the study of the origins of affect. However, how such movements become coordinated is poorly understood. 4-D ultrasound visualisation allows an objective coding of fetal facial movements. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Based on research using facial muscle movements to code recognisable facial expressions in adults and adapted for infants, we defined two distinct fetal facial movements, namely "cry-face-gestalt" and "laughter- gestalt," both made up of up to 7 distinct facial movements. In this conceptual study, two healthy fetuses were then scanned at different gestational ages in the second and third trimester. We observed that the number and complexity of simultaneous movements increased with gestational age. Thus, between 24 and 35 weeks the mean number of co-occurrences of 3 or more facial movements increased from 7% to 69%. Recognisable facial expressions were also observed to develop. Between 24 and 35 weeks the number of co-occurrences of 3 or more movements making up a "cry-face gestalt" facial movement increased from 0% to 42%. Similarly the number of co-occurrences of 3 or more facial movements combining to a "laughter-face gestalt" increased from 0% to 35%. These changes over age were all highly significant. SIGNIFICANCE: This research provides the first evidence of developmental progression from individual unrelated facial movements toward fetal facial gestalts. We propose that there is considerable potential of this method for assessing fetal development: Subsequent discrimination of normal and abnormal fetal facial development might identify health problems in utero.

  16. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  17. Substance Use and Facial Injury

    Murphy, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is a major contributing factor to the interpersonal violence that accounts for a significant proportion of facial injuries among adults and adolescents; thus, violence is the main “pathway” through which substance use and injuries are linked. Beyond causality, substance use continues to influence recovery from the injury through its impact on the healing process (e.g., patient non-compliance, suppression of T-cell counts, susceptibility to bacterial colonization, and protein pro...

  18. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels ...

  19. Techniques of facial nerve block.

    Schimek, F; Fahle, M

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

  20. Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose

    Carvalho, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls, n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio. Results: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

  1. Identification based on facial parts

    Stevanov Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two opposing views dominate face identification literature, one suggesting that the face is processed as a whole and another suggesting analysis based on parts. Our research tried to establish which of these two is the dominant strategy and our results fell in the direction of analysis based on parts. The faces were covered with a mask and the participants were uncovering different parts, one at the time, in an attempt to identify a person. Already at the level of a single facial feature, such as mouth or eye and top of the nose, some observers were capable to establish the identity of a familiar face. Identification is exceptionally successful when a small assembly of facial parts is visible, such as eye, eyebrow and the top of the nose. Some facial parts are not very informative on their own but do enhance recognition when given as a part of such an assembly. Novel finding here is importance of the top of the nose for the face identification. Additionally observers have a preference toward the left side of the face. Typically subjects view the elements in the following order: left eye, left eyebrow, right eye, lips, region between the eyes, right eyebrow, region between the eyebrows, left check, right cheek. When observers are not in a position to see eyes, eyebrows or top of the nose, they go for lips first and then region between the eyebrows, region between the eyes, left check, right cheek and finally chin.

  2. Cultural perspectives in facial allotransplantation.

    Tan, Pearlie W W; Patel, Ashish S; Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

  3. Gamer's Facial Cloning for Online Interactive Games

    Abdul Sattar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual illustration of a human face is essential to enhance the mutual interaction in a cyber community. In this paper we propose a solution to solve two bottlenecks in facial analysis and synthesis for an interactive system of human face cloning for non-expert users of computer games. Tactical maneuvers of the gamer make single camera acquisition system unsuitable to analyze and track the face due to its large lateral movements. For an improved facial analysis system, we propose to acquire the facial images from multiple cameras and analyze them by multiobjective 2.5D Active Appearance Model (MOAAM. Facial morphological dissimilarities between a human face and an avatar make the facial synthesis quite complex. To successfully clone or retarget the gamer facial expressions and gestures on to an avatar, we introduce a simple mathematical link between their appearances. Results obtained validate the efficiency, accuracy and robustness achieved.

  4. Objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software.

    Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T

    2010-05-01

    Facial analysis is an integral part of the surgical planning process. Clinical photography has long been an invaluable tool in the surgeon's practice not only for accurate facial analysis but also for enhancing communication between the patient and surgeon, for evaluating postoperative results, for medicolegal documentation, and for educational and teaching opportunities. From 35-mm slide film to the digital technology of today, clinical photography has benefited greatly from technological advances. With the development of computer imaging software, objective facial analysis becomes easier to perform and less time consuming. Thus, while the original purpose of facial analysis remains the same, the process becomes much more efficient and allows for some objectivity. Although clinical judgment and artistry of technique is never compromised, the ability to perform objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software may become the standard in facial plastic surgery practices in the future. PMID:20511080

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  6. Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation

    Dimitri Neaux; Franck Guy; Emmanuel Gilissen; Walter Coudyzer; Patrick Vignaud; Stéphane Ducrocq

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hy...

  7. Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks

    Hariharan SI; Reddy Narender P; Kulkarni Saket S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial ...

  8. Dental injuries in association with facial fractures

    Lieger, O; Zix, J; Kruse, A.; Iizuka, T.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental injuries and facial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 273 patients examined at a level 1 trauma center in Switzerland from September 2005 until August 2006 who had facial fractures. Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings were recorded to evaluate demographics, etiology, presentation, and type of facial fracture, as well as its relationship to dental inj...

  9. Surgical Options for Atypical Facial Pain Syndromes.

    Rahimpour, Shervin; Lad, Shivanand P

    2016-07-01

    Atypical neuropathic facial pain is a syndrome of intractable and unremitting facial pain that is secondary to nociceptive signaling in the trigeminal system. These syndromes are often recalcitrant to pharmacotherapy and other common interventions, including microvascular decompression and percutaneous procedures. Herein, the authors present two other viable approaches (nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone lesioning and motor cortex stimulation), their indications, and finally a possible treatment algorithm to consider when assessing patients with atypical facial pain. PMID:27325003

  10. Portable Facial Recognition Jukebox Using Fisherfaces (Frj)

    Richard Mo; Adnan Shaout

    2016-01-01

    A portable real-time facial recognition system that is able to play personalized music based on the identified person’s preferences was developed. The system is called Portable Facial Recognition Jukebox Using Fisherfaces (FRJ). Raspberry Pi was used as the hardware platform for its relatively low cost and ease of use. This system uses the OpenCV open source library to implement the computer vision Fisherfaces facial recognition algorithms, and uses the Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) library ...

  11. Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills

    Jan Oliver Huelle; Benjamin eSack; Katja eBroer; Irina eKomlewa; Silke eAnders

    2014-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possib...

  12. What Can Spontaneous Facial Expression Tell Us?

    Yang, Songfan

    2014-01-01

    Facial expression plays a significant role in human communication. It is considered the single most important cue in the psychology of emotion. Facial expression is taken as a universally understood signal, which triggers a discrete categorical basic emotion, including joy, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Thus, automatic analysis of emotion from images of human facial expression has been an interesting and challenging problem for the past 30 years. Aiming towards the applications...

  13. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BASED ON EDGE DETECTION

    Chen, Xiaoming; Cheng, Wushan

    2015-01-01

    Relational Over the last two decades, the advances in computer vision and pattern recognition power have opened the door to new opportunity of automatic facial expression recognition system[1]. This paper use Canny edge detection method for facial expression recognition. Image color space transformation in the first place and then to identify and locate human face .Next pick up the edge of eyes and mouth's features extraction. Last we judge the facial expressions after compared wi...

  14. Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing

    Shiqing Zhang; Xiaoming Zhao; Bicheng Lei

    2012-01-01

    Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, ...

  15. Management of Facial Telangiectasias with Hand Cautery

    E. Liapakis, Ioannis; Englander, Miriam; Sinani, Roven; I. Paschalis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Facial telangiectasias are superficial cutaneous vessels that can result in noticeable aesthetical imperfections. This study presents a technique for the removal of facial telangiectasias using hand cautery. METHODS Twenty-five patients with facial telangiectasias were treated using hand cautery (Medicell Inc, Athens, Greece) during 2009-2013. Photo documentation was performed for each patient before and immediately after treatment. Treatment was performed by cauterization at 800°C...

  16. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010

  17. Neuroticism Delays Detection of Facial Expressions

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions. PMID:27073904

  18. Cross-pose Facial Expression Recognition

    Guney, Fatma; Arar, Nuri Murat; Fischer, Mika; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal

    2013-01-01

    In real world facial expression recognition (FER) applications, it is not practical for a user to enroll his/her facial expressions under different pose angles. Therefore, a desirable property of a FER system would be to allow the user to enroll his/her facial expressions under a single pose, for example frontal, and be able to recognize them under different pose angles. In this paper, we address this problem and present a method to recognize six prototypic facial expressions of an individual...

  19. Facial expressions, emotions, and sign languages

    EevaAnitaElliott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as ‘surprise’ to complex and culture specific concepts such as ‘carelessly’. The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by positing three dimensions; semantic, iconic and compositional.

  20. Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management

    You-Wei Cheong; Lun-Jou Lo

    2011-01-01

    Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient histor...

  1. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  2. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  3. Facial mimicry and the mirror neuron system: simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Likowski, Katja U.; Mühlberger, Andreas; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Pauli, Paul; Weyers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e., facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry) of male and female avatar c...

  4. Facial mimicry and the mirror neuron system: Simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Peter Weyers

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry) of male and female avat...

  5. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson's Disease.

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    According to embodied simulation theory, understanding other people's emotions is fostered by facial mimicry. However, studies assessing the effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion are still controversial. In Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most distinctive clinical features is facial amimia, a reduction in facial expressiveness, but patients also show emotional disturbances. The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral). Our results evidenced a significant decrease in facial mimicry for joy in PD, essentially linked to the absence of reaction of the zygomaticus major and the orbicularis oculi muscles in response to happy avatars, whereas facial mimicry for expressions of anger was relatively preserved. We also confirmed that PD patients were less accurate in recognizing positive and neutral facial expressions and highlighted a beneficial effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion. We thus provide additional arguments for embodied simulation theory suggesting that facial mimicry is a potential lever for therapeutic actions in PD even if it seems not to be necessarily required in recognizing emotion as such. PMID:27467393

  6. Study on the Clinical Significance of Mathematical Relations between the Thickness of Facial Soft Tissues in Male

    WANG Zixuan; WANG Qinghua

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss the mathematical relations between the thickness of facial soft tissues. Mehtods Measured the thickness of facial soft tissue on X- ray film (51 men). Record seven data every man, computed their related ratio and analysis all the data with SPSS software. Result All of the items were positive correlation and their correlations were significant expect the correlation between the thickness of hair line point and the Sn point. All the results were normal distribution. Conclusion The results can be used to calculate the thickness of injured facial soft tissue in male.

  7. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  8. Facial nerve involvement in critical illness polyneuropathy

    Mohan Gurjar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ICU-acquired neuromuscular weakness is a well-known problem, critical illness neuropathy is an under-diagnosed entity in critically ill patients. Facial musculature is typically not involved in critical illness neuropathy. This report highlights an unusual presentation of critical illness polyneuropathy in a patient with involvement of facial musculature.

  9. Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates

    We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

  10. Navigation aided surgery for facial fractures

    A navigation system that has been developed in neurosurgery has recently been applied in the maxillofacial region. We introduced a navigation system (Stealth Station, Medtronic) in the maxillofacial region. As preoperative preparation, CT scanning was performed with a slice of 1 mm. Navigation aided surgery was performed in 11 patients with facial fractures between April 2005 and July 2006. Navigation aided reduction of the bone segment was performed by comparing with the sound site on the screen. Facial symmetry was recovered in 10 of 11 cases. Facial asymmetry in 1 case (midfacial multiple fractures) remained, because the system did not work after the surgeon contacted the reference frame during the operation. The navigation system is useful for repairing facial fractures, especially for verifying facial symmetry. (author)

  11. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    ANITHA C,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, human–computer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

  12. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  13. Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing

    Shiqing Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

  14. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  15. Acro-cardio-facial syndrome

    Dallapiccola Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD, genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

  16. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  17. Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions

    H. Madokoro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self– Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russell’s circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressions—happiness, anger, and sadness— obtained from 10 subjects during 7–20 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than

  18. Three-dimensional perception of facial asymmetry.

    Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Bareis, Ute; Hartmann, Jutta; Kochel, Janka

    2011-12-01

    In orthodontic diagnosis, facial symmetry is important. The aim of the present study was to analyse the perception of various degrees of facial asymmetry exhibited by carefully designed virtual three-dimensional (3D) material. Three groups of raters (30 orthodontists, 30 maxillofacial surgeons, and 30 laymen) rated, using a six-point scale, the degree of asymmetry of eight randomly presented 3D faces exhibiting incremental soft tissue alterations. The faces were created by gradually transforming the nose or chin in increments of 2 mm away from the computed symmetry plane. Differences between the groups in analysis of facial asymmetry, the rating of facial stimulus, and right and left facial asymmetry were determined using a t-test. The results demonstrated that raters' profession did not influence the point at which they identified asymmetry. Even laymen were able to detect asymmetries when located near the midline of 3D faces. All raters identified asymmetries of the nose as more negative than those of the same degree of the chin. A left-sided deviation of the nose along the facial symmetry plane lead to a more negative rating of facial appearance, whereas a right-sided deviation of the chin was rated as less attractive. Nasal architecture plays a crucial role in the perception of symmetry. These findings provide clinicians with a greater understanding of how faces are perceived, a process which is of particular interest in treating orthognathic patients, and those with congenital anomalies. PMID:21355063

  19. Radiologic finding of facial nerve schwannoma

    To analyze the radilologic findings of facial nerve schwannoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT and/or MR images and clinical history of eight patients with histologically proven facial nerve schwannama. After classifying this extratemporal and intratemporal types, clinical and radilologic findings were analysed. The most common clinical findings of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve palsy and hearing impairment in an intratemporal schwannoma(4/5), and a palpable parotid mass in an extratemporal schwannoma(3/3). On CT, each involved segment of intratemporal schwannomas(five cases) showed characteristic radilologic findings, while extratemporal schwannomas(three cases) showed masses of various types. On MRI, all tumors(two cases) showed hypointensity of T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI, and strong enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas can be easily diagnosed by characteristic clinical and radilologic findings. Extratemporal facial nerve schwannomas show nonspecific findings. However, if the tumor is located between the superficial and the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extends to the posterior portion of the styloid process, then facial nerve schwannoma is strongly suspected

  20. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications. PMID:25076447

  1. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    to infer haplotypes. HAPLIN on the other hand estimates the full haplotype distribution over a set of SNPs and estimates relative risks associated with each haplotype. For isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (I-CL/P), TRIMM and HAPLIN both identified significant associations with IRF6 and......BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...... ADH1C in both populations, but only HAPLIN found an association with FGF12. For isolated cleft palate (I-CP), TRIMM found associations with ALX3, MKX, and PDGFC in both populations, but only the association with PDGFC was identified by HAPLIN. In addition, HAPLIN identified an association with ETV5...

  2. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  3. Improved bound on facial parity edge coloring

    Lužar, Borut; Škrekovski, Riste

    2013-01-01

    A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge connected plane graph is an edge coloring where no two consecutive edges of a facial walk of any face receive the same color. Additionally, for every face f and every color c either no edge or an odd number of edges incident to f are colored by c. Czap, Jendrol', Kardo\\v{s} and Sotak showed that every 2-edge connected plane graph admits a facial parity edge coloring with at most 20 colors. We improve this bound to 16 colors.

  4. Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation

    Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided

  5. Surgical Adhesives in Facial Plastic Surgery.

    Toriumi, Dean M; Chung, Victor K; Cappelle, Quintin M

    2016-06-01

    In facial plastic surgery, attaining hemostasis may require adjuncts to traditional surgical techniques. Fibrin tissue adhesives have broad applications in surgery and are particularly useful when addressing the soft tissue encountered in facial plastic surgery. Beyond hemostasis, tissue adhesion and enhanced wound healing are reported benefits associated with a decrease in operating time, necessity for drains and pressure dressings, and incidence of wound healing complications. These products are clinically accessible to most physicians who perform facial plastic surgery, including skin grafts, flaps, rhytidectomy, and endoscopic forehead lift. PMID:27267012

  6. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments.

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies. PMID:27529707

  7. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

  8. Bilateral facial palsy associated with leptospirosis

    Andressa Alves da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. It is an acute feverish disease with a broad clinical spectrum and follows a characteristic biphasic course. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical condition and the differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive. The objective of this exploratory study, presented as a case report, is to describe the occurrence of bilateral facial palsy as an unusual manifestation of leptospirosis. This suggestion should not be overlooked when analyzing the causes for bilateral facial palsy, and should be considered with other possible differential diagnoses, some of which are potentially fatal.

  9. Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in…

  10. Recognition of Facial Expressions using Local Binary Patterns of Important Facial Parts

    Ramchand Hablani; Narendra Chaudhari; Sanjay Tanwani

    2013-01-01

    Facial Expression Recognition is one of the exciting and challenging field; it has important applications in many areas such as data driven animation, human computer interaction and robotics. Extracting effective features from the human face is an important step for successful facial expression recognition. In this paper we have evaluated Local Binary Patterns of some important parts of human face, for person independent as well as person dependent facial expression recognition. Extensive exp...

  11. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale

    Kleiss, Ingrid J.; Beurskens, Carien H. G.; Stalmeier, Peep F. M.; Ingels, Koen J. A. O.; Marres, Henri A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward–backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for fac...

  12. FACIAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING GABOR (HAPPY, SAD, ANGER, NEUTRAL MOOD)

    Mohd Shamsh Alam

    2015-01-01

    The best way to communicate the emotions and intentions is facial expressions. This is powerful because as per the psychological research 55% of the total communicated message is the human facial expression. Therefore deriving an effective facial representation from the original face image is a vital step and very tough task in the field of computer science for successful facial expression recognition. Human facial recognition usually uses image processing, gesture signal ...

  13. Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation

    Agich, G; Siemionow, M

    2005-01-01

    The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial de...

  14. Facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes

    Vretos, N.; Solachidis, V.; Somol, Petr; Pitas, I.

    Lausanne, Switzerland: EURASIP, 2008, s. 1-5. [16th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO- 2008). Lausanne (CH), 25.08.2008-29.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : facial expression * facial meshes * recognition * feature selection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/somol-facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes.pdf

  15. Wavelet based approach for facial expression recognition

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.

  16. Developing psychological services following facial trauma

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  17. Developing psychological services following facial trauma.

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  18. Ethics and the facial plastic surgeon.

    Sethi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    The facial plastic surgeon potentially has a conflict of interest when confronted with the patients requesting surgery, due to the personal gain attainable by agreeing to perform surgery. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential harm the surgeon can inflict by carrying out facial plastic surgery, beyond the standard surgical complications of infection or bleeding. It will discuss the desire for self-improvement and perfection and increase in the prevalence facial plastic surgery. We address the principles of informed consent, beneficence and non-maleficence, as well as justice and equality and how the clinician who undertakes facial plastic surgery is at risk of breaching these principles without due care and diligence. PMID:26254909

  19. Acquired facial lipoatrophy: pathogenesis and therapeutic options

    Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Olszewska, Barbara; Lemańska, Małgorzata; Purzycka-Bohdan, Dorota; Nowicki, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Facial lipoatrophy refers to the loss of subcutaneous fat tissue presenting by flattening or indentation of convex contour of the face. Facial lipoatrophy is a feature of the normal ageing process. It may be also a manifestation of chronic diseases, most frequently it affects HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and may constitute a complication of connective tissue diseases, like lupus erythematosus profundus or morphea. Early recognition and tre...

  20. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    ANITHA C,; M.K.Venkatesha; B SURYANARAYANA ADIGA

    2010-01-01

    Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - defi...

  1. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Matsuura Naomi; Uono Shota; Sato Wataru; Toichi Motomi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photo...

  2. The perception of facial expressions in newborns

    Farroni, Teresa; Menon, Enrica; Rigato, Silvia; Johnson, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of newborns to discriminate and respond to different emotional facial expressions remains controversial. We conducted three experiments in which we tested newborns’ preferences, and their ability to discriminate between neutral, fearful, and happy facial expressions, using visual preference and habituation procedures. In the first two experiments, no evidence was found that newborns discriminate, or show a preference between, a fearful and a neutral face. In the third experiment, ...

  3. The Commitment Function of Angry Facial Expressions

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter; Pinker, Steven

    2014-01-01

    What function do facial expressions have? We tested the hypothesis that some expressions serve as honest signals of subjective commitments—in particular, that angry faces increase the effectiveness of threats. In an ultimatum game, proposers decided how much money to offer a responder while seeing a film clip depicting an angry or a neutral facial expression, together with a written threat that was either inherently credible (a 50-50 split) or less credible (a demand for 70% of the money). Pr...

  4. Dynamic Facial Expression of Emotion Made Easy

    Broekens, Joost; Qu, Chao; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Facial emotion expression for virtual characters is used in a wide variety of areas. Often, the primary reason to use emotion expression is not to study emotion expression generation per se, but to use emotion expression in an application or research project. What is then needed is an easy to use and flexible, but also validated mechanism to do so. In this report we present such a mechanism. It enables developers to build virtual characters with dynamic affective facial expressions. The mecha...

  5. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    Villafuerte-Nuñez, A. E.; Téllez-Anguiano, A. C.; O. Hernández-Díaz; Rodríguez-Vera, R.; J. A. Gutiérrez-Gnecchi; Salazar-Martínez, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration), temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat....

  6. Facial nerve palsy after mandibular fracture.

    Weinberg, M J; Merx, P; Antonyshyn, O; Farb, R

    1995-05-01

    A 19-year-old man sustained a right parasymphyseal fracture and bilateral condylar neck fractures in a motor vehicle accident. The parasymphyseal fracture was treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and the subcondylar fractures were treated with closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation. Three days postoperatively, a near-complete left facial nerve palsy developed. Facial nerve recovery was not full. The literature is reviewed, and possible mechanisms of this rare and devastating complication are discussed. PMID:7639495

  7. Facial Fracture Management in Northwest Nigeria

    Taiwo, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Godwin, Ndubuizi Ugochukwu; Ibikunle, Adebayo Aremu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Facial fracture is gradually become a public health problem in our community due to the attendant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of facial fracture in Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to provide information regarding gender, age, etiology, and diagnosis of patients with maxillofacial fractures. Materials and Methods: A 1-year re...

  8. Cranial morphometry of early hominids: facial region.

    Bilsborough, A; Wood, B A

    1988-05-01

    We report here on early hominid facial diversity, as part of a more extensive morphometric survey of cranial variability in Pliocene and early Pleistocene Hominidae. Univariate and multivariate techniques are used to summarise variation in facial proportions in South and East African hominids, and later Quaternary groups are included as comparators in order to scale the variation displayed. The results indicate that "robust" australopithecines have longer, broader faces than the "gracile" form, but that all australopithecine species show comparable degrees of facial projection. "Robust" crania are characterised by anteriorly situated, deep malar processes that slope forwards and downwards. Smaller hominid specimens, formally or informally assigned to Homo (H. habilis, KNM-ER 1813, etc.), have individual facial dimensions that usually fall within the range of Australopithecus africanus, but which in combination reveal a significantly different morphological pattern; SK 847 shows similarly hominine facial proportions, which differ significantly from those of A. robustus specimens from Swartkrans. KNM-ER 1470 possesses a facial pattern that is basically hominine, but which in some respects mimics that of "robust" australopithecines. Early specimens referred to H. erectus possess facial proportions that contrast markedly with those of other Villafranchian hominids and which suggest differing masticatory forces, possibly reflecting a shift in dietary niche. Overall the results indicate two broad patterns of facial proportions in Hominidae: one is characteristic of Pliocene/basal Pleistocene forms with opposite polarities represented by A. boisei and H. habilis; the other pattern, which typifies hominids from the later Lower Pleistocene onwards, is first found in specimens widely regarded as early representatives of H. erectus, but which differ in which certain respects from the face of later members of that species. PMID:3136656

  9. Gamer's Facial Cloning for Online Interactive Games

    Abdul Sattar; Nicolas Stoiber; Renaud Seguier; Gaspard Breton

    2009-01-01

    Virtual illustration of a human face is essential to enhance the mutual interaction in a cyber community. In this paper we propose a solution to solve two bottlenecks in facial analysis and synthesis for an interactive system of human face cloning for non-expert users of computer games. Tactical maneuvers of the gamer make single camera acquisition system unsuitable to analyze and track the face due to its large lateral movements. For an improved facial analysis system, we propose to acquire ...

  10. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  11. Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2016-07-01

    Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity. PMID:26319412

  12. Seis anos de atendimento em trauma facial: análise epidemiológica de 355 casos Six years of facial trauma care: an epidemiological analysis of 355 cases

    Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumas faciais são frequentes em emergências requerendo o diagnóstico de fraturas e lesões associadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar dados epidemiológicos de atendimento em trauma facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 335 prontuários de pacientes com trauma facial tratados pelo Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia, no período de Janeiro de 2002 a Dezembro de 2008. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade, gênero, etiologia, local anatômico da fratura, lesão associada, consumo de álcool, tratamento e hospitalização. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte longitudinal histórico. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes são homens adultos jovens (pFacial traumas are frequent in emergencies, and they require the diagnosis of fractures and associated lesions. AIM: To analyze epidemiological data concerning facial trauma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-five charts from patients with facial trauma treated by the Service of Otorhinolaryngology, from January 2002 to December 2008, were revised. The following data was collected: age, gender, etiology, anatomical localization of the fracture, associated injuries, alcohol consumption, treatment, and hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective historical longitudinal study. RESULTS: Most of the patients are young adult men (p<0.05 with a male:female ratio of 4:1(p<0.05. Interpersonal violence is the most prevalent cause of facial trauma (27.9%, followed by motor vehicle accidents (16.6% (p<0.05. The mandible is the most prevalent facial bone fractured (44.2%, followed by nasal fracture (18.9% (p<0.05. 41.1% of the patients consumed alcohol with a male:female ratio of 11.2:1 (p<0.05. Seventy-seven percent of the patients required surgical intervention (p<0.05 and 84.5% were hospitalized (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Young male adults are the most prevalent victims of facial trauma, and interpersonal violence is responsible for the majority of the facial injuries. Most of the

  13. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale

    Kleiss, I.J.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A p

  14. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  15. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    S.B.Thorat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  16. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale.

    Kleiss, Ingrid J; Beurskens, Carien H G; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Ingels, Koen J A O; Marres, Henri A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were performed. Ninety-three patients completed the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, the Dutch Facial Disability Index, and the Dutch Short Form (36) Health Survey. Cronbach's α, representing internal consistency, was 0.800. Test-retest reliability was shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.737. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social/well-being function were -0.292, 0.570, 0.713, and 0.575, respectively. The SF-36 domains correlate best with the FaCE social function domain, with the strongest correlation between the both social function domains (r = 0.576). The FaCE score did statistically significantly increase in 35 patients receiving botulinum toxin type A (P = 0.042, Student t test). The domains 'facial comfort' and 'social function' improved statistically significantly as well (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively, Student t-test). The Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation and comparison possible among different providers. PMID:25628237

  17. 3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hyun Ung; Moon, Woong Jae [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease.

  18. Perception of health from facial cues.

    Henderson, Audrey J; Holzleitner, Iris J; Talamas, Sean N; Perrett, David I

    2016-05-01

    Impressions of health are integral to social interactions, yet poorly understood. A review of the literature reveals multiple facial characteristics that potentially act as cues to health judgements. The cues vary in their stability across time: structural shape cues including symmetry and sexual dimorphism alter slowly across the lifespan and have been found to have weak links to actual health, but show inconsistent effects on perceived health. Facial adiposity changes over a medium time course and is associated with both perceived and actual health. Skin colour alters over a short time and has strong effects on perceived health, yet links to health outcomes have barely been evaluated. Reviewing suggested an additional influence of demeanour as a perceptual cue to health. We, therefore, investigated the association of health judgements with multiple facial cues measured objectively from two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial images. We found evidence for independent contributions of face shape and skin colour cues to perceived health. Our empirical findings: (i) reinforce the role of skin yellowness; (ii) demonstrate the utility of global face shape measures of adiposity; and (iii) emphasize the role of affect in facial images with nominally neutral expression in impressions of health. PMID:27069057

  19. Neural correlates of facial motion perception.

    Girges, Christine; O'Brien, Justin; Spencer, Janine

    2016-06-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have revealed that the superior temporal sulcus (STS) is highly implicated in the processing of facial motion. A limitation of these investigations, however, is that many of them utilize unnatural stimuli (e.g., morphed videos) or those which contain many confounding spatial cues. As a result, the underlying mechanisms may not be fully engaged during such perception. The aim of the current study was to build upon the existing literature by implementing highly detailed and accurate models of facial movement. Accordingly, neurologically healthy participants viewed simultaneous sequences of rigid and nonrigid motion that was retargeted onto a standard computer generated imagery face model. Their task was to discriminate between different facial motion videos in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. Presentations varied between upright and inverted orientations. In corroboration with previous data, the perception of natural facial motion strongly activated a portion of the posterior STS. The analysis also revealed engagement of the lingual gyrus, fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, and cerebellum. These findings therefore suggest that the processing of dynamic facial information is supported by a network of visuomotor substrates. PMID:26077725

  20. Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith D; Berge, Cynthia A

    2006-10-01

    The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects' facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response. PMID:17121065

  1. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    H. Fatouros-Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS. In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  2. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    Nicholas Lange

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: oral-facial-digital syndrome

    ... O, Bernard L, Malcolm S, Winter R, Ballabio A, Franco B. Identification of the gene for oral-facial- ... 569-76. Epub 2001 Feb 13. Gurrieri F, Franco B, Toriello H, Neri G. Oral-facial-digital ...

  4. Spatial frequency bandwidth used in the recognition of facial images.

    Näsänen, R

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out what spatial frequency information human observers use in the recognition of face images. Signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for the recognition of facial images were measured as a function of the centre spatial frequency of narrow-band additive spatial noise. The relative sensitivity of recognition to different spatial frequencies was derived from these results. The maximum sensitivity was found at 8-13 c/face width and the bandwidth was just under two octaves. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with stimuli in which Fourier phase was randomised within a narrow band of different centre spatial frequencies. This resulted in a considerable increase of energy threshold around 8 c/face width and less elsewhere. Further, contrast energy thresholds were measured as a function of the centre spatial frequency of band-pass filtered face images. As a function of object spatial frequency (c/face width), energy threshold first decreased and then increased. The lowest energy thresholds found around 10 c/face width were lower than the energy threshold for unfiltered images. This is what one would expect if face recognition is narrow-band, since band-pass filtered images of optimal centre spatial frequency do not contain unused contrast energy at low and high spatial frequencies. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recognition of facial images is tuned to a relatively narrow band (object spatial frequencies. PMID:10748918

  5. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  6. LBP and SIFT based facial expression recognition

    Sumer, Omer; Gunes, Ece O.

    2015-02-01

    This study compares the performance of local binary patterns (LBP) and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) with support vector machines (SVM) in automatic classification of discrete facial expressions. Facial expression recognition is a multiclass classification problem and seven classes; happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear and comtempt are classified. Using SIFT feature vectors and linear SVM, 93.1% mean accuracy is acquired on CK+ database. On the other hand, the performance of LBP-based classifier with linear SVM is reported on SFEW using strictly person independent (SPI) protocol. Seven-class mean accuracy on SFEW is 59.76%. Experiments on both databases showed that LBP features can be used in a fairly descriptive way if a good localization of facial points and partitioning strategy are followed.

  7. Facial Reconstruction after a Complicated Gunshot Injury

    Vanna Long

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial gunshot injuries are unusual and complicated clinical entities. Because of themechanism of injury, early aggressive primary reconstruction might not be ideal. Initial conservativemanagement followed by staged secondary reconstruction could be performed toobtain satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Reconstruction of the cranio-maxillofacialdeformities requires a multi-disciplinary approach, the same way as for patients withcleft lip/palate deformities. We present a male patient with severe facial gunshot injuries. Ateam approach revealed maxilla recession, dental malocclusion, a large oronasal fistula overhis hard palate, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and a stable psychosocial status. His mainconcern was facial appearance, which included the nose, lip, and scars. Staged reconstructionswere performed, consisting of orthognathic surgery, rhinoplasty, lip-switch flap, andrevisions of scars. A satisfactory outcome was obtained. The results indicated the importanceof preoperative evaluation and treatment planning for this uncommon problem.

  8. Using infrared facial imagery for positive identification

    Evans, David C.

    1995-05-01

    Positive identification or verification of identity of an individual is a major part of the security, legal, banking, and police task of granting or denying authority to take an action. Work is being done using IR facial imaging and computer technology to perform the human recognition task rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively. Three basic principles have been demonstrated: every human IR facial image (or thermogram) is unique to that individual; an IR camera can be used to capture human thermograms; and captured thermograms can be digitized, stored, and matched using a computer and certain mathematical algorithms. A three- part development effort has been undertaken using IR facial recognition in an access control application. The first, an opertor assisted proof-of-concept effort, has been successfully completed. The second, an automated access control unit, has been completed and is undergoing independent testing in a simulated controlled access environment. Work on the third developmental effort is planned for this summer.

  9. Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice

    Derek A Wainwright

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3−/− mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2−/− (recombination activating gene-2-deficient mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3−/− mice, but not in CCR3−/− mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

  10. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  11. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

  12. Relationship between facial asymmetry and masseter reflex activity

    Machida, Naoki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Takata, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Yoshiaki; 山田, 一尋

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) of the masseter muscles in patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects and Methods: The experiment was performed on 10 volunteers without facial asymmetry and 12 orthognathic patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects were seated in a chair, and held a stimulator composed of an electric motor and an acrylic bite block between the upper and lower dentitions at facial midline, in order to elicit TVR. EMG activity was recorded using a pai...

  13. The submental island flap for reconstruction of facial defects.

    Prabhune K; Patni S; Gomes D.; Bhathena H; Kavarana N

    1998-01-01

    The procedure of facial resurfacing dictates that there should be an excellent colour and texture match between the facial and the transposed skin. Cervical flaps e.g. platysma flap are commonly used for reconstruction of facial defects but, with disadvantages like limited mobility, unacceptable donor site and unpredictable outcomes. The submental island flap is a new addition to the armamentorium of the Plastic Surgeon. It is an axial pattern flap based on the submental branch of facial arte...

  14. Advances in face detection and facial image analysis

    Celebi, M; Smolka, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in face detection and analysis. It outlines new research directions, including in particular psychology-based facial dynamics recognition, aimed at various applications such as behavior analysis, deception detection, and diagnosis of various psychological disorders. Topics of interest include face and facial landmark detection, face recognition, facial expression and emotion analysis, facial dynamics analysis, face classification, identification, and clustering, and gaze direction and head pose estimation, as well as applications of face analysis.

  15. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C.; Mark G. Frank; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1–3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4–7]. A subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions. A cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simu...

  16. Korean Facial Emotion Recognition Tasks for Schizophrenia Research

    Bahk, Yong-Chun; Jang, Seon-Keong; Lee, Jee Ye; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that facial emotion recognition (FER) tasks using Western faces should be applied with caution to non-Western participants or patients, there are few psychometrically sound and validated FER tasks featuring Easterners' facial expressions for emotions. Thus, we aimed to develop and establish the psychometric properties of the Korean Facial Emotion Identification Task (K-FEIT) and the Korean Facial Emotion Discrimination Task (K-FEDT) for individuals with schizophreni...

  17. Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Dr.R.Parthasarathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other proposed methods as shown in experiment results.

  18. Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Dr.R.Parthasarathi; V.Lokeswar Reddy,; K.Vishnuthej,; G.Vishnu Vandan

    2011-01-01

    Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other p...

  19. Perceptually Valid Facial Expressions for Character-Based Applications

    Ali Arya; Steve DiPaola; Avi Parush

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of creating facial expression of mixed emotions in a perceptually valid way. The research has been done in the context of a “game-like” health and education applications aimed at studying social competency and facial expression awareness in autistic children as well as native language learning, but the results can be applied to many other applications such as games with need for dynamic facial expressions or tools for automating the creation of facial animatio...

  20. Towards Real-Life Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    BENTA, K.-I.; VAIDA, M.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Facial expressions are a set of symbols of great importance for human-to-human communication. Spontaneous in their nature, diverse and personal, facial expressions demand for real-time, complex, robust and adaptable facial expression recognition (FER) systems to facilitate the human-computer interaction. The last years' research efforts in the recognition of facial expressions are preparing FER systems to step into the real-life. In order to meet the before-mentioned requi...

  1. Facial Expressions recognition Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

    2014-01-01

    The facial expression recognition is an ocular task that can be performed without human discomfort, is really a speedily growing on the computer research field. There are many applications and programs uses facial expression to evaluate human character, judgment, feelings, and viewpoint. The process of recognizing facial expression is a hard task due to the several circumstances such as facial occlusions, face shape, illumination, face colors, and etc. This paper present a PCA methodology to ...

  2. Application of Bacterial Cellulose (BC) in Natural Facial Scrub

    Norhasliza Hasan; Dayang Radiah Awang Biak; Suryani Kamarudin

    2012-01-01

    A new facial scrub containing only natural ingredients and powdered bacterial cellulose (BC) was formulated. The other ingredients used in the formulation include powdered glutinous rice, aloe vera extract, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) powder and olive oil. The rheological behaviours of the formulated and commercial facial scrubs were tested using plate and plate rheometer. Both formulated and commercial facial scrubs shows shear thinning  behaviour (non-Newtonian liquid). The formulated facial ...

  3. Cultural dialects of real and synthetic emotional facial expressions

    Ruttkay, Zsófia

    2009-01-01

    In this article we discuss the aspects of designing facial expressions for virtual humans (VHs) with a specific culture. First we explore the notion of cultures and its relevance for applications with a VH. Then we give a general scheme of designing emotional facial expressions, and identify the stages where a human is involved, either as a real person with some specific role, or as a VH displaying facial expressions. We discuss how the display and the emotional meaning of facial expressions ...

  4. Facial Reconstruction with Combined Facial, Neck and Occipital Skin Flap Transplantation

    陶学金; 郭三兰; 陈为民; 马净植

    2002-01-01

    To treat large facial defect (more than 6 cm × 4 cm in diameter ) or a wound with bone exposure to atmosphere by less-traumatic, easier-healing reconstruction method, a pedicle flap including facial, neck, posterior auricle and occipital skin flap was designed and transferred, one by one, to repair facial defect as well as other flap donor sites, but occipital skin flap was only used to cover posterior auricle area. After 2-3 years follow-up, well-healed skin flaps with good color, elasticity and sensation were observed in all 16 patients. It is concluded that this method is effective and practical.

  5. Recognition of Facial Expressions using Local Binary Patterns of Important Facial Parts

    Ramchand Hablani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial Expression Recognition is one of the exciting and challenging field; it has important applications in many areas such as data driven animation, human computer interaction and robotics. Extracting effective features from the human face is an important step for successful facial expression recognition. In this paper we have evaluated Local Binary Patterns of some important parts of human face, for person independent as well as person dependent facial expression recognition. Extensive experiments on JAFFE database are conducted. The experiment results show that person dependent method is highly accurate and outperform many existing methods.

  6. Facial bone scanning by emission tomography

    A single-photon emission tomographic system was used to study the normal anatomy of the facial bones and the usefulness of emission computed tomography in evaluating diseases of the bones of the face. The examination was performed following routine bone scintigraphy and took an additional 20 to 30 min. The anatomy of the facial bones was well defined, with clear separation of deep and superficial structuress. Early experience with tumor, infection, bone grafts, and postirradiation osteonecrosis indicates that useful added diagnostic information can be obtained by this method

  7. Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images

    J. Pavlovicova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

  8. An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults

    Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic

  9. Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.

    Joseph B

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

  10. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695... facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that is... made of materials such as stainless steel, tantalum, titanium, cobalt-chromium based...