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Sample records for facial width-to-height ratio

  1. Within-person variability in men's facial width-to-height ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S

    2016-01-01

    Background. In recent years, researchers have investigated the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) and a variety of threat and dominance behaviours. The majority of methods involved measuring FWHR from 2D photographs of faces. However, individuals can vary dramatically in their appearance across images, which poses an obvious problem for reliable FWHR measurement. Methods. I compared the effect sizes due to the differences between images taken with unconstrained camera parameters (Studies 1 and 2) or varied facial expressions (Study 3) to the effect size due to identity, i.e., the differences between people. In Study 1, images of Hollywood actors were collected from film screenshots, providing the least amount of experimental control. In Study 2, controlled photographs, which only varied in focal length and distance to camera, were analysed. In Study 3, images of different facial expressions, taken in controlled conditions, were measured. Results. Analyses revealed that simply varying the focal length and distance between the camera and face had a relatively small effect on FWHR, and therefore may prove less of a problem if uncontrolled in study designs. In contrast, when all camera parameters (including the camera itself) are allowed to vary, the effect size due to identity was greater than the effect of image selection, but the ranking of the identities was significantly altered by the particular image used. Finally, I found significant changes to FWHR when people posed with four of seven emotional expressions in comparison with neutral, and the effect size due to expression was larger than differences due to identity. Discussion. The results of these three studies demonstrate that even when head pose is limited to forward facing, changes to the camera parameters and a person's facial expression have sizable effects on FWHR measurement. Therefore, analysing images that fail to constrain some of these variables can lead to noisy and unreliable results, but also relationships caused by previously unconsidered confounds. PMID:26989634

  2. Within-person variability in men’s facial width-to-height ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. In recent years, researchers have investigated the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) and a variety of threat and dominance behaviours. The majority of methods involved measuring FWHR from 2D photographs of faces. However, individuals can vary dramatically in their appearance across images, which poses an obvious problem for reliable FWHR measurement. Methods. I compared the effect sizes due to the differences between images taken with unconstrained camera parameters (Studies 1 and 2) or varied facial expressions (Study 3) to the effect size due to identity, i.e., the differences between people. In Study 1, images of Hollywood actors were collected from film screenshots, providing the least amount of experimental control. In Study 2, controlled photographs, which only varied in focal length and distance to camera, were analysed. In Study 3, images of different facial expressions, taken in controlled conditions, were measured. Results. Analyses revealed that simply varying the focal length and distance between the camera and face had a relatively small effect on FWHR, and therefore may prove less of a problem if uncontrolled in study designs. In contrast, when all camera parameters (including the camera itself) are allowed to vary, the effect size due to identity was greater than the effect of image selection, but the ranking of the identities was significantly altered by the particular image used. Finally, I found significant changes to FWHR when people posed with four of seven emotional expressions in comparison with neutral, and the effect size due to expression was larger than differences due to identity. Discussion. The results of these three studies demonstrate that even when head pose is limited to forward facing, changes to the camera parameters and a person’s facial expression have sizable effects on FWHR measurement. Therefore, analysing images that fail to constrain some of these variables can lead to noisy and unreliable results, but also relationships caused by previously unconsidered confounds. PMID:26989634

  3. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies as a Link between Men’s Facial Width-to-Height Ratio and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Haselhuhn; Wong, Elaine M.; Ormiston, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been identified as a reliable predictor of men’s behavior, with researchers focusing on evolutionary selection pressures as the underlying mechanism explaining these relationships. In this paper, we complement this approach and examine the extent to which social processes also determine the extent to which men’s fWHR serves as a behavioral cue. Specifically, we propose that observers’ treatment of target men based on the targets’ fWHR subsequently a...

  4. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Rashed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  5. Detection of Propensity for Aggression based on Facial Structure Irrespective of Face Race

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Lindsey A.; MONDLOCH, CATHERINE J.; McCormick, Cheryl M; Carr, Justin M.; MA, RUQIAN; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The human face provides a wealth of information pertaining to the internal state and life-stage history of an individual. Facial width-to-height ratio is a size-independent sexually dimorphic trait, and estimates of aggression made by untrained adults judging own-race faces were positively associated with both facial width-to-height ratio and actual aggressive behavior. Given the significant adaptive value of accurately detecting aggressiveness based on facial appearance, we hypothesized that...

  6. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 1.56 (Age range, 1825). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 0.19, 1.57 0.25 and 1.54 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; Pdifference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 0.97 and 1.64 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 0.95 and 1.70 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655

  7. The golden ratio in facial symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopakis, E P; Vlastos, I M; Picavet, V A; Nolst Trenite, G; Thomas, R; Cingi, C; Hellings, P W

    2013-03-01

    Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on specific examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that ?-value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics. PMID:23441307

  8. New Golden Ratios for Facial Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the faces vertical distance between the eyes and th...

  9. Facial masculinity: how the choice of measurement method enables to detect its influence on behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Pages, Santiago; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Claudia; Turiegano, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has explored the relationship between facial masculinity, human male behaviour and males' perceived features (i.e. attractiveness). The methods of measurement of facial masculinity employed in the literature are quite diverse. In the present paper, we use several methods of measuring facial masculinity to study the effect of this feature on risk attitudes and trustworthiness. We employ two strategic interactions to measure these two traits, a first-price auction and a trust game. We find that facial width-to-height ratio is the best predictor of trustworthiness, and that measures of masculinity which use Geometric Morphometrics are the best suited to link masculinity and bidding behaviour. However, we observe that the link between masculinity and bidding in the first-price auction might be driven by competitiveness and not by risk aversion only. Finally, we test the relationship between facial measures of masculinity and perceived masculinity. As a conclusion, we suggest that researchers in the field should measure masculinity using one of these methods in order to obtain comparable results. We also encourage researchers to revise the existing literature on this topic following these measurement methods. PMID:25389770

  10. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject’s facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  11. Facial Ringworm (Tinea Faciale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter antifungal cream, see your doctor for an evaluation. Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe To confirm the diagnosis of facial ringworm, your physician might scrape some surface skin materials (scales) onto a glass slide and examine ...

  12. Facial Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the presence of normal facial function is difficult. Case: A 19-year-old girl with all above symptoms in the right side except loss of taste is diagnosed having facial schwannoma with full examination, audiometric, and radiological tests. She underwent surgery. In follow-up facial function were mostly restored. Conclusion: The need for careful assessment of patients with Bell's palsy cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the negative results if still there is any suspicoin, total facial nerve exploration is necessary.

  13. Facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelstad, Matthew R; Gutowski, Karol A

    2006-06-01

    Nonsurgical facial rejuvenation is often used as an alternative to more invasive procedures. Topical agents improve cell maturation and cell turnover, chemical peels and microdermabrasion improve poorly textured skin and pigment anomalies. Surgical facial rejuvenation provides dramatic changes but requires more recovery time. PMID:16721114

  14. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For example, nerve diseases like trigeminal neuralgia or Bell's palsy sometimes cause facial pain, spasms and trouble with ...

  15. Facial coloration tracks changes in women's estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wincenciak, Joanna; Kandrik, Michal; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Red facial coloration is an important social cue in many primate species, including humans. In such species, the vasodilatory effects of estradiol may cause red facial coloration to change systematically during females' ovarian cycle. Although increased red facial coloration during estrus has been observed in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), evidence linking primate facial color changes directly to changes in measured estradiol is lacking. Addressing this issue, we used a longitudinal design to demonstrate that red facial coloration tracks within-subject changes in women's estradiol, but not within-subject changes in women's progesterone or estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. Moreover, the relationship between estradiol and facial redness was observed in two independent samples of women (N = 50 and N = 65). Our results suggest that changes in facial coloration may provide cues of women's fertility and present the first evidence for a direct link between estradiol and female facial redness in a primate species. PMID:25796069

  16. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  17. Facial blindsight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solc, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Batrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous peoples categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  18. Facial blindsight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Solc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous peoples categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex.

  19. Facial blindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solc, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Batrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people's categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  20. Facial drooping (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facial drooping can be caused by a disorder such as Bell's palsy. This disorder is a mononeuropathy (involvement of a single nerve) that damages the seventh cranial (facial) nerve. The facial nerve controls movement of the muscles of ...

  1. Facial Orf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions.

  2. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  3. Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, U; Thunberg, M; Elmehed, K

    2000-01-01

    Studies reveal that when people are exposed to emotional facial expressions, they spontaneously react with distinct facial electromyographic (EMG) reactions in emotion-relevant facial muscles. These reactions reflect, in part, a tendency to mimic the facial stimuli. We investigated whether corresponding facial reactions can be elicited when people are unconsciously exposed to happy and angry facial expressions. Through use of the backward-masking technique, the subjects were prevented from consciously perceiving 30-ms exposures of happy, neutral, and angry target faces, which immediately were followed and masked by neutral faces. Despite the fact that exposure to happy and angry faces was unconscious, the subjects reacted with distinct facial muscle reactions that corresponded to the happy and angry stimulus faces. Our results show that both positive and negative emotional reactions can be unconsciously evoked, and particularly that important aspects of emotional face-to-face communication can occur on an unconscious level. PMID:11228851

  4. Facial nerve pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports MR imaging and CT used in 13 cases of facial neuromas and eight simulating lesions. On MR imaging, facial neuromas has long T1 and long T2 characteristics. In a 4-year-old girl with congenital facial palsy, CT and MR imaging demonstrated a facial neuroma involving the entire intratemporal segment of the facial nerve, including massive involvement of the greater superficial petrosal nerve extending into the vidian canal. A primary chemodectoma of the facial nerve (enhanced after administration of gadolinium) was identical to the facial neuroma on CT scans and MR images. Perineural metastatic lesions could not be differentiated from facial neuromas. Isolated granulomas of the facial nerve had CT findings similar to those of a facial neuroma

  5. Modelling human facial UV exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are strong links between exposure to UV radiation and both adverse health outcomes (eg. skin cancer, cataracts) and protective health outcomes (e.g. the production of vitamin D). The aim of our research is to develop methods of estimating cumulative UV exposure in a manner suitable for risk-factor epidemiology. We have developed a flexible computer model that determines UV exposure over the human facial region (utilising exposure ratios as determined by polysuphone dosimeters) for various solar zenith angles (SZA). By adjusting latitude and time of year, researchers can estimate cumulative facial UV exposure for particular geographical locations and time periods. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  6. Facial Orf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 58-60

  7. Surgical-allogeneic facial reconstruction: facial transplants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA, which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life.

  8. Facial Nerve Neuroma Management

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Peter C.; Osguthorpe, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The second patient underwent facial neuroma resection with cable graft reconstruction, but the permanent sections were positive. The last patient had a massive neuroma in which grafting versus other f...

  9. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

  10. Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

    2009-10-01

    Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

  11. Anlise Facial Subjetiva Subjective Facial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slvia Augusta Braga Reis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: a anlise facial tem sido um recurso diagnstico valorizado desde os primrdios da Ortodontia. Vrios autores tentaram estabelecer referncias de normalidade na direo das quais os pacientes ortodnticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupao da Ortodontia est em concordncia com a expectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivao para o tratamento ortodntico a melhora esttica. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente fundamental que o ortodontista conhea os parmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliao esttica. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realizao da Anlise Facial Subjetiva, esttica e morfolgica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicao prtica da anlise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivduos (50 de cada gnero classificando-os como esteticamente desagradveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3, esteticamente aceitveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6 e esteticamente agradveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9. RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitveis, 8% desagradveis e 3% agradveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsvel pela esttica desagradvel, seguida pelo mento ("queixo" em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSO: foi possvel observar, portanto, que a Anlise Facial Subjetiva mais um instrumento diagnstico, que tem sua importncia aumentada por ser o parmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vo avaliar os resultados do tratamento.INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The main motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9, acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6 or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3. Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

  12. Anlise Facial Subjetiva / Subjective Facial Analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Slvia Augusta Braga, Reis; Jorge, Abro; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho; Cristiane Aparecida de Assis, Claro.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: a anlise facial tem sido um recurso diagnstico valorizado desde os primrdios da Ortodontia. Vrios autores tentaram estabelecer referncias de normalidade na direo das quais os pacientes ortodnticos deveriam ser tratados. Essa preocupao da Ortodontia est em concordncia com a ex [...] pectativa do paciente, cuja principal motivao para o tratamento ortodntico a melhora esttica. Para que os objetivos do profissional possam solucionar a queixa do paciente fundamental que o ortodontista conhea os parmetros utilizados pela sociedade na avaliao esttica. Sugerimos, por meio desse trabalho, uma nomenclatura que permita a realizao da Anlise Facial Subjetiva, esttica e morfolgica. OBJETIVO: avaliar a aplicao prtica da anlise. METODOLOGIA: solicitou-se a um grupo heterogneo de avaliadores (14 ortodontistas, 12 leigos e 7 artistas) que dessem notas ao perfil facial de 100 indivduos (50 de cada gnero) classificando-os como esteticamente desagradveis (notas 1, 2 ou 3), esteticamente aceitveis (notas 4, 5 ou 6) e esteticamente agradveis (notas 7, 8 ou 9). RESULTADOS: 89% dos perfis foram esteticamente aceitveis, 8% desagradveis e 3% agradveis. Em 38,35% das justificativas, o nariz foi a estrutura responsvel pela esttica desagradvel, seguida pelo mento ("queixo") em 18,9% dos relatos. CONCLUSO: foi possvel observar, portanto, que a Anlise Facial Subjetiva mais um instrumento diagnstico, que tem sua importncia aumentada por ser o parmetro pelo qual o paciente e as pessoas com as quais ele convive vo avaliar os resultados do tratamento. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: facial analysis has been an important diagnostic method since the beginning of Orthodontics. Many authors have tried to define references of beauty to be reached with orthodontic treatment. This preoccupation is in accordance with patient expectation with orthodontic treatment. The mai [...] n motivation for them is esthetic improvement. To solve it successfully orthodontists must know witch parameters the population use for esthetic evaluation. With suggest, through this paper, the Subjective Facial Analysis, esthetic and morphologic. AIM: to evaluate the application of the analysis proposed. METHODS: it was asked a heterogeneous group (14 orthodontists, 12 laymen, 7 artists) to classify 100 photographs of facial profile as esthetically pleasant (grades 7, 8 or 9), acceptable (grades 4, 5 or 6) or unpleasant (grades 1, 2 or 3). Eigthy nine percent of the sample was esthetically acceptable, 8% esthetically unpleasant and 3% esthetically pleasant. The nose and the chin were the structures of the facial profile more frequently related by appraisers (38.35% and 18.9% respectively) as responsible for the unpleasant esthetic appearance. CONCLUSION: subjective Facial Analysis is a diagnostic tool, important because is the parameter used by patients and relatives to evaluate the results of orthodontic treatment.

  13. Management of facial trauma in children: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Das U; Nagarathna C; Viswanath D; Keerthi R; Gadicherla P

    2006-01-01

    Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender ...

  14. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  15. Holistic facial expression classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  16. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  17. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete; Bjrnland, Tore; Jskeinen, Satu K.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  18. 3D facial landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Harder, Stine; Rosengren, Anders; Moeller, Christian; Werge, Thomas; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Hansen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manual annotation of landmarks is a known source of variance, which exist in all fields of medical imaging, influencing the accuracy and interpretation of the results. However, the variability of human facial landmarks is only sparsely addressed in the current literature as opposed to e.g. the research fields of orthodontics and cephalometrics. We present a full facial 3D annotation procedure and a sparse set of manually annotated landmarks, in effort to reduce operator time and mini...

  19. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Pennington, A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Plastic Surgey; Philips, R. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of General Pediatrics

    2006-11-15

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  20. Intraoperative continuous monitoring of facial motor evoked potentials in acoustic neuroma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimura, Hiroshi; Sugata, Sei; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Yunoue, Shunji; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Arita, Kazunori

    2014-10-01

    The preservation of facial nerve function is one of the primary objectives in acoustic neuroma surgery. We detail our method of continuous intraoperative facial motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring and present criteria for the preservation of facial nerve function to avoid postoperative facial nerve palsy. Our study population was comprised of 15 patients who did not (group 1), and 20 who did (group 2) undergo facial MEP monitoring during surgery to remove acoustic neuromas. In group 2, we continuously stimulated the facial motor cortex at 5- or 10-s intervals throughout surgery. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the contralateral orbicularis oculi- and orbicularis oris muscles. Optimal anode and cathode placement was at the facial motor cortex and the vertex, respectively. Postoperative facial palsy occurred in 8 of the 15 group 1 patients; in 2 it improved to grade II at 6 months after the operation. Of the 20 group 2 patients, 7 suffered postoperative facial palsy. At 6 months after the operation, their facial nerve function was normal. At the end of the operation, the ratio of the amplitude of the supramaximal EMG to the amplitude at the dural opening was 39.6 % in patients with- and 94.3 % in patients without transient postoperative facial palsy. Continuous facial MEP monitoring not only alerts to surgical invasion of the facial nerves but also helps to predict postoperative facial nerve function. To preserve a minimum amplitude ratio of 50 %, even transient postoperative facial palsy must be avoided. MEP monitoring is an additional useful modality for facial nerve monitoring during acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:25015389

  1. Facial transplantation surgery introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Seok-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea. PMID:26028914

  2. Facial parity edge colouring

    OpenAIRE

    Czap, Jlius; Jendrol', Stanislav; Kardo, Frantiek

    2011-01-01

    A facial parity edge colouring of a connected bridgeless plane graph is an edge colouring in which no two face-adjacent edges (consecutive edges of a facial walk of some face) receive the same colour, in addition, for each face ? and each colour c, either no edge or an odd number of edges incident with ? is coloured with c. From Vizing's theorem it follows that every 3-connected plane graph has a such colouring with at most ?* + 1 colours, where ?* is the size of the largest face. In this pap...

  3. Facial parity edge colouring

    OpenAIRE

    Kardo, Frantiek; Jendrol', Stanislav; Czap, Jlius

    2015-01-01

    A facial parity edge colouring of a connected bridgeless plane graph is an edge colouring in which no two face-adjacent edges (consecutive edges of a facial walk of some face) receive the same colour, in addition, for each face $alpha$ and each colour $c$, either no edge or an odd number of edges incident with $alpha$ is coloured with $c$. From Vizing's theorem it follows that every 3-connected plane graph has a such colouring with at most $Delta^ast + 1$ colours, where $Delta^ast$ is the siz...

  4. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  5. Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

  6. Paralisia facial bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.

  7. A Smartphone-Based Automatic Diagnosis System for Facial Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seok Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve palsy induces a weakness or loss of facial expression through damage of the facial nerve. A quantitative and reliable assessment system for facial nerve palsy is required for both patients and clinicians. In this study, we propose a rapid and portable smartphone-based automatic diagnosis system that discriminates facial nerve palsy from normal subjects. Facial landmarks are localized and tracked by an incremental parallel cascade of the linear regression method. An asymmetry index is computed using the displacement ratio between the left and right side of the forehead and mouth regions during three motions: resting, raising eye-brow and smiling. To classify facial nerve palsy, we used Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Leave-one-out Cross Validation (LOOCV with 36 subjects. The classification accuracy rate was 88.9%.

  8. A Smartphone-Based Automatic Diagnosis System for Facial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Kim, So Young; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy induces a weakness or loss of facial expression through damage of the facial nerve. A quantitative and reliable assessment system for facial nerve palsy is required for both patients and clinicians. In this study, we propose a rapid and portable smartphone-based automatic diagnosis system that discriminates facial nerve palsy from normal subjects. Facial landmarks are localized and tracked by an incremental parallel cascade of the linear regression method. An asymmetry index is computed using the displacement ratio between the left and right side of the forehead and mouth regions during three motions: resting, raising eye-brow and smiling. To classify facial nerve palsy, we used Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Leave-one-out Cross Validation (LOOCV) with 36 subjects. The classification accuracy rate was 88.9%. PMID:26506352

  9. Relaciones de Forma y Proporcin del Incisivo Central Maxilar con Medidas Faciales, Lnea Mediana Dentaria y Facial en Adultos / Relationships between Shape and Proportion of the Maxillary Central Incisor with Facial Measurements, Dental and Facial Midline in Adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benjamn, Weber; Ramn, Fuentes; Nerilda, Garca; Mario, Cantn.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El propsito de este estudio fue relacionar la forma y proporcin del incisivo central maxilar (ICM) derecho con la forma facial y ubicacin de las lneas medianas dentarias y facial. Se realiz un estudio de corte transversal sobre una muestra por conveniencia constituida por 118 pacientes de ambos [...] sexos, con una edad promedio de 25,097,71 aos, escogidos segn criterios de inclusin. En cada caso, fueron medidos el largo y ancho del ICM derecho, proporcin dentaria resultante entre estas medidas, lneas medianas dentarias en relacin a la lnea mediana facial. Estas medidas se correlacionaron con las medidas faciales para forma y clase facial. Los resultados revelaron que la forma dentaria ms frecuente encontrada fue la ovoide; las medidas promedio de largo y ancho para el ICM fueron de 10,280,91 mm y 8,690,57 mm, respectivamente. En mujeres fue 9,98 mm y 8,55 mm, y en hombres de 10,62 mm y 8,86 mm. La proporcin dentaria fue de un 85%. Se encontraron coincidencias de las lneas medianas dentarias maxilar, mandibular y facial slo en un 18% de los casos, y los tipos de contornos gingivales ms frecuentes fueron de tipo esttico (97%). No hubo relacin entre medidas dentarias y faciales para las distintas clases faciales (anlisis de varianza, y pruebas de comparaciones mltiples de Scheffe), sin embargo, encontramos que en todas las clases faciales de ambos sexos, predomin el tipo mesofacial y la clase I facial (57%). No se puede establecer una correlacin entre forma dentaria y forma facial de manera significativa, por lo que otros parmetros tambin deben ser tomados en cuenta. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to relate the shape and proportion of the right maxillary central incisor with facial shape and location of dental and facial median lines. Cross-sectional study on a convenience sample consisting of 118 patients of both sexes was performed, with an average age of 25.09 [...] 7.71 years, selected according to inclusion criteria. In each case, were measured the length and width of right maxillary central incisor, tooth ratio resulting of these measures and medium tooth lines in relation to the midline. These measures were correlated with measures of facial shape and facial class. The results revealed that the most common tooth shape found was ovoid; average length and width for the maxillary central incisor were 10.280.91 mm and 8.690.57 mm, respectively; of 9.98 mm and 8.55 mm in women, and 10.62 mm and 8.86 mm in men. The dental proportion was 85%. Matches between the median lines of maxillary teeth, jaw and face were only found in 18% of cases, and the most common types of gingival contours were aesthetic (97%). There was no relationship between dental and facial for different facial types (analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests of Scheffe) measures, however, we found that all facial classes in both sexes, prevailed mesofacial and class I facial types (57%). Unable to establish a correlation between tooth shape and facial shape significantly, so other parameters should also be taken into account.

  10. Emotional mimicry signals pain empathy as evidenced by facial electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Yu-Zheng; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Facial mimicry has been suggested to be a behavioral index for emotional empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the link between facial muscle activity and empathy for pain by facial electromyographic (EMG) recording while observers watched videos depicting real-life painful events. Three types of visual stimulus were used: an intact painful scene and arm-only (needle injection) and face only (painful expression) scenes. Enhanced EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles was found when observers viewed others in pain, supporting a unique pain expression that is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. In the intact video stimulus condition, CS activity was correlated positively with the empathic concern score and ZM activity, suggesting facial mimicry mediated empathy for pain. Cluster analysis of facial EMG responses revealed markedly different patterns among stimulus types, including response category, ratio, and temporal dynamics, indicating greater ecological validity of the intact scene in eliciting pain empathy as compared with partial scenes. This study is the first to quantitatively describe pain empathy in terms of facial EMG data. It may provide important evidence for facial mimicry as a behavioral indicator of pain empathy. PMID:26647740

  11. Emotional mimicry signals pain empathy as evidenced by facial electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Yu-Zheng; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Facial mimicry has been suggested to be a behavioral index for emotional empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the link between facial muscle activity and empathy for pain by facial electromyographic (EMG) recording while observers watched videos depicting real-life painful events. Three types of visual stimulus were used: an intact painful scene and arm-only (needle injection) and face only (painful expression) scenes. Enhanced EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles was found when observers viewed others in pain, supporting a unique pain expression that is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. In the intact video stimulus condition, CS activity was correlated positively with the empathic concern score and ZM activity, suggesting facial mimicry mediated empathy for pain. Cluster analysis of facial EMG responses revealed markedly different patterns among stimulus types, including response category, ratio, and temporal dynamics, indicating greater ecological validity of the intact scene in eliciting pain empathy as compared with partial scenes. This study is the first to quantitatively describe pain empathy in terms of facial EMG data. It may provide important evidence for facial mimicry as a behavioral indicator of pain empathy. PMID:26647740

  12. Anlisis Facial, Dentario y Radiogrfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Huentequeo-Molina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La esttica y armona facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepcin y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estticos por medio de cirugas para obtener una valoracin positiva de s mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relacin entre la percepcin, autoestima y deseo de cambio esttico; y puntos antropomtricos, cefalomtricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 aos de edad, en las cuales se realiz una encuesta sobre la autoestima, autopercepcin de normalidad facial, deseo de cambio esttico y cambio de autoestima posterior a una ciruga, stas se asociaron a travs de un anlisis de chi2, regresin logstica de multivariado y ANOVA, con las distancias entre puntoantropomtricos objetivos basados en estudios de Farkas y entre puntos cefalomtricos basados en Epker y Fish; y entre ellas a travs de un anlisis. La normalidad facial se ve afectada principalmente por clases caninas derecha (p=0,02 e izquierda (p=0,015 y molares derecha (p=0,015 e izquierda (p=0,04; y adems el apiamiento dentario (p=0,012. Mientras el aumento en la distancia de exocantios (p=0,04, bases alares (p=0,03, proporcin glabela subnasal y subnasal mentn (p=0,02 se asocian a una percepcin de anormalidad. La autoestima puede variar de forma positiva posterior a un cambio esttico, a travs de ciruga o tratamiento de ortodoncia. Los parmetros dentomaxilares y craneofaciales son determinantes en la percepcin de normalidad esttica de estas mujeres, siendo los relacionados con nariz y altura facial los de mayor influencia en este estudio. Son necesarios futuros estudios para evaluar autoestima, autopercepcin de normalidad facial y proporciones estticas.Aesthetics and facial harmony are directly related to self-esteem and perception individuals have of themselves. There is often a desire to make overall aesthetic changes through surgery in order to get a positive assessment of oneself. The aim of this study was to research the relationship between perception, self-esteem and desire for change; and points aesthetic anthropometric and cephalometric points, as well as malocclusions in a group of women. Twenty nine (29Chilean women between 20 and 25 years of age were chosen, taking part in a survey on self-esteem, self-perception of facial normalcy, the desire for aesthetic change, and changes of self-esteem following surgery. These were subsequently associated through Chi2 analysis, logistic multi variant regression and ANOVA, with distances between objective anthropometric marks based on Farkas research, and between cephalometric points based in Epker and Fish study. Facial normalcy seems mainly affected by right canine class (p=0.02, and left (p=0.015; right molar class (p=0.015 and left (p=0.04, as well as dental crowding (p=0.012. While greater exocanthion distance (p=0.04, alar base (p=0.03, subnasal glabella and subnasal menton ratios (p=0.02, are related to a perception of abnormality. Self esteem perception can vary in positive ways following an aesthetic change through surgery or orthodontic treatment. Dental, maxillary and craniofacial parameters are determinants of the aesthetic normalcy perception of these women, with nose and facial height having the most influence in this study. Further research is necessary to evaluate self- esteem and self perception of facial normalcy, as well as aesthetic ratios.

  13. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  14. Facial plastic surgery database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, M; Conrad, K

    1994-02-01

    Every facial plastic surgeon accumulates a vast library of professional slides and photographs that document his work. Manual cataloguing of the clinical and operative documentation is time consuming and provides limited analysis capabilities. The facial plastic surgery database is a state-of-the-art computer programme that allows the surgeon to sort and locate slides and photographs. Designed for the computer novice, it utilises a simple coding system to permit rapid data input. The codes can be tailored to allow for new procedures or alternative practice styles. There are sophisticated searching routines to quickly find slides and photographs based on any combination of patients and operative criteria. The database also includes an online colour atlas and workspace for recording of presentations. There are automated routines to analyse patients' clinical features, operative trends, and surgical results. Ultimately, examination of this data can be used to facilitate peer review, research, and self-education. PMID:8170012

  15. Management of facial trauma in children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Children are uniquely susceptible to cranio facial trauma because of their greater cranial mass to body ratio. Below the age of 5, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures in relation to the total is very low ranging from 0.6-1.2%. Maxillo-facial injuries may be quite dramatic causing parents to panic and the child to cry uncontrollably with blood, tooth and soft tissue debris in the mouth. The facial disfigurement caused by trauma can have a deep psychological impact on the tender minds of young children and their parents. This case report documents the trauma and follow up care of a 4-year-old patient with maxillofacial injuries.

  16. Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesus Claudio, Gabana-Silveira; Laura Davison, Mangilli; Fernanda C., Sassi; Arnaldo Feitosa, Braga; Claudia Regina Furquim, Andrade.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample compris [...] ed four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment.

  17. Facial animation of game characters

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesks 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  18. Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Arumugam; Dr. S. Purushothaman

    2011-01-01

    Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is u...

  19. Emotion recognition using facial images

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya S; Siva sankari.S; Narasimhan K

    2013-01-01

    Facial emotion is vital path for human contact and also used in numerous real applications. Facial expression identification has in recent times become a hopeful investigate area.Their applications include human-computer interface, human emotion examination robot control, driver state surveillance and medical fields. This paper aims to perform emotion classification scheme to identify six dissimilar facial emotions, such as anger, fear, sad, happy, disgust and surprise by using JAFFE database...

  20. Skin color and facial prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, Robert Piet van,

    1982-01-01

    In this investigation the width of the range of facial skin for the population in the north of the Netherlands is determined (P< 0.05). Insight has been obtained into variations in facial skin color. It has been shown that photo-biologic factors influence the facial skin to such amount, that it determines the width of the range of the color mixing system as well. Zie: Summary and conclusions

  1. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

  2. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  3. Facial cancer: radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and six facial skin cancer treated by radiation therapy in 97 patients were studied. Recurrence rate was 9.4% for all tumors; 1.2% for basal cell carcinoma and 30.0% for squamous cell tumor. Excluding four severe cases of squamous cell carcinoma, the cure and cosmetic results were very good to excellent. Low daily doses and increased number of applications allowed better cosmetic results. Complications of radiation therapy in five cases (4.7%) were not significant. Radiation therapy should be considered for treatment of selected sites of the face as eyelids, nose and ears mainly if better cosmetic results are desired. (author)

  4. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level of targeting...... the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial....

  5. The Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    Develops an interpersonal perception inventory which demonstrates that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. Analysis of data establishes validity for the Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory as well as reliability and consistency. Implications are

  6. Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Pickin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

  7. Management of Midline Facial Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sobhan; Sabhlok, Samrat; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Khatri, Isha

    2015-12-01

    Median or midline facial clefts are rare anomalies of developmental origin, etiology of whose occurrence is still unknown precisely. The most basic presentation of midline facial clefts is in the form of a Median cleft lip which is defined as any congenital vertical cleft through the centre of the upper lip. First described by Bechard in 1823, it is the most common amongst all atypical clefts reported. The incidence is about 1:10,00,000 births. This may occur as a sporadic event or as a part of an inherited sequence of anomalies. It arises embryologically from incomplete fusion of the medial nasal prominences. The authors present a series of eight cases with varying degrees of midline facial clefts. This review article aims to give a broad idea on the various classifications used for further understanding of midline facial clefts and a brief idea about the various surgical management techniques used in the repair of these facial clefts. PMID:26604459

  8. Visual facial grasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Alonso R; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2004-10-01

    Some patients with degenerative neurological diseases have a release of the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), as detected by passive head movement during visual fixation on a moving target ("doll's eyes"maneuver). However, a positive doll's eyes sign might be induced by other defects and the purpose of this article is to describe a new ocular sign of cortical dysfunction, the visual facial grasp. We observed three patients, one with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), another with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a third with cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) all of whom appeared to demonstrate a release of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) with passive head movements. Whereas the patient with PSP, who was unable to inhibit the VOR regardless of the visual target used probably had a true release of the VOR, the patients with AD and CBD were able to inhibit this reflex when the visual target was the examiner's moving face. These two patients also exhibited spontaneous preference for visual fixation on the examiner's face and improvement in smooth pursuit when the examiner's face was the visual target. This clinical observation suggests that the deficits in these two patients with AD and CBD were related to the emergence of a primitive stimulus-bound behavior, the visual facial grasp. PMID:15788274

  9. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its blood supply or production of neurotoxic substances secreted from either the cholesteatoma matrix or bacteria enclosed in the tumor. AIM: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features and treatment of the facial palsy due cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study of 10 cases of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma selected through a survey of 206 decompressions of the facial nerve due various aetiologies realized in the last 10 years in UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTS: The incidence of facial paralysis due cholesteatoma in this study was 4,85%, with female predominance (60%. The average age of the patients was 39 years. The duration and severity of the facial palsy associated with the extension of lesion were important for the functional recovery of the facial nerve. CONCLUSION: Early surgical approach is necessary in these cases to improve the nerve function more adequately. When disruption or intense fibrous replacement occurs in the facial nerve, nerve grafting (greater auricular/sural nerves and/or hypoglossal facial anastomosis may be suggested.

  10. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  11. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  12. The Facial Profile in the Context of Facial Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, Werner J; Vent, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Beauty has been an intriguing issue since the evolving of a culture in mankind. Even the Neanderthals are believed to have applied makeover to enhance facial structures and thus underline beauty. The determinants of beauty and aesthetics have been defined by artists and scientists alike. This article will give an overview of the evolvement of a beauty concept and the significance of the facial profile. It aims at sharpening the senses of the facial plastic surgeon for analyzing the patient's face, consulting the patient on feasible options, planning, and conducting surgery in the most individualized way. PMID:26579858

  13. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  14. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  15. Facial nerve neuromas: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of facial nerve neuroma were evaluated by computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extension of the tumor in the petrous bone or the parotid gland was well defined by MRI in all cases. CT scan was useful to demonstrate bone erosions and the relation of the tumor to inner ear structures. In cases of progressive facial palsy, CT and MRI should be combined to detect a facial neuroma and to plan the surgical approach for tumor removal and nerve grafting. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patients paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantees unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed andevaluated.Key WordsArtificial Muscles, facial prosthetics, stroke rehabilitation,facial paralysis, computer vision, automated facialrecognition.

  17. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Gupta; Francine Mends; Mari Hagiwara; Girish Fatterpekar; Roehm, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. U...

  18. Rehabilitation Strategies for Facial Nerve Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Christine B

    2004-01-01

    Many treatment techniques, including exercise, electrical stimulation, biofeedback, and neuromuscular retraining, have been described for the treatment of patients with facial paresis. The degree of nerve injury determines the recovery of the facial muscles. Patients with a Sunderland third-degree injury benefit most from therapy to maximize facial nerve function. Following a facial nerve palsy, many patients present with facial muscle weakness in addition to aberrant synkinetic movements. Th...

  19. Rapid facial mimicry in orangutan play

    OpenAIRE

    Davila Ross, Marina; Menzler, Susanne; Zimmermann, Elke

    2007-01-01

    Emotional contagion enables individuals to experience emotions of others. This important empathic phenomenon is closely linked to facial mimicry, where facial displays evoke the same facial expressions in social partners. In humans, facial mimicry can be voluntary or involuntary, whereby its latter mode can be processed as rapid as within or at 1?s. Thus far, studies have not provided evidence of rapid involuntary facial mimicry in animals.

  20. Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathi, C. P.; T. Santhanam; M.Mahadevi

    2013-01-01

    The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparamet...

  1. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ramrez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las tcnicas subperisticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta va para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refin la tcnica y Ramrez describi un mtodo ms seguro y eficaz de lifting subperistico, demostrando que la tcnica subperistica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introduccin del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Ciruga Esttica. Hoy la diseccin subperistica asistida endocpicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposicin de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto seo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mnima lesin de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la ltima dcada, se conoce como "Ritidectoma en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armnico de curva convexa y a continuacin curva cncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ngulo oblicuo, presenta una distribucin caracterstica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectnico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen ms detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recproco y multicurvilneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posicin oblicua y as poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posicin, la cara joven presenta una convexidad caracterstica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando as el primer arco (superior. Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porcin inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior. Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayora de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscpico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los prpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ngulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. Tambin las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz tambin en ritidectomas secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos as como en las desproporciones esquelticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras seas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas segn convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplsticos. Los procedimientos endoscpicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstruccin del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil.Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal lifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction of the sagging cheek structures. This

  2. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" / "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O. M., Ramrez; A., Novo Torres; Ch. R., Volpe.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las tcnicas subperisticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta va para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refin la tcnica y Ramrez describi un mtodo ms seguro y eficaz d [...] e lifting subperistico, demostrando que la tcnica subperistica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introduccin del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Ciruga Esttica. Hoy la diseccin subperistica asistida endocpicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposicin de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto seo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mnima lesin de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la ltima dcada, se conoce como "Ritidectoma en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armnico de curva convexa y a continuacin curva cncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ngulo oblicuo, presenta una distribucin caracterstica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectnico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen ms detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recproco y multicurvilneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posicin oblicua y as poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posicin, la cara joven presenta una convexidad caracterstica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando as el primer arco (superior). Este arco conecta con la convexidad superior del tercio medio facial que se une con la concavidad de la porcin inferior del tercio medio (arco inferior). Los paciente con un considerable envejecimiento y ptosis de las estructuras centrales faciales se pueden beneficiar en la mayora de los casos de nuestro abordaje endoscpico. Las cejas, las comisuras de los prpados, de los tejidos blandos nasoglaberlares, los surcos nasolabiales, la nariz, las mejillas, el ngulo de la boca y los "jowls" (mejillas de bulldog) se pueden tratar con eficacia mediante este abordaje. Tambin las ojeras y los hundimientos orbitarios inferiores. Es eficaz tambin en ritidectomas secundarias o terciarias que requieren rejuvenecimiento cutneo simultaneo y para cuando se precisa aumento de los tejidos blandos as como en las desproporciones esquelticas y de los tejidos blandos. Las estructuras seas expuestas pueden ser aumentadas o reducidas segn convenga. Recomendamos este abordaje cuando hay que cambiar o extirpar implantes faciales aloplsticos. Los procedimientos endoscpicos de la frente y del tercio medio facial permiten la reconstruccin del "Doble Sigma" que se asocia a un aspecto juvenil. Abstract in english Subperiosteal techniques describes by Tessier have revolutionized the treatment of the aging face advocating this approach to treat early signs of aging in young and middleage patients. Psillakis refines the technique further and Ramirez describes a safer and more effective method of subperiosteal l [...] ifting, so that this technique could be applied across the full spectrum of facial aging. The introduction of the endoscope in the treatment of facial rejuvenation ushered in a new era in Aesthetic Surgery. Today, endoscopically assisted subperiosteal undermining of the upper, middle and lower face can provide a means for repositioning the sagging facial soft tissues in addition to augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton, with a reduced preoperative facial edema, minimal injury to the facial nerve branches and improved aesthetic correction

  3. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth P.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature tracking, which usually detects and tracks prominent landmarks surrounding facial components (i.e., mouth, eyebrow, etc, captures the detailed face shape information; Second, facial actions recognition, i.e., recognize facial action units (AUs defined in FACS, try to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial expression analysis attempts to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial expression analysis attempts to recognize facial expressions that represent the human emotion states. In this proposed algorithm initially detecting eye and mouth, features of eye and mouth are extracted using Gabor filter, (Local Binary Pattern LBP and PCA is used to reduce the dimensions of the features. Finally SVM is used to classification of expression and facial action units.

  4. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  5. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zeng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in a speakers emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation settingthe Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

  6. Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Arumugam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is used to identify the persons emotional state through facial expression such as angry, disgust, happy. This can be done with different age group of people with different situation. We Used a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN for classification and Fishers Linear Discriminant (FLD, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for feature selection.

  7. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  8. Facial transplantation: A concise update

    OpenAIRE

    Infante Cosso, Pedro; Barrera Pulido, Fernando; Gmez Cia, Toms; D Sicilia Castro; Garca-Perla Garca, Alberto; Gacto Snchez, Purificacin; Hernndez Guisado, J. M.; Lagares Borrego, Araceli; Narros Gimnez, Roco; Gonzlez Padilla, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on face transplantation until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indicati...

  9. A REVIEW ON FACIAL NEURALGIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Facial neuralgias are produced by a change in neurological structure or function. This type of neuropathic pain affects the mental health as well as quality of life of patients. There are different types of neuralgias affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. These unusual pains are linked to some possible mechanisms. Various diagnostic tests are done to diagnose the proper cause of facial neuralgia and according to it the medical and surgical treatment is done to provide relief to patient.

  10. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Roisman, Glenn I.; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

    2006-01-01

    Change in a speakers emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation settingthe Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are exp...

  11. Subtotal facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence and promoting facial nerve recovery of severe idiopathic recurrent facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-hui; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Jie; Liu, Hua; Qian, Xiao-zhong; Pan, Xin-liang

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study is to document the role of subtotal facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence and promoting facial nerve recovery of severe idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. Twenty-two cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, which had over 95% degeneration of facial nerve on electroneurography, were included in the study, among which 12 accepting subtotal facial nerve decompression were involved in surgery group, and 10 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were classified into control group. The recurrence of facial palsy and facial nerve recovery was compared. The patients were followed up for 5.3 years (range 3-8 years) and 5.2 years (range 3-7 years) in surgery group and control group, respectively. Further recurrence of facial palsy occurred in none of 12 patients (0%) in surgery group in contrast to 4 of 10 cases (40%) in control group, with statistical difference (p facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further recurrence of facial palsy and promote facial nerve recovery of severe idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. PMID:24619203

  12. A Contemporary Approach to Facial Reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-01-01

    The management of acute facial nerve insult may entail medical therapy, surgical exploration, decompression, or repair depending on the etiology. When recovery is not complete, facial mimetic function lies on a spectrum ranging from flaccid paralysis to hyperkinesis resulting in facial immobility. Through systematic assessment of the face at rest and with movement, one may tailor the management to the particular pattern of dysfunction. Interventions for long-standing facial palsy include physical therapy, injectables, and surgical reanimation procedures. The goal of the management is to restore facial balance and movement. This article summarizes a contemporary approach to the management of facial nerve insults. PMID:26042960

  13. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  14. A theoretical and experimental study on meridional-facial isomerization of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, I; Ebina, H; Komori-Orisaku, K; Koide, Y

    2014-09-14

    The rationale behind the stereospecific synthesis of a facial isomer of tris(quinolin-8-olate)aluminum (Alq3) is studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict the favourable influence of an H3O(+) ion on the distribution ratio between a meridional and a thermodynamically unstable facial isomer. PMID:25033089

  15. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a static control. Overall, c...

  16. Objectifying Facial Expressivity Assessment of Parkinson's Patients: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Wu; Isabel Gonzalez; Georgios Patsis; Dongmei Jiang; Hichem Sahli; Eric Kerckhofs; Marie Vandekerckhove

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as facial masking, a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 contro...

  17. Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sumathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparameterization using Facial Action Coding System(FACS action units and the methods whichrecognizes the action units parameters using facial expression data that are extracted. Various kinds offacial expressions are present in human face which can be identified based on their geometric features,appearance features and hybrid features . The two basic concepts of extracting features are based onfacial deformation and facial motion. This article also identifies the techniques based on thecharacteristics of expressions and classifies the suitable methods that can be implemented.

  18. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Justin M.; Murphy, Kelly R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, ...

  19. Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Masuria B. L; Batra A; Kothiwala R.K; Khuller R; Singhi M.K

    1999-01-01

    A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

  20. Gamma knife surgery for facial nerve schwannomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Litré, Claude Fabien; Gourg, GP; Tamura, M.; Mdarhri, D; Touzani, A.; Roche, Ph.; Régis, J

    2007-01-01

    Radical resection of facial nerve schwannomas classically implies a high risk of severe facial palsy. Owing to the rarity of facial palsy after gamma knife surgery (GKS) of vestibular schwannomas, functional evaluation after GKS seems rational in this specific group of patients. To our knowledge, no previous similar evaluation exists in the literature.

  1. Facial Nerve Palsy In Secondary Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuria B.L

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis with right facial nerve palsy is reported. A 28 year old unmarried male presented with diffuse maculopapular rash and facial nerve palsy. He had elevated while cells and protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for VDRL and TPHA tests. Facial nerve palsy and maculopapular rash improved with penicillin therapy.

  2. Paralisia facial perifrica e otite mdia tuberculosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Geraldo Camargo Lima

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de paralisia facial perifrica devido a uma otite mdia tuberculosa. Chamam ateno para a raridade atual da otite tuberculosa e para a freqncia com que esta afeco compromete o nervo facial. A regresso da paralisia aps tratamento cirrgico (mastoidectomia e descompresso do nervo facial e medicamentoso especfico foi assinalada.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Facial Muscles Contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarlier, Sophie Josiane; Grandjean, Didier Maurice; Delplanque, Sylvain; Ndiaye, Karim Babacar Joseph; Cayeux, Isabelle; Velazco, Maria Ines; Sander, David; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2011-01-01

    Facial expressions can be systematically coded using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) that describes the specific action unit (AU) or combination of AUs elicited during different kinds of expressions. This study investigated the thermal patterns concomitant to specific action units performance. As thermal imaging can track dynamic patterns in facial temperature at any distance (>0.4m), with high temporal (

  4. Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    GV, Sowmya; Manjunatha BS; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogen...

  5. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as facial nerve palsy and facial pain

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jong In; Kang, Jung Mook; Byun, Hee Jin; Chung, Go Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Park, Min Jung; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyo Suk

    2011-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy due to temporal bone metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has rarely been reported. We experienced a rare case of temporal bone metastasis of HCC that initially presented as facial nerve palsy and was diagnosed by surgical biopsy. This patient also discovered for the first time that he had chronic hepatitis B and C infections due to this facial nerve palsy. Radiation therapy greatly relieved the facial pain and facial nerve palsy. This report suggests that hepatolog...

  6. Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins...

  7. Blocking facial mimicry reduces perceptual sensitivity for facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipser, Alberta; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Built on models of 'action understanding', motor theories of expression perception propose that facial simulation, a process similar to covert imitation, aids perception and interpretation of others' facial expressions. As predicted by these accounts, some reports suggest that blocking facial mimicry impairs expression recognition. However, these reports have been criticized and motor theories remain controversial. Crucially, it remains to be determined whether the labeling errors observed reflect a loss of perceptual sensitivity - a genuine perceptual phenomenon - or whether they are a product of response bias. The current study addressed this question using a novel psychophysical paradigm, where observers judged whether smiles drawn from a morph continuum were sincere or insincere. In Experiment 1, we confirmed that cues from both the eye and mouth regions contribute to sincerity judgments. Experiment 2 measured discrimination of smile sincerity across free-viewing and blocked-mimicry conditions. In the blocked-mimicry condition, participants pronounced vowel sounds during stimulus presentation, thereby loading the motor system and preventing mimicry. Each participant's responses were modeled by fitting psychometric functions. Sensitivity to changes in smile sincerity and bias were inferred from the slope and the point of subjective equality (PSE), respectively. Motor interference significantly decreased sensitivity relative to baseline, but did systematically affect bias. Experiment 3 examined whether the motor manipulation has similar effects on judgments of facial gender, a task equated for difficulty but which is not thought to recruit motor processes. Neither slope nor PSE estimates for gender judgments were affected, indicating that the loss of sensitivity seen in Experiment 2 is relatively specific to judgments of expression and does not reflect generic distraction. These findings accord with the view that judgments of facial expression benefit from motor contributions to perception. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327064

  8. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoz-Reyes, Jos Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  9. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Hkon Kristian; Lie, Rolv Terje; Wilcox, Allen James; Weinberg, Clarice Ring; Christensen, Kaare; Boyles, Abee Lowman; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Trung, Truc Nguyen; Bille, Camilla; Lidral, Andrew Carl; Murray, Jeffrey Clark

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  10. Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaydjieva Luba

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facia...

  11. Epidemiologia do trauma facial Epidemiology of facial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wulkan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo determinar a incidncia, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e leses associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. Os dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatstica Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78% e sua incidncia foi maior na faixa etria dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violncia interpessoal (48,1%, seguida de queda (26,2%, atropelamento (6,4%, esporte (5,4%, acidente de carro (4,2%, acidente de motocicleta (3,1%, impacto no relacionado queda (2,4%, acidente de trabalho (1,8%, ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%, inespecfica (1,2%. As contuses foram as leses mais observadas (23,8%, seguidas das fraturas de mandbula (21,9%, Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%, nasal (11,6%, zigoma (10,3%, dental (9,1%, rbita (4,9% e maxila (0,6%. Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas tambm em acidentes de carro, queda e violncia pessoal. CONCLUSO: As causas de trauma facial so diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de leso. No foram encontradas evidncias de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da leso.OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and skin color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78% and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%, followed by fall (26.2%, run overs 6.4%, sports (5.4%, car accidents (4.2%, motorcycle accidents (3.1%, non-fall impacts (2.4%, occupational injuries (1.8%, gunshot wounds (1.2%, unspecific (1.2%. Contusion is the most common injury (23.8%, followed by fractures of the mandible (21.9%, Le Fort/pan facial/complex (17.8%, nasal bones (11.6%, zygoma (10.3%, tooth (9.1%, orbit (4.9% and maxilla (0.6%. Associated injuries Epidemiologia do trauma facial occurred mostly in run overs, but also because of car accident, fall and interpersonal violence. CONCLUSIONS: The causes of facial trauma are directly related to the age and type of lesion. No evidence was found that the causes were related to gender or severity of the lesion.

  12. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Miki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  13. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell’s palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers

  14. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  15. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from genetic principal components across a population of 1,266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode these to genetic principal components and then use these principal components as predictors for facial traits in a linear regression. We show in this proof-of-concept study for facial trait prediction from genome-wide SNP data that some facial characteristics can be modeled by genetic information: facial width, eyebrow width, distance between eyes, and features involving mouth shape are predicted with statistical significance (p < 0.03).

  16. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin; Pers, Tune H; Nielsen, Henrik B; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kri; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Jarmer, Hanne

    2015-11-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from genetic principal components across a population of 1266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode these to genetic principal components and then use these principal components as predictors for facial traits in a linear regression. We show in this proof-of-concept study for facial trait prediction from genome-wide SNP data that some facial characteristics can be modeled by genetic information: facial width, eyebrow width, distance between eyes, and features involving mouth shape are predicted with statistical significance (p<0.03). PMID:26355663

  17. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  18. Facial and Dental Injuries Facial and Dental Injuries in Karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic-Stesevic, Vesna; Verna, Carlalberta; Krastl, Gabriel; Kuhl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Karate is a martial art that carries a high trauma risk. Trauma-related Swiss and European karate data are currently unavailable. This survey seeks to increase knowledge of the incidence of traumatic facial and dental injuries, their emergency management, awareness of tooth rescue boxes, the use of mouthguards and their modifications. Interviews were conducted with 420 karate fighters from 43 European countries using a standardized questionnaire. All the participants were semi-professionals. The data were evaluated with respect to gender, kumite level (where a karate practitioner trains against an adversary), and country. Of the 420 fighters interviewed, 213 had experienced facial trauma and 44 had already had dental trauma. A total of 192 athletes had hurt their opponent by inflicting a facial or dental injury, and 290 knew about the possibility of tooth replantation following an avulsion. Only 50 interviewees knew about tooth rescue boxes. Nearly all the individuals interviewed wore a mouthguard (n = 412), and 178 of them had made their own modifications to the guard. The results of the present survey suggest that more information and education in wearing protective gear are required to reduce the incidence of dental injuries in karate. PMID:26345152

  19. Avaliao comparativa entre agradabilidade facial e anlise subjetiva do Padro Facial Comparative evaluation among facial attractiveness and subjective analysis of Facial Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olvia Morihisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar duas anlises subjetivas faciais utilizadas para o diagnstico ortodntico, avaliao da agradabilidade facial e definio de Padro Facial, e verificar a associao existente entre elas. MTODOS: utilizou-se 208 fotografias faciais padronizadas (104 laterais e 104 frontais de 104 indivduos escolhidos aleatoriamente, as quais foram submetidas avaliao da agradabilidade por dois grupos distintos (Grupo " Ortodontia" e Grupo " Leigos" , que classificaram os indivduos em " agradvel" , " aceitvel" ou " desagradvel" . Os indivduos tambm foram classificados quanto ao Padro Facial por trs examinadores calibrados, utilizando-se apenas a vista lateral. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSO: aps a anlise estatstica, verificou-se que houve associao fortemente positiva entre a agradabilidade facial e o Padro Facial para a norma lateral, porm no para a frontal, em que os indivduos tenderam a ser bem classificados mesmo no Padro II.AIM: To study two subjective facial analysis commonly used on orthodontic diagnosis and to verify the association between the evaluation of facial attractiveness and Facial Pattern definition. METHODS: Two hundred and eight standardized face photographs (104 in lateral view and 104 in frontal view of 104 randomly chosen individuals were used in the present study. They were classified as " pleasant" , " acceptable" and " not pleasant" by two distinct groups: " Lay people" and " Orthodontists" . The individuals were either classified according to their Facial Pattern using lateral view images. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After statistical analysis, it was noted a strong positive concordance between facial attractiveness in lateral view and Facial Pattern, however, frontal view attractiveness classification did not have good concordance with Facial Pattern, tending to have good attractiveness classification even in Facial Pattern II.

  20. Facial information processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joa?o Paulo Machado de Sousa and Jaime Eduardo Ceci?lio Hallak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are analyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

  1. Facial information processing in schizophrenia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joo Paulo Machado de, Sousa; Jaime Eduardo Ceclio, Hallak.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and emotion in schizophrenia and its relation with these patients' cognitive and social functioning has been extensively studied over the last 25 years. In this paper, the results of 32 studies indexed in the PubMed database and published between 2001 and 2005 are a [...] nalyzed and synthesized. Following the description of the problem and presentation of current hypotheses, methodological aspects and findings concerning the processing of facial emotion and identity are discussed. The analysis shows that, despite the growing attention dedicated to the theme and the provision of more specific results, the question of dependence/ independence between the two processes - emotion and identity recognition - and between these and the pervasive cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia remains unanswered.

  2. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  3. [Facial palsy in Equatorial Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruski, J

    1993-01-01

    The author presents the analysis of 29 cases of facial palsy collected in Shaba, Zaire (former Katanga, Belgian Congo) between 1984-1988 in the region called Copperbelt. Because to date there has been no work done on these problems in this part of Africa, it would be interesting to present a short report. Patients with facial palsy came to the ENT Department mostly for other reasons, and very late. Only 5 patients came before 3 mos after the onset. The different etiologies were as follows: 2--post traumatic, 7--otogenic, 9--tumors, 4--iatrogenic, 6--Bells palsy, 1--other. The assessment, comparison and the treatment of such cases in an underdeveloped country is very difficult or almost impossible. The small number of cases is insufficient for any conclusions, but the author tried to get some data, which would be a starting point in the future researches. PMID:8255587

  4. [Facial paralysis surgery. Current concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robla-Costales, David; Robla-Costales, Javier; Socolovsky, Mariano; di Masi, Gilda; Fernndez, Javier; Campero, lvaro

    2015-01-01

    Facial palsy is a relatively common condition, from which most cases recover spontaneously. However, each year, there are 127,000 new cases of irreversible facial paralysis. This condition causes aesthetic, functional and psychologically devastating effects in the patients who suffer it. Various reconstructive techniques have been described, but there is no consensus regarding their indication. While these techniques provide results that are not perfect, many of them give a very good aesthetic and functional result, promoting the psychological, social and labour reintegration of these patients. The aim of this article is to describe the indications for which each technique is used, their results and the ideal time when each one should be applied. PMID:25498528

  5. Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas

    OpenAIRE

    Giada Mancini; Pier Francesco Ferrari; Elisabetta Palagi

    2013-01-01

    Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions wer...

  6. Survey about facial image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Yuridia

    2006-01-01

    The project "Two Dimensional Facial Image Quality (2DFIQ)" is the initiative of Fraunhofer IGD Darmstadt to propose a model to measure the quality of digital passport photos based on the specifications of the international standards ICAO/MRTD and ISO 19794-5. In the analysis and design phase of the project, some problems to assign a precedence and relevance of attributes occurred. Since these international standards play an important role in the maturation process of security assurance in som...

  7. Histological studies of the dorsal nasal, angularis oculi, and facial veins of sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J; Thomalla, L; Mitchell, G

    1998-09-01

    Selective brain cooling (SBC) requires vasoactivity in the superficial veins of the face of the animal. This vasoactivity is possible because of an adequate amount of smooth muscle in the tunica media of each of these superficial vessels, enabling it to act as a "muscle sphincter". In this study, the angularis oculi, dorsal nasal, distal, and proximal parts of the facial veins in sheep were examined histologically to describe an anatomical basis for SBC. Measurements of the tunica media thickness, the lumen diameter, and the ratio of these measurements showed that the relative tunica media thicknesses in the angularis oculi vein and the dorsal nasal vein are statistically smaller (P < 0.001) than in the distal or the proximal parts of the facial vein. In the angularis oculi, dorsal nasal, and distal part of the facial vein, the tunicae mediae were composed of five to seven circularly arranged smooth muscle layers, suggesting their ability to vasoconstrict. The proximal part of the facial vein possesses both circularly and longitudinally arranged smooth muscle layers. The circular smooth muscle layers suggest a vasoconstrictory function, whereas the longitudinal smooth muscle layers suggest a vasoconstrictory function in this part of the facial vein. Both the dorsal nasal and the proximal part of the facial vein, but not the angularis oculi or the distal part of the facial vein, possess endothelial valves near their confluences with other veins. It was concluded from this study that the angularis oculi and the distal part of the facial vein vasoconstrict, whereas the proximal part of the facial vein vasodilates, enabling the necessary changes in blood flow in SBC. PMID:9734068

  8. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  9. Assessment Method of Facial Palsy by Amount of Feature Point Movements at Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nemoto, Junko; Ohta, Manami; Kunihiro, Takanobu

    At present in medical field, the 40 point method and facial nerve grading system (House-Brackmann method) are generally used for assessment of facial palsy. However, those methods have limitation in the precise assessment, because of subjectivity in diagnosis. Purpose of this paper is to propose objective and quantitative assessment of facial palsy based on the amount of feature point movements on the face. Facial nerve symptoms generally appear in either of right and left side on the face. In facial expression of palsy subjects, the motion on the diseased side becomes smaller than that on the healthy side. We defined some indices of palsy severity from the observation of facial expression. Those indices showed the asymmetry of the facial motion quantitatively. We confirmed that our proposed method was valid for assessment of the facial palsy by comparison with the 40 point method.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  11. A Software Tool for Facial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawehinmi Babatude Hakeem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and thorough facial analysis is needed for the formulation of treatment plan in rhinoplastic, dental and aesthetic surgical procedures. The analysis process is not difficult but tedious due to accuracy requirements. Before technological advances, facial analysis was done manually to detect and interpret facial characteristics. This procedure is often time consuming with greater error due to parallax and approximation. The object of this study is to introduce a software tool design to simplify the analysis of facial parameters. 2D photographic images of the face captured under varying condition of illumination where analyzed with the aid of standard anatomical landmarks. Facial dimensions obtained where less time consuming and accurate. The software is capable of depicting and quantifying craniofacial dimensions and facial soft tissue profile at an increased speed and accuracy.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders

  13. Dental injuries in association with facial fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Lieger, O; Zix, J; A. Kruse; Iizuka, T

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental injuries and facial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 273 patients examined at a level 1 trauma center in Switzerland from September 2005 until August 2006 who had facial fractures. Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings were recorded to evaluate demographics, etiology, presentation, and type of facial fracture, as well as its relationship to dental inj...

  14. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Bumb, P.

    1986-11-01

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid.

  15. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

  16. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Kamide; Takeshi Matsunobu; Akihiro Shiotani

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkab...

  17. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stel, Marille; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. Th...

  18. Facial affect recognition in psychopathic offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Kreklewetz, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined whether psychopathy was associated with impaired facial affect recognition. Participants were selected from a medium-security prison. Emotion recognition was assessed with the pictures of Facial Affect (PFA; Ekman & Friesen, 1976) and the Facial Discrimination Task (FDT; Erwin et al., 1992). Psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores contained in inmates' files (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003). Participants also completed the ...

  19. A Review of Facial Nerve Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Myckatyn, Terence M; MACKINNON, SUSAN E.

    2004-01-01

    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is no...

  20. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune; Nielsen, Henrik Bjrn; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Jarmer, Hanne stergaard

    2015-01-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from genetic principal components across a population of 1,266 individuals. For this we perform a genome-wide association analysis to select a large number of SNPs linked to specific facial traits, recode thes...

  1. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    OpenAIRE

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one?s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecti...

  2. Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; de Castro, Jos Mara Bermdez; Martinn-Torres, Mara; OHiggins, Paul; Paine, Michael L.; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 9008...

  3. Facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vretos, N.; Solachidis, V.; Somol, Petr; Pitas, I.

    Lausanne, Switzerland : EURASIP, 2008, s. 1-5. [16th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO- 2008). Lausanne (CH), 25.08.2008-29.08.2008] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : facial expression * facial meshes * recognition * feature selection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/somol-facial expression recognition using angle-related information from facial meshes.pdf

  4. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BASED ON EDGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming CHEN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relational Over the last two decades, the advances in computer vision and pattern recognition power have opened the door to new opportunity of automatic facial expression recognition system[1]. This paper use Canny edge detection method for facial expression recognition. Image color space transformation in the first place and then to identify and locate human face .Next pick up the edge of eyes and mouth's features extraction. Last we judge the facial expressions after compared with the expressions we known in the database. This proposed approach provides full automatic solution of human expressions as well as overcoming facial expressions variation and intensity problems.

  5. Granuloma asptico facial idioptico / Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Beln, Zambrano Centeno; Carlos, Gmez Gonzlez; Mercedes, Rojo Lpez; Mara Luisa, Alonso Pacheco.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Granuloma Asptico Facial Idioptico (GAFI) es un proceso dermatolgico propio de la edad peditrica, caracterizado por la presencia de un ndulo inflamatorio adquirido de larga evolucin en la piel facial, sin dolor ni calor local. Su localizacin habitual es en la mejilla, en el tringulo que f [...] orma el ngulo externo del ojo, el lbulo de la oreja y la comisura labial. Se han postulado varias hiptesis respecto a su etiologa, como su relacin con traumatismos sutiles o picaduras de insecto o bien se trate de un residuo embriolgico o, la ms aceptada en la actualidad, de una forma peculiar de manifestacin de la roscea en la infancia. Si bien en la literatura solo se han reportado 45 casos, algunos autores sealan que puede tratarse de un proceso poco conocido y no tan infrecuente en la edad infantil. Consideran as mismo que su apariencia clnica, localizacin y evolucin caractersticas pueden ser suficientes para su diagnstico, evitando as intervenciones diagnsticas y teraputicas agresivas en una edad tan sensible al dolor, y con la posibilidad de secuelas cicatriciales en la cara. Presentamos un nuevo caso de GAFI, manejado de un modo conservador, tras ser diagnosticado a tenor de sus manifestaciones clnicas y evolutivas. Abstract in english The idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a cutaneous condition characteristic in the pediatric age which is characterized by an acquired inflammatory painless nodule of long-term evolution in the facial skin and presents no local heat. It usually appears on the cheeks, in the triangle forme [...] d by the external angle of the eye, the earlobe and the labial commissure. Several hypothesis have been postulated on its etiology: its appearance could be related to a slight injury or an insect bite or could be an embryological remnant. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that it could be a particular manifestation of rosacea in infants. Although only 45 cases have been reported in the literature, some authors point out that it could be a little known process and not so uncommon in the pediatric age. It is also considered that its clinical characteristic aspect, localization and evolution could be sufficient for correct diagnosis, thus avoiding invasive diagnostic interventions and aggressive therapies in such a sensitive age to pain and with the possibility to leave scars in the child's face. The present is a new case of IFAG handled in a conservative way after diagnosis based on its evolutional and clinical manifestations.

  6. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section...Prosthetic Devices 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device...

  7. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  8. Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author)

  9. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  10. Idiopathic facial paralysis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?brahim Say?n

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated for Bell's palsy. Material and Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2011, pediatric subjects who were diagnosed and treated with the diagnosis of idiopathic facial paralysis were enrolled for this study. All the subjects' medical records were reviewed for demographic data, history of upper respiratory infection, family history, and severity of initial paralysis, treatment and outcomes. All subjects received high dose steroid therapy (methyl prednisolone 1mg/kg-in decreasing doses with medications for eye and gastric protection. Results: 61 subjects with 66 facial paralysis episode were evaluated. The mean age was 8.733.11 (range 2-14. Thirty seven (60% out of 61 subjects were male whereas remaining 24 (40% were female. Thirty seven (56.1% out of 66 episodes were seen on left side whereas remaining 29 (43.9% episodes were seen on left. 72.7% of the admissions were within first 24 hour. (mean 1,450.64, range 1-4 days. In five (8.2% cases family history was positive. In 19 (28. 8% cases upper respiratory infection history was positive. The initial facial paralysis grade was grade 2 in 3 (4.5%, grade 3 in 6 (9.11%, grade 4 in 16 (24.2%, grade 5 in 37 (56.1%, grade 6 in 4 (6.1% episodes. 56 (84.9% subjects were completely recovered at the end of 6 month. Eight (12.1% subjects were remained with grade 1, 2 subjects were remained with grade 2 paralysis. Conclusions: Our results indicate that Bell's palsy has a favorable prognosis. But even with steroid therapy some patients heal with sequelae.

  11. Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

  12. An experimental illustration of 3D facial shape analysis under facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Boulbaba, Ben Amor; Drira, Hassen; Ballihi, Lahoucine; Srivastava, Anuj; Daoudi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to illustrate a geometric analysis of 3D facial shapes in presence of varying facial expressions. This approach consists of the following two main steps: (i) Each facial surface is automatically denoised and preprocessed to result in an indexed collection of facial curves. During this step one detects the tip of the nose and defines a surface distance function with that tip as the reference point. The level curves of this distance function are the desired facial...

  13. Abscess secondary to facial snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. QUIROGA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, approximately 700 snakebite cases occur each year, 5 to 10 of which result in death. At the Hospital Nacional de Nios (HNN, 6 to 10 cases are reported annually, more than half of these cases and nearly all deaths are result from Bothrops asper snakebite. This venomous snake, popularly known as the "terciopelo", most often attacks the lower or upper limbs and characteristically produces local tissue damage, which can be severe. The following is a report of the first case of a non-fatal and unusual facial bite caused by Bothrops asper in our country.

  14. The effect of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Zhi; Yan, Cheng; Hui, Liu

    2015-05-01

    The objective is to study the role of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further episodes and promoting facial nerve recovery of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. 24 cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy were involved in the study, among which 16 undergoing total facial nerve decompression were classified into the surgery group, and 8 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were included in the control group. The recurrence rate and facial nerve function recovery of the two groups were compared. The mean follow-up of surgery and control group was 4.9 years (range 3-7 years) and 5.0 years (range 3-8 years), respectively. Further attacks of facial palsy affected 1 of 16 cases (6.2 %) among surgery group in comparison to 4 of 8 cases (50 %) among control group, with statistical difference (p 0.05). In conclusion, total facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further episodes of facial palsy in idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, but ineffective to promote facial nerve recovery. PMID:24493560

  15. Vitamin D3 potentiates myelination and recovery after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montava, Marion; Garcia, Stphane; Mancini, Julien; Jammes, Yves; Courageot, Jol; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Feron, Franois

    2015-10-01

    Roles of vitamin D on the immune and nervous systems are increasingly recognized. Two previous studies demonstrated that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) induced functional recovery and increased myelination in a rat model of peroneal nerve transection. The current report assessed whether cholecalciferol was efficient in repairing transected rabbit facial nerves. Animals were randomized into two groups of rabbits with an unilateral facial nerve surgery: the vitamin D group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vitamin D3 (200 IU/kg/day), from day 1 post-surgery; the control group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vehicle (triglycerides). Contralateral unsectioned facial nerves from all experimental animals were used as controls for the histological study. The facial functional index was measured every week while the inner diameter of myelin sheath and the G ratio were quantified at the end of the 3 month experiment. The current report indicates that cholecalciferol significantly increases functional recovery and myelination, after 12 weeks of treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation in an animal model of facial paralysis. It paves further the way for clinical trials based on the administration of this steroid in individuals with injured facial nerves. PMID:25261104

  16. Vertical facial pattern and orthodontic stability. Part II: Facial axis changes and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice, M; Woods, M

    2000-11-01

    Lateral cephalograms and study casts of 55 patients were evaluated to determine if any relationships exist between Facial Axis changes occurring during and after active treatment and either the pretreatment Jarabak Facial Height Quotient or the amount of post-treatment occlusal change, as measured with a weighted PAR score. No significant relationships could be found. There was instead a wide range of individual variation in the post-treatment behaviour of both the Facial Axis and the weighted PAR score, in both the total sample and three Jarabak Facial Height subgroups. Long-term Facial Axis changes occurring in individual patients, however, were not necessarily associated with occlusal deterioration. Since the Facial Axis is likely to change to some extent in the long-term, it was suggested that widely recommended methods for Facial Axis control during treatment should be considered primarily for functional and aesthetic reasons, rather than on the basis of directly ensuring long-term occlusal stability. PMID:12476496

  17. Facial nerve palsy associated with underwater barotrauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, T R

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a case of facial nerve palsy following barotitis media sustained at shallow depth. The neuropraxia is likely to have been due to the direct effect of pressure, facilitated by a congenital hiatus in the bony canal protecting the facial nerve in the middle ear.

  18. Heartbeat Rate Measurement from Facial Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Heartbeat Rate (HR) reveals a persons health condition. This paper presents an effective system for measuring HR from facial videos acquired in a more realistic environment than the testing environment of current systems. The proposed method utilizes a facial feature point tracking method by...

  19. Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagdeve N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

  20. Epidemiology study of facial injuries during a 13 month of trauma registry in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar Moosa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have recently noted a shift in the causative mechanism of facial injuries away from traffic accident to assaults. AIMS: Our study aimed to investigate patterns of facial injuries in trauma patients during 13 months study of trauma patients in six general hospitals in Tehran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trauma patients who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours and had sustained injuries within seven days from admission were included in the study. Of the 8000 trauma patients, four hundred (5% sustained facial injuries. RESULTS: Male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Among them, 53.3% were aged 11-30 years. Traffic accidents were by the far the commonest cause of injury. Motorcyclists who wore a helmet sustained facial fractures less often during traffic accident than those patients who did not wear helmet. Soft tissue injury and facial bone fracture comprised 43.3% and 40.8% of facial injuries, respectively. The majority of Soft tissue injuries (79% were located extra orally. The mandible and nasal bone were the most commonly fractured facial bones. Victims of assault sustained more severe injuries compared to those involved in falls and traffic accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Use of helmets by motorcyclists and the separation of pedestrians routes from motor vehicles could reduce the number of victims and consequently injuries due to road traffic accidents. For implementation of effective prevention programs for reduction of facial injuries due to assault, it seems to be necessary to conduct studies investigating causes and pattern of injuries resulting in assault.

  1. Facial beauty--establishing a universal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2004-01-01

    There is a universal standard for facial beauty regardless of race, age, sex and other variables. Beautiful faces have ideal facial proportion. Ideal proportion is directly related to divine proportion, and that proportion is 1 to 1.618. All living organisms, including humans, are genetically encoded to develop to this proportion because there are extreme esthetic and physiologic benefits. The vast majority of us are not perfectly proportioned because of environmental factors. Establishment of a universal standard for facial beauty will significantly simplify the diagnosis and treatment of facial disharmonies and abnormalities. More important, treating to this standard will maximize facial esthetics, TMJ health, psychologic and physiologic health, fertility, and quality of life. PMID:15085778

  2. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  3. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather; Albrecht, Beate; Bijlsma, Emilia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Donti, Emilio; Fitzpatrick, David; Isidor, Bertrand; Lachlan, Katherine; Le Caignec, Cedric; Prontera, Paolo; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Rogaia, Daniela; van Bon, Bregje; Aradhya, Swaroop; Crocker, Susan F; Jarinova, Olga; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Boycott, Kym; Bulman, Dennis; Fagerberg, Christina

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...... heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate that...... years, several individuals with NMLFS have been reported to have a microdeletion of 8q21.3q22.1, demonstrated by microarray analysis. The minimal overlapping region is 93.98-96.22 Mb (hg19). Here we present clinical and microarray data from five singletons and two mother-child pairs who have...

  4. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  5. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITHA C,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, humancomputer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

  6. Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, S; Nasipuri, M; Basu, D K; Kundu, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of a facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main research effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face construction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and analyzes the facial components from a face image by an efficient technique. The Fuzzy model, designed in this paper, takes crisp value of width and height of a facial component and produces the crisp value of Shape for different facial components. This method is designed using Matlab 6.5 and Visual Basic 6.0 and tested with the facial components extracted from 200 male and female face images of different ages from different face databases.

  7. Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

  8. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  9. The facial nerve axotomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Linda B; Graeber, Manuel B

    2004-03-01

    Experimental models such as the facial nerve axotomy paradigm in rodents allow the systematic and detailed study of the response of neurones and their microenvironment to various types of challenges. Well-studied experimental examples include peripheral nerve trauma, the retrograde axonal transport of neurotoxins and locally enhanced inflammation following the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in combination with axotomy. These studies have led to novel insights into the regeneration programme of the motoneurone, the role of microglia and astrocytes in synaptic plasticity and the biology of glial cells. Importantly, many of the findings obtained have proven to be valid in other functional systems and even across species barriers. In particular, microglial expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules has been found to occur in response to various types of neuronal damage and is now regarded as a characteristic component of "glial inflammation". It is found in the context of numerous neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The detachment of afferent axonal endings from the surface membrane of regenerating motoneurones and their subsequent displacement by microglia ("synaptic stripping") and long-lasting insulation by astrocytes have also been confirmed in humans. The medical implications of these findings are significant. Also, the facial nerve system of rats and mice has become the best studied and most widely used test system for the evaluation of neurotrophic factors. PMID:15003391

  10. Preoperative embolization of facial angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative embolization was performed on 27 patients with facial angiomas supplied by the external carotid branches. Sixteen were males and 11 females; 13 of these angiomas were high-flow arterio-venous (A-V), 14 were low-flow capillary malformations. Fourteen patients underwent surgical removal after preoperative embolization; in this group embolization was carried out with Spongel in 3 cases and with Lyodura in 11 cases. In 12 of these patients the last angiographic examination was performed 3-6 years later: angiography evidenced no recurrence in 8 cases (67%), while in 3 cases (25%) there was capillary residual angioma of negligible size. Treatment was unsuccessful in one patient only, due to the large recurrent A-V angioma. Thirteen patients underwent embolization only, which was carried out with Lyodura in 10 cases, and with Ivalon in 3 cases. On 12 of these patients the last angiographic study was performed 2-14 months later: there was recurrent A-V angioma in 5 patients (42%), who underwent a subsequent embolization; angiography evidenced no recurrence in the other 7 patients (58%). In both series, the best results were obtained in the patients with low-flow capillary angiomas. Embolization and subsequent surgical removal are the treatment of choice for facial angiomas; embolization alone is useful in the management of surgically inacessible vascular malformations, and it can be the only treatment in patients with small low-flow angiomas when distal occlusion of the feeding vessel with Lyodura or Ivalon particles is performed

  11. Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

  12. Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Flaquer Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric and the Facial Index (photographs. RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa, made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUO: em Ortodontia, a determinao do tipo facial um elemento-chave na prescrio de um diagnstico correto. Nos primrdios de nossa especialidade, a observao e a medio das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos mtodos radiogrficos, a anlise cefalomtrica foi substituindo a anlise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinao do tipo facial pelos mtodos antropomtrico e cefalomtrico. MTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo ndice Vert (cefalometricamente e pelo ndice Facial (fotografias. RESULTADOS: pela anlise de concordncia (Kappa, feita para os dois tipos de anlise, encontramos uma concordncia de 76,5%. CONCLUSES: foi possvel considerar que o ndice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnstico ortodntico, ou como mtodo alternativo para pr-seleo de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessrios.

  13. Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Flaquer, Martins; Julio Wilson, Vigorito.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: em Ortodontia, a determinao do tipo facial um elemento-chave na prescrio de um diagnstico correto. Nos primrdios de nossa especialidade, a observao e a medio das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvim [...] ento dos mtodos radiogrficos, a anlise cefalomtrica foi substituindo a anlise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinao do tipo facial pelos mtodos antropomtrico e cefalomtrico. MTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivduos da amostra foram feitas telerradiografias laterais e fotografias faciais frontais, e os tipos faciais determinados pelo ndice Vert (cefalometricamente) e pelo ndice Facial (fotografias). RESULTADOS: pela anlise de concordncia (Kappa), feita para os dois tipos de anlise, encontramos uma concordncia de 76,5%. CONCLUSES: foi possvel considerar que o ndice Facial pode ser utilizado como um coadjuvante do diagnstico ortodntico, ou como mtodo alternativo para pr-seleo de uma amostra, evitando que os sujeitos de pesquisas sejam submetidos a exames desnecessrios. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of [...] radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric) and the Facial Index (photographs). RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa), made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.

  14. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial appearances. Facial deformity caused by trauma, congenital disabilities, and postsurgical sequelae present with significant adverse functional consequences. Facial deformities have a significant negative effect on perceptions of social functionality, including employability, honesty, and trustworthiness. Adverse perceptions of patients with facial deformities occur regardless of sex, educational level, and age of evaluator. PMID:12794453

  15. Trends in the Pattern of Facial Fractures in Different Countries of the World / Tendencias en el Patrn de Fracturas Faciales en Diferentes Pases del Mundo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammad, Shayyab; Firas, Alsoleihat; Sukaina, Ryalat; Ameen, Khraisat.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los cambios en el patrn de las fracturas maxilofaciales entre los pases desarrollados y en vas de desarrollo en dos perodos de tiempo (1987-1999) y (2000-2007). Una bsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en PubMed se llev a cabo entre las publicaciones de lesi [...] ones maxilofaciales publicados durante los ltimos 20 aos. Slo 45 artculos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusin, y los textos completos de estos artculos fueron examinados a fondo. En cada uno de los estudios incluidos se registraron diferentes parmetros. Se calcul el porcentaje de "peso" de cada parmetro a travs del nmero total de pacientes. La mandbula fue el hueso facial ms fracturado (57%). En todo el periodo evaluado, la media de edad de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue de 24,4 aos y la incidencia de las fracturas faciales fue mayor en hombres (81,3%) que en mujeres. La razn hombre-mujer de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue mayor en los pases en vas de desarrollo (5,1:1,0) que en los pases desarrollados (3,7:1,0) en todo el perodo. Las lesiones relacionadas con accidentes de trnsito disminuyeron considerablemente en los pases desarrollados, mientras que aument en los pases en vas de desarrollo durante los dos perodos. Sin embargo, las lesiones faciales relacionadas con asaltos aumentaron considerablemente en los pases desarrollados y disminuy en los pases en vas de desarrollo durante los dos perodos. El cuerpo de la mandbula fue el sitio de fractura ms comn (27,2%). Se concluy que las fracturas mandibulares son las lesiones ms comunes en el tercio medio del esqueleto facial. La mayora de los pacientes afectados por fracturas faciales en los diferentes pases fueron hombres jvenes. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999) and (2000-2007). A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injur [...] ies published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included studies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%). In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3%) than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0) than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0) in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%). It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.

  16. Trends in the Pattern of Facial Fractures in Different Countries of the World Tendencias en el Patrn de Fracturas Faciales en Diferentes Pases del Mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shayyab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the pattern of maxillofacial fractures between developed and developing countries over two time periods; (1987-1999 and (2000-2007. A comprehensive search of the literature using PubMed was conducted for publications on maxillofacial injuries published during the last 20 years. Only 45 articles met the inclusion criteria and the full-texts of these articles were thoroughly examined. For each of the included studies, different parameters were recorded. Calculated "weighed" percentages of each parameter across the total number of all patients were performed. The mandible was the most frequently fractured facial bone (57%. In the total period, the mean age of patients with facial fractures was 24.4 years and the incidence of facial fractures was higher in males (81.3% than in females. The male to female ratio of patients with facial fractures was greater in developing countries (5.1:1.0 than that in developed countries (3.7:1.0 in the total period. Road traffic accident-related injuries had significantly decreased in developed countries and increased in developing countries over the two periods. However, assault-related facial injuries had significantly increased in developed countries and decreased in developing countries over the two periods. The body of the mandible was the most common mandibular fracture site (27.2%. It was concluded that mandibular fractures are more common than middle third injuries of the facial skeleton. Most patients affected by facial fractures in different countries were young adult males.El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los cambios en el patrn de las fracturas maxilofaciales entre los pases desarrollados y en vas de desarrollo en dos perodos de tiempo (1987-1999 y (2000-2007. Una bsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en PubMed se llev a cabo entre las publicaciones de lesiones maxilofaciales publicados durante los ltimos 20 aos. Slo 45 artculos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusin, y los textos completos de estos artculos fueron examinados a fondo. En cada uno de los estudios incluidos se registraron diferentes parmetros. Se calcul el porcentaje de "peso" de cada parmetro a travs del nmero total de pacientes. La mandbula fue el hueso facial ms fracturado (57%. En todo el periodo evaluado, la media de edad de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue de 24,4 aos y la incidencia de las fracturas faciales fue mayor en hombres (81,3% que en mujeres. La razn hombre-mujer de los pacientes con fracturas faciales fue mayor en los pases en vas de desarrollo (5,1:1,0 que en los pases desarrollados (3,7:1,0 en todo el perodo. Las lesiones relacionadas con accidentes de trnsito disminuyeron considerablemente en los pases desarrollados, mientras que aument en los pases en vas de desarrollo durante los dos perodos. Sin embargo, las lesiones faciales relacionadas con asaltos aumentaron considerablemente en los pases desarrollados y disminuy en los pases en vas de desarrollo durante los dos perodos. El cuerpo de la mandbula fue el sitio de fractura ms comn (27,2%. Se concluy que las fracturas mandibulares son las lesiones ms comunes en el tercio medio del esqueleto facial. La mayora de los pacientes afectados por fracturas faciales en los diferentes pases fueron hombres jvenes.

  17. Facial Expression Spacial Charts for Describing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madokoro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new framework to describe individual facial expression spaces, particularly addressing the dynamic diversity of facial expressions that appear as an exclamation or emotion, to create a unique space for each person. We name this framework Facial Expression Spatial Charts (FESCs. The FESCs are created using Self Organizing Maps (SOMs and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART of unsupervised neural networks. For facial images with emphasized sparse representations using Gabor wavelet filters, SOMs extract topological information in facial expression images and classify them as categories in the fixed space that are decided by the number of units on the mapping layer. Subsequently, Fuzzy ART integrates categories classified by SOMs using adaptive learning functions under fixed granularity that is controlled by the vigilance parameter. The categories integrated by Fuzzy ART are matched to Expression Levels (ELs for quantifying facial expression intensity based on the arrangement of facial expressions on Russells circumplex model. We designate the category that contains neutral facial expression as the basis category. Actually, FESCs can visualize and represent dynamic diversity of facial expressions consisting of ELs extracted from facial expressions. In the experiment, we created an original facial expression dataset consisting of three facial expressionshappiness, anger, and sadness obtained from 10 subjects during 720 weeks at one-week intervals. Results show that the method can adequately display the dynamic diversity of facial expressions between subjects, in addition to temporal changes in each subject. Moreover, we used stress measurement sheets to obtain temporal changes of stress for analyzing psychological effects of the stress that subjects feel. We estimated stress levels of four grades using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The mean estimation rates for all 10 subjects and for 5 subjects over more than 10 weeks were, respectively, 68.6% and 77.4%.

  18. Orbital abscess after facial trauma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elis Cristina Sousa, Serra; Cassio Edvard, Sverzut; Alexandre Elias, Trivellato.

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um caso de abscesso agudo em cavidade orbitria, aps 2 dias de trauma facial, sem a presena de fratura ssea, ocorrido em uma mulher da raa negra com 20 anos de idade. Os sintomas se intensificaram nas ltimas 24 h com o desenvolvimento de distrbios visuais do tipo diplopia [...] e fotofobia. Durante exame clnico foi constatado a presena de febre, edema e eritema periorbitrio, ptose, proptose e limitao de movimentao ocular para cima, baixo, lado direto e esquerdo. A tomografia computadorizada evidenciava proptose associada a edema considervel, dos tecidos moles no lado esquerdo da face, sem fratura do complexo zigomtico-orbitrio. A internao hospitalar e o incio da antibioticoterapia endovenosa foram realizados, e o tratamento cirrgico de inciso e drenagem do abscesso sob anestesia geral foi conduzido, sendo realizado por meio de inciso na plpebra superior e inferior para acesso a cavidade orbitria e por acesso de Caldwell-Luc para o seio maxilar. No ps-operatrio imediato foi observada rpida melhora dos sintomas inicialmente relatados pela paciente. Aps 2 dias da interveno cirrgica foi observado melhora na movimentao ocular e na acuidade visual, retornando ao normal. No dcimo segundo dia ps-operatrio, a paciente apresentou melhora significativa com relao ptose palpebral e a proptose, com adequado processo de cicatrizao. Abstract in english This paper reports a rare case of acute severe orbital abscess manifested 2 days after a facial trauma without bone fracture in a 20-year-old Afro-American female. The symptoms worsened within the 24 h prior to hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. The [...] clinical findings at the first consultation included fever, periorbital swelling and redness, ptosis, proptosis and limitation of ocular movements upwards, downwards, to the right and to the left. Computed tomography scan showed proptosis with considerable soft tissue swelling on the left side and no fracture was evidenced in the facial skeleton, including the zygomatic-orbital complex. After hospital admission and antibiotic therapy intravenously the patient was conducted to the operation room and submitted to incision and drainage under general anesthesia. The orbit was approached thorough both eyelids and the maxillary sinus was reached only through the Caldwell-Luc approach. The postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. Visual acuity and ocular motility returned to the normal ranges within 2 days after the surgical intervention. After 12 postoperative days, the patient presented with significative improvement in the ptosis and proptosis, and acceptable scars.

  19. Radiologic finding of facial nerve schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the radilologic findings of facial nerve schwannoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT and/or MR images and clinical history of eight patients with histologically proven facial nerve schwannama. After classifying this extratemporal and intratemporal types, clinical and radilologic findings were analysed. The most common clinical findings of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve palsy and hearing impairment in an intratemporal schwannoma(4/5), and a palpable parotid mass in an extratemporal schwannoma(3/3). On CT, each involved segment of intratemporal schwannomas(five cases) showed characteristic radilologic findings, while extratemporal schwannomas(three cases) showed masses of various types. On MRI, all tumors(two cases) showed hypointensity of T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI, and strong enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas can be easily diagnosed by characteristic clinical and radilologic findings. Extratemporal facial nerve schwannomas show nonspecific findings. However, if the tumor is located between the superficial and the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extends to the posterior portion of the styloid process, then facial nerve schwannoma is strongly suspected

  20. Radiologic finding of facial nerve schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Hee; Chung, Tae Sub [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    To analyze the radilologic findings of facial nerve schwannoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT and/or MR images and clinical history of eight patients with histologically proven facial nerve schwannama. After classifying this extratemporal and intratemporal types, clinical and radilologic findings were analysed. The most common clinical findings of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve palsy and hearing impairment in an intratemporal schwannoma(4/5), and a palpable parotid mass in an extratemporal schwannoma(3/3). On CT, each involved segment of intratemporal schwannomas(five cases) showed characteristic radilologic findings, while extratemporal schwannomas(three cases) showed masses of various types. On MRI, all tumors(two cases) showed hypointensity of T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI, and strong enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas can be easily diagnosed by characteristic clinical and radilologic findings. Extratemporal facial nerve schwannomas show nonspecific findings. However, if the tumor is located between the superficial and the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extends to the posterior portion of the styloid process, then facial nerve schwannoma is strongly suspected.

  1. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

  2. Rapid facial mimicry in geladas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

  3. Facial image identification using Photomodeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a preliminary study on the use of 3-D software (Photomodeler) for identification purposes. Perpetrators may be photographed or filmed by surveillance systems. The police may wish to have these images compared to photographs of suspects. The surveillance imagery will often...... consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model...... was produced by Photomodeler. The wireframe models were then rotated to full lateral and frontal views, and compared to like sets of photographs of the subjects. In blind trials, 9/15 of the wireframe models were assigned to the correct sets of photographs. In five/15 cases, the wireframe models were...

  4. Facial ulcer treated with olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, C L; Bewley, A; Taylor, R

    2013-07-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with a nonhealing ulcer on her right cheek. On histological examination of a biopsy, no evidence of granuloma formation or malignancy was found, and the overall picture was felt to be consistent with dermatitis artefacta (DA). The patient was referred to a joint psychodermatology clinic, where treatment with risperidone was started. However, at follow-up the ulcer remained unchanged, and treatment was changed to olanzapine 2.5 mg twice daily. Within 10 months, the large facial ulcer, which had been refractory to treatment for several years, had completely healed. Anxiolytics, antidepressants and low-dose antipsychotics have been shown to be helpful in the management of DA. Successful treatment with olanzapine has been described. The good clinical response to olanzapine may be attributed to its anti-impulsive effect, antihistaminic properties and low risk of parkinsonian side-effects. PMID:23611260

  5. Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaydjieva Luba

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjgren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood.

  6. Facial reanimation procedures depicted on radiologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, D T; Bhama, P; Cunnane, M E; Hadlock, T A

    2014-09-01

    Various facial reanimation procedures can be performed for treating patients with chronic facial nerve paralysis. The radiologic imaging features of static and dynamic techniques are reviewed in this article with clinical correlation, including brow lift, eyelid weights and springs, gracilis free flaps, fascia lata grafts, temporalis flaps, and Gore-Tex suspension slings. Although the anatomic alterations resulting from facial reanimation surgery may not necessarily be the focus of the imaging examination, it is important to recognize such changes and be familiar with MR imaging compatibility of the associated implanted materials. Furthermore, imaging is sometimes used to specifically evaluate the postoperative results, such as vessel patency following free gracilis transfer. PMID:23945230

  7. Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, S; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, M.; Basu, D.K.; M. Kundu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of a facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main research effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face construction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and analyzes the facial components from a face image by an efficient technique. The Fuzzy model, designed in this paper, takes crisp value of width and height of a facial compone...

  8. Facial parity edge coloring of outerplane graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Czap, Jlius

    2015-01-01

    A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge-connected plane graph is such an edge coloring in which no two face-adjacent edges (consecutive edges of a facial walk of some face) receive the same color, in addition, for each face ?$f$? and each color ?$c$?, either no edge or an odd number of edges incident with ?$f$? is colored with ?$c$?. It is known that any 2-edge-connected plane graph has a facial parity edge coloring with at most 92 colors. In this paper we prove that any 2-edge-connected ou...

  9. Transient Facial Nerve Baroparesis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Ardehali; N Yazdani; M. Heidarali

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of facial paralysis that was unusual not only in its causation but also in its rapidity of onset and recovery. We describe a rare case history of this accruing in 35 years old women traveling at the high altitude mountain road referred to ENT clinic with sudden symptoms of middle ear effusion and facial nerve paralysis. Patient had undergone medical systemic steroid treatment and after 3-4 weeks she had a good recovery of facial palsy with a minimum remnant of sensory n...

  10. Regenerao ps-traumtica do nervo facial em coelhos / Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi, Costa; Ciro Ferreira da, Silva; Gustavo Polacow, Korn; Paulo Roberto, Lazarini.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial perifrica traumtica constitui-se em afeco freqente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regenerao ps-traumtica do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliao funcional histolgica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos com [...] presso do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados aps duas (grupo AL), quatro (BL) e seis (CL) semanas da leso. A comparao entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axnios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATSTICO: mtodo de Tukey (p Abstract in english Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression les [...] ion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL), four (BL) and six (CL) weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p

  11. Intraparotid Facial Nerve Neurofibroma: an Uncommon Neoplasm Neurofibroma Intraparotdeo del Nervio Facial: una Neoplasia Poco Frecuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Sethi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve neurofibromas are a rare entity, and are grossly and histopathologically distinct from the comparatively more prevalent schwannomas. We report a rare case of an intraparotid facial nerve neurofibroma with intratemporal extension in a 48-year-old female. The tumor was surgically excised with cable grafting of the facial nerve. Electroneurography may eventually assist in the preoperative diagnosis. Facial nerve resection should be more readily contemplated in a patient with neurofibroma than in a patient with schwannoma; however, facial nerve preservation with serial follow-up electroneurography and computerized tomography remains a viable option in patients with small facial nerve neurofibromas when electrical testing reveals minimal evidence of progressive neural degeneration. Close monitoring, especially in neurofibromas associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease, is mandatory because of an increased risk of sarcomatous degeneration.Los neurofibromas intraparotdeos del nervio facial son una entidad poco frecuente, macroscpicamente e histopatolgicamente diferentes de los comparativamente ms frecuentes schwannomas. Se presenta un caso raro de un neurofibroma del nervio facial con extensin intraparotdea intratemporal en una mujer de 48 aos de edad. El tumor se extirp quirrgicamente con injerto del nervio facial. La electroneurografa puede llegar a ayudar en el diagnstico preoperatorio. La reseccin del nervio facial debe ser realizada con mayor facilidad en un paciente con neurofibroma que en un paciente con schwannoma, sin embargo, la preservacin del nervio facial con electroneurografa de seguimiento y tomografa computarizada sigue siendo una opcin viable en pacientes con pequeos neurofibromas del nervio facial, cuando las pruebas elctricas revelan mnima evidencia de degeneracin neuronal progresiva. Una estrecha vigilancia, especialmente en los neurofibromas asociados con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen es fundamental debido al aumento del riesgo de degeneracin sarcomatosa.

  12. FACSGen: a tool to synthesize emotional facial expressions through systematic manipulation of facial action units

    OpenAIRE

    Roesch, Etienne Benoit; Tamarit, Lucas; Reveret, Lionel; Grandjean, Didier; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the perception of emotional facial expressions, researchers rely on shared sets of photos or videos, most often generated by actor portrayals. The drawback of such standardized material is a lack of flexibility and controllability, as it does not allow the systematic parametric manipulation of specific features of facial expressions on the one hand, and of more general properties of the facial identity (age, ethnicity, gender) on the other. To remedy this problem, we developed ...

  13. Puckering and Blowing Facial Expressions in People With Facial Movement Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Denlinger, Rachel L.; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.; COHN, JEFFREY F.; Schmidt, Karen L

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: People with facial movement disorders are instructed to perform various facial movements as part of their physical therapy rehabilitation. A difference in the movement of the orbicularis oris muscle has been demonstrated among people without facial nerve impairments when instructed to pucker your lips and to blow, as if blowing out a candle. The objective of this study was to determine whether the within-subject difference between pucker your lips and blow, as i...

  14. A Study of Facial Index among Malay Population

    OpenAIRE

    Tahamida Yesmin; San San Thwin; Shazia Afrin Urmi; Mar Mar Wai; Pu. Fazlin Zaini; Khairil Azwan

    2014-01-01

    Facial analysis is anthropologically useful to identify the racial, ethnical, and sexual differences. The present study was done to see the sex difference and variation of facial index among Malaysian population. Cross-sectional descriptive type of study was done in Anatomy Department in UniKL RCMP which was performed on 81 Malay people (40 males, 41 females) aged 1930 years. To measure the morphological parameters (facial height, facial width, and facial index), digital slide calliper and s...

  15. Wavelet based approach for facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.

  16. Transient Facial Nerve Baroparesis: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ardehali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of facial paralysis that was unusual not only in its causation but also in its rapidity of onset and recovery. We describe a rare case history of this accruing in 35 years old women traveling at the high altitude mountain road referred to ENT clinic with sudden symptoms of middle ear effusion and facial nerve paralysis. Patient had undergone medical systemic steroid treatment and after 3-4 weeks she had a good recovery of facial palsy with a minimum remnant of sensory neural hearing loss. Facial nerve paralysis resulting from a barotrauma of the middle ear is suggested. The correct diagnosis of this condition is important and unnecessary treatment should be avoided.

  17. Soft tissue facial morphology related to headform: a three-dimensional quantitative analysis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Schmitz, J H; Colombo, A

    1997-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to determine whether children of the same age with different headforms differ in their three-dimensional soft-tissue facial characteristics. The three-dimensional coordinates of 22 standardized facial landmarks were automatically collected in a sample of 70 boys and 71 girls age 11 to 13 years attending a junior high school. From the collected landmarks, several three-dimensional facial angles, linear distances, linear distance ratios, and volumes were calculated. For each subject the cephalic index (maximal head breadth/ maximal head length x 100) was computed and three groups of measurements for each sex were obtained (dolicho-, meso- and brachycephalic). A two-way factorial analysis of variance compared the effects of sex and headform, and the interaction sex x headform. On average, boys had significantly (P < or = 0.05) longer and wider faces than girls, with a larger lower third facial volume relative to middle third facial volume. A significant (P < or = 0.05) effect of headform over facial morphology was found for all angles with a prevalent axial orientation. Conversely, no effect was demonstrated for angles with a sagittal orientation, nor for any other considered parameters. For each sex, the dolichocephalic children had smaller values than the brachycephalic children (i.e., more convex faces in the left-right direction), while the mesocephalic children had intermediate values. No sex x headform interactions were found. Results confirm that a different headform (skull) is associated with a different three-dimensional facial morphology (combined effect of skull and soft tissues), but without size differences. PMID:9224943

  18. Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

    2010-11-01

    Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

  19. Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Henry H.; Neumeier, Anna T.; Davies, Brett W.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The a...

  20. The perception of facial expressions in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    FARRONI, TERESA; Menon, Enrica; Rigato, Silvia; JOHNSON, MARK H.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of newborns to discriminate and respond to different emotional facial expressions remains controversial. We conducted three experiments in which we tested newborns preferences, and their ability to discriminate between neutral, fearful, and happy facial expressions, using visual preference and habituation procedures. In the first two experiments, no evidence was found that newborns discriminate, or show a preference between, a fearful and a neutral face. In the third experiment, ...

  1. Dynamic Facial Expression of Emotion Made Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Broekens, Joost; Qu, Chao; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Facial emotion expression for virtual characters is used in a wide variety of areas. Often, the primary reason to use emotion expression is not to study emotion expression generation per se, but to use emotion expression in an application or research project. What is then needed is an easy to use and flexible, but also validated mechanism to do so. In this report we present such a mechanism. It enables developers to build virtual characters with dynamic affective facial expressions. The mecha...

  2. Crowdsourced data collection of facial responses

    OpenAIRE

    El Kaliouby, Rana; McDuff, Daniel Jonathan; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2011-01-01

    In the past, collecting data to train facial expression and affect recognition systems has been time consuming and often led to data that do not include spontaneous expressions. We present the first crowdsourced data collection of dynamic, natural and spontaneous facial responses as viewers watch media online. This system allowed a corpus of 3,268 videos to be collected in under two months. We characterize the data in terms of viewer demographics, position, scale, pose and movement of the...

  3. Locating facial features for age classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Ho; da Vitoria Lobo, Niels

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we outline computations for visual age classification from facial images. For now, input images can only be classified into one of three age-groups: babies, adults, and senior adults. The computations are based on cranio-facial development theory, and wrinkle analysis. In the implementation, first primary features of the face are found, followed by secondary feature analyses. Preliminary results with real data are presented.

  4. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather; Albrecht, Beate; Bijlsma, Emilia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Donti, Emilio; Fitzpatrick, David; Isidor, Bertrand; Lachlan, Katherine; Le Caignec, Cedric; Prontera, Paolo; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Rogaia, Daniela; van Bon, Bregje; Aradhya, Swaroop; Crocker, Susan F; Jarinova, Olga; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Boycott, Kym; Bulman, Dennis; Fagerberg, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few years, several individuals with NMLFS have been reported to have a microdeletion of 8q21.3q22.1, demonstrated by microarray analysis. The minimal overlapping region is 93.98-96.22?Mb (hg19). Here we pr...

  5. Chronic Facial Pain: A Clinical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    Facial pain is a common presenting complaint requiring patience and diagnostic acumen. The proliferation of eponyms attached to various syndromes complicates the subject. The most frequent cause of pain is likely to be muscle spasm in masticatory or temporalis muscles. This article presents a rank order for the common causes of facial pain that present diagnostic difficulty, such as temporomandibular joint pain, trigeminal neuralgia, giant cell arteritis, and post-herpetic neuralgia.

  6. Facial Emotional Classifier For Natural Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hupont, Isabelle; Cerezo, Eva; Baldassarri, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of emotional information is a key step toward giving computers the ability to interact more naturally and intelligently with people. We present a simple and computationally feasible method to perform automatic emotional classification of facial expressions. We propose the use of a set of characteristic facial points (that are part of the MPEG4 feature points) to extract relevant emotional information (basically five distances, presence of wrinkles in the eyebrow and mouth shap...

  7. Facial Expression Driven Mobile Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey S. Ingosan; Thelma D. Palaoag; Josephine S. Dela Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Processing human facial expressions is a computer vision challenge in a mobile technology environment. On the other hand, facial expression is an effective tool in behavioral studies on learning environment. Since, mobile technologies possess educating potential for todays generation, the introduction of behavior as a consideration for mobile user opens up many opportunities for the design and development of a mobile learning system that can cater personalized learning. This undertaking was ...

  8. Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy after Therapeutic Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal...

  9. Towards facial mimicry for a virtual human

    OpenAIRE

    Boukricha, Hana; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Reichardt, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Mimicking others’ facial expressions is believed to be important in making virtual humans as more natural and believable. As result of an empirical study conducted with a virtual human a large face repertoire of about 6000 faces arranged in Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD-) space with respect to two dominance values (dominant vs. submissive) was obtained. Each face in the face repertoire consists of different intensities of the virtual human’s facial muscle actions called Action Units (AUs), ...

  10. Facial Feature Point Detection: A Comprehensive Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive survey of facial feature point detection with the assistance of abundant manually labeled images. Facial feature point detection favors many applications such as face recognition, animation, tracking, hallucination, expression analysis and 3D face modeling. Existing methods can be categorized into the following four groups: constrained local model (CLM)-based, active appearance model (AAM)-based, regression-based, and other methods. CLM-ba...

  11. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    OpenAIRE

    ANITHA C,; M. K. Venkatesha; B SURYANARAYANA ADIGA

    2010-01-01

    Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - defi...

  12. Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Swindell, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ transplantation in general, but much stronger because the face is so closely link...

  13. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomograph...

  14. Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; de Castro, Jos Mara Bermdez; Martinn-Torres, Mara; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

  15. Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Hamedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest, happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ?a? like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It?s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

  16. Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in facial nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GD-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging was used to evaluate 11 patients with facial nerve paralysis (five acute idiopathic facial palsy (Bell palsy), three chronic recurrent facial palsy, one acute facial palsy after local radiation therapy, one chronic facial dyskinesia, and one facial neuroma). In eight of 11 patients, there was marked enhancement of the infratemporal facial nerve from the labyrinthine segment to the stylomastoid foramen. Two patients had additional contrast enhancement in the internal auditory canal segment. In one patient, enhancement persisted (but to a lesser degree) 8 weeks after symptoms had resolved. In one patient, no enhancement was seen 15 months after resolution of Bell palsy. The facial neuroma was seen as a focal nodular enhancement in the mastoid segment of the facial nerve

  17. Parlisis facial: siempre parlisis de Bell? / Facial paralysis: always Bell's palsy?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jonathan, Valdez Gonzlez; Francisco Jos, Romn Prez; Beatriz, Ponce Moreno; Elena, Prez Guerra; Vicente, Martn Daz.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La parlisis facial perifrica es un motivo de consulta relativamente frecuente en Atencin Primaria, afectando de forma similar a hombres y mujeres. La parlisis facial perifrica ms frecuente es la de causa idioptica o parlisis de Bell, en un 70% de los casos. Otras etiologas menos frecuentes [...] son los traumatismos, infeccin por virus o la posible causa neoplsica, ya sea por un tumor intracraneal o extracraneal. La sintomatologa clnica ms relevante es la afectacin de la musculatura facial existiendo una recuperacin completa hasta en el 80% de los casos. El tratamiento depende de la etiologa, siendo el ms aceptado para la parlisis de Bell el uso de corticoides. Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven con parlisis facial refractaria al tratamiento en Atencin Primaria. Abstract in english Peripheral facial paralysis is a relatively common reason for primary care consultations, affecting males and females similarly. The most common peripheral facial paralysis is that of idiopathic origin or Bell's palsy, in 70% of cases. Other less frequent aetiologies are injuries, viral infections o [...] r a possible neoplastic cause, whether from an intra-cranial or extra-cranial tumour. The most important clinical symptom is that affecting the facial muscles, with a full recovery in up to 80% of cases. Treatment is dependent on aetiology, with the most widely accepted being that for Bell's palsy; the use of corticosteroids. We present the case of a young female patient with refractory facial paralysis under primary healthcare treatment.

  18. The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

    2005-01-01

    We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of

  19. Restorative interventions for HIV facial lipoatrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Dianne; Liew, Steven; Emery, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual. Plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures can restore lost facial volume. Both biodegradable and permanent filling agents have been investigated for HIV facial lipoatrophy. Biodegradable products offer a good safety profile, but maintenance of aesthetic benefits necessitates reinjection over time. Although permanent products offer longevity and lower treatment costs, adverse events should they occur can be serious and of long duration. Despite the substantial increase in options for soft-tissue augmentation in recent years, well-performed clinical studies in HIV-infected adults with facial lipoatrophy are scarce, and long-term clinical safety data are lacking. This review will summarize available efficacy and safety data of the biodegradable and permanent agents utilized for soft-tissue augmentation in this population. Difficulties associated with comparing treatment efficacy data, assessment of facial lipoatrophy presence and severity, and measurement of facial fat will be discussed. Available data indicate that in HIV-infected adults, most filling agents have short-term clinically safety, and can provide aesthetic improvement and improve well-being, social functioning and quality of life. However, well-designed studies with objectively assessed endpoints are needed to elucidate optimal treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:18615122

  20. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    CERN Document Server

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  1. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W; Blthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

  2. Paralisia facial associada otite mdia aguda Facial paralysis associated with acute otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kaoru Yonamine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A otite mdia aguda com paralisia facial no uma associao muito freqente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a evoluo da paralisia facial decorrente de otite mdia aguda. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clnico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com esta associao de patologias, num total de 2758 casos de paralisa facial atendidos neste perodo no setor de distrbios do nervo facial. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente com dados epidemiolgicos, prognsticos e evolutivos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSO: A paralisia foi sbita em 95% dos casos. A recuperao foi de 85% para o grau I (House-Brackman e 15% para o grau II (House-Brackman. O tratamento foi clnico com antibitico e corticoterapia com bons resultados. Nos pacientes com mau prognstico eltrico a descompresso do nervo facial fez com que a evoluo fosse favorvel.Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is not a very frequent association. AIM: the goal of the present investigation was to asses the evolution of facial paralysis caused by acute otitis media. STUDY FORMAT: clinical-retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we studied 40 patients with this association, from a total of 2758 cases of facial paralysis seen during this time in the department of facial nerve disorders. All the patients were clinically assessed and had epidemiological data, prognostics and evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the paralysis was of sudden onset in 95% of the cases. Recovery was of 85% for grade I (House-Brackman and 15% for grade II (House-Brackman. Treatment was clinical, with antibiotics and steroids - yielding good results. In those patients with electrical bad prognosis, facial nerve decompression turned their evolution into a favorable one.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional facial scanners measurement accuracy for facial deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Sun, Yu-chun; Yang, Hui-fang; Lyu, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the measurement accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) facial scanners for facial deformity patients from oral clinic. Methods: 10 patients in different types of facial deformity from oral clinical were included. Three 3D digital face models for each patient were obtained by three facial scanners separately (line laser scanner from Faro for reference, stereophotography scanner from 3dMD and structured light scanner from FaceScan for test). For each patient, registration based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was executed to align two test models (3dMD data & Facescan data) to the reference models (Faro data in high accuracy) respectively. The same boundaries on each pair models (one test and one reference models) were obtained by projection function in Geomagic Stuido 2012 software for trimming overlapping region, then 3D average measurement errors (3D errors) were calculated for each pair models also by the software. Paired t-test analysis was adopted to compare the 3D errors of two test facial scanners (10 data for each group). 3D profile measurement accuracy (3D accuracy) that is integrated embodied by average value and standard deviation of 10 patients' 3D errors were obtained by surveying analysis for each test scanner finally. Results: 3D accuracies of 2 test facial scanners in this study for facial deformity were 0.44+/-0.08 mm and 0.43+/-0.05 mm. The result of structured light scanner was slightly better than stereophotography scanner. No statistical difference between them. Conclusions: Both test facial scanners could meet the accuracy requirement (0.5mm) of 3D facial data acquisition for oral clinic facial deformity patients in this study. Their practical measurement accuracies were all slightly lower than their nominal accuracies.

  4. Paralisia facial: anlise epidemiolgica em hospital de reabilitao Facial paralysis: epidemiological analysis in a rehabilitation hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ktia Torres Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: A paralisia facial a perda temporria ou permanente dos movimentos da mmica facial em decorrncia do acometimento do nervo facial. So vrios os fatores que influenciam a evoluo das leses do nervo facial. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos epidemiolgicos e a frequncia de sequelas aps paralisia facial em um servio de reabilitao. MTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes com paralisia facial atendidos em hospital de reabilitao no perodo de janeiro de 2001 a janeiro de 2005. As sequelas foram avaliadas quanto a sexo, idade, etiologia, graduao funcional conforme a escala de House-Brackmann, tempo de evoluo, seguimento e intervenes cirrgicas. Para realizao da anlise estatstica utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info verso 3.2.2. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos para programa de reabilitao 285 pacientes portadores de paralisia facial, sendo 157 do sexo masculino e 128 do feminino. Todos os pacientes se submeteram a programa de reabilitao e 29 (10,2%, a cirurgia. Dentre os pacientes analisados, 80% foram admitidos a partir da terceira semana do surgimento da paralisia, e 121 (42,5% tiveram recuperao gradual em 3 meses, espontaneamente, com tratamento clnico ou fisioterpico. Por outro lado, 119 (41,8% pacientes permaneceram com paralisia facial parcial ou completa e irreversvel. CONCLUSES: Os casos admitidos foram mais frequentes em pacientes com menos de 20 anos de idade, com causas diversas e quando admitidos em graus menores segundo a escala de House-Brackmann, pois muitos deles se associavam a dficits neurolgicos consequentes a paralisia facial de origem central ou congnita.BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is characterized by permanent or temporary loss of facial expression due to facial nerve injury. Several factors influence the development of facial nerve lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and incidence of sequelae after facial paralysis at a rehabilitation institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of facial paralysis patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between January 2001 and January 2005. Sequelae were analyzed according to gender, age, etiology, functional status as measured by the House-Brackmann scale, evaluation time, follow-up, and surgical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed with Epi-info 3.2.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 285 facial paralysis patients, 157 male and 128 female, were admitted for a rehabilitation program. All subjects followed a rehabilitation program, and 29 (10.2% underwent surgery; 80% were admitted during the 3rd week of the paralysis or later, and 121 (42.5% showed gradual recovery after 3 months, either spontaneously or after clinical or physical therapies. Nevertheless, 119 (41.8% sustained irreversible partial or complete facial paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of facial paralysis was greater among patients younger than 20 years. Among these patients, paralysis had different causes, and these patients were admitted with lower House-Brackmann grades. Most cases were associated with neurological deficits leading to facial paralysis of central or congenital origin.

  5. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lange

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

  6. 3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hyun Ung; Moon, Woong Jae [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease.

  7. 3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease

  8. An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However, the irradiated graft group had a greater proportion of patients with pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p = 0.007) and unfavorable type of nerve graft (p = 0.04). Although the irradiated graft cohort had more potentially negative prognostic factors, there was no difference in functional outcome (H-B Grade III or IV) between irradiated and unirradiated graft patients. H-B Grades III, IV, V, and VI were the best postoperative facial nerve functions achieved in 35%, 39%, 13%, and 13% of patients, respectively. The patient with preoperative radiotherapy never recovered any facial nerve function (H-B Grade VI). Median time to best facial nerve function after surgery was longer in the irradiated patients (13.1 vs. 10.8 months), but this was not statistically significant (p 0.10). Presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy (p = 0.005), duration of preoperative palsy (p = 0.003), and age greater than 60 years at the time of grafting (p = 0.04) were all negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve on univariate analysis. Analysis of age as a continuous variable (p = 0.12) and pathologic evidence of nerve invasion (p 0.1) revealed a trend toward negative prognostic factors. Gender, number of previous operations in the parotid bed, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, and type of grafting procedure were not significant prognostic factors. Whether radiotherapy was delivered less than 6 weeks after nerve grafting or more than 6 weeks had no impact on achievement of a functional facial nerve. Conclusion: Negative prognostic factors for achieving a functional facial nerve in our series include the presence of preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy, and age greater than 60 years. Radiotherapy was not a negative prognostic factor. Comparing irradiated and unirradiated grafts revealed no difference in best facial nerve function achieved, despite the presence of a greater proportion of negative prognostic factors in the irradiated group. Therefore, planned postoperative radiation therapy is not a contraindication to facial nerve grafting. Consideration for regeneration of the facial nerve should not influence the timing of postoperative radiotherapy, because early initiation of radiotherapy after facial nerve grafting did not have a deleterious effect on facial nerve function. However, the time required to attain best facial nerve function postoperatively may be slightly longer in irr

  9. Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda P. Khandait

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something about the humans emotions and mood. This paper focuses on the novel Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm (HFGA and comparative analysis of Facial Geometry algorithm and HFGA for facial feature extraction and its use to classify facial expressions. Feed forward back propagation neural network (BPNN and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS are used as classifiers for expression classification and recognition. Experimentations are carried out using Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. Experimental results shows that average recognition efficiency from 95.33% to 93.33% is achieved for 30 to 75 test samples using BPNN and 95.71% to 95.33% with ANFIS approach.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (often shortened to CCFDN ) ... definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is CCFDN? Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (CCFDN) is a rare ...

  11. A Study of Techniques for Facial Detection and Expression Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Hemalatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions is an important component for human-machine interfaces. It has lot of attraction in research area since 1990's.Although humans recognize face without effort or delay, recognition by a machine is still a challenge. Some of its challenges are highly dynamic in their orientation, lightening, scale, facial expression and occlusion. Applications are in the fields like user authentication, person identification, video surveillance, information security, data privacy etc. The various approaches for facial recognition are categorized into two namely holistic based facial recognition and feature based facial recognition. Holistic based treat the image data as one entity without isolating different region in the face where as feature based methods identify certain points on the face such as eyes, nose and mouth etc. In this paper, facial expression recognition is analyzed with various methods of facial detection,facial feature extraction and classification.

  12. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

  13. Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

  14. LBP and SIFT based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Omer; Gunes, Ece O.

    2015-02-01

    This study compares the performance of local binary patterns (LBP) and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) with support vector machines (SVM) in automatic classification of discrete facial expressions. Facial expression recognition is a multiclass classification problem and seven classes; happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear and comtempt are classified. Using SIFT feature vectors and linear SVM, 93.1% mean accuracy is acquired on CK+ database. On the other hand, the performance of LBP-based classifier with linear SVM is reported on SFEW using strictly person independent (SPI) protocol. Seven-class mean accuracy on SFEW is 59.76%. Experiments on both databases showed that LBP features can be used in a fairly descriptive way if a good localization of facial points and partitioning strategy are followed.

  15. Using infrared facial imagery for positive identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David C.

    1995-05-01

    Positive identification or verification of identity of an individual is a major part of the security, legal, banking, and police task of granting or denying authority to take an action. Work is being done using IR facial imaging and computer technology to perform the human recognition task rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively. Three basic principles have been demonstrated: every human IR facial image (or thermogram) is unique to that individual; an IR camera can be used to capture human thermograms; and captured thermograms can be digitized, stored, and matched using a computer and certain mathematical algorithms. A three- part development effort has been undertaken using IR facial recognition in an access control application. The first, an opertor assisted proof-of-concept effort, has been successfully completed. The second, an automated access control unit, has been completed and is undergoing independent testing in a simulated controlled access environment. Work on the third developmental effort is planned for this summer.

  16. Facial swelling in a sickle cell patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlieux, Tyler K; Jackson, Neal; Jeyakumar, Anita; Townsend, Janice A; Naik, Bijal V

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized as a chronic hemolytic anemia with vaso-occlusive crises that result in multisystem organ damage. Bone marrow is one of the more common sites of these crises, presumably due to marrow hypercellularity that impairs blood flow- leading to regional hypoxia and subsequent infarction. Infarcts of facial bones are considered an uncommon complication of SCD. When infarcts occur in facial bones, the mandible and orbital bones are the most commonly affected. Overall, the clinical presentation of facial bone infarctions may mimic an infectious process, such as cellulitis, an abscess, or, more commonly, osteomyelitis. The purpose of this paper was to present the case of a patient with a confluence of symptoms in the face as a result of her sickle cell disease. PMID:24960379

  17. Incidencia de las lesiones cutneas malignas faciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Zequeira Pea

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de las lesiones malignas de la piel facial en el Servicio de Ciruga Maxilofacial del Hospital "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagey en los aos 2000 y 2001. La informacin se obtuvo de 148 historias clnicas con el diagnstico de lesiones malignas de la piel, de las cuales 42 correspondieron a lesiones de localizacin facial. La entidad que nos ocupa fue mayor en pacientes mayores de 50 aos de edad, blancos, masculinos, con predominio en el tercio medio facial. Los principales tipos histolgicos fueron: el carcinoma basocelular y el espinocelular, pero con mayor predominio en el primero. Se revisa el tema y se comparan nuestros resultados con los de otros autores.

  18. Robust Automatic Facial Expression Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan OuYang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the recognition of occluded facial expressions attract more and more peoples attention. Sparse representation based classification (SRC method gives good performance on face recognition (FR and facial expression recognition (FER, well-known for its robustness to occlusion. Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG descriptors are very efficient to represent the shape information of different facial expressions and robust to various illumination. Since, this paper proposes a novel method by using HOG descriptors conjunction with SRC framework for FER. Experiment results show that the proposed method gives better performance than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is not only robust to assigned occlusions, but also to random occlusions.

  19. [Facial locoregional anesthetics: principles and precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, H; Lacroix, G; Cordier, A; Bey, E; Duhamel, P

    2009-12-01

    Facial locoregional anesthetics (ALR) with nervous blocks are simple and reliable to perform, need little technical resources with a very low iatrogenic risk. These blocks allow anesthesia without deforming wound banks using the same materials as usual local anesthetic procedures. Three principal nervous blocks, in a straight line along the vertical pupil axis, allow managing - even extensive - facial wounds. Few side effects may occur which can be easily prevented. It is a good alternative to local anesthetic for the treatment of extensive and deep areas which is performed with a lower number of injections and a high rate of success. These techniques are easy to learn and practise. These anesthetic techniques allow a nice treatment of different kinds of facial wounds from simple suture to flaps. PMID:19272691

  20. Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A Wainwright

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3?/? mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2?/? (recombination activating gene-2-deficient mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3?/? mice, but not in CCR3?/? mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

  1. Trigemino-solitarii-facial pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerari-Mailly, Fawzia; Buisseret, Pierre; Buisseret-Delmas, Catherine; Nosjean, Anne

    2005-06-27

    This study was undertaken to identify premotor neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) serving as relay neurons between the sensory trigeminal complex (STC) and the facial motor nucleus in rats. Trigemino-solitarii connections were first investigated following injections of anterograde and/or retrograde (biotinylated dextran amine, biocytin, or gold-HRP) tracers in STC or NTS. Trigemino-solitarii neurons were abundant in the ventral and dorsal parts of the STC and of moderate density in its intermediate part. They project throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the NTS with a strong lateral preponderance. Solitarii-trigeminal neurons were observed mostly in the rostral and rostrolateral NTS. They mainly project to the ventral and dorsal parts of the spinal trigeminal nucleus but not to the principal nucleus. Additional neurons located in the middle NTS were found to project exclusively to the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. No solitarii-trigeminal cells were observed in the caudal NTS. In addition, evidence was obtained of NTS retrogradely labeled neurons contacted by anterogradely labeled trigeminal terminals. Second, solitarii-facial projections were analyzed following injections of anterograde and retrograde tracers into the NTS and the facial nucleus, respectively. NTS neurons, except those of the rostrolateral part, reached the dorsal aspect of the facial nucleus. Finally, simultaneous injections of anterograde tracer in the STC and retrograde tracer in the facial nucleus gave retrogradely labeled neurons in the NTS receiving contacts from anterogradely labeled trigeminal boutons. Thus, the present data demonstrate for the first time the existence of a trigemino-solitarii-facial pathway. This could account for the involvement of the NTS in the control of orofacial motor behaviors. PMID:15880487

  2. Aspectos neurofisiolgicos da musculatura facial visando a reabilitao na paralisia facial / Neurophysiologic aspects of the facial musculature aiming at rehabilitation of Facial Paralysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Tessitore; Leopoldo Nisan, Pfelsticker; Jorge Rizzato, Paschoal.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: reviso terica dos aspectos e particularidades neurofisiolgicas relevantes da musculatura orofacial, visando a reabilitao na paralisia facial perifrica. MTODOS: reviso da literatura sobre neuro-anatomofisiologia da musculatura orofacial mediante pesquisa dos artigos dos peridicos n [...] acionais e internacionais e nos livros cientficos sobre o tema, no perodo entre 1995 a 2005. RESULTADOS: foram revistas 50 referncias neste trabalho. Destas, 20 sobre neurofisiologia, 14 sobre neuroanatomia. As demais sobre fonoaudiologia e paralisia facial. Os artigos de neurofisiologia e neuroanatomia estudados foram divididos em trs grupos: I - Aspectos do complexo neuromuscular; II - Caractersticas morfolgicas e histoqumicas dos msculos da face e III - Denervao e atrofia muscular. CONCLUSO: a partir dos achados, procurou-se sistematizar didaticamente as particularidades da neuro-anatomofisiologia, cujo conhecimento, na impresso dos autores, so relevantes para o sucesso na reabilitao da paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: theoretical review on the neurophysiologic aspects of the orofacial musculature, aiming at the rehabilitation of peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: review of the literature on neuroanatomicophysiology of orofacial musculature by means of researching articles of national and international [...] journals and in scientific books about the theme, in the period between 1995 and 2005. RESULTS: we have reviewed 50 references all along this work. Out of them, 20 on neurophysiology, and 14 on neuroanatomy. The others were on speech therapy and facial paralysis. The studied articles were divided in three groups: I. Aspects of the neuromuscular compound; II. Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of the face muscles and III. Denervation and muscular atrophy. CONCLUSION: from the findings, we managed to didactically systematize the particularities of the neuroanatomicophysiology, whose knowledge, under the author's point of view, is relevant for the success of the rehabilitation of facial paralysis.

  3. Cognitive factors associated with facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S M; Gramling, S E

    1997-07-01

    Most well-accepted etiological models of facial pain (e.g., temporomandibular disorders and headache) implicate emotional distress as an important factor in the development and maintenance of pain. Data exists to support the notion that some facial pain sufferers are more emotionally distressed than no pain controls. However, many of these dependent measures of emotional distress are either lengthy assessment batteries, lack clear cut psychotherapeutic treatment implications, or focus exclusively on pain related sequela. As cognitive-behavioral interventions become more integrated into the treatment of chronic pain conditions, including various facial pain conditions, it becomes more imperative that the tools used to assess psychological functioning provide the clinician with specific cognitive/behavioral targets for change. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which symptomatic treatment seeking facial pain sufferers (N = 25), symptomatic non-treatment seeking facial pain sufferers (N = 48), and healthy pain-free controls (N = 70) differed on the Rational Beliefs Inventory (RBI). The RBI is a reliable, valid questionnaire assessing rational beliefs that are operationalized within a Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) framework. RET is a cognitive-behavioral treatment paradigm that focuses on how an individual's maladaptive cognitive errors or distortions exacerbate emotional distress. Group differences were assessed using a oneway Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with the total RBI score serving as the dependent measure, and a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) using individual RBI belief subscales as dependent measures. These results indicated that groups differed significantly on the total score and several of the individual belief subscales. These findings indicated that facial pain sufferers generally hold maladaptive beliefs that may be of clinical significance for cognitive/behavioral treatment approaches. PMID:9586505

  4. What Really Decides the Facial Function of Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin; Moon, In Seok; Jeong, Jun hui; Lee, Hyung Rok; Lee, Won Sang

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To find the main cause of facial nerve dysfunction in vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery and review the prognosis of facial function in relation to tumor size, preoperative facial function and surgical approach. Methods We reviewed the surgical outcome of 134 patients with VS treated in our department between 1994 and 2008. All patients included in the study had postoperative facial paralysis after surgical management of their VS. There were 14 women and 7 men. The mean age was 48....

  5. Silent mastoiditis-tuberculous aetiology presenting as facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Karkera, Geetha V.; D. D. Shah

    2006-01-01

    We report an unusual case of sudden onset lower motor neuron facial palsy in a 30-year-old male. It was subsequently diagnosed to be caused by silent mastoiditis of tuberculous aetiology. The diagnosis was based on the histology of granulations found during facial nerve decompression. The facial palsy resolved after initiating anti-tubercular therapy and surgical decompression. Our case is an uncommon case of acute onset infranuclear facial palsy due to tuberculosis, in the absence of any ear...

  6. Gender and 3D Facial Symmetry: What's the Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Baiqiang; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Drira, Hassen; Daoudi, Mohamed; Ballihi, Lahoucine

    2013-01-01

    Although it is valuable information that human faces are approximately symmetric, in the literature of facial attributes recognition, little consideration has been given to the relationship between gender, age, ethnicity, etc. and facial asymmetry. In this paper we present a new approach based on bilateral facial asymmetry for gender classification. For that purpose, we propose to first capture the facial asymmetry by using Deformation Scalar Field (DSF) applied on each 3D face, then train su...

  7. Analysis of Facial Aesthetics as Applied to Injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M; Glasgold, Robert; Glasgold, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the role of volume loss in the aging face has resulted in a paradigm shift in facial rejuvenation techniques. Injectable materials for volume restoration are among the most widespread cosmetic procedures performed. A new approach to the aesthetics of facial aging is necessary to allow the greatest improvement from volumetric techniques while maintaining natural appearing results. Examining the face in terms of facial frames and facial shadows provides the fundamental basis for our injectable analysis. PMID:26441091

  8. Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua were created by morphing end-point...

  9. Impaired Perception of Facial Motion in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    OBrien, Justin; Spencer, Janine; Girges, Christine; Johnston, Alan; Hill, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Facial motion is a special type of biological motion that transmits cues for socio-emotional communication and enables the discrimination of properties such as gender and identity. We used animated average faces to examine the ability of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perceive facial motion. Participants completed increasingly difficult tasks involving the discrimination of (1) sequences of facial motion, (2) the identity of individuals based on their facial motion and (3) the...

  10. Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.Parthasarathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other proposed methods as shown in experiment results.

  11. Bioestimulacin facial con plasma rico en plaquetas / Facial biostimulation with platelet-rich plasma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique J., Moya Rosa; Yadira, Moya Corrales.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la bioestimulacin facial con plasma rico en plaquetas es un mtodo actual de rejuvenecimiento facial que entra dentro de las terapias regenerativas. Objetivo: mostrar el papel principal de la bioestimulacin como mtodo positivo en las caractersticas de la piel facial. Mtodos: se real [...] iz una revisin bibliogrfica de un total de 140 artculos originales publicados en Pubmed, Medline, Scielo y Google acadmico en los idiomas ingls y espaol mediante el gestor de referencias bibliogrficas Endnote x9, de ellos se utilizaron 48 citas seleccionadas para realizar la revisin. Desarrollo: el envejecimiento es un proceso muy complejo, donde el envejecimiento cutneo es una de sus manifestaciones ms evidentes, por lo que el cirujano plstico busca constantemente formas de lograr atenuar este proceso, una de estas alternativas es la infiltracin facial con plasma rico en plaquetas. Se describe la tcnica de procesamiento de la sangre para obtener el plasma rico en plaquetas y el mtodo empleado para la bioestimulacin facial. Indicaciones y contraindicaciones del proceder. Conclusiones: la bioestimulacin facial con plasma rico en plaquetas es un mtodo sencillo, libre de complicaciones dado que se trabaja con material autlogo, mediante el cual se logran cambios positivos en la piel. Abstract in english Background: facial biostimulation with platelet-rich plasma is a modern method for facial rejuvenation that is part of the regeneration therapies. Objective: to show the main role of biostimulation as a positive method for the characteristics of facial skin. Methods: a bibliographic review of 140 or [...] iginal articles published in Pubmed, Medline, Scielo and academic Google in English and Spanish, was made by means of the reference management software Endnote x9. Forty-eight citations were selected to make the review. Development: aging is a complex process and skin aging is one of its clearest manifestations; thats why, plastic surgeons are constantly looking for new ways to reduce this process. One of these alternatives is facial infiltration with platelet-rich plasma. The technique of processing blood to obtain platelets-rich plasma and the method used for facial biostimulation are described. Indications and contraindications of the procedure are also described. Conclusions: facial biostimulation with platelet-rich plasma is a simple, complications-free method since the procedure is made with an autologous by means of which positive changes in the skin are achieved.

  12. Management of the Eye in Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John J

    2016-02-01

    The preoperative assessment of the eye in facial paralysis is a critical component of surgical management. The degree of facial nerve paralysis, lacrimal secretion, corneal sensation, and lower eyelid position must be assessed accurately. Upper eyelid loading procedures are standard management of lagophthalmos. Lower eyelid tightening repositions the lower eyelid and helps maintain the aqueous tear film. Eyelid reanimation allows an aesthetic symmetry with blinking and restores protective functions vital to ocular preservation. Patients often have multiple nervous deficits, including corneal anesthesia. Other procedures include tarsorrhaphy, spring implantation, and temporalis muscle transposition; associated complications have rendered them nearly obsolete. PMID:26611698

  13. Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavlovicova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

  14. Facial bone scanning by emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-photon emission tomographic system was used to study the normal anatomy of the facial bones and the usefulness of emission computed tomography in evaluating diseases of the bones of the face. The examination was performed following routine bone scintigraphy and took an additional 20 to 30 min. The anatomy of the facial bones was well defined, with clear separation of deep and superficial structuress. Early experience with tumor, infection, bone grafts, and postirradiation osteonecrosis indicates that useful added diagnostic information can be obtained by this method

  15. Impaired overt facial mimicry in response to dynamic facial expressions in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-05-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in high-functioning individuals with ASD and controls to dynamic and static facial expressions of anger and happiness. Visual coding of facial muscle activity and the subjective impression ratings showed reduced congruent responses to dynamic expressions in the ASD group. Additionally, this decline was related to social dysfunction. These results suggest that impairment in overt facial mimicry in response to others' dynamic facial expressions may underlie difficulties in reciprocal social interaction among individuals with ASD. PMID:25374131

  16. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  17. Facial nerve palsy associated with Rickettsia conorii infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsori, M; Galanakis, E.; Papadakis, C; Sbyrakis, S

    2001-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy has been occasionally attributed to infectious agents, but Rickettsiae species have not been documented as causative agents. We report two adolescent girls with facial nerve palsy and serological evidence of R conorii infection. These cases indicate that rickettsioses should be included among the causes of facial nerve palsy, particularly in endemic areas.



  18. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that...

  20. Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph B.; Rajshekhar V

    2002-01-01

    Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

  1. Vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodsi Mohammad; Gheini Mohammadreza; Eftekhar Behzad; Ketabchi Ebrahim

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) most commonly presents with ipsilateral disturbances of acoustic, vestibular, trigeminal and facial nerves. Presentation of vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain is quite uncommon. Case presentation Among 156 cases of operated vestibular schwannoma, we found one case with unusual presentation of contralateral hemifacial pain. Conclusion The presentation of contralateral facial pain in the vestibular schwannoma is rare...

  2. A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juebo Wu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of facial expression feature and the relationship between them based on cloud model, including the new method of facial expression synthesis with the uncertainty. It proposes the method of facial expression feature synthesis by cloud model, using the three numerical characteristics (Expectation, Entropy and Hyper Entropy as the features and concepts of facial expression with its fuzziness, randomness and certain relevance in them. Through such three numerical characteristics, it introduces the framework of facial expression synthesis and the detail procedures based on cloud model. It puts forward the synthesis method of facial expression and gives the concrete realization and the implementation process. The facial expressions after synthesis can express the different expressions for one person, and it can meet a variety of demands for facial expression. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective in facial expression synthesis.

  3. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Basir Hashemi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma is a rare tumor. Case report: In this article we presented two cases of intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma. In two cases tumor presented with asymptomatic parotid mass that mimic pleomorphic adenoma. No preoperative facial nerve dysfunction in cases is detected. Diagnostic result and surgical management are discussed in this paper.

  4. Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

  5. Dento-facial proportions analysis of maxillary anterior teeth in Khuisf dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Esnaashari Esfahani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shape and size of upper anterior teeth are important in dental and facial beauty. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between dental and facial indexes and to evaluate whether there is a golden ratio and its relationship with the proportions measured.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, digital images of 34 female and 30 male dental students were taken at maximum smile in a similar manner. Then the images were assessed with Photoshop CS5 and ACDSee computer programs and measurements were made with AutoCAD 2011 software. Data was analyzed with independent t-test and means were compared with a constant.Results: The entire variable means did not demonstrate any significant differences between males and females (p value > 0.05. The inter-pupillary to inter-canine distance ratio did not reveal any significant differences with the golden proportion of 1.618 between males and females (p value > 0.05. Only the ratios of inter-pupillary, inter-canthus and inter-zygomatic distances to maxillary central widths in females, and the ratios of inter-zygomatic and inter-alar distances to maxillary central widths in males were not significant.Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, it was concluded that dento-facial proportions are not significantly different between males and females and the golden ratio applies in the inter-pupillary to apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth proportion. Facial indices are appropriate measures to measure the apparent width of anterior maxillary teeth and can be used as a standard for Iranian dentists and surgeons. Key words: Anterior teeth, Dental position, Diastema, Proportion.

  6. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general.

  7. An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic ratios and"nsizes, among Canadian and Isfahanian young adults, the results obtained from Canadian race, should not"nbe applied as a criteria for Iranian surgical and dental treatment plans. Due to the wide racial"ncombinations in Iran, more studies, with wider variations, should be conducted among different Iranian"nraces.

  8. Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellies Maik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

  9. Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity

  10. Analysis of facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-ling Zhou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to provide an objective observational index for facial neuritis, the authors monitored the changes of facial far-infrared thermogram in patients with acute facial neuritis.Methods: A total of 23 patients with acute facial neuritis were enrolled from Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Chinese PLA General Hospital. Another 21 healthy participants were selected as the control group. Focal plane thermal imaging system (thermal sensitivity 0.05 ? was applied to collect facial far-infrared thermogram. Temperature differences in the thermogram of both sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead of the same patient were compared separately and statistically and analyzed by software provided by the imaging system.Results: Results of far-infrared thermography of the patients displayed obvious temperature differences ranging from 0.01 to 0.26 ? between two sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead areas. In the control group, far-infrared thermogram showed that there were no obvious temperature differences between two sides of the cheeks, inner canthus, supraorbitals and forehead. There were significant differences in temperature difference in the four monitoring areas between the two groups (P<0.01. Among the 23 patients, there were 14 patients with congestive change, 7 with ischemic change and 2 with both congestive and ischemic changes.Conclusion: The facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis is characterized mainly by congestive changes. Far-infrared thermography can objectively reflect the changes of blood-supply status in patients with facial neuritis.

  11. Modeling emotionnal facial expressions and their dynamics for realistic interactive facial animation on virtual characters

    OpenAIRE

    Stoiber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    In all computer-graphics applications, one stimulating task has been the integration of believable virtual characters. Above all other features of a character, its face is arguably the most important one since it concentrates the most essential channels of human communication. The road toward more realistic virtual characters inevitably goes through a better understanding and reproduction of natural facial expressiveness. In this work we focus on emotional facial expressions, which we believe...

  12. Hybrid Facial Geometry Algorithm for facial feature Extraction and Expression Recognition using ANFIS and BPNN

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda P. Khandait; Thool, R. C.; Prabhakar D. Khandait

    2013-01-01

    An Intelligent Biometrics systems aims at localizing and detecting human faces from supplied images so that further recognition of persons and their facial expression recognition will be easy. The area of human-computer interaction (HCI) will be much more effective if a computer is able to recognize the emotional state of human being. Emotional states have a greater effect on the face which can tell about mood of a person. So if we can recognize facial expressions, we will know something abou...

  13. O to Z flaps in facial reconstructions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara Alcntara, Luna; Manuel Perea, Cejudo; Francisco Manuel Ildefonso, Mendona; Francisco M. Camacho, Martnez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Local flaps are the standard procedure to reconstruct facial defects. As it occurs in any surgical procedure, the incision should be planned so that scars are located in the minimum skin tension lines. We report two cases of O to Z flaps in the supra and infraciliary regions. One of them is a hatche [...] t flap.

  14. Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and

  15. Leiomioma facial: Presentacin de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Garca-Roco Prez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de leiomioma facial. Hasta el 2002 se haban reportado aproximadamente 70 casos en la regin bucal y maxilofacial. Teniendo en cuenta la escasa frecuencia de esta entidad, se consider de inters aportar un nuevo caso, comentando los aspectos clnicos e histopatolgicos. Se realiz una revisin del tema. Se presenta una paciente femenina con diagnstico de leiomioma facial diagnosticada clnica e histolgicamente en el Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirrgico Docente "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagey y que fue tratada quirrgicamente en dicha institucin.A case of facial leiomyoma is reported in this paper. Approximately 70 cases had been reported in the oral and maxillofacial regions until the year 200e. Taking into account the causistry of leiomyoma, we decided to present a new case making comments on clinical and histopathological aspects and to make a literature review in this regard. Here is the case of a female patient diagnosed with facial leiomyoma by clinical and histological means at "Manuel Ascunce" teaching clinical-surgical hospital in Camaguey province where she was also surgically treated.

  16. Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Mangla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak?s ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group.

  17. Evaluation of mandibular morphology in different facial types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, Rajat; Singh, Navjot; Dua, Vinay; Padmanabhan, Prajeesh; Khanna, Mannu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular morphology in different facial types using various parameters. This study was conducted on lateral cephalograms of a total of 110 subjects, which included 55 males and 55 females between the age of 18-25 years having a mean of 22.3 years for males and 21.5 years for females. The sample was divided into normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent subgroups based on Jarabak's ratio. Symphysis height, depth, ratio (height/depth) and angle, antegonial notch depth, ramal height and width, mandibular depth, upper, lower, and total gonial angle, and mandibular arc angle were analyzed statistically and graphically. It was found that the mandible with the vertical growth pattern was associated with a symphysis with large height, small depth, large ratio, small angle, decreased ramus height and width, smaller mandibular depth, increased gonial angle, and decreased mandibular arc angle in contrast to mandible with a horizontal growth pattern. Sexual dichotomy was found with mean symphysis height and depth in the female sample being smaller than in the male sample, but symphysis ratio was larger in the female sample; males having greater ramus height and width, mandibular depth than females. The mandible seemed to have retained its infantile characteristics with all its processes underdeveloped in hyperdivergent group. PMID:22090764

  18. Facial reanimations: part I-recent paralyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglioli, F

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral facial paralysis is a common condition: 1 in every 60 people will experience Bell's palsy during the course of their life, and the residual deficits are particularly problematic for those who do not spontaneously recover the function of the facial nerve. Functionally the most relevant defect is lack of corneal lubrication because of inability to close the eyelid or blink. Morphologically, this presents as obvious ptosis caused by absence of the muscle tone at rest. "Restitutio ad integrum" of a paralysed face by operation is currently impossible, but realistic targets are improvement of facial symmetry and partial recovery of closure of the eyelids and smiling. Movements of the forehead and lower lip tend to be neglected targets for intervention because they are of less functional importance. Recent paralyses are those in which the mimetic musculature may be reactivated by provision of neural input, and the time limit is generally 18-24 months. Electromyography helps to detect it by assessing the presence of muscular fibrillations. If those are not detectable paralyses are considered to be long-standing, and new musculature must be transferred into the face, generally by transplantation of a muscular free flap or of the temporalis muscle in several different ways. When the facial nerve has been severed by trauma or during operation, immediate reconstruction must be considered and the simplest and most efficient is direct neurorrhaphy. If an appreciable part of the nerve is missing and the proximal and distal nerve stumps do not meet, an interpositional nerve graft must be placed to guarantee neural continuity. When reconstruction of the total extracranial branch of the facial nerve is required, the thoracodorsal nerve has proved to be highly effective. In case immediate reconstruction cannot be accomplished and the trunk of the facial nerve is not available as a donor nerve, mimetic musculature may be reactivated by provision of new neural input. Strong inputs from the masseteric or hypoglossus nerves may be mixed with those that arise from branches of the contralateral facial nerve after 2 cross-face nerve grafts have been placed, and good functional recovery is generally obtained. Several ancillary procedures are required to improve the end results in most cases. PMID:26188934

  19. FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS ASSESSMENT USING ILLUSTRATED QUESTIONNAIRERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mesaros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An attractive facial appearance is considered nowadays to be a decisive factor in establishing successful interactions between humans. In relation to this topic, scientific literature states that some of the facial features have more impact then others, and important authors revealed that certain proportions between different anthropometrical landmarks are mandatory for an attractive facial appearance. Aim. Our study aims to assess if certain facial features count differently in peoples opinion while assessing facial attractiveness in correlation with factors such as age, gender, specific training and culture. Material and methods. A 5-item multiple choice illustrated questionnaire was presented to 236 dental students. The Photoshop CS3 software was used in order to obtain the sets of images for the illustrated questions. The original image was handpicked from the internet by a panel of young dentists from a series of 15 pictures of people considered to have attractive faces. For each of the questions, the images presented were simulating deviations from the ideally symmetric and proportionate face. The sets of images consisted in multiple variations of deviations mixed with the original photo. Junior and sophomore year students from our dental medical school, having different nationalities were required to participate in our questionnaire. Simple descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Results. Assessing the results obtained from the questionnaire it was observed that a majority of students considered as unattractive the overdevelopment of the lower third, while the initial image with perfect symmetry and proportion was considered as the most attractive by only 38.9% of the subjects. Likewise, regarding the symmetry 36.86% considered unattractive the canting of the inter-commissural line. The interviewed subjects considered that for a face to be attractive it needs to have harmonious proportions between the different facial elements. Conclusions. Considering an evaluation of facial attractiveness it is important to keep in mind that such assessment is subjective and influenced by multiple factors, among which the most important are cultural background and specific training.

  20. Teaching 3D sculpting to facial plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, C; Oghan, F

    2011-11-01

    This article describes the authors' course, which takes facial plastic surgeons through specific exercises to demonstrate the esthetic impact of 3D manipulations of the nose and face. The course components are described, which include 3D assessment, exercises in manual dexterity, and improving imagination in sculpting facial and nasal features for the optimal esthetic result and match to a given facial shape. The overlap and relationship between a course in 3D sculpting in facial plastic surgery and current 3D tools for design and image analysis being used for facial plastic surgery are discussed. PMID:22004855

  1. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication. PMID:11708727

  2. Eletromiografia de superfcie em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial perifrica Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fontes Ferreira Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiogrfica dos msculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomticos, orbicular da boca em indivduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o ndice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superfcie, seis indivduos sem histrico de alterao na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial perifrica. Para a avaliao eletromiogrfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforo mximo: elevao da testa, fechamento de olhos, protruso labial e retrao labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivduos normais a mdia dos potenciais eletromiogrficos para ambos os lados da face semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial fundamental para o equilbrio da mmica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a mdia dos potenciais eletromiogrficos para ambos os lados da face significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervao neural. CONCLUSO: os resultados eletromiogrficos mostraram diferena estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial.PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients were evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles. CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

  3. Eletromiografia de superfcie em pacientes portadores de paralisia facial perifrica / Surface electromyography in peripheral facial paralysis patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniele Fontes Ferreira, Bernardes; Maria Valria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a atividade eletromiogrfica dos msculos frontal, orbicular dos olhos, zigomticos, orbicular da boca em indivduos normais e pacientes portadores de paralisia facial e o ndice de simetria entre os dois lados da face. MTODOS: foram avaliados por meio da eletromiografia de superf [...] cie, seis indivduos sem histrico de alterao na musculatura facial e seis pacientes com paralisia facial perifrica. Para a avaliao eletromiogrfica foram solicitados os seguintes movimentos (ao esforo mximo): elevao da testa, fechamento de olhos, protruso labial e retrao labial. RESULTADOS: encontrou-se que em indivduos normais a mdia dos potenciais eletromiogrficos para ambos os lados da face semelhante, demonstrando que a integridade do nervo facial fundamental para o equilbrio da mmica facial. Nos pacientes com paralisia facial a mdia dos potenciais eletromiogrficos para ambos os lados da face significativamente diferente (evidenciando a falta de inervao neural). CONCLUSO: os resultados eletromiogrficos mostraram diferena estatisticamente significante entres os dois lados da face nos indivduos normais e nos pacientes com paralisia facial. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study the surface electromyographic activity of frontal, orbicular occuli, orbicular oris and zigomatycs muscles in normal subjects and in peripheral facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six volunteers with no facial paralysis history as well as six peripheral facial paralysis patients we [...] re evaluated with electromyography using superficial electrodes. Maximum effort muscle activity and symmetry index were measured for the voluntary movements such as: raising eyebrows, eyes closing, smiling, puckering lips. RESULTS: it was found out that in normal subjects the muscle activity values were similar between the two sides of the face, showing that the facial nerve integrity is fundamental to the balance of facial mimics. In facial paralysis patients, the mean electromyographic values for both sides of the face were significantly different (evidencing the lack of facial nerve information to the muscles). CONCLUSION: the electromyographic results showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides of the face in the normal subjects and in facial paralysis patients.

  4. Fetal facial expression in response to intravaginal music emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garca-Faura, lex; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This study compared fetal response to musical stimuli applied intravaginally (intravaginal music [IVM]) with application via emitters placed on the mothers abdomen (abdominal music [ABM]). Responses were quantified by recording facial movements identified on 3D/4D ultrasound. One hundred and six normal pregnancies between 14 and 39 weeks of gestation were randomized to 3D/4D ultrasound with: (a) ABM with standard headphones (flute monody at 98.6?dB); (b) IVM with a specially designed device emitting the same monody at 53.7?dB; or (c) intravaginal vibration (IVV; 125?Hz) at 68?dB with the same device. Facial movements were quantified at baseline, during stimulation, and for 5 minutes after stimulation was discontinued. In fetuses at a gestational age of >16 weeks, IVM-elicited mouthing (MT) and tongue expulsion (TE) in 86.7% and 46.6% of fetuses, respectively, with significant differences when compared with ABM and IVV (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.004, respectively). There were no changes from baseline in ABM and IVV. TE occurred ?5 times in 5 minutes in 13.3% with IVM. IVM was related with higher occurrence of MT (odds ratio?=?10.980; 95% confidence interval?=?3.10547.546) and TE (odds ratio?=?10.943; 95% confidence interval?=?2.56877.037). The frequency of TE with IVM increased significantly with gestational age (p?=?0.024). Fetuses at 1639 weeks of gestation respond to intravaginally emitted music with repetitive MT and TE movements not observed with ABM or IVV. Our findings suggest that neural pathways participating in the auditorymotor system are developed as early as gestational week 16. These findings might contribute to diagnostic methods for prenatal hearing screening, and research into fetal neurological stimulation. PMID:26539240

  5. A novel human-machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multichannel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Fron-tails and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passes through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs. rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. (author)

  6. Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stewart Bartlett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dynamics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. The system automatically detects frontal faces in the video stream and coded each frame with respect to 20 Action units. The approach applies machine learning methods such as support vector machines and AdaBoost, to texture-based image representations. The output margin for the learned classifiers predicts action unit intensity. Frame-by-frame intensity measurements will enable investigations into facial expression dynamics which were previously intractable by human coding.

  7. Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003. The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances.

  8. Second to fourth digit ratio and face shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Grammer, Karl; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Gunz, Philipp; Schaefer, Katrin; Bookstein, Fred L; Manning, John T

    2005-10-01

    The average human male face differs from the average female face in size and shape of the jaws, cheek-bones, lips, eyes and nose. It is possible that this dimorphism is determined by sex steroids such as testosterone (T) and oestrogen (E), and several studies on the perception of such characteristics have been based on this assumption, but those studies focussed mainly on the relationship of male faces with circulating hormone levels; the corresponding biology of the female face remains mainly speculative. This paper is concerned with the relative importance of prenatal T and E levels (assessed via the 2D : 4D finger length ratio, a proxy for the ratio of T/E) and sex in the determination of facial form as characterized by 64 landmark points on facial photographs of 106 Austrians of college age. We found that (i) prenatal sex steroid ratios (in terms of 2D : 4D) and actual chromosomal sex dimorphism operate differently on faces, (ii) 2D : 4D affects male and female face shape by similar patterns, but (iii) is three times more intense in men than in women. There was no evidence that these effects were confounded by allometry or facial asymmetry. Our results suggest that studies on the perception of facial characteristics need to consider differential effects of prenatal hormone exposure and actual chromosomal gender in order to understand how characteristics have come to be rated 'masculine' or 'feminine' and the consequences of these perceptions in terms of mate preferences. PMID:16191608

  9. Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous analysis and symptom correlation of the fracture patterns seen in facial nerve canal injury in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy is helpful for treatment planning and prognosis

  10. Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Hyun Min; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous analysis and symptom correlation of the fracture patterns seen in facial nerve canal injury in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy is helpful for treatment planning and prognosis.

  11. Investigation of internal radionuclide contamination from the analysis of nasal swabs and facial swipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasal swabs and facial swipes have been used to screen potential internal radioactive contamination for decades. However, the ratio between the lung intake and the activity on a swab or a swipe varies according to the nature of the contaminant involved and the exposure conditions such as particle sizes of the contaminant and the humidity in the air. This paper reports the experimental results using stable La2O3 as an analog for actinide oxides, focusing on the most important parameters such as humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition at a fixed room temperature of 23 2 deg C. The results showed that the effects of humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition vary more on orofacial swipe/lung deposition ratios compared to nasal swab/lung deposition ratios. The amounts on nasal swabs tended to show smaller change with respect to parameters such as plume velocity, humidity, and skin moisture. The amounts on orofacial swipes varied by a factor of 10-15 among the samples collected across all parameters. Such variability would be expected to be even greater in a real-world scenario with a larger range of physiological and environmental conditions. (author)

  12. CHILDREN'S AND ADULTS' JUDGMENTS OF FACIAL TRUSTWORTHINESS: THE RELATIONSHIP TO FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2015-08-01

    Existing research suggests that adults make effective trustworthiness judgments based on facial attractiveness during initial interactions. However, little is known about how children judge trustworthiness from faces. The present study examined the facial features that contributed to judgments of trustworthiness and attractiveness by three groups of Chinese children aged 8 years old (n=34; 17 boys), 10 years old (n=34; 17 boys), and 12 years old (n = 34; 17 boys) and a comparison group of 37 undergraduates (M age=20.2 yr.; 16 men). Using FaceGen Modeler 3.1, a total of 400 East Asian adult faces (200 male, 200 female) portraying neutral emotions with direct gazes were generated. The faces were represented by 61 shape features and were presented for a maximum of 3,000 msec. in the center of the computer screen in randomized order. The participants were asked to judge whether each person was trustworthy and to rate the level of trustworthiness; 1 month later, the attractiveness of the same faces was judged using a similar procedure. The children and the adults used similar facial features to judge trustworthiness (e.g., the brow ridge, nose, and chin). Some of the facial features used by the different age groups as the basis for the trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments were similar. Facial attractiveness accounted for roughly 30 to 60% of the variance in the groups' trustworthiness judgments. Thus, facial attractiveness may serve as a heuristic property that signals trustworthiness and guides adaptive social decisions. More importantly, even children as young as 8 years old use a strategy similar to that of adults to make trustworthiness judgments, although some differences in the use of specific facial features were observed among the age groups. PMID:26108060

  13. MR findings of facial nerve on oblique sagittal MRI using TMJ surface coil: normal vs peripheral facial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the findings of normal facial nerve, as seen on oblique sagittal MRI using a TMJ (temporomandibular joint) surface coil, and then to evaluate abnormal findings of peripheral facial nerve palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of 20 patients with peripheral facial palsy and 50 normal facial nerves of 36 patients without facial palsy. All underwent oblique sagittal MRI using a T MJ surface coil. We analyzed the course, signal intensity, thickness, location, and degree of enhancement of the facial nerve. According to the angle made by the proximal parotid segment on the axis of the mastoid segment, course was classified as anterior angulation (obtuse and acute, or buckling), straight and posterior angulation. Among 50 normal facial nerves, 24 (48%) were straight, and 23 (46%) demonstrated anterior angulation; 34 (68%) showed iso signal intensity on T1W1. In the group of patients, course on the affected side was either straight (40%) or showed anterior angulation (55%), and signal intensity in 80% of cases was isointense. These findings were similar to those in the normal group, but in patients with post-traumatic or post-operative facial palsy, buckling, of course, appeared. In 12 of 18 facial palsy cases (66.6%) in which contrast materials were administered, a normal facial nerve of the opposite facial canal showed mild enhancement on more than one segment, but on the affected side the facial nerve showed diffuse enhancement in all 14 patients with acute facial palsy. Eleven of these (79%) showed fair or marked enhancement on more than one segment, and in 12 (86%), mild enhancement of the proximal parotid segment was noted. Four of six chronic facial palsy cases (66.6%) showed atrophy of the facial nerve. When oblique sagittal MR images are obtained using a TMJ surface coil, enhancement of the proximal parotid segment of the facial nerve and fair or marked enhancement of at least one segment within the facial canal always suggests pathology of the facial nerve. The use of this modality, together with the coil, is, therefore, an effective complementary technique for the evaluation of a facial nerve. (author)

  14. MR findings of facial nerve on oblique sagittal MRI using TMJ surface coil: normal vs peripheral facial nerve palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ok; Lee, Myeong Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeong Hyun [Dongdaemoon Hospital, College of Medicine, Ewha Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the findings of normal facial nerve, as seen on oblique sagittal MRI using a TMJ (temporomandibular joint) surface coil, and then to evaluate abnormal findings of peripheral facial nerve palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of 20 patients with peripheral facial palsy and 50 normal facial nerves of 36 patients without facial palsy. All underwent oblique sagittal MRI using a T MJ surface coil. We analyzed the course, signal intensity, thickness, location, and degree of enhancement of the facial nerve. According to the angle made by the proximal parotid segment on the axis of the mastoid segment, course was classified as anterior angulation (obtuse and acute, or buckling), straight and posterior angulation. Among 50 normal facial nerves, 24 (48%) were straight, and 23 (46%) demonstrated anterior angulation; 34 (68%) showed iso signal intensity on T1W1. In the group of patients, course on the affected side was either straight (40%) or showed anterior angulation (55%), and signal intensity in 80% of cases was isointense. These findings were similar to those in the normal group, but in patients with post-traumatic or post-operative facial palsy, buckling, of course, appeared. In 12 of 18 facial palsy cases (66.6%) in which contrast materials were administered, a normal facial nerve of the opposite facial canal showed mild enhancement on more than one segment, but on the affected side the facial nerve showed diffuse enhancement in all 14 patients with acute facial palsy. Eleven of these (79%) showed fair or marked enhancement on more than one segment, and in 12 (86%), mild enhancement of the proximal parotid segment was noted. Four of six chronic facial palsy cases (66.6%) showed atrophy of the facial nerve. When oblique sagittal MR images are obtained using a TMJ surface coil, enhancement of the proximal parotid segment of the facial nerve and fair or marked enhancement of at least one segment within the facial canal always suggests pathology of the facial nerve. The use of this modality, together with the coil, is, therefore, an effective complementary technique for the evaluation of a facial nerve. (author)

  15. Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gianluca M., Tartaglia; Gaia, Grandi; Fabrizio, Mian; Chiarella, Sforza; Virgilio F., Ferrario.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could i [...] nduce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

  16. Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca M. Tartaglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches and extraoral (face morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

  17. Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis by Means of Linear and Angular Measurements in an Adolescent Persian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Fathinejad, Sheida; Pakizeh, Zeinab; Shamsa, Mohammad; Golkari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To obtain objective average measurements of the profile and frontal facial soft tissue to be used as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. Methods and Materials : This observational study included 110 females and 130 males high school students aged 16-18 years. None of the subjects had any facial deformities. All of them and their parents gave consent to take part in this study. In each case, two standard photographs of profile and frontal views were taken 27 landmarks were digitized on photographs. The mean, standard deviation, and range for a total of 43 facial indices were calculated digitally by computer software. The Students t-test was used to compare males and females. Results : The ratio between the lower and middle facial thirds was one to one, but the height of the upper facial third was proportionally smaller than the other two-thirds in both sexes. Boys had greater nasal length, depth, and prominence than girls with statistically significant differences. Both upper and lower lips were more prominent in girls than in boys. All measurements of the chin showed sexual dimorphism characterized by greater chin height and prominence and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Boys had greater facial dimensions than girls. Mouth width, nasal base width, and intercanthal distance were significantly greater in boys. Conclusion : The labial, nasal, and chin areas showed sexual dimorphism in most of the parameters used in this study. Boys had larger faces, greater facial heights, longer nasal, labial, and chin lengths, and greater nasal, labial, and chin prominence. PMID:26464606

  18. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

  19. Inflammatory peripheral facial nerve palsy. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In inflammatory peripheral facial nerve palsy pathologically intense, linear and smooth enhancement of the distal intrameatal nerve segment can always be observed on T1-w- SE- MR sequences. The other nerve segments often present with a pathological enhancement as well. On T2-w- SE sequences, a thickening of the distal intrameatal nerve segment can be observed. The pathological enhancement persists over weeks and months; even in patients with complete clinical recovery, a persistent enhancement of the distal intrameatal nerve segment can be demonstrated. No correlation can be established between the intensity of the enhancement, the clinical condition and the electrophysiological data on electroneurography. The persistent enhancement of the different nerve segments is due to a longlasting breakdown of the blood-peripheral nerve-barrier related to the process of degeneration and regeneration of the facial nerve in inflammatory palsy. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of hemihypoglossal-facial nerve transposition with a cross-facial nerve graft and muscle transplant for the rehabilitation of facial paralysis using the facial clima method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Vila, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To compare quantitatively the results obtained after hemihypoglossal nerve transposition and microvascular gracilis transfer associated with a cross facial nerve graft (CFNG) for reanimation of a paralysed face, 66 patients underwent hemihypoglossal transposition (n = 25) or microvascular gracilis transfer and CFNG (n = 41). The commissural displacement (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) in the two groups were compared using the system known as Facial clima. There was no inter-group variability between the groups (p > 0.10) in either variable. However, intra-group variability was detected between the affected and healthy side in the transposition group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively). The transfer group had greater symmetry in displacement of the commissure (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) than the transposition group and patients were more satisfied. However, the transposition group had correct symmetry at rest but more asymmetry of CCV and CD when smiling. PMID:22455573

  1. Clinic-Radiological Study of facial paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have gathered 159 cases of facial paralysis from recent records in our hospital, including paralyses of central as well as peripheral origin, and presenting as the only symptom or as one of several major symptoms of the discomfort of each patient. Sixty-four percent of them were studied by CT scan and/or MR, confirming the existence of alterations in the pathway of nerve pair VII in 50% of the patients who underwent radiological study. Idiopathic facial paralysis was the most common type (42% of the total); while tumors and post-traumatic findings were the most constant radiological findings. From the analysis of the data, the importance of the clinical criteria for selection of the patients in the study and the protocol for radiological diagnosis employed can be deduced. (author)

  2. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  3. A CLINICAL STUDY OF MICRODERMABRASION WITH VITAMIN C SERUM FOR FACIAL MELANOSES AND REJUVENATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the effectiveness of microdermabrasion with Vitamin C serum for facial melanoses, superficial rhytides and rejuvenation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were included in the study. Microdermabrasion was done on the face with machine pressure of 20mm of mercury. The face was wiped with saline soaked guaze and dried. One ml of Vitamin c serum with 15% concentration applied with droplet to entire face. The procedure was repeated at an interval of 15 days for 4 sittings. Photographs were taken and compared with patients visual satisfaction and treating dermatologists assessment before 1 st sitting of the procedure and at the end of 4 th sitting. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: A total of thirty patients were included in the study and followed up for a period of two months. Male to female ratio was 3:7. The age of the patients ranged between 20 years and 35 years, with majority of them in the age group of 31 - 35 years. Among 15 patients with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation the treatment was not effective in 6 patients and mildly effective in 9 patients. Among 9 patients with photomelanoses the treatment was not effective in 3 patients and mildly effective in 6 patients. Among 3 patients each with superficial rhytides and facial rejuvenation moderately good effectiveness of the treatment was observed in 2 patients and 1 patient with superficial rhytides and facial rejuvenation respectively. Excellent result was obtained in 1 patient and 2 patients with superficial rhytides and facial rejuvenation respectively. CONCLUSION: MDA with Vitamin C serum is effective in the management of superficial rhytides and facial rejuvenation and it is either ineffective or only mildly effective in patients with post inflammatory hyperpigmentation and photomelanoses. .

  4. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site. PMID:26143295

  5. Tcnicas de confeccin de prtesis faciales Techniques used for making of facial prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Las prtesis faciales constituyen parte integrante de la rehabilitacin de pacientes que sufrieron daos en la cara, sea de origen patolgica, traumtica o congnita. Aunque el xito del tratamiento con prtesis faciales est asociado con la capacidad artstica del profesional en reproducir las estructuras perdidas, no se puede descuidar la buena adaptabilidad de las prtesis en cuanto a la asociacin de materiales y tcnicas empleadas para la confeccin de prtesis buco-maxilofaciales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, mediante la revisin de la literatura, mostrar los principales conceptos relacionados con las tcnicas de confeccin de prtesis faciales y asociar nuestra experiencia clnica con el pronstico de las prtesisFacial prostheses are a integral part of rehabilitation of patients underwent face damages, being of pathologic, traumatic or congenital origin. Although success of treatment with facial prostheses is associated with artistic ability of professional to reproduce lost structures, we can not to obviate the good adaptability of prostheses regards association of material and techniques used to make buccomaxillofacial prostheses.

  6. Looking with different eyes: The psychological meaning of categorisation goals moderates facial reactivity to facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Lotte F; Harris, Lasana T; van Dijk, Wilco W; Rotteveel, Mark

    2015-12-01

    In the present research we examined whether the psychological meaning of people's categorisation goals affects facial muscle activity in response to facial expressions of emotion. We had participants associate eye colour (blue, brown) with either a personality trait (extraversion) or a physical trait (light frequency) and asked them to use these associations in a speeded categorisation task of angry, disgusted, happy and neutral faces while assessing participants' response times and facial muscle activity. We predicted that participants would respond differentially to the emotional faces when the categorisation criteria allowed for inferences about a target's thoughts, feelings or behaviour (i.e., when categorising extraversion), but not when these lacked any social meaning (i.e., when categorising light frequency). Indeed, emotional faces triggered facial reactions to facial expressions when participants categorised extraversion, but not when they categorised light frequency. In line with this, only when categorising extraversion did participants' response times indicate a negativity bias replicating previous results. Together, these findings provide further evidence for the contextual nature of people's selective responses to the emotions expressed by others. PMID:25435404

  7. Exogenous attention to facial vs non-facial emotional visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreti, Luis; Kessel, Dominique; Carboni, Alejandra; Lpez-Martn, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Tapia, Manuel; Mercado, Francisco; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, Jos A

    2013-10-01

    The capacity of the two types of non-symbolic emotional stimuli most widely used in research on affective processes, faces and (non-facial) emotional scenes, to capture exogenous attention, was compared. Negative, positive and neutral faces and affective scenes were presented as distracters to 34 participants while they carried out a demanding digit categorization task. Behavioral (reaction times and number of errors) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials-ERPs) indices of exogenous attention were analyzed. Globally, facial expressions and emotional scenes showed similar capabilities to attract exogenous attention. Electrophysiologically, attentional capture was reflected in the P2a component of ERPs at the scalp level, and in left precentral areas at the source level. Negatively charged faces and scenes elicited maximal P2a/precentral gyrus activity. In the case of scenes, this negativity bias was also evident at the behavioral level. Additionally, a specific effect of facial distracters was observed in N170 at the scalp level, and in the fusiform gyrus and inferior parietal lobule at the source level. This effect revealed maximal attention to positive expressions. This facial positivity offset was also observed at the behavioral level. Taken together, the present results indicate that faces and non-facial scenes elicit partially different and, to some extent, complementary exogenous attention mechanisms. PMID:22689218

  8. Tcnicas de confeccin de prtesis faciales / Techniques used for making of facial prostheses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Coelho Goiato; Eduardo, Vedovatto; Jos Vitor, Quinelli Mazaro; Marcelo, Matida Hamata; Humberto, Gennari Filho; Rose Mary, Falcn; Daniela Micheline, dos Santos.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Las prtesis faciales constituyen parte integrante de la rehabilitacin de pacientes que sufrieron daos en la cara, sea de origen patolgica, traumtica o congnita. Aunque el xito del tratamiento con prtesis faciales est asociado con la capacidad artstica del profesional en reproducir las estr [...] ucturas perdidas, no se puede descuidar la buena adaptabilidad de las prtesis en cuanto a la asociacin de materiales y tcnicas empleadas para la confeccin de prtesis buco-maxilofaciales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, mediante la revisin de la literatura, mostrar los principales conceptos relacionados con las tcnicas de confeccin de prtesis faciales y asociar nuestra experiencia clnica con el pronstico de las prtesis Abstract in english Facial prostheses are a integral part of rehabilitation of patients underwent face damages, being of pathologic, traumatic or congenital origin. Although success of treatment with facial prostheses is associated with artistic ability of professional to reproduce lost structures, we can not to obviat [...] e the good adaptability of prostheses regards association of material and techniques used to make buccomaxillofacial prostheses.

  9. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Sohil Pothiawala; Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Ca...

  10. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rettinger, Gerhard; Scheithauer, Marc Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.Disorders primarily affect the protective skin ...

  11. Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    Patrick J BowlerCourt House Clinics, London, UKAbstract: The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is dis...

  12. Computer-enhanced emotion in facial expressions.

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, A.J.; Young, A. W.; Rowland, D.; Perrett, D.I.

    1997-01-01

    Benson & Perrett's (1991 b) computer-based caricature procedure was used to alter the positions of anatomical landmarks in photographs of emotional facial expressions with respect to their locations in a reference norm face (e.g. a neutral expression). Exaggerating the differences between an expression and its norm produces caricatured images, whereas reducing the differences produces 'anti-caricatures'. Experiment 1 showed that caricatured (+50% different from neutral) expressions were recog...

  13. Facial sporotrichoid infection with Mycobacterium marinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, R C; Sheth, A; Mayer, T; Goderwis, D; Schleiss, M R

    1997-02-01

    We report a case of Mycobacterium marinum facial sporotrichoid infection in an otherwise healthy 2-year-old child, probably acquired through contact with pets in an aquarium. The M. marinum isolate was susceptible to clarithromycin, and the child was successfully treated with oral antibiotic therapy. This unusual case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history in the evaluation of a patient with chronic sporotrichoid skin lesions. PMID:9042142

  14. Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi S; Oak J; Chawla K; Kulkarni S.; Apte N

    1992-01-01

    A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

  15. Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakshi S

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

  16. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Mey Chew; Rubita Sudirman; Ching Yee Yong

    2012-01-01

    This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the match of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized b...

  17. Anlisis Facial, Dentario y Radiogrfico de la Normalidad Facial: Estudio Piloto en 29 Mujeres Facial, Dental and Radiographic Analyses of Facial Normality: A Pilot Study in 29 Women

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Huentequeo-Molina; Pablo Navarro; Blgica Vsquez; Sergio Olate

    2013-01-01

    La esttica y armona facial se relacionan de forma directa con la percepcin y autoestima de los individuos; muchas veces se generan deseos de cambios estticos por medio de cirugas para obtener una valoracin positiva de s mismo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relacin entre la percepcin, autoestima y deseo de cambio esttico; y puntos antropomtricos, cefalomtricos y maloclusiones de un grupo de mujeres. Se escogieron 29 mujeres chilenas, entre 20 y 25 aos de edad, en l...

  18. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the...

  19. Biomtries faciales douces : mthodes, applications et dfis

    OpenAIRE

    Dantcheva, Antitza

    2011-01-01

    Cette thse s'intresse aux biomtries dites douces, et notamment leurs utilisations en termes de scurit, dans le cadre de diffrents scnarii commerciaux, incluant des aspects usage. L'accent sera ainsi port sur les caractristiques faciales qui constituent un jeu de traits significatifs de l'apparence physique mais aussi comportementale de l'utilisateur permettant de diffrencier, classer et identifier les individus. Ces traits, qui sont l'ge, le sexe, les cheveux, la peau et la coule...

  20. Treatment of facial rejuvenation with fat restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Reza Mousavi

    2010-01-01

    Seyed Reza MousaviSurgical Department, Shohada Medical, Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tajrish, Tehran, IranObjective: To improve the compensation for fat atrophy and making the face look young and improve the mental and emotional conditions of patients.Material and methods: Our study was done from April 2003 to March 2006 with an assessment and documentation of the degree of facial lipoatrophy.Results: We have very good results in 91% of patients with no important co...

  1. Facial dermatitis artefacta: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramtanu Bandyopadhyay, Rudrajit Paul, Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee, Kaberi Bhattacharya, Dilip MondalNigwekar Shubhangi P, Chaudhari Sagar V GupteChaitanya P BankarMahima S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a rare psycho-cutaneous disorder where bizarre skin lesions are seen in accessible parts of the body. It is common in young females with mental stress. We here report a case of DA from West Bengal. A 16 years old female with depression presented with mainly facial lesions. She responded to psychotherapy. The relevant literature regarding DA and other similar disorders has been also discussed at length.

  2. Avaliao do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo

    OpenAIRE

    Suehara Letcia Yumi; Simone Karine; Maia Marcus

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo responsvel por diversas doenas crnicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e no fumantes. MTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 no tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excludos aqueles com exposio solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento esttico da face. As alteraes faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de caractersticas da pele da face descrita por Model (fcies de tabagismo). Os in...

  3. Repeated facial palsies after chlorocresol inhalation.

    OpenAIRE

    Dssing, M.; Wulff, C H; Olsen, P Z

    1986-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman who experienced more than 50 attacks of left-sided facial palsies after exposure to chlorocresol was studied. Only muscles around the left side of the mouth were affected. On neurophysiological testing during chlorocresol provocation the only abnormality was a loss of motor units during maximal contraction of the left orbicularis oris muscle. This could be explained by a peripheral as well as a central effect. Extensive electrophysiological examination without chlorocresol...

  4. Dentigerous cyst presenting as facial pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case is presented in which a maxillary dentigerous cyst had eroded the posterior wall of the right maxillary sinus into the pterygo-palatine fossa causing facial pain due to pressure on the nerves. It had also eroded the lateral wall of sinus and into the oral cavity and got infected resulting in foul smelling oral discharge. The case was dealt with complete removal of cyst using Caldwell Luc's approach. (author)

  5. Efficient Drowsiness Detection by Facial Features Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Shamian Bin Zainal; Ijaz Khan; Hadi Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    With increase in technology fatigue detection systems with more accuracy are overcoming their previous versions. The main focus of these systems is on robustness, accuracy and cost. Based on these factors this study presents a driver fatigue detection system design. This design uses facial features (eyes and mouth) to determine drivers vigilance. A hybrid of two commonly known techniques Viola Jones and skin color detection is used as detection technique. Lastly some experimental results are...

  6. Laser resurfacing for facial acne scars.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, RE; Cummins, CL; Burls, AJ; Seukeran, DC

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most people have acne at some stage during their life, with about one per cent being left with permanent acne scars. Recent laser techniques are thought to be more effective than chemical peels and dermabrasion. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of laser resurfacing for treating facial acne scars. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE (1966 to April 1999), EMBASE (1980 to April 1999), Science Citation Index (1981 to April 1999), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (April 1999),...

  7. Fault nucleation, restriction, and aspect ratio in layered sections: Quantification of the strength and stiffness roles using numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, V.; Homberg, C.; Rocher, M.

    2013-08-01

    3D numerical modeling has been used to investigate how the variations of mechanical properties in sedimentary layered sections affect the development of normal faults. We calculated the distribution of the Coulomb stress to assess the proximity of the layers to failure through an elastic layered section. The simulation of various combinations of rock properties allowed us to compare the effect of the stiffness and strength contrasts, which promote or inhibit faulting in the stiff layer, respectively. For rock systems showing little variation in strength, nucleation of the fault occurs in the stiff layer (e.g., limestones or sandstones), whereas it occurs in the compliant layer (e.g., clay-rich rocks) if the stiff layer has a high cohesion. Considering a mean strength profile of the carbonate sequences, nucleation occurs in limestones if the ratio of Young's moduli between the limestone and clay-rich rock is greater than 2; otherwise, clay-rich layers fail first. We also showed that nucleation is promoted in sandstones or limestones if these layers are thinner than the clayey layers. In a second set of simulation, using a slip on a fault, we examined the conditions needed to overcome the restriction of the fault propagation. Our results suggest that the lateral propagation of the fault, within a layer, produces increasingly favorable conditions for vertical propagation. A maximum aspect ratio of width to height of 13 is predicted for faults in limestone-clay sequences, and this maximum aspect ratio is expected to decrease as the contrast in the rock properties decreases.

  8. Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantel Mira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a early extratemporal reconstruction, b early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies.

  9. Facial wrinkles correction through autologous fat microinjection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Cháves Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: autologous fat microinjection is a technique which allows the correction of different dispositions that appear in the face in a very fast, effective and simple way compared to other procedures implying more pain, incisions, and elevated doses of anesthesia. Objective: to show the effectiveness of the autologous fat microinjection in the correction of facial wrinkles. Methods: a series study was carried out from May 2005 to May 2006 at the University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos city, Cuba. 60 patients of both sexes constituted this series study. They had facial wrinkles and this procedure was performed on them. Age, sex, patient’s race, localization and the type of wrinkle as well as the satisfaction level of the patient with the surgical procedure were analyzed. Results: Female sex was predominant, as well as white race and the ages from 45-50. A good aesthetic result was obtained. The satisfaction level of the patients was more elevated in short and medium terms. Conclusions: the level of satisfaction reached in the studied series reassure the advantages of the autologous fat microinjection technique so that, it is recommended for the elimination of facial wrinkles.

  10. Emotional attention capture by facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional facial expressions capture visual attention. However, it has been unclear whether attentional modulation is attributable to their emotional significance or to their visual features. We investigated this issue using a spatial cueing paradigm in which non-predictive cues were peripherally presented before the target was presented in either the same (valid trial) or the opposite (invalid trial) location. The target was an open dot and the cues were photographs of normal emotional facial expressions of anger and happiness, their anti-expressions and neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained the amount of visual changes equivalent to normal emotional expressions compared with neutral expressions, but they were usually perceived as emotionally neutral. The participants were asked to localize the target as soon as possible. After the cueing task, they evaluated their subjective emotional experiences to the cue stimuli. Compared with anti-expressions, the normal emotional expressions decreased and increased the reaction times (RTs) in the valid and invalid trials, respectively. Shorter RTs in the valid trials and longer RTs in the invalid trials were related to higher subjective arousal ratings. These results suggest that emotional facial expressions accelerate attentional engagement and prolong attentional disengagement due to their emotional significance. PMID:26365083

  11. Automatic image assessment from facial attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptucha, Raymond; Kloosterman, David; Mittelstaedt, Brian; Loui, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Personal consumer photography collections often contain photos captured by numerous devices stored both locally and via online services. The task of gathering, organizing, and assembling still and video assets in preparation for sharing with others can be quite challenging. Current commercial photobook applications are mostly manual-based requiring significant user interactions. To assist the consumer in organizing these assets, we propose an automatic method to assign a fitness score to each asset, whereby the top scoring assets are used for product creation. Our method uses cues extracted from analyzing pixel data, metadata embedded in the file, as well as ancillary tags or online comments. When a face occurs in an image, its features have a dominating influence on both aesthetic and compositional properties of the displayed image. As such, this paper will emphasize the contributions faces have on affecting the overall fitness score of an image. To understand consumer preference, we conducted a psychophysical study that spanned 27 judges, 5,598 faces, and 2,550 images. Preferences on a per-face and per-image basis were independently gathered to train our classifiers. We describe how to use machine learning techniques to merge differing facial attributes into a single classifier. Our novel methods of facial weighting, fusion of facial attributes, and dimensionality reduction produce stateof- the-art results suitable for commercial applications.

  12. Robust Feature Detection for Facial Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiros Ioannou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust and adaptable facial feature extraction system used for facial expression recognition in human-computer interaction (HCI environments. Such environments are usually uncontrolled in terms of lighting and color quality, as well as human expressivity and movement; as a result, using a single feature extraction technique may fail in some parts of a video sequence, while performing well in others. The proposed system is based on a multicue feature extraction and fusion technique, which provides MPEG-4-compatible features assorted with a confidence measure. This confidence measure is used to pinpoint cases where detection of individual features may be wrong and reduce their contribution to the training phase or their importance in deducing the observed facial expression, while the fusion process ensures that the final result regarding the features will be based on the extraction technique that performed better given the particular lighting or color conditions. Real data and results are presented, involving both extreme and intermediate expression/emotional states, obtained within the sensitive artificial listener HCI environment that was generated in the framework of related European projects.

  13. Avaliao funcional da mmica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular / Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila Leal, Calais; Maria Valria Schmidt Goffi, Gomez; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Luiz Roberto, Comerlatti.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA:avaliao funcional da mmica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central aps acidente cerebrovascular. MTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Servio [...] de Neurologia. A avaliao enfocou movimentos espontneos, reflexos e voluntrios. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentao voluntria e involuntria das plpebras e testa, mas a movimentao dos lbios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localizao e extenso da leso. CONCLUSO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentao da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntrios, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes. Abstract in english BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. Th [...] e evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

  14. Avaliao funcional da mmica na paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular Mime functional evaluation in facial paralysis following a stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Leal Calais

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA:avaliao funcional da mmica facial de pacientes com paralisia facial central por acidente cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos funcionais da musculatura facial em pacientes com paralisia facial central aps acidente cerebrovascular. MTODO: foram avaliados nove pacientes do Servio de Neurologia. A avaliao enfocou movimentos espontneos, reflexos e voluntrios. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes apresentaram movimentao voluntria e involuntria das plpebras e testa, mas a movimentao dos lbios e de nariz estava prejudicada em ambos os movimentos, dependendo da localizao e extenso da leso. CONCLUSO: a sintomatologia da paralisia facial central, na qual se espera a paralisia da movimentao da parte inferior somente para os movimentos voluntrios, ocorre na minoria dos pacientes.BACKGROUND:functional evaluation of the facial movements in patients with facial paralysis following a stroke. AIM: to evaluate the function of the facial muscles of patients after central facial paralysis following a stroke. METHOD: nine patients referred by the Neurology Service were evaluated. The evaluation focused on spontaneous, voluntary and reflex movements. RESULTS: reflex and voluntary movement of the eyelid and forehead were preserved in all patients. However, spontaneous and voluntary movements of the lips and nose were limited according to the location and extension of lesion. CONCLUSION: the symptoms of central facial paralysis, in which paralysis only of voluntary movements of the lower two-thirds of the face is expected, occurred in the minority of the patients.

  15. Transtympanic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan; O'Donohue, Peter; French, Heath; Griffin, Aaron; Elliott, Devlin; Gochee, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Facial nerve paralysis because of penetrating trauma through the external auditory canal is extremely rare, with a paucity of published literature. The objective of this study is to review the literature on transtympanic facial nerve paralysis and increase physician awareness of this uncommon injury through discussion of its clinical presentation, management and prognosis. We also aim to improve patient outcomes in those that have sustained this type of injury by suggesting an optimal management plan. In this case report, we present the case of a 46-year-old white woman who sustained a unilateral facial nerve paresis because of a garfish penetrating her tympanic membrane and causing direct damage to the tympanic portion of her facial nerve. On follow-up after 12 months, her facial nerve function has largely returned to normal. Transtympanic facial nerve paralysis is a rare injury but can have a favorable prognosis if managed effectively. PMID:26090278

  16. Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that candidates facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from...... local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously...... facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantly these relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties nomination strategies and candidates age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two...

  17. A Novel Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Method Based on AAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes anovel method to recognize facial expression through ActiveAppearance Model (AAMto extract facial regions based on Facial Action CodingSystem (FACS. Itis composed of three parts: extractionof facial regions based on AAM,extraction of facial featuresby Gabor wavelettransformation, and expressionrecognition through Support Vector Machines (SVMs.AAM has better performance thanother methodsin eliminations of the influenceof different facialregion size, head pose and lighting condition and thus can effectively increase the recognitionaccuracy. Therefore it is usedto extract facial regions before extracting features by Gabor wavelettransformation. Finally, SVMsis appliedto recognize expression for its advantage of solvingthe problems of small sample size and overfitting. The feasibility and effectiveness of this method are evaluated and verified by experiments, and satisfactoryresults are achieved.

  18. FACIAL LANDMARKING LOCALIZATION FOR EMOTION RECOGNITION USING BAYESIAN SHAPE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan F. Garcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a framework for emotion recognition, based in facial expression analysis using Bayesian Shape Models (BSM for facial landmarking localization. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS compliant facial feature tracking based on Bayesian Shape Model. The BSM estimate the parameters of the model with an implementation of the EM algorithm. We describe the characterization methodology from parametric model and evaluated the accuracy for feature detection and estimation of the parameters associated with facial expressions, analyzing its robustness in pose and local variations. Then, a methodology for emotion characterization is introduced to perform the recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively detect the different facial expressions. Outperforming conventional approaches for emotion recognition obtaining high performance results in the estimation of emotion present in a determined subject. The model used and characterization methodology showed efficient to detect the emotion type in 95.6% of the cases.

  19. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N?=?18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike.Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing. PMID:23428082

  20. Towards Real-Life Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENTA, K.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are a set of symbols of great importance for human-to-human communication. Spontaneous in their nature, diverse and personal, facial expressions demand for real-time, complex, robust and adaptable facial expression recognition (FER systems to facilitate the human-computer interaction. The last years' research efforts in the recognition of facial expressions are preparing FER systems to step into the real-life. In order to meet the before-mentioned requirements, this article surveys the work in FER since 2008, particularly adopting the discrete states emotion model in a quest for the most valuable FER work/systems. We first present the new spontaneous facial expression databases and then organize the real-time FER solutions grouped by spontaneous and posed facial expression databases. Then automatic FERs are compared and the cross-database validation method is presented. Finally, we outline FER system open issues to meet real-life challenges.

  1. The Current Status, Evolution and Future of Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chan Wei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructive surgery aims to establish anatomicnormality as closely as possible following disfigurement tooptimize functional and esthetic outcomes and the potential fornormal psychosocial patient reintegration. The purposes of thisarticle are to outline the current status of facial reconstructionand reflect upon possibilities for its future development.Current reconstructive methods include the use of non-vascularizedgrafts, non-microsurgical vascularized flap transfers,microvascular free tissue transplantation, and their combinations.Whatever the method chosen, the principles of reconstructionfor each facial region or esthetic subunit should berespected.Most facial defects can be addressed satisfactorily withthe described techniques. Reconstructions for total or subtotalfacial defects, however, remain disappointing. Current reconstructivetechniques and principles continue to become more refined, providing improvedoutcomes. In the future, composite tissue allotransplantation and tissue engineering of vascularizedcomposite tissue constructs may also be applicable for facial reconstruction, inparticular for total or subtotal facial defects that appear outside the limits of current reconstructivemethods.

  2. Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

    A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

  3. Malocclusion and facial morphology is there a relationship? An epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwat, P P; Jarabak, J R

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine associations between facial morphology and malocclusion, and to test for sexual dimorphism in such relationships. The sample of 500 subjects is studied by roentgenographic cephalometry, using the Facial Height Ratio (FHR) of Jarabak as the mensurational approach to describe craniofacial morphology. Significant findings are: Neutral pattern is dominant in Class I and Class II1 malocclusions. Hypodivergent pattern is dominant in Class II2 and Class III malocclusions. The majority of females demonstrate a neutral pattern, whereas the majority of males demonstrate a hypodivergent pattern. Sexual dimorphism in pattern is greatest in Class II1 and Class III. Males show a greater tendency toward prognathism, while females tend toward orthognathism and retrognathism. Mean values of all linear measurements in males are larger than in females. Relatively strong correlations are found between facial height ratio and ramus height, gonial angle, lower gonial angle, mandibular plane angle, occlusal/mandibular plane angle, palatal/mandibular plane angle, Frankfurt/mandibular plane angle, S-N-B, Y-axis angle, and the sum of the saddle + articular + gonial angles. PMID:3874569

  4. Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-12-01

    The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. PMID:25244638

  5. Desfiguramento facial adquirido: breve reviso narrativa / Acquired facial disfigurement: a brief narrative review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos Carlos da Silva, Mendes; Maria Joo, Figueiras.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Em 2010, o Instituto Nacional de Estatstica de Portugal (INE) indicou que anualmente se realizam cerca de 40 000 mdias e grandes cirurgias reconstrutiva e esttica. Apesar da sua etiologia, justifica-se uma maior dedicao na investigao de indivduos que por trauma ou doena perderam a sua iden [...] tidade apresentando um desfiguramento facial. Pretende-se com o presente artigo apresentar uma breve contextualizao que descreva o desenvolvimento sobre o desfiguramento facial adquirido causado pela doena (cancro cabea e pescoo) ou originado pelo trauma (queimados, agresso, outros), recorrendo a literatura publicada em livros e artigos cientficos, fazendo tambm referncia a instrumentos validados para a populao portuguesa que permitem avaliar o investimento da imagem corporal (ASI-R) e avaliar a autoconscincia da aparncia (DAS-24). Referenciar as necessidades e questes psicossociais mais comuns, o tipo de interveno, a importncia do apoio social e quais as estratgias de coping mais frequentes no ajustamento ao desfiguramento facial adquirido. Abstract in english In 2010, the Portuguese Institute of Statistics (INE) pointed out that 40,000 medium and large reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries are performed annually. Regardless of its etiology, a stronger focus on investigating individuals that have lost their "identity" due to trauma or disease, thus featu [...] ring a facial disfigurement, is justified. The intention of this paper to present a brief context that describes the development of the acquired facial disfigurement caused by the disease (cancer of the head and neck) or originated by trauma (burns) using published literature in books and articles scientific, also making reference to instruments validated for the Portuguese population for assessing investment body image (ASI-R) and to evaluate the self-consciousness of appearance (DAS-24). Identify the need and psychosocial issues most common type of intervention, the importance of social support and coping strategies which frequently in adjustment to acquired facial disfigurement.

  6. Regenerao ps-traumtica do nervo facial em coelhos Posttraumatic facial nerve regeneration in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial perifrica traumtica constitui-se em afeco freqente. OBJETIVO: estudo da regenerao ps-traumtica do nervo facial em coelhos, por avaliao funcional histolgica dos nervos traumatizados comparados aos normais contralaterais. METODOLOGIA: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos compresso do tronco do nervo facial esquerdo e sacrificados aps duas (grupo AL, quatro (BL e seis (CL semanas da leso. A comparao entre os grupos foi feita pelas densidades total e parcial de axnios mielinizados. ESTUDO ESTATSTICO: mtodo de Tukey (p Posttraumatic facial paralysis is a frequent disease. This work studies posttraumatic regeneration of the facial nerve in rabbits. Functional and histological analysis compared injured and normal nerves on opposite sides. The left facial nerve trunk of twenty rabbits were subjectedto compression lesion, and sacrificed after two (subgroup AL, four (BL and six (CL weeks. Comparison between groups was made by analysing total and partial densities of myelinated axons. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Tukey Method (p<0.05. RESULTS:There was partial functional recovery after two weeks, and complete recovery after five weeks. Qualitative analysis demonstrated a degenerative pattern in the AL group, with an increased tissue inflammatory process. Evident regeneration signs were observed in the BL group, and almost complete regeneration was seen in the CL group. Normal nerves (N had an average TD of 15705.59 and average PD of 21800.75. The BL group had an average TD of 10818.55 and an average PD of 15340.56. The CL group had an average TD of 13920.36 and an average PD of 16589.15. The BL group had an average TD of N equal to 68.88%, and the CL group had an average TD of N equal to 88,63% (statistically significant. N showed a significant higher PD than injured nerves. However, this was not statistically different between BL and CL subgroups. Nerve DT was a more reliable method than PD in this study.

  7. Facial Expression Recognition With A Three-Dimensional Face Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    This thesis covers facial expression recognition from camera images to improve human-machine communication. A three-dimensional face model, which is fitted to the image, is used for this task. Automated facial expression recognition systems are confronted with two characteristic challenges: In contrast to artificial objects, human faces differ a lot with respect to appearance and shape. Furthermore, because obtaining natural training data is difficult, most databases provide only acted facial...

  8. Delayed Facial Nerve Palsy after Seat Belt Induced Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Ferdnand C; Bradley, Ronald; Pasupuleti, Devakinanda; Bobeda, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Blunt trauma causing facial nerve palsy and facial nerve trauma due to seat belt injury is rarely reported. We describe a 63 year old female who was involved in a road traffic accident without any imaging evidence of temporal bone fracture developing left facial nerve palsy on the second day. We discuss the pathophysiology of this condition and the need to be aware of this unusual complication when evaluating patient with blunt trauma to the face. PMID:26662661

  9. Facial nerve canal: CT analysis of the protruding tympanic segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and subsequent course of the facial nerve canal are complex. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an opportunity for the study of this often perplexing structure. Normal anatomy and normal variations of the facial nerve canal must be considered when examining patients who have facial nerve palsy referrable to the temporal bone. The author recommends direct axial and coronal imaging supplemented by sagittal and possibly oblique reformations

  10. Facial nerve canal: CT analysis of the protruding tympanic segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The development and subsequent course of the facial nerve canal are complex. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an opportunity for the study of this often perplexing structure. Normal anatomy and normal variations of the facial nerve canal must be considered when examining patients who have facial nerve palsy referrable to the temporal bone. The author recommends direct axial and coronal imaging supplemented by sagittal and possibly oblique reformations.

  11. Etiopathogenesis of lower motor neuron facial palsy: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal, M.; Sheeja Rajan; Suma, R.; Subin Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction : Facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve having important functions, and hence its paralysis can lead to a great deal of mechanical impairment and emotional embarrassment. Etiopathogenisis of lower motor neuron facial palsy is still a diagnostic challenge and the literature has shown varying results pertaining to the same. This study was designed to sketch out the prevalence of disease causation and the profile of peripheral facial palsy patients presenting to the ENT departme...

  12. Comparison of Facial Nerve Paralysis in Adults and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Chang Il; Hong, Chang Kee; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Facial nerve injury can occur in the regions ranging from the cerebral cortex to the motor end plate in the face, and from many causes including trauma, viral infection, and idiopathic factors. Facial nerve paralysis in children, however, may differ from that in adults. We, therefore, evaluated its etiology and recovery rate in children and adults. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated the records of 975 patients, ranging in age from 0 to 88 years, who displayed facial pa...

  13. Facial Nerve Palsy: Providing Eye Comfort and Cosmesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alsuhaibani Adel

    2010-01-01

    Development of facial nerve palsy (FNP) may lead to dramatic change in the patient′s facial function, expression, and emotions. The ophthalmologist may play an important role in the initial evaluation, and the long-term management of patients with new-onset of FNP. In patients with expected temporary facial weakness, no efforts should be wasted to ensure proper corneal protection. Patients with permanent functional deficit may require combination of surgical procedures tailored to the ...

  14. Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring During Cochlear Implant Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Hui-Shan; Wu, Che-Ming; Zhuo, Ming-Ying; Yang, Chao-Hui; Hwang, Chung-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Iatrogenic facial nerve injury is one of the most severe complications of cochlear implantation (CI) surgery. Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is used as an adjunctive modality in a variety of neurotologic surgeries. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess whether the use of IFNM is associated with postoperative facial nerve injury during CI surgery. The medical charts of 645 patients who underwent CI from 1999 to 2014 were reviewed to identify postoperativ...

  15. DELAYED FACIAL PALSY - AN UNCOMMON COMPLICATION OF TYMPANOMASTOIDECTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Shoba; Srinivasan, MR; Deepak; Hari

    2014-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy after ear surgery is a troublesome postoperative complication for both patient and the surgeon. Though most of the palsies occur in the immediate post - operative period , in rare instances patients may develop facial nerve palsy anywhere from several hours to several days after ear surgery. We hereby present a case of delayed facial nerve palsy , after 5 days following surgery , in 48 year old women operated for tubotympanic type o...

  16. Injury to the Intratemporal Facial Nerve: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Saki

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the intratemporal facial nerve is caused most commonly by temporal bone fractures resulting from trauma sustained in motor vehicle accidents. Most cases of facial paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture are caused by longitudinal fractures of this bone. We report a 13 year-old girl with paralysis secondary to temporal bone fracture. After removal of the bone fragments, we observed that the continuity of the facial nerve was intact.

  17. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Okamura; Masaru Abiko; Takanori Sakakura; Shigeki Nakano; Norio Ikeda; Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. ...

  18. Neonatal peripheral facial paralysis' evaluation with photogrammetry: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca Filho, Gentil Gomes; de Medeiros Cirne, Gabriele Natane; Cacho, Roberta Oliveira; de Souza, Jane Carla; Nagem, Danilo; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Moran, Cristiane Aparecida; Abreu, Bruna; Pereira, Silvana Alves

    2015-12-01

    Facial paralysis in newborns can leave functional sequelae. Determining the evolution and amount of functional losses requires consistent evaluation methods that measure, quantitatively, the evolution of clinical functionality. This paper reports an innovative method of facial assessment for the case of a child 28 days of age with unilateral facial paralysis. The child had difficulty breast feeding, and quickly responded to the physical therapy treatment. PMID:26607566

  19. Facial emotion recognition impairments in individuals with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Uraina S; COHEN, RONALD A.; Westbrook, Michelle L.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Tashima, Karen T

    2010-01-01

    HIV is characterized by frontostriatal dysfunction, and is associated with cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have noted impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in patient pollutions that demonstrate frontostriatal dysfunction; however, facial emotion recognition abilities have not been systematically examined in HIV patients. The current study investigated facial emotion recognition in 50 non-demented HIV-seropositive adults and 50 control participants relative to...

  20. Understanding chimpanzee facial expression: insights into the evolution of communication

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the evolution of emotional communication, comparative research on facial expression similarities between humans and related species is essential. Chimpanzees display a complex, flexible facial expression repertoire with many physical and functional similarities to humans. This paper reviews what is known about these facial expression repertoires, discusses the importance of social organization in understanding the meaning of different expressions, and introduces a new coding sys...

  1. Vers une reconnaissance faciale tridimensionnelle dans le rel

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huibin

    2013-01-01

    En raison des naturelle, non-intrusive, facilement percevable caractristiques, et une large diffusive applicabilit pour la criminalistique et de la scurit, reconnaissance faciale base sur la machine a reu beaucoup d'attention de la communaut biomtrie au cours des trois dernires dcennies. Par rapport la traditionnelle reconnaissance faciale base sur le visage 2D, la reconnaissance faciale bas sur la forme 3D est plus stable aux variations d'clairage; petite changements de tte p...

  2. A Fuzzy Reasoning Model for Recognition of Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Starostenko; Renan Contreras; Vicente Alarcn Aquino; Leticia Flores Pulido; Jorge Rodrguez Asomoza; Oleg Sergiyenko; Vira Tyrsa

    2011-01-01

    En este artculo presentamos un sistema de razonamiento difuso capaz de reconocer y medir la intensidad de cualquier expresin facial prototpica o no prototpica. El modelo propuesto utiliza como entrada las deformaciones faciales codificadas ya sea en trminos de AUs (Ekman FACS) o FAPs (MPEG-4) y provee reconocimiento de expresiones faciales utilizando una base de conocimiento la cual fue implementada utilizando el sistema de adquisicin de conocimiento y editor de ontologas Protg. Esta...

  3. A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Juebo Wu; Hehua Chi; Lianhua Chi

    2011-01-01

    The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of f...

  4. Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheib, J E; Gangestad, S.W.; Thornhill, R.

    1999-01-01

    Cues of phenotypic condition should be among those used by women in their choice of mates. One marker of better phenotypic condition is thought to be symmetrical bilateral body and facial features. However, it is not clear whether women use symmetry as the primary cue in assessing the phenotypic quality of potential mates or whether symmetry is correlated with other facial markers affecting physical attractiveness. Using photographs of men's faces, for which facial symmetry had been measured,...

  5. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vloeberghs, M.; Philip Breedon

    2009-01-01

    The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paraly...

  6. Pathophysiological mechanisms of blindness in facial trauma: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Andr Luis Ribeiro Ribeiro; Adriana Maria Melo dos Reis; Driene Ges Ramalho; Srgio de Melo Alves Jnior; Joo de Jesus Viana Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Blindness is a serious complication that can occur after facial trauma and may represent the loss of one of the most useful senses in the human relationship with the worldthe sight. This study aims to review the pathophysiology of blindness related to facial trauma in order to identify the mechanisms by which it develops and to recognize the signs and symptoms required to establish proper diagnosis and treatment. Blindness following facial trauma may occur due to mechanisms that involve inj...

  7. The Epidemiology of Facial Fractures in Automotive Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial b...

  8. Un hombre de San Juan: aproximacin facial en antropologa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Dentro de la antropologa y la identificacin forense, la aproximacin facial (tambin conocida como "reconstruccin facial") se presenta frecuentemente como un hecho consumado, con evidencia mnima de las investigaciones y los mtodos usados para alcanzar los resultados. Este trabajo presenta un panorama detallado de la investigacin y los mtodos usados para realizar una aproximacin facial grafica en 2D de un hombre prehistrico del valle de Jachal, provincia de San Juan, Argentina. Se ent...

  9. A rare case of keloidal granuloma faciale with extra-facial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is an uncommon, cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques, or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extra-facial lesions occur rarely. We present a case report of 33-year-old male who presented with keloidal lesions on face and left shoulder. The patient didn?t respond with intralesional triamcinolone and showed poor response with the addition of topical tacrolimus. Surgical excision in consultation with plastic surgeons is planned.

  10. FACIAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING GABOR (HAPPY, SAD, ANGER, NEUTRAL MOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shamsh Alam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The best way to communicate the emotions and intentions is facial expressions. This is powerful because as per the psychological research 55% of the total communicated message is the human facial expression. Therefore deriving an effective facial representation from the original face image is a vital step and very tough task in the field of computer science for successful facial expression recognition. Human facial recognition usually uses image processing, gesture signal proces sing and physiological signal processing. Most use of this system is in the area of security, psychological studies, and social interaction [Ekman et al., 1997] [5]. Facial expression reflects not only emotions but other mental activities, social interacti on and physiological signals. Gabor filters are used to extract the features of facial expressions. GF represents the behavior of receptive fields in human visual systems (HVS very effectively even in case of slight object rotation, distortion and variati on in illumination. Here we have considered face database in which the different expressions of facial images are stored. Different facial expressions will be recognized as neutral, disgust, happy, sad, and anger. In this first we extracted the features of face by using Gabor filter and then applied SVM to classify into different mood. Finally mood is recognized and verified by using confusion matrix.

  11. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. PMID:26010214

  12. Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right

    CERN Document Server

    Osipa, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

  13. Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring During Cochlear Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Shan; Wu, Che-Ming; Zhuo, Ming-Ying; Yang, Chao-Hui; Hwang, Chung-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Iatrogenic facial nerve injury is one of the most severe complications of cochlear implantation (CI) surgery. Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is used as an adjunctive modality in a variety of neurotologic surgeries. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess whether the use of IFNM is associated with postoperative facial nerve injury during CI surgery. The medical charts of 645 patients who underwent CI from 1999 to 2014 were reviewed to identify postoperative facial nerve palsy between those who did and did not receive IFNM. Four patients (3 children and 1 adult) were found to have delayed onset facial nerve weakness. IFNM was used in 273 patients, of whom 2 had postoperative facial nerve weakness (incidence of 0.73%). The incidence of facial nerve weakness was 0.54% (2/372) in the patients who did not receive IFNM. IFNM had no significant effect on postoperative delayed facial palsy (P?=?1.000). All patients completely recovered within 3 months after surgery. Interestingly, all 4 cases of facial palsy received right CI, which may be because all of the surgeons in this study used their right hand to hold the drill. When right CI surgery is performed by a right-handed surgeon, the shaft of the drill is closer to the inferior angle of the facial recess, and it is easier to place the drilling shaft against the medial boundary (facial nerve) when the facial recess is small. The facial nerve sheaths of another 3 patients were unexpectedly dissected by a diamond burr during the surgery, and the monitor sounded an alarm. None of these 3 patients developed facial palsy postoperatively. This suggests that IFNM could be used as an alarm system for mechanical compression even without current stimulation. Although there appeared to be no relationship between the use of monitoring and delayed facial nerve palsy, IFNM is of great value in the early identification of a dehiscent facial nerve and assisting in the maintenance of its integrity. IFNM can still be used as an additional technique to optimize surgical success. PMID:25793243

  14. Paralisia facial perifrica e otite mdia tuberculosa Peripheric facial paralysis and tuberculous otitis media: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Geraldo Camargo Lima

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de paralisia facial perifrica devido a uma otite mdia tuberculosa. Chamam ateno para a raridade atual da otite tuberculosa e para a freqncia com que esta afeco compromete o nervo facial. A regresso da paralisia aps tratamento cirrgico (mastoidectomia e descompresso do nervo facial e medicamentoso especfico foi assinalada.In reporting on a case of peripherical facial paralysis due to tuberculous otitis media attention is called both to the present rarity of tuberculous otitis and to the frequency of the attack of this infection to the facial nerve, emphasis being made on the paralysis regression following surgical treatment (mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression and use of specific medication.

  15. Electrical and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Facial Nerve: Diagnostic Relevance in Acute Isolated Facial Nerve Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Happe, Svenja; Bunten, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral facial weakness is common. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows identification of a conduction fail- ure at the level of the canalicular portion of the facial nerve and may help to confirm the diagnosis. Methods: We retro- spectively analyzed 216 patients with the diagnosis of pe- ripheral facial palsy. The electrophysiological investigations included the blink reflex, preaur icular electrical stimulation and the response to TMS at the lab...

  16. 49 CFR 38.75 - Priority seating signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems 38.75 Priority seating signs. (a... a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character height (using an upper case X) of 5/8 inch, with wide spacing...

  17. A Smartphone-Based Automatic Diagnosis System for Facial Nerve Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Seok Kim; So Young Kim; Young Ho Kim; Kwang Suk Park

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy induces a weakness or loss of facial expression through damage of the facial nerve. A quantitative and reliable assessment system for facial nerve palsy is required for both patients and clinicians. In this study, we propose a rapid and portable smartphone-based automatic diagnosis system that discriminates facial nerve palsy from normal subjects. Facial landmarks are localized and tracked by an incremental parallel cascade of the linear regression method. An asymmetry inde...

  18. Silent intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma associated with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Phaniendra, V.; Pratinidhi, Santosh K.; I.V. Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Facial palsy is a common manifestation of intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma. Review of English literature describes intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma presenting as vertigo, tinnitus (without facial palsy) which were diagnosed on CT scan or MRI of temporal bone. We are presenting two cases of asymptomatic facial nerve schwannoma without facial palsy presenting only as Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM), which were diagnosed incidentally during surgery.

  19. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was highand this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  20. Facial biometrics of peri-oral changes in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L; Adegun, O K; Willis, A; Fortune, Farida

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory condition which affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the oro-facial region, patients can present peri-oral swellings which results in severe facial disfigurement. To date, assessing the degree of facial changes and evaluation of treatment outcomes relies on clinical observation and semi-quantitative methods. In this paper, we describe the development of a robust and reproducible measurement strategy using 3-D facial biometrics to objectively quantify the extent and progression of oro-facial Crohn's disease. Using facial laser scanning, 32 serial images from 13 Crohn's patients attending the Oral Medicine clinic were acquired during relapse, remission, and post-treatment phases. Utilising theories of coordinate metrology, the facial images were subjected to registration, regions of interest identification, and reproducible repositioning prior to obtaining volume measurements. To quantify the changes in tissue volume, scan images from consecutive appointments were compared to the baseline (first scan image). Reproducibility test was performed to ascertain the degree of uncertainty in volume measurements. 3-D facial biometric imaging is a reliable method to identify and quantify peri-oral swelling in Crohn's patients. Comparison of facial scan images at different phases of the disease revealed precisely profile and volume changes. The volume measurements were highly reproducible as adjudged from the 1% standard deviation. 3-D facial biometrics measurements in Crohn's patients with oro-facial involvement offers a quick, robust, economical and objective approach for guided therapeutic intervention and routine assessment of treatment efficacy on the clinic. PMID:23435800

  1. Three-year-olds' rapid facial electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions and body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Conte, Stefania; Croci, Emanuela; Turati, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Rapid facial reactions (RFRs) to observed emotional expressions are proposed to be involved in a wide array of socioemotional skills, from empathy to social communication. Two of the most persuasive theoretical accounts propose RFRs to rely either on motor resonance mechanisms or on more complex mechanisms involving affective processes. Previous studies demonstrated that presentation of facial and bodily expressions can generate rapid changes in adult and school-age children's muscle activity. However, to date there is little to no evidence to suggest the existence of emotional RFRs from infancy to preschool age. To investigate whether RFRs are driven by motor mimicry or could also be a result of emotional appraisal processes, we recorded facial electromyographic (EMG) activation from the zygomaticus major and frontalis medialis muscles to presentation of static facial and bodily expressions of emotions (i.e., happiness, anger, fear, and neutral) in 3-year-old children. Results showed no specific EMG activation in response to bodily emotion expressions. However, observing others' happy faces led to increased activation of the zygomaticus major and decreased activation of the frontalis medialis, whereas observing others' angry faces elicited the opposite pattern of activation. This study suggests that RFRs are the result of complex mechanisms in which both affective processes and motor resonance may play an important role. PMID:26687335

  2. Facial Nerve Schwannoma Involving Middle Cranial Fossa: When the Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Guide to the Correct Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano, Alessandro; Dispenza, Francesco; Kulamarva, Gautham

    2011-01-01

    The Facial Nerve Schwannoma is a rare tumor and it seldom involved the middle cranial fossa. Facial nerve schwannoma has various manifestations, including facial palsy but unfortunately facial nerve is very resistant to compression and often facial nerve paralysis or a facial weakness are not present. We present a case of giant facial nerve schwannoma involved the middle cranial fossa without facial nerve paralysis. In these cases the unilateral hearing loss (if present) guide to a correct di...

  3. Mapping the development of facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Helen; Vizioli, Luca; Ouyang, Xinyi; Caldara, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Reading the non-verbal cues from faces to infer the emotional states of others is central to our daily social interactions from very early in life. Despite the relatively well-documented ontogeny of facial expression recognition in infancy, our understanding of the development of this critical social skill throughout childhood into adulthood remains limited. To this end, using a psychophysical approach we implemented the QUEST threshold-seeking algorithm to parametrically manipulate the quantity of signals available in faces normalized for contrast and luminance displaying the six emotional expressions, plus neutral. We thus determined observers' perceptual thresholds for effective discrimination of each emotional expression from 5years of age up to adulthood. Consistent with previous studies, happiness was most easily recognized with minimum signals (35% on average), whereas fear required the maximum signals (97% on average) across groups. Overall, recognition improved with age for all expressions except happiness and fear, for which all age groups including the youngest remained within the adult range. Uniquely, our findings characterize the recognition trajectories of the six basic emotions into three distinct groupings: expressions that show a steep improvement with age - disgust, neutral, and anger; expressions that show a more gradual improvement with age - sadness, surprise; and those that remain stable from early childhood - happiness and fear, indicating that the coding for these expressions is already mature by 5years of age. Altogether, our data provide for the first time a fine-grained mapping of the development of facial expression recognition. This approach significantly increases our understanding of the decoding of emotions across development and offers a novel tool to measure impairments for specific facial expressions in developmental clinical populations. PMID:25704672

  4. [Infantile facial paralysis: diagnostic and therapeutic features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalt, J; Barona, R; Comeche, C; Basterra, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with a series of 11 cases of peripheral unilateral facial paralyses affecting children under 15 years. Following parameters are reviewed: age, sex, side immobilized, origin, morbid antecedents, clinical and neurophysiological explorations (electroneurography through magnetic stimulation) and the evolutive course of the cases. These items are assembled in 3 sketches in the article. Clinical assessment of face movility is more difficult as the patient is younger, nevertheless electroneurography was possible in the whole group. Clinical restoration was complete, excepting one complicated cholesteatomatous patient. Some aspects concerning the etiology, diagnostic explorations and management of each pediatric case are discussed. PMID:11200559

  5. Childhood Facial Osteo Sarcoma: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Farhangi, Hamid; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Alamdaran, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Pagets disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is...

  6. Languages and interfaces for facial animation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, N. [Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

  7. Management strategy for facial arteriovenous malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis; haemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolisation (super-selective followed by complete resection 24-48 hours later. We treated 20 patients with facial arteriovenous malformation by using this method. Most of the lesions (80% were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure related complications and cosmetic results were excellent.

  8. Facial parity edge colouring of plane pseudographs

    OpenAIRE

    Czap, Jlius; Jendrol', Stanislav; Kardo, Frantiek; Sotk, Roman

    2012-01-01

    A facial parity edge colouring of a connected bridgeless plane graph is such an edge colouring in which no two face-adjacent edges receive the same colour and, in addition, for each face f and each colour c, either no edge or an odd number of edges incident with f is coloured with c. Let ??p(G) denote the minimum number of colours used in such a colouring of G. In this paper we prove that ??p(G) ? 20 for any 2-edge-connected plane graph G. In the case when G is a 3-edge-connected plane graph ...

  9. Efficient Drowsiness Detection by Facial Features Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shamian Bin Zainal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With increase in technology fatigue detection systems with more accuracy are overcoming their previous versions. The main focus of these systems is on robustness, accuracy and cost. Based on these factors this study presents a driver fatigue detection system design. This design uses facial features (eyes and mouth to determine drivers vigilance. A hybrid of two commonly known techniques Viola Jones and skin color detection is used as detection technique. Lastly some experimental results are given showing the accuracy and robustness of the proposed system.

  10. Facial contour deformity correction with microvascular flaps based on the 3-dimentional template and facial moulage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facial contour deformities presents with varied aetiology and degrees severity. Accurate assessment, selecting a suitable tissue and sculpturing it to fill the defect is challenging and largely subjective. Objective assessment with imaging and software is not always feasible and preparing a template is complicated. A three-dimensional (3D wax template pre-fabricated over the facial moulage aids surgeons to fulfil these tasks. Severe deformities demand a stable vascular tissue for an acceptable outcome. Materials and Methods: We present review of eight consecutive patients who underwent augmentation of facial contour defects with free flaps between June 2005 and January 2011. De-epithelialised free anterolateral thigh (ALT flap in three, radial artery forearm flap and fibula osteocutaneous flap in two each and groin flap was used in one patient. A 3D wax template was fabricated by augmenting the deformity on facial moulage. It was utilised to select the flap, to determine the exact dimensions and to sculpture intraoperatively. Ancillary procedures such as genioplasty, rhinoplasty and coloboma correction were performed. Results: The average age at the presentation was 25 years and average disease free interval was 5.5 years and all flaps survived. Mean follow-up period was 21.75 months. The correction was aesthetically acceptable and was maintained without any recurrence or atrophy. Conclusion: The 3D wax template on facial moulage is simple, inexpensive and precise objective tool. It provides accurate guide for the planning and execution of the flap reconstruction. The selection of the flap is based on the type and extent of the defect. Superiority of vascularised free tissue is well-known and the ALT flap offers a versatile option for correcting varying degrees of the deformities. Ancillary procedures improve the overall aesthetic outcomes and minor flap touch-up procedures are generally required.

  11. Mastigao, deglutio e suas adaptaes na paralisia facial perifrica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in facial peripheral paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Rene Mory

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigao, fase oral da deglutio e possveis adaptaes funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Perifrica. MTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivduos com Paralisia Facial Perifrica grau IV, com histria de at 30 dias, sem distino de etiologia e divididos em trs grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em at 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funes mastigao e fase oral da deglutio foram avaliadas tanto com alimento slido e como com gua natural. Os indivduos responderam questes relacionadas s dificuldades imediatamente aps a instalao da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razo de Verossimilhana e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alteraes nas funes de mastigao e fase oral da deglutio pela diminuio do tnus no msculo orbicular dos lbios e do msculo bucinador, que diminuindo a presso intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e lquido. observao da Fonoaudiloga a varivel "derrama lquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos trs grupos estudados. A varivel "acmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSO: os indivduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatrios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de lngua para limpeza de resduos retidos no vestbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contnua. Desenvolvem adaptaes para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

  12. Mastigao, deglutio e suas adaptaes na Paralisia Facial Perifrica Mastication, deglutition and its adaptations in Facial Peripheral Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Rene Mory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar mastigao, fase oral da deglutio e possveis adaptaes funcionais observadas nos portadores de Paralisia Facial Perifrica. MTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 30 indivduos com Paralisia Facial Perifrica grau IV, com histria de at 30 dias, sem distino de etiologia e divididos em trs grupos, os que apresentavam a paralisia em at 10 dias, de 11 a 20 e de 20 a 30 dias. As funes mastigao e fase oral da deglutio foram avaliadas tanto com alimento slido e como com gua natural. Os indivduos responderam questes relacionadas s dificuldades imediatamente aps a instalao da paralisia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo Teste da Razo de Verossimilhana e pelo Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: foram constatadas alteraes nas funes de mastigao e fase oral da deglutio pela diminuio do tnus no msculo orbicular dos lbios e do msculo bucinador, que diminuindo a presso intra-oral, favorece o escape de alimento e lquido. observao da Fonoaudiloga a varivel "derrama lquido enquanto bebe" apresentou dados estatisticamente significante (p=0,003 nos trs grupos estudados. A varivel "acmulo de alimento entre os dentes e a gengiva no lado paralisado" foi estatisticamente significante nos grupos de 11 a 20 dias (p= 0,002. CONCLUSO: os indivduos da amostra mastigam no lado paralisado com dificuldade, mediante ciclos mastigatrios lentos e inconsistentes. Ocorre um incremento nos movimentos de lngua para limpeza de resduos retidos no vestbulo oral no lado paralisado. Este o sintoma que mais incomoda o paciente. Apresentam dificuldade no beber de forma contnua. Desenvolvem adaptaes para compensar suas dificuldades funcionais.PURPOSE: to describe mastication, swallowing oral phase and possible functional adaptations observed in Facial Peripheral Paralysis subjects. METHOD: there were 30 subjects with grade IV Facial Peripheral Paralysis, with at the most 30 days paralysis history and no etiology differentiation. They were separated in three groups, 1 to 10 days paralysis, 11 to 20 days and 21 to 30 days. Mastication and swallowing oral phase functions were assessed with both solid food and water. Participants answered questions related to the difficulties right after the paralysis. Data were statistically analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio Test and Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS: changes were observed in mastication and swallowing oral phase due to the lowering of lips tonus, orbicular muscle and buccinator muscle that allows the escaping of food and liquid by decreasing intra-oral pressure. To the speech therapist's observation "spill liquid while drinking" presented statistically significant data (p=0,003 in the three observed groups. Variable "accumulate food between teeth and gums" was statistically significant in groups of 11 to 20 days (p= 0,002. CONCLUSION: sample subjects chew with difficulty in the paralyzed side, showing slow and inconsistent mastication cycles. There is an increased tongue movements for cleaning the residues kept in oral vestibule in the paralyzed side. This is the most annoying symptom according to the patients. They develop adaptation strategies to compensate their functional difficulties.

  13. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  14. Facial Nerve Outcome after Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Our Experience*

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Vittorio; Casale, Manuele; Bressi, Federica; Potena, Massimiliano; Vesperini, Emanuela; De Franco, Antonio; Silvestri, Sergio; Zini, Carlo; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the postoperative facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery and analyze the factors that cause it. We included 97 consecutive patients undergoing surgical excision of sporadic unilateral VS. Patient and tumor characteristics, surgical approaches, facial nerve function, extent of tumor removal, perioperative complications are all analyzed through standardized systems. Four different surgical approaches are used: translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthin...

  15. Spectrum of facial paralysis in chronic suppurative otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical management of facial paralysis associated with Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM may vary depending on the duration and extent of paralysis and also the pathology affecting the nerve. Four illustrative cases are described. The literature is reviewed with regard to the management of the facial nerve in different situations.

  16. Facial palsy of unusual etiology - A diagnostic dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Unnikrishnan K Menon; N V Deepthi

    2011-01-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem encountered in the ear nose throat out-patient department (ENT OPD). Impacted wax and its adverse effects in the external ear canal are also quite routinely seen. Rarely do the two come together in the same patient. We report a case of unilateral facial nerve palsy that presented an interesting diagnostic dilemma.

  17. Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that candidates facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from candidates faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantlythese relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties nomination strategies and candidates age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two-component structure of the relationship between candidates facial appearance and electoral success is highly robust.

  18. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,

  19. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C; Frank, Mark G; Lee, Kang

    2014-03-31

    In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1-3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4-7]: a subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions, and a cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8-11]. However, machine vision may be able to distinguish deceptive facial signals from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here, we show that human observers could not discriminate real expressions of pain from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training human observers, we improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However, a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system's superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine expressions from faked expressions. Thus, by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling. PMID:24656830

  20. Facial recognition and laser surface scan: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Kristoffersen, Agnethe May; Steglich-Arnholm, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Surface scanning of the face of a suspect is presented as a way to better match the facial features with those of a perpetrator from CCTV footage. We performed a simple pilot study where we obtained facial surface scans of volunteers and then in blind trials tried to match these scans with 2D...

  1. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an

  2. Perception of facial attractiveness from static and dynamic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Although people we meet in real life are usually seen in motion, research on facial attractiveness has predominantly been conducted on static facial images. This raises a question about ecological validity of results obtained in such studies. Recently, several studies endeavoured to determine the concordance between attractiveness of faces seen on photos and video clips, but their results are markedly divergent, frequently indicating no concordance. In the present study, the association between attractiveness of facial images and clips was tested on a larger sample than has previously been reported (106 females, 102 males), and features under the face owner's control (scalp and facial hair, makeup, mouth expression) were controlled for. Two types of facial images were used: photographs and frames extracted from films. Correlation coefficients between attractiveness of static and dynamic faces were high (about 0.7), did not depend on facial sex or image type (photograph/frame), and did not diminish when the covariates were controlled for. Furthermore, the importance of facial averageness, femininity/ masculinity, symmetry, fattiness, skin health, and mouth expression for attractiveness proved similar for static and dynamic stimuli. This leads to the optimistic conclusion that results of studies relying on attractiveness assessments of static facial images are ecologically valid. PMID:23700955

  3. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    WataruSato; YasutakaKubota

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fea...

  4. Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II with otolaryngological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Havle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr?s syndrome which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.

  5. Simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis--vis facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry of male and female avatar characters. During Differentiation presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system.

  6. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial

  7. The treatment of facial nerve palsy by static suspension methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli? Lukas G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be directed towards the following: restoration of normal function, normal facial appearance at rest, symmetry in voluntary movements as well as symmetry in involuntary and emotional movements. Static suspension methods were used in our study. All patients had unilateral complete facial nerve palsy but one female patient who experienced the palsy of frontal branch of n.facialis. This method was successfully used to lift the eyebrow, the lid and to improve lagophthalmus on the paralytic side, then the angle and paralytic part of the lip, to reinforce buccal wall of oral cavity as well as to reconstruct new nasolabial fold. The results were satisfactory and permanent.

  8. A Comprehensive Study of Major Techniques of Facial Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sheikh, Shikha Agrawal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial Expression Recognition is one of thechallenging and active research topic in the recent years. FacialExpression Recognition System comprises the detection of face,facial feature extraction and classification of facial expressionfrom still images. This paper summarizes the major techniquesto recognize the facial expressions from still images. Thetechniques included in this paper are Principal ComponentAnalysis, Singular Value Decomposition, Neural Network,Cloud Model, Fuzzy Model and K-Means ClusteringAlgorithm. The performance of these techniques is good enoughand almost effective also except fuzzy model. Fuzzy model doesnot classify the expressions exactly. The main purpose of thisresearch work is to present the major techniques of automaticfacial expression recognition in a single view.

  9. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WataruSato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

  10. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

  11. Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

  12. Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

    1994-01-01

    Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

  13. Facial plexiform neurofibromatosis: A surgical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B Dogra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform neurofibromatosis is a relatively common but potentially devastating manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. It produces very hideous deformity if the face is involved. Surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, but in the head and neck region it is limited by the infiltrating nature of these tumors, inherent operative morbidity and high rate of regrowth. We present two cases of facial neurofibromatosis managed in our hospital. The first patient presented with overhanging mass of skin folds on the right side of her face, completely obliterating her right eye. The other patient was a young male having a huge, unsightly swelling over the right cheek, resulting in pulled down right eyelids and right pinna. Physical examination revealed the presence of caf au lait macules, freckling in the axillary region and multiple neurofibromas over the trunk. Reconstructive surgical procedure in the form of subtotal excision of tumor mass followed by re draping of the facial skin was performed in both cases. There was evidence of regrowth of the tumor on review after 6 months.

  14. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Nrhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  15. Adults' responsiveness to children's facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhye, Chinmay; Vonk, Jennifer; Arida, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effect of young children's (hereafter children's) facial expressions on adult responsiveness. In Study 1, 131 undergraduate students from a midsized university in the midwestern United States rated children's images and videos with smiling, crying, or neutral expressions on cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and participants' experienced distress. Looking times at images and videos along with perception of cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and experienced distress using 10-point Likert scales were measured. Videos of smiling children were rated as cuter and more likely to be adopted and were viewed for longer times compared with videos of crying children, which evoked more distress. In Study 2, we recorded responses from 101 of the same participants in an online survey measuring gender role identity, empathy, and perspective taking. Higher levels of femininity (as measured by Bem's Sex Role Inventory) predicted higher "likely to adopt" ratings for crying images. These findings indicate that adult perception of children and motivation to nurture are affected by both children's facial expressions and adult characteristics and build on existing literature to demonstrate that children may use expressions to manipulate the motivations of even non-kin adults to direct attention toward and perhaps nurture young children. PMID:25838165

  16. 3D analysis of facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter; Hutton, Tim J; Allanson, Judith E; Campbell, Linda E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Holden, Sean; Patton, Michael A; Shaw, Adam; Temple, I Karen; Trotter, Matthew; Murphy, Kieran C; Winter, Robin M

    2004-05-01

    Dense surface models can be used to analyze 3D facial morphology by establishing a correspondence of thousands of points across each 3D face image. The models provide dramatic visualizations of 3D face-shape variation with potential for training physicians to recognize the key components of particular syndromes. We demonstrate their use to visualize and recognize shape differences in a collection of 3D face images that includes 280 controls (2 weeks to 56 years of age), 90 individuals with Noonan syndrome (NS) (7 months to 56 years), and 60 individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 3 to 17 years of age). Ten-fold cross-validation testing of discrimination between the three groups was carried out on unseen test examples using five pattern recognition algorithms (nearest mean, C5.0 decision trees, neural networks, logistic regression, and support vector machines). For discriminating between individuals with NS and controls, the best average sensitivity and specificity levels were 92 and 93% for children, 83 and 94% for adults, and 88 and 94% for the children and adults combined. For individuals with VCFS and controls, the best results were 83 and 92%. In a comparison of individuals with NS and individuals with VCFS, a correct identification rate of 95% was achieved for both syndromes. This article contains supplementary material, which may be viewed at the American Journal of Medical Genetics website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0148-7299/suppmat/index.html. PMID:15098232

  17. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  18. Colgajos cutneos en ciruga oncolgica facial / Skin flaps in cancer facial surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario, Gutirrez A; Joaqun, Ulloa S; Patricio, Ulloa B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: El cncer de piel es una neoplasia maligna de gran prevalencia en la poblacin chilena. La regin facial es muy afectada, fundamentalmente por su alta exposicin a la radiacin ultravioleta. El cncer cutneo es la neoplasia maligna ms frecuente de la raza blanca, y en la piel expuest [...] a a la luz solar. Los tipos ms frecuentes son el carcinoma basocelular, el escamoso y el melanoma. De cada 10 cnceres cutneos 7 son carcinomas basocelulares. El tratamiento principal es quirrgico. Objetivos: Mostrar la experiencia alcanzada en el uso de colgajos cutneos en ciruga oncolgica facial. Material y mtodo: Se analizaron 55 cirugas realizadas para colgajos cutneos en 54 pacientes en 2 aos (2009-2010) en el Servicio de ORL del Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente (HGGB) de Concepcin. Resultados: Presentacin descriptiva de una serie de 54 pacientes, a los que se les reconstruyeron defectos faciales con colgajos cutneos tomados de la franja pericentrofacial y cervical originados en la reseccin de carcinomas basocelulares y espinocelulares, ubicados en nariz, prpados, labios, mejilla y mentn. Se describen e ilustran los principales colgajos utilizados, sus caractersticas ms relevantes e indicaciones y se analizan los resultados clnicos obtenidos con estas tcnicas quirrgicas, de fcil aplicacin en un rea clnica en que la esttica es primordial, aplicando mrgenes oncolgicos aceptables. Conclusiones: La regin facial permite la obtencin de colgajos cutneos con muy buena vascularizacin, delgados, con caractersticas muy similares a la piel de las zonas a reconstruir y con mnima morbilidad. La biomecnica de la piel y su aplicacin en la tcnica quirrgica es vital para el diseo y viabilidad del colgajo. La cicatriz se ubica en un rea de poca visibilidad, utilizando como referencia las unidades y subunidades estticas de la cara. El uso de anestesia local es una excelente alternativa para las extirpaciones tumorales y su reconstruccin, permitiendo intervenir pacientes de riesgo por morbilidad asociada. Los resultados funcionales y estticos fueron buenos considerando la localizacin y extensin de las lesiones tumorales. Los mrgenes quirrgicos deben ser planificados cuidadosamente. Abstract in english Introduction: The skin cancer is a malign neoplasm who has great incidence in the Chilean population. The facial region is very affected, principally by the high exposition to the sun irradiation. Is the most frequency cancer in the white race and also in skin exposed to sunlight. The most frequency [...] are the basocelular, the escamousos and melanoma. Of each 10 skin cancer, 7 are basocelular. The main treatment is surgical. Aim: To show the experience gained in the use of skin flaps in facial cancer surgery. Material and method: It is a descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients (20092010), which were reconstructed with skin flaps facial defects taken from the strip facial and cervical originated in the resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks and chin. We describe and illustrate the major flaps used, yours indications and discusses the clinical results obtained with these surgical techniques, easily applicable in a clinical area, where aesthetics is priority, applying acceptable oncological margins. Results: Descriptive presentation of a series of 54 patients, who were reconstructed with facial defects skin flaps taken from the band originated pericentrofacial and cervical resection of basal cell carcinomas and squamous, located in the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeksand chin. Conclusion: The results obtained with the success of the cutaneous flaps are favored by having good vascularity and low morbidity. The use of local anesthesia is an excellent alternative for tumor resections and reconstruction.

  19. Robust facial landmark detection for three-dimensional face segmentation and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai Shan; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional human faces have been applied in many fields, such as face animation, identity recognition, and facial plastic surgery. Segmenting and aligning 3-D faces from raw scanned data is the first vital step toward making these applications successful. However, the existence of artifacts, facial expressions, and noises poses many challenges to this problem. We propose an automatic and robust method to segment and align 3-D face surfaces by locating the nose tip and nose ridge. Taking a raw scanned surface as input, a novel feature-based moment analysis on scale spaces is presented to locate the nose tip accurately and robustly, which is then used to crop the face region. A technique called the geodesic Euclidean ratio is then developed to find the nose ridge. Each face is aligned based on the locations of nose tip and nose ridge. The proposed method is not only invariant to translations and rotations, but also robust in the presence of facial expressions and artifacts such as hair, clothing, other body parts, etc. Experimental results on two large 3-D face databases demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  20. Cephalic and Facial Indices Among Kosovo-Albanian Population / ndices Ceflico y Facial en la Poblacin Kosovar-Albanesa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria, Staka; Metush, Disha; Fatmir, Dragidella.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ndices ceflicos y faciales se utilizan para estimar las diferencias raciales y de sexo. Este estudio se llev a cabo para establecer estndares para las variables y la distribucin de los ndices ceflicos y faciales en la poblacin de Kosovo- Albanesa. Se examinaron 204 estudiantes de odontol [...] oga (101 hombres y 103 mujeres entre 18 y 30 aos). Se midieron cuatro variables craneofaciales bsicas (longitud de la cabeza, ancho de la cabeza, altura facial morfolgica y ancho facial) para obtener los ndices ceflicos y faciales. Todas las variables medidas craneofaciales fueron considerablemente ms altas en los hombres que en las mujeres (p Abstract in english Cephalic and facial indices are used to estimate the racial and sex differences. This study was carried out to establish standards for craniofacial variables and distribution of cephalic and facial indices in Kosovo - Albanian population. The study population consisted of 204 dental students (101 ma [...] les and 103 females, aged 18 to 30). Four basic craniofacial variables (head length, head breadth, morphological face height and face breadth) were measured to obtained cephalic and facial indices. All measured craniofacial variables are considerably higher in males than in females (p

  1. Influncia do posicionamento sagital mandibular na esttica facial Influence of mandibular sagittal position on facial esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Drea de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influncia do posicionamento sagital da mandbula na determinao da atratividade facial. MTODOS: fotografias faciais de perfil foram tomadas de um homem negro e um branco, assim como de uma mulher negra e uma branca. Essas fotografias foram manipuladas no computador, utilizando o programa Adobe Photoshop CS2, a fim de produzir, a partir de cada face original, um perfil reto, trs simulando discrepncias mandibulares por retruso e trs por protruso. As 28 fotografias foram avaliadas por ortodontistas (n = 20, cirurgies bucomaxilofaciais (n = 20, artistas plsticos (n = 20 e leigos (n = 20. A anlise descritiva foi realizada a partir do clculo da mdia e desvio-padro em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: para as faces do homem negro, bem como para as faces femininas, o perfil reto foi o mais aceito. Para o homem branco, a face considerada mais agradvel apresentava um perfil levemente cncavo, com a mandbula mais proeminente. Nesse, analisando-se as simulaes de discrepncias esquelticas, houve predileo pela protruso mandibular, em detrimento da retruso. Contudo, para as faces femininas, os perfis cncavos foram mais rejeitados do que os convexos. CONCLUSO: os resultados demonstraram concordncia entre os grupos de avaliadores na escolha dos perfis mais atrativos. Para as faces masculinas, o perfil reto e a face levemente cncava apresentaram-se mais atrativos, j as faces femininas que foram consideradas mais atrativas possuam o perfil reto.OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of mandibular sagittal position in the determination of facial attractiveness. METHODS: Facial profile photographs were taken of an Afro-descendant man and a Caucasian man, as well as an Afro-descendant woman and a Caucasian woman. These photos were manipulated on the computer using Adobe Photoshop CS2 to produce-from each original face-a straight profile, three simulating retrusion and three protrusion mandibular discrepancies. In all, 28 photographs were evaluated by orthodontists (n = 20, oral maxillofacial surgeons (n = 20, plastic artists (n = 20 and laypersons (n = 20. The descriptive analysis was performed by calculating the mean and standard deviation for each group. RESULTS: The straight facial profile was met with greater acceptance by Afro-descendant male faces and female faces. Caucasian males found a lightly concave facial profile with a more prominent mandible to be the most pleasant. After an analysis of skeletal discrepancies simulations, Caucasian males also showed a preference for mandibular protrusion versus retrusion. Females, however, preferred convex over concave profiles. CONCLUSION: The results showed agreement between groups of evaluators in selecting the most attractive profiles. Regarding male faces, a straight profile with a slightly concave face seemed more attractive and a straight facial profile was also greatly valued.

  2. Celulitis facial en nios con criterio de hospitalizacin / Children with facial cellulitis and hospitalization criterion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dadonim, Vila Morales; Mara Elena, Fernndez Collazo; Rebeca, Gonzlez-Longoria Concepcin.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: la celulitis facial puede convertirse en un grave riesgo vital cuando no se tiene en cuenta el tratamiento adecuado. Constituye un problema de salud en la poblacin de edades peditricas, pues es la segunda causa ms frecuente de ingreso hospitalario en la ciruga maxilofacial, luego d [...] e los traumatismos maxilofaciales. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento y el manejo teraputico por la Atencin Primaria de Salud en los municipios de Playa, Marianao y Lisa de La Habana. Mtodos: se realiz un estudio observacional retrospectivo en 53 pacientes que fueron ingresados en el Servicio de Ciruga Mxilo Facial del Hospital Peditrico Docente "Juan Manuel Mrquez", desde enero de 2001 a enero de 2007. Resultados: hubo ausencia de significacin estadstica entre sexos y entre los grupos de edades. La media de la edad fue de 8 aos, con una desviacin estndar de 4. La celulitis ms frecuente fue la odontgena (60,4 %). El 60,3 % de los pacientes fueron mal manejados por la atencin primaria. Los grupos dentarios ms afectados sugieren que las acciones preventivas deben encaminarse mayormente a la poblacin con denticin temporal y mixta. Conclusiones: hubo mayor representacin del sexo masculino y del grupo de 1 a 5 aos. El tipo de celulitis facial predominante fue la odontgena. En ms de la mitad de los casos el tratamiento antimicrobiano aplicado en la atencin primaria de salud fue inadecuado. Al momento del ingreso predomin la evaluacin clnica severa. Abstract in english Introduction: facial cellulitis can become a serious vital risk when doctors don't keep in mind the appropriate treatment. It constitutes a health problem in pediatric population, because it is the second more frequent cause of hospital admittance in the Maxillofacial Surgery Service, followed by ma [...] xillofacial traumatisms. Objective: to understand facial cellulitis behavior and to describe the therapeutic handling in Primary Health Care (PHC) in Playa, Marianao, and Lisa municipalities in Havana. Method: a retrospective observational study was performed on 53 patients who were admitted to the Maxillofacial Surgery Pediatric Teaching Hospital "Juan Manuel Marquez", from January 2001 to January 2007. Results: there was no statistical significance between genders and age groups, the mean age was 8 years with a standard deviation of 4. The most frequent was odontogenic cellulitis (60.4 %). 60.3 % of patients were poorly handled by the primary care service. The most affected dental groups suggest that preventive measures should be directed mostly to people with temporary and mixed teething Conclusions: there was higher representation in male patients and the 1 to 5 age group. Odontogenic facial cellulitis was the predominant type. Antimicrobial treatment was inadequate in more than half of cases at the primary health care. At admission severe clinical evaluation prevailed.

  3. High-intensity facial nerve lesions on T2-weighted images in chronic persistent facial nerve palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. (Japan); Ishii, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Okitsu, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Sendai City Hospital (Japan); Ogawa, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. (Japan); Okudera, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels-Akita, Akita (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Our aim was to estimate the value of MRI in detecting irreversibly paralysed facial nerves. We examined 95 consecutive patients with a facial nerve palsy (14 with a persistent palsy, and 81 with good recovery), using a 1.0 T unit, with T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The geniculate ganglion and tympanic segment had gave high signal on T2-weighted images in the chronic stage of persistent palsy, but not in acute palsy. The enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in the chronic persistent facial nerve palsy is similar to that in the acute palsy with good recovery. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI can be used to show severely damaged facial nerves. (orig.)

  4. High-intensity facial nerve lesions on T2-weighted images in chronic persistent facial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to estimate the value of MRI in detecting irreversibly paralysed facial nerves. We examined 95 consecutive patients with a facial nerve palsy (14 with a persistent palsy, and 81 with good recovery), using a 1.0 T unit, with T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The geniculate ganglion and tympanic segment had gave high signal on T2-weighted images in the chronic stage of persistent palsy, but not in acute palsy. The enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in the chronic persistent facial nerve palsy is similar to that in the acute palsy with good recovery. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI can be used to show severely damaged facial nerves. (orig.)

  5. Hemiatrofia facial progressiva: registro de um caso / Progressive facial hemiatrophy: report of a case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos Geraldo, Speciali; Luiz Antonio de Lima, Resende.

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Relato de caso de doena de Parry-Romberg, com hemi-hipotrofia esquerda de predomnio facial, epilepsia, afasia amnstica, rebaixamento intelectual, hemiparesia e hemianestesia direitas e sindrome cerebelar. enfatizada a raridade da atrofia cerebelar (apenas um caso na bibliografia consultada) e a [...] correlao entre as anormalidades clnicas e a tomografia axial computadorizada de crnio. Abstract in english The authors report a case of Parry-Romberg disease with predominantly facial left atrophy, seizures, amnesic aphasia, mental retardation, right hemiplegia and hemianesthesia, and cerebellar syndrome. The rarity of cerebellar atrophy (only one case thus far reported in the literature surveyed) is emp [...] hasized, as well as the correlation between the clinical abnormalities and the computerized axial tomography of the skull.

  6. Influncia do posicionamento sagital mandibular na esttica facial Influence of mandibular sagittal position on facial esthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Drea de Almeida; Arthur Costa Rodrigues Farias; Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a influncia do posicionamento sagital da mandbula na determinao da atratividade facial. MTODOS: fotografias faciais de perfil foram tomadas de um homem negro e um branco, assim como de uma mulher negra e uma branca. Essas fotografias foram manipuladas no computador, utilizando o programa Adobe Photoshop CS2, a fim de produzir, a partir de cada face original, um perfil reto, trs simulando discrepncias mandibulares por retruso e trs por protruso. As 28 fotografias f...

  7. Avaliao do envelhecimento facial relacionado ao tabagismo Evaluation of facial aging related to cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Letcia Yumi Suehara; Karine Simone; Marcus Maia

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O tabagismo responsvel por diversas doenas crnicas e pelo envelhecimento da pele. OBJETIVO: Comparar a pele facial de fumantes e no fumantes. MTODOS: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes, 43 no tabagistas e 34 tabagistas, entre 40 e 60 anos, excludos aqueles com exposio solar excessiva, etilistas e submetidos a tratamento esttico da face. As alteraes faciais foram avaliadas com base em escore de caractersticas da pele da face descrita por Model (fcies de tabagismo). Os in...

  8. Distinct Contributions to Facial Emotion Perception of Foveated versus Nonfoveated Facial Features

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, AP; Smithson, HE

    2013-01-01

    Foveated stimuli receive visual processing that is quantitatively and qualitatively different from nonfoveated stimuli. At normal interpersonal distances, people move their eyes around another's face so that certain features receive foveal processing; on any given fixation, other features therefore project extrafoveally. Yet little is known about the processing of extrafoveally presented facial features, how informative those extrafoveally presented features are for face perception (e.g., for...

  9. Visual Working Memory Capacity for Emotional Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Švegar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of visual working memory is limited to no more than four items. At the same time, it is limited not only by the number of objects, but also by the total amount of information that needs to be memorized, and the relation between the information load per object and the number of objects that can be stored into visual working memory is inverse. The objective of the present experiment was to compute visual working memory capacity for emotional facial expressions, and in order to do so, change detection tasks were applied. Pictures of human emotional facial expressions were presented to 24 participants in 1008 experimental trials, each of which began with a presentation of a fixation mark, which was followed by a short simultaneous presentation of six emotional facial expressions. After that, a blank screen was presented, and after such inter-stimulus interval, one facial expression was presented at one of previously occupied locations. Participants had to answer if the facial expression presented at test is different or identical as the expression presented at that same location before the retention interval. Memory capacity was estimated through accuracy of responding, by the formula constructed by Pashler (1988, adopted from signal detection theory. It was found that visual working memory capacity for emotional facial expressions equals 3.07, which is high compared to capacity for facial identities and other visual stimuli. The obtained results were explained within the framework of evolutionary psychology.

  10. Management of Facial Paralysis due to Extracranial Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Michael; Rolfes, Bryan N

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of advanced parotid or cutaneous malignancies often requires sacrifice of the facial nerve as well as resection of the parotid gland and surrounding structures. In addition to considerations regarding reinnervation and dynamic reanimation, reconstruction in this setting must take into account unique factors such as soft tissue volume deficits and the high likelihood of adjunctive radiation therapy. Furthermore, considerations of patient comorbidities including advanced age and poor long-term prognosis often influence reconstructive modality. The optimal reconstructive technique would provide potential for restoration of facial tone and voluntary movement as well as immediate restoration of facial support and function. Beyond considerations of facial movement and rest position, restoration of lost soft tissue volume is critical to obtain facial symmetry. To control long-term volume in the setting of adjunctive radiation therapy, vascularized tissue is required. In this chapter, we describe a comprehensive approach to the management of radical parotidectomy and similar facial defects that addresses these concerns and also describes management strategies over time. Specific techniques employed include anterolateral thigh free flaps, nerve grafting utilizing motor nerves to the vastus lateralis muscle, and orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer. Further considerations relative to the eye, forehead, and long-term facial refinement are also discussed. PMID:25958895

  11. The not face: A grammaticalization of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Quiroz, C Fabian; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Martinez, Aleix M

    2016-05-01

    Facial expressions of emotion are thought to have evolved from the development of facial muscles used in sensory regulation and later adapted to express moral judgment. Negative moral judgment includes the expressions of anger, disgust and contempt. Here, we study the hypothesis that these facial expressions of negative moral judgment have further evolved into a facial expression of negation regularly used as a grammatical marker in human language. Specifically, we show that people from different cultures expressing negation use the same facial muscles as those employed to express negative moral judgment. We then show that this nonverbal signal is used as a co-articulator in speech and that, in American Sign Language, it has been grammaticalized as a non-manual marker. Furthermore, this facial expression of negation exhibits the theta oscillation (3-8Hz) universally seen in syllable and mouthing production in speech and signing. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that some components of human language have evolved from facial expressions of emotion, and suggest an evolutionary route for the emergence of grammatical markers. PMID:26872248

  12. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions.

  13. Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sofia,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifying the expressions of the students torecognize their comprehension from the facial expressions in static images containing the frontal view of the human face. Our goal is to categorize the facial expressions of the students in the given image into two basic emotional expression states comprehensible, incomprehensible. One of the key action units in the face to expose expression is eye. In this paper, Facial expressions are identified from the expressions of the eyes. Our method consists of three steps, Edge detection, Eye extraction and Emotion recognition. Edge detection is performed through Prewitt operator. Extraction of eyes is performed using iterative search algorithm on the edge image. All the extracted information are combined together to form the feature vector. Finally, the features are given as an input for a BPN classifier and thus the facial expressions are being identified. The proposed method is tested on the Yale Face database.

  14. Facial expression of emotions in borderline personality disorder and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneberg, Babette; Heyn, Katrin; Gebhard, Rita; Bachmann, Silke

    2005-09-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by marked problems in interpersonal relationships and emotion regulation. The assumption of emotional hyper-reactivity in BPD is tested regarding the facial expression of emotions, an aspect highly relevant for communication processes and a central feature of emotion regulation. Facial expressions of emotions are examined in a group of 30 female inpatients with BPD, 27 women with major depression and 30 non-patient female controls. Participants were videotaped while watching two short movie sequences, inducing either positive or negative emotions. Frequency of emotional facial expressions and intensity of happiness expressions were examined, using the Emotional Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS-7, Friesen & Ekman, EMFACS-7: Emotional Facial Action Coding System, Version 7. Unpublished manual, 1984). Group differences were analyzed for the negative and the positive mood-induction procedure separately. Results indicate that BPD patients reacted similar to depressed patients with reduced facial expressiveness to both films. The highest emotional facial activity to both films and most intense happiness expressions were displayed by the non-clinical control group. Current findings contradict the assumption of a general hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli in patients with BPD. PMID:15950175

  15. Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p p = 0.003 than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02. Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters.

  16. Facial Palsy in Kawasaki Syndrome; Review and a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH. Moradi Nejad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve palsy, a very rare complication of Kawasaki syndrome, has been reported in only 25 patents. None of the 25 previous reported cases with this complication was treated with IVIG. We treated a 24-month-old boy with bilateral coronary artery aneurysms due to Kawasaki syndrome. In our patient, whom we treated with Aspirin and IVIG, duration of disease was 7-9 days. He developed marked unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy on day 3 of illness. This treatment led to complete resolution of facial nerve palsy within 48 hours. Review of pervious cases demonstrates that children with Kawasaki–associated facial nerve palsy have more than twice the risk for coronary artery aneurysm (52% vs 25% as that of children without facial nerve palsy. Unexplained facial nerve palsy in young children with a prolonged febrile illness should provoke consideration of Kawasaki syndrome and Echocardiography to exclude coronary artery aneurysms. Although facial nerve palsy appears likely to be resolved in all patients surviving the acute phase of Kawasaki syndrome, treatment with IVIG appears to shorten considerably the time for full recovery and provides an important clue to the mechanism of neurological injury in this illness.

  17. Moving to continuous facial expression space using the MPEG-4 facial definition parameter (FDP) set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzis, Kostas; Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas; Kollias, Stefanos D.

    2000-06-01

    Research in facial expression has concluded that at least six emotions, conveyed by human faces, are universally associated with distinct expressions. Sadness, anger, joy, fear, disgust and surprise are categories of expressions that are recognizable across cultures. In this work we form a relation between the description of the universal expressions and the MPEG-4 Facial Definition Parameter Set (FDP). We also investigate the relation between the movement of basic FDPs and the parameters that describe emotion-related words according to some classical psychological studies. In particular Whissel suggested that emotions are points in a space, which seem to occupy two dimensions: activation and evaluation. We show that some of the MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs), approximated by the motion of the corresponding FDPs, can be combined by means of a fuzzy rule system to estimate the activation parameter. In this way variations of the six archetypal emotions can be achieved. Moreover, Plutchik concluded that emotion terms are unevenly distributed through the space defined by dimensions like Whissel's; instead they tend to form an approximately circular pattern, called 'emotion wheel,' modeled using an angular measure. The 'emotion wheel' can be defined as a reference for creating intermediate expressions from the universal ones, by interpolating the movement of dominant FDP points between neighboring basic expressions. By exploiting the relation between the movement of the basic FDP point and the activation and angular parameters we can model more emotions than the primary ones and achieve efficient recognition in video sequences.

  18. Aciclovir en el tratamiento de la parlisis facial idioptica / Acyclovir in idiopatic facial paralysis treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Rodrguez Blanco; J., Morera Montes.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha propuesto la utilizacin de aciclovir en el tratamiento de la parlisis facial idioptica, debido al auge que la hiptesis vrica ha tenido en los ltimos aos. Varios ensayos clnicos han intentado demostrar la utilidad del uso combinado de aciclovir y prednisona frente al uso d [...] e prednisona sola. Revisamos la literatura con el fin de establecer pautas de actuacin en Atencin Primaria y concluimos que con los datos disponibles en la actualidad no existe evidencia suficiente para recomendar el uso de aciclovir en el tratamiento de la parlisis facial idioptica. Abstract in english Recently, acyclovir use has been proposed for the treatment of idiopatic acute paralysis due to the hypothetical viral origin of the disease. Several trials has tried to conclude that acyclovir-prednisona is superior to prednisone alone. We review the latest studies to define protocols in Primary He [...] alth Care for the medical treatment of idiopatic facial paralisis but current evidence does not support the recomendation that acyclovir should be use in this disorder.

  19. Facial gunshot wound debridement: debridement of facial soft tissue gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyrkov, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. PMID:22998924

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF FACIAL PSORIASIS WITH DLQI AND SEVERITY OF PSORIASIS : A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan; Adikrishnan; Rahul *1,; Trishna Vaishali; Krishnakanth; Sudha; Anandan; Mahalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic papulosquamous disorder involving any skin site. Involvement of exposed areas is associated with significant stigma. Facial involvement in psoriasis causes considerable cosmetic imbalance and psychosocial stress to the affected individual. Facial psoriasis has been described as severe psoriasis. KEYWORDS: D IQL facial psoria sis centro facial periorofacial.

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF FACIAL PSORIASIS WITH DLQI AND SEVERITY OF PSORIASIS : A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic papulosquamous disorder involving any skin site. Involvement of exposed areas is associated with significant stigma. Facial involvement in psoriasis causes considerable cosmetic imbalance and psychosocial stress to the affected individual. Facial psoriasis has been described as severe psoriasis. KEYWORDS: D IQL facial psoria sis centro facial periorofacial.

  2. Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia : Effects of training on brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M.; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study,...

  3. Facial expression recognition impairment following acute social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschnes, Andra; Forget, Hlne; Daudelin-Peltier, Camille; Fiset, Daniel; Blais, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Recently, von Dawans et al. (2012) showed that stress exposure increases facial trustworthiness judgements. Given the relation between trustworthiness and the presence/absence of subtle visual features related to happiness and anger (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008), we verified if social stress modulates the visual perception of facial expressions. Twenty-nine men were submitted to a social stress (i.e. Trier Social Stress Test for Groups) or a control condition (i.e. identical setting save for the socio-evaluative threat component) in a counterbalanced order. Facial expression recognition was then measured using a homemade version of the 'facial expression megamix' (Young et al.,1997) in which each of the six basic facial expressions plus neutrality were morphed with each other at seven different percentages (from 14/86 in intervals of 12%). The task was to decide which expression the image most resembled. Recognition accuracy for each facial expression when it was dominant in the morph (i.e. over 50%) was first computed. We found that social stress modulates accuracy scores only for disgust (Mstress= 81%; Mcontrol=89%; t(28)=-3.20, p=0.028; bonferroni corrected). We also verified if the emotion signal necessary to detect each facial expression when they were part of the morph was modulated by stress. For each facial expression, we calculated, separately for each percentage level, the proportion of times that it was correctly identified as being part of the morph. This produced a curve on which we fitted a cumulated gaussian to find at what percentage level an expression was detected 50% of the time. Our results show that stress decreased the sensitivity to disgust (t(28)=3.55, p=0.007; bonferroni corrected). These results indicate that an acute social stress alters the perception of facial expressions, more specifically it decreases the sensitivity to the disgust expression. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327071

  4. Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation

  5. Trichoepithelioma arising from facial scar tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yong; Yong, Lee Jun; Kim, Dong Jin; Jin, Kim Dong; Kwon, Ho; Ho, Kwon; Jung, Sung-No; Sung-No, Jung

    2013-05-01

    Trichoepithelioma is a benign tumor that arises from hair follicles and includes aggregations of basaloid cells arranged in a cribriform or lacelike reticular pattern, conspicuous hair germs, follicular papillae, small horn cysts, and fibrotic stroma. A solitary trichoepithelioma is a nonhereditary tumor and mostly occurs on the face. We describe a rare case of trichoepithelioma arising from facial scar tissue, which to our knowledge is the first to be documented. Moreover, as we know, the skin lesions arising in scar tissue are almost malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma. However, this is a benign tumor arising from scar tissue. We present the case because of its rarity from the scar tissue and discuss the condition in terms of differential diagnosis. PMID:23714996

  6. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration. PMID:16575710

  7. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  8. Reconstruction of Facial Defect Using Deltopectoral Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the head and neck is a challenge for otolarygology surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons as well as plastic surgeons. Defects caused by the resection and/or trauma should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Deltopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the facial defects. This study report a patient presenting with tragic Road Traffic Accident (RTA) admitted to maxillofacial surgery department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar province, Iraq. An incision, medially based, was done and deltopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure and closure of defects after RTA. There was no major complication. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Deltopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation. PMID:26595007

  9. Imaging symptomatics in recurrent facial nerve neuritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining better insight into the etiology and pathogenesis of recurrent facial nerve neuritis requires the use of an appropriate imaging modality of examination. This is retrospective analysis of 106 patients with recurrent n. facialis neuritis, studied by conventional x-ray methods, including: segment roentgenography according to Schuller, Stenverse, Biezalski (in children), and hypocyloidal directly enlarged polytomography, with emphasis laid on their role in the diagnostic algorithm of study. Assessment is done of the Fallopian canal width and course, with a special reference to adjacent bony structures, having essential practical bearing on planning interventions for decompression of the nerve and chronic otomastoiditis treatment. In 30 % of the patients are observed inflammatory changes in the parafacial bony structures as an expression of inflammatory otogenic etiology of recurrent n. facialis neuritis, and in 7 % - eburneization of bony structures. The symptom of improved Fallopian canal visibility is documented in cases presenting chronic inflammatory processes involving parafacial cellular structures. (author)

  10. [Neuhauser syndrome: the facial dysmorphic phenotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia-Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Hernndez-Avia, Daniel Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Neuhauser syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disease, most cases are sporadic by spontaneous mutation, but there are cases of autosomal recessive genetic transmission; the specific cause is unknown and has no diagnostic test. The disease is clinically characterized by primary megalocornea, congenital hypotonia, mental retardation of varying degree and delayed psychomotor development. The diagnosis in childhood is usually performed by oculo-neurological criteria. The patients have a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: round face, wide prominent forehead, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, bulbous nose, wide philtrum nasolabial wide, thin elongated mouth, big and protuded ear "cup", jaw undersized (micrognathia) and abnormal posterior positioning of the mandible (retrognathia).The use of facial dysmorphism helps to delineate the phenotype and achieve the punctuation required for the diagnosis, allowing early management and prevention of complications. PMID:26820212

  11. From facial expressions to bodily gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19th century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study.

  12. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. "Tail sign" was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  13. Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirard GE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Grald E Pirard,1 Trinh Hermanns-L,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Pirard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Lige, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Lige, Lige, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

  14. Parlisis facial perifrica. Resultados del tratamiento quirrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Santana lvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiz un estudio tipo explicativo, longitudinal y aplicado en 120 pacientes con parlisis facial perifrica de causa variable a los que se les realiz exploracin y tratamiento quirrgico. La investigacin se llev a cabo en el Hospital Militar Docente Clnico Quirrgico Dr. Octavio de la Concepcin y de la Pedraja de la ciudad de Camagey, durante el perodo comprendido entre octubre de 1989 a enero de 2007. Los pacientes fueron remitidos a la consulta de Otorrinolaringologa donde se definieron los criterios para la intervencin quirrgica y conducta segn la lesin encontrada; despus de operados fueron evaluados por un perodo de un ao y se recogi la evolucin de los signos clnicos, tiempo de recuperacin, complicaciones, resultados y grado de satisfaccin. Se encontr un predominio de las edades comprendidas entre 21 y 50 aos, y una mejor evolucin en los pacientes del sexo femenino. La causa ms frecuente de parlisis facial perifrica fueron la tipo Bell y la traumtica con un 36.66 % del total, respectivamente. El edema del nervio se observ en el 58.33 %, y dentro de la localizacin traumtica la lesin mastoidea en el mbito de la segunda rodilla se observ en el 81.81 % de los pacientes. El abordaje mastoideo se utiliz en el 91.66 % de los pacientes. La oclusin del prpado y movilidad de la comisura labial fueron los signos con ms rpida recuperacin. Los resultados mostraron movilidad normal y paresia ligera en 76.76 % de los pacientes operados segn los criterios de Jongkees, lo que demostr el valor funcional de la tcnica. El grado de satisfaccin fue excelente o bueno en el 96.66 % de los pacientes, lo que demuestra el valor inestimable que le confieren los pacientes a este resultado

  15. Radial curve-based classification and localization of features for 3D facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Manar D.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel method to analyze facial expressions from 3D shape using radial curves and curve based geometric features. Curve based representation of 3D facial shape and corresponding geometric features overcome the curse of dimensionality providing a means for fast and automatic classification and comparison of 3D facial shapes. Our proposed curve based geometric features effectively capture local variations and classify facial expressions from 3D facial shapes. A multiclass feature selection technique is used to identify the most effective features that localize the effective regions of the face. Six basic facial expressions are classified using a publicly available 3D facial expression dataset.

  16. Facial nerve neuromas: MR imaging. Report of four cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N. (G.H. Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. of Neuroradiology); Sterkers, O. (Hospital Beaujon, Clichy (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Mompoint, D.; Nahum, H. (Hopital Beaujon, Clichy (France). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-02-01

    Four cases of facial nerve neuroma were evaluated by computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extension of the tumor in the petrous bone or the parotid gland was well defined by MRI in all cases. CT scan was useful to demonstrate bone erosions and the relation of the tumor to inner ear structures. In cases of progressive facial palsy, CT and MRI should be combined to detect a facial neuroma and to plan the surgical approach for tumor removal and nerve grafting. (orig.).

  17. Facial palsy after a stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neurinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugasawa, Keiko; Mizuno, Masahiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ishii, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Naonobu; Kobayashi, Takeo

    1994-08-01

    Seven cases of facial palsy of acoustic neurinoma after stereotactic radiosurgery were reported. Previously undetected facial palsy appeared three to nine months after radiosurgical treatments. In five of the seven cases, facial palsy was progressive and resulted in complete palsy, and two cases showed comparatively good value of ENoG at the early stage of palsy. We concluded that the value of ENoG at the early stage of palsy could not necessarily predict the exact prognosis, and also we have an impression that the palsy seems not transient. Therefore, it is difficult to expect a good prognosis in such cases. (author).

  18. Dynamic evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Koji; Inokuchi, Ikuo; Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Masuda, Yu

    1994-02-01

    Several visual assessment methods have been proposed for evaluating facial nerve function. They are of value clinically, but they have drawbacks when objective, quantitative, and reproducible assessment is required. To solve these problems, we used moire topography, which helps visualize information in three dimensions. We previously reported that one could evaluate the severity of facial palsy by observing characteristic patterns of the moire strips produced by facial movement. Accordingly, we developed a new form of the dynamic evaluation by recording the dynamic changes in moire strip patterns on the face on a videotape.

  19. Facial palsy after a stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neurinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of facial palsy of acoustic neurinoma after stereotactic radiosurgery were reported. Previously undetected facial palsy appeared three to nine months after radiosurgical treatments. In five of the seven cases, facial palsy was progressive and resulted in complete palsy, and two cases showed comparatively good value of ENoG at the early stage of palsy. We concluded that the value of ENoG at the early stage of palsy could not necessarily predict the exact prognosis, and also we have an impression that the palsy seems not transient. Therefore, it is difficult to expect a good prognosis in such cases. (author)

  20. Facial nerve palsy: Providing eye comfort and cosmesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsuhaibani Adel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of facial nerve palsy (FNP may lead to dramatic change in the patient′s facial function, expression, and emotions. The ophthalmologist may play an important role in the initial evaluation, and the long-term management of patients with new-onset of FNP. In patients with expected temporary facial weakness, no efforts should be wasted to ensure proper corneal protection. Patients with permanent functional deficit may require combination of surgical procedures tailored to the patient′s clinical findings that may require good eye comfort and cosmesis.

  1. Bilateral Facial Paralysis In Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf V.V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome is a rare, idiopathic non caseating granulomatous condition characterized by a classic triad of recurrent facial/labial swelling, fissured tongue and recurrent facial palsy. Different therapeutic regimens have been attempted but with limited success. We report a 47-year-old woman with recurrent lip swelling, lingua plicata and recurrent peripheral facial nerve palsy on both sides who benefited from a short course of oral steroids. Literature on various aspects of the disease is reviewed and discussed.

  2. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate......, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video (HSFV) as a new biometric trait for human identity recognition, for the first time to...

  3. Pneumocephalus due to Compressed Air Injury without Facial Bone Fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ho Jin; Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Su Young [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Pneumocephalus without a facial bone fracture or sinus disease is rare. A possible cause of pneumocephalus is high-pressure air applied into the orbit may cause without any evidence of a facial fracture. The mechanism behind pneumocephalus may be secondary to a blast of air from the orbit to the intracranial space with a degree of pressure. We report a case of compressed air injury induced by disseminated pneumocephalus in the absence of a facial bone fracture detected on multidetector computed tomography. After 5 days, a follow-up indicated that the pneumocephalus was almost completely resolved without visual loss.

  4. Estimating Age Value from Super-Resolution Reconstruction Facial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Du

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic age estimation based on facial images is important but challenging in face recognition research. A Super-Resolution Reconstruction algorithm was proposed to implement the age estimation of facial images, which cut the facial image into small pieces. Then after building high resolution images by using the Super-Resolution Reconstruction algorithm, the RBF neural network was used to train and test these high resolution images. At last, the classifier ensemble with genetic algorithm was used to estimate age information. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that it is an effective method.

  5. Facial Expression Recognition using Neural Network An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpaja V. Saudagare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In many face recognition systems the important part is face detection. The task of detecting face is complex due to its variability present across human faces including color, pose, expression, position and orientation. So using various modeling techniques it is convenient to recognize various facial expressions. In the field of image processing it is very interesting to recognize the human gesture by observing the different movement of eyes, mouth, nose, etc. Classification of face detection and token matching can be carried out any neural network for recognizing the facial expression. This paper reviews various techniques of facial expression recognition systems using MATLAB (neural network toolbox.

  6. Injectable Filler Techniques for Facial Rejuvenation, Volumization, and Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lawrence S

    2015-11-01

    Multiple fillers are available: various hyaluronic acid products, calcium hydroxylapatite, and a few others that are biocompatible with good duration and a variety of mechanical properties allowing intradermal, subdermal, and supraperiosteal injection. Facial features can be reshaped with great control using these fillers. Aging changes, including facial volume loss, can be well-corrected. These treatments have become a mainstay of rejuvenation in the early facial aging patient. Injection technique is critical to obtaining excellent results. Threading, fanning, cross-hatching, bleb, and pillar techniques must be mastered. Technical execution can only measure up to, but not exceed, the quality of the aesthetic analysis. PMID:26505544

  7. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vloeberghs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paralysis of the mouth corner is a very disabling bothfunctionally and cosmetically, speech and swallowing are hampered and the patient loses saliva, with presents a social problem.

  8. Orientation Selectivity for Representing Dynamic Diversity of Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Madokoro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a representation method of facial expression changes using Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART networks. Our method extracts orientation selectivity of Gabor wavelets on ART networks, which are unsupervised and self-organizing neural networks that contain a stability-plasticity tradeoff. The classification ability of ART is controlled by a parameter called the attentional vigilance parameter. However, the networks often produce redundant categories. The proposed method produces suitable vigilance parameters according to classification granularity using orientation selectivity. Moreover, the method can represent the appearance and disappearance of facial expression changes to detect dynamic, local, and topological feature changes from obtained whole facial images.

  9. Violent video game play impacts facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J; Mounts, Jeffrey R W

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent video game play. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Typically, happy faces are identified faster than angry faces (the happy-face advantage). Results indicated that playing a violent video game led to a reduction in the happy face advantage. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the current models of aggressive behavior. PMID:17593563

  10. Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Younes; Yosra, Cherif; Foued, Bellazreg; Mouna, Aissi; Olfa, Berriche; Jihed, Souissi; Hammadi, Braham; Mahbouba, Frih-Ayed; Amel, Letaief; Habib, Sfar Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic disorder, peripheral neuropathy, disturbed behavior, acanthocytosis and the atrophy of caudate nuclei was suggestive of a diagnosis of ChAc. To our knowledge no similar cases of facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc) were found in a review of the literature. PMID:25332750

  11. Pneumocephalus due to Compressed Air Injury without Facial Bone Fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumocephalus without a facial bone fracture or sinus disease is rare. A possible cause of pneumocephalus is high-pressure air applied into the orbit may cause without any evidence of a facial fracture. The mechanism behind pneumocephalus may be secondary to a blast of air from the orbit to the intracranial space with a degree of pressure. We report a case of compressed air injury induced by disseminated pneumocephalus in the absence of a facial bone fracture detected on multidetector computed tomography. After 5 days, a follow-up indicated that the pneumocephalus was almost completely resolved without visual loss.

  12. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Dennis F

    2016-01-01

    Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is infiltration. PMID:26730209

  13. Persistent bilateral function after unilateral facial nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To indicate that occasionally the contralateral facial nerve provides redundant innervation to the hemi-face. Single case report. We report the case of a patient whose facial nerve was transected during removal of a 3 cm vestibular schwannoma. Postoperatively, this patient still demonstrated spontaneous mimetic motion on the side of the face ipsilateral to the transsection. Review of the literature finds rare instances of preserved function after nerve transection in the removal of large parotid masses. We speculate that the slow loss of ipsilateral function can at times contribute to innervation from the contralateral facial nerve.

  14. Facial reanimation after acoustic neuroma resection: options and timing of intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boahene, Kofi

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis following acoustic neuroma (AN) resection can be devastating, but timely and strategic intervention can minimize the resulting facial morbidity. A central strategy in reanimating the paralyzed face after AN resection is to restore function of the native facial muscles using available facial nerves or repurposed cranial nerves, mainly the hypoglossal or masseter nerves. The timing of reinnervation is the single most influential factor that determines outcomes in facial reanimation surgery. The rate of recovery of facial function in the first 6 months following AN resection may be used to predict ultimate facial function. Patients who show no signs of recovery in the first 6 months, even when their facial nerves are intact, recover poorly and are candidates for early facial reinnervation. With delay, facial muscles become irreversibly paralyzed. Reanimation in irreversible paralysis requires the transfer of functional muscle units such as the gracilis or the temporalis muscle tendon unit. PMID:25958894

  15. Tcnicas de moldagem da mscara facial / Moulage of facial mask techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luana Maria Martins de, Aquino; Milene de, Oliveira; Ana Paula Varela Brown, Martins; Clia Marisa Rizzatti, Barbosa.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: Encontram-se descritas na literatura vrias tcnicas para moldagem da mscara facial com o intuito de obteno de modelos para confeco de prteses bucomaxilofaciais. OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar duas tcnicas de moldagem, a tcnica convencional e a tcnica convencion [...] al modificada, ressaltando suas vantagens e desvantagens. TCNICA: A primeira tcnica consiste na deposio do material de moldagem na regio de interesse e, posteriormente, na adio da camada de reforo com gesso tipo II. A modificao da tcnica convencional inicia?se com a realizao de um alvio com algodo nos tecidos faciais a serem moldados, a aplicao de uma camada de gesso tipo II para a construo prvia da camada de reforo e, aps sua cristalizao, a aplicao do material de moldagem sobre a rea a ser moldada, seguida de sua conteno por meio da mscara de gesso. CONCLUSO: A escolha da tcnica de moldagem e dos materiais utilizados depender da habilidade do profissional. O importante realizar uma moldagem que produza um modelo facial sem distores para o sucesso da prtese. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: There are described in the literature several techniques for shaping the face mask in order to develop models for fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe two techniques used for facial moulage, the conventional technique and conventional techni [...] que with modification, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. CASE REPORT: In the first technique, the impression material is deposited over the region of interest and then a reinforcement layer of plaster type II is putting to cover the impression material. The modification of the conventional technique begins with a relief with cotton over the facial tissue, applying a layer of plaster type II in order to construct the reinforcement layer and, after its crystallization, the application of impression material over the area to be molded, followed by its plaster mask contention. CONCLUSION: The choice of impression technique and materials used will depend on the ability of the professional. The important thing is to make a moulage in order to get an accurate facial cast for the prosthesis' success.

  16. Padronizao das tcnicas de seco do nervo facial e de avaliao da mmica facial em ratos / Standardization of techniques used in facial nerve section and facial movement evaluation in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Damasceno de, Faria; Jos Ricardo Gurgel, Testa; Andrei, Borin; Ronaldo N., Toledo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Padronizao da tcnica de seco do nervo facial extratemporal em ratos e elaborao de uma escala de avaliao da mmica facial desses animais antes e aps essa seco. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar foram anestesiados com xilasina e ketamina e submetidos sec [...] o do nervo facial prximo sua emergncia pelo forame mastideo na pele. Todos os animais foram avaliados. Foram observados: fechamento ocular, reflexo de piscamento, movimentao e posicionamento das vibrissas, e foi elaborada uma escala de avaliao e graduao destes parmetros. RESULTADOS: O tronco do nervo facial foi encontrado entre a margem tendinosa do msculo clavotrapzio e a cartilagem auricular. O tronco foi seccionado proximal sua sada pelo forame mastideo e os cotos foram suturados com nylon 9-0. Foi elaborada uma escala de avaliao e graduao da mmica facial independente para olho e vibrissa e a somatria dos parmetros, como forma de avaliar a face paralisada. A ausncia de piscamento e de fechamento ocular recebeu valor 1; a presena de contrao do msculo orbicular, sem reflexo de piscamento, valor 2; fechamento ocular de 50% atravs de reflexo de piscamento, valor 3, o fechamento de 75%, valor 4. A presena de reflexo de piscamento com fechamento ocular completo recebeu valor 5. A ausncia de movimento e posio posterior das vibrissas recebeu pontuao 1; tremor leve e posio posterior, pontuao 2; tremor maior e posio posterior, pontuao 3 e movimento normal com posio posterior, pontuao 4. A movimentao simtrica das vibrissas, com posio anterior recebeu pontuao 5. CONCLUSO: O rato apresenta anatomia que permite fcil acesso ao nervo facial extratemporal, possibilitando seco e sutura desse nervo de forma padronizada. Tambm foi possvel estabelecer uma escala de avaliao e graduao da mmica facial dos ratos com paralisia facial a partir da observao clnica desses animais. Abstract in english AIM: standardization of the technique to section the extratemporal facial nerve in rats and creation of a scale to evaluate facial movements in these animals before and after surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. METHOD: twenty Wistar rats were anesthetized with ketamine xylazine and submitted to sec [...] tioning of the facial nerve near its emergence through the mastoid foramen. Eye closure and blinking reflex, vibrissae movement and positioning were observed in all animals and a scale to evaluate these parameters was then created. RESULTS: The facial nerve trunk was found between the tendinous margin of the clavotrapezius muscle and the auricular cartilage. The trunk was proximally sectioned as it exits the mastoid foramen and the stumps were sutured with a 9-0-nylon thread. An evaluation and graduation scale of facial movements, independent for eye and vibrissae, was elaborated, together with a sum of the parameters, as a means to evaluate facial palsy. Absence of eye blinking and closure scored 1; the presence of orbicular muscle contraction, without blinking reflex, scored 2; 50% of eye closure through blinking reflex, scored 3, 75% of closure scored 4. The presence of complete eye closure and blinking reflex scored 5. The absence of movement and posterior position of the vibrissae scored 1; slight shivering and posterior position scored 2; greater shivering and posterior position, scored 3 and normal movement with posterior position, scored 4; symmetrical movement of he vibrissae, with anterior position, scored 5. CONCLUSION: The rat anatomy allows easy access to the extratemporal facial nerve, allowing its sectioning and standardized suture. It was also possible to establish an evaluation and graduation scale of the rat facial movements with facial palsy based on the clinical observation of these animals.

  17. Restoration of facial form and function after severe disfigurement from burn injury by a composite facial allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomahac, B; Pribaz, J; Eriksson, E; Annino, D; Caterson, S; Sampson, C; Chun, Y; Orgill, D; Nowinski, D; Tullius, S G

    2011-02-01

    Composite facial allotransplantation is emerging as a treatment option for severe facial disfigurements. The technical feasibility of facial transplantation has been demonstrated, and the initial clinical outcomes have been encouraging. We report an excellent functional and anatomical restoration 1 year after face transplantation. A 59-year-old male with severe disfigurement from electrical burn injury was treated with a facial allograft composed of bone and soft tissues to restore midfacial form and function. An initial potent antirejection treatment was tapered to minimal dose of immunosuppression. There were no surgical complications. The patient demonstrated facial redness during the initial postoperative months. One acute rejection episode was reversed with a brief methylprednisolone bolus treatment. Pathological analysis and the donor's medical history suggested that rosacea transferred from the donor caused the erythema, successfully treated with topical metronidazol. Significant restoration of nasal breathing, speech, feeding, sensation and animation was achieved. The patient was highly satisfied with the esthetic result, and regained much of his capacity for normal social life. Composite facial allotransplantation, along with minimal and well-tolerated immunosuppression, was successfully utilized to restore facial form and function in a patient with severe disfigurement of the midface. PMID:21214855

  18. Atuao da fonoaudiologia na esttica facial: relato de caso clnico / Speech therapy performance ih the facial aesthetics: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Cristina Gonalves dos, Santos; Maria Julia Pereira Coelho, Ferraz.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: esttica facial. PROCEDIMENTOS: por meio de anamnese e avaliao clnica, aplicou-se um protocolo de tratamento com manipulao funcional dos msculos mastigatrios faciais acompanhados de exerccios isomtricos num total de 8 sesses semanais, durante 2 meses, sendo fotografados antes e aps [...] o tratamento. O objetivo foi caracterizar as modificaes faciais do ponto de vista qualitativo avaliadas clinicamente aps tratamento Fonoaudiolgico, num enfoque etiolgico de carter biomecnico. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma melhoria da simetria facial e funes relacionadas biomecnica mandibular. CONCLUSO: sugere-se a importncia da atuao fonoaudiolgica no restabelecimento facial e funcional da motricidade oral com repercusses na diminuio das rugas, marcas de expresso e flacidez. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: aesthetics PROCEDURES: by means of a questionnaire and clinical evaluation, we applied a treatment protocol with functional manipulation of the masticatory muscles accompanied by facial isometric exercises for a total of 8 weekly sessions during 2 months, and we photographed before and a [...] fter treatment. This study aimed at featuring four facial changes in terms of quality, as assessed after treatment, under an etiological and biomechanical character focus. RESULTS: there was an improvement in facial symmetry and functions related to mandibular biomechanics. CONCLUSION: we suggest the importance of speech-language intervention in restoring facial and functional oral motor that influence the reduction of wrinkles, expression marks and flaccidity.

  19. A patient with bilateral facial palsy associated with hypertension and chickenpox: learning points

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Abadi, Eslam; Milford, David V; Smith, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral facial nerve paralysis is an uncommon presentation and even more so in children. There are reports of different causes of bilateral facial nerve palsy. It is well-established that hypertension and chickenpox causes unilateral facial paralysis and the importance of checking the blood pressure in children with facial nerve paralysis cannot be stressed enough. The authors report a boy with bilateral facial nerve paralysis in association with hypertension and having recently recovered f...

  20. Involuntary Facial Expression Processing: Extracting Information from Two Simultaneously Presented Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, Samantha; Palermo, Romina; Mark A. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Facial expressions play an important role in successful social interactions, with previous research suggesting that facial expressions may be processed involuntarily. In the current study, we investigate whether involuntary processing of facial expressions would also occur when facial expression distractors are simultaneously presented in the same spatial location as facial expression targets. Targets and distractors from another stimulus class (lions) were also used. Results indicated that a...

  1. Perdas auditivas em paralisia facial perifrica aps cirurgia de descompresso Hearing loss in peripheral facial palsy after decompression surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Kroskinsque Palombo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial pode resultar de uma variedade de etiologias, sendo a mais comum a idioptica. A avaliao e o tratamento so particularmente complexos. O tratamento da paralisia facial aguda pode envolver cirurgia de descompresso do nervo facial. Qualquer estrutura perto do trajeto do nervo facial est em risco durante a cirurgia de descompresso via transmastoidea. OBJETIVO: Estudo retrospectivo que ir avaliar a perda auditiva aps descompresso via transmastoidea e a evoluo do grau de paralisia nos casos idiopticos dos ltimos 15 anos. MATERIAL E MTODO: Foram selecionados pronturios de 33 pacientes submetidos descompresso do nervo facial via transmastoidea nos ltimos 15 anos e avaliou-se a perda auditiva e a paralisia facial. RESULTADOS: Observou-se alta porcentagem (61% dos pacientes com algum grau de perda auditiva aps o procedimento e, em todos os casos, houve melhora da paralisia. CONCLUSO: O procedimento cirrgico no isento de riscos. Indicaes, riscos e benefcios devem ser esclarecidos aos pacientes por meio de consentimento informado.Facial paralysis can result from a variety of etiologies; the most common is the idiopathic type. Evaluation and treatment are particularly complex. The treatment of acute facial paralysis may require facial nerve decompression surgery. Any structure near the path of the facial nerve is at risk during transmastoid decompression surgery. AIM: This is a retrospective study, carried out in order to evaluate hearing loss after transmastoid decompression and how idiopathic cases evolved in terms of their degree of paralysis in the last 15 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected the charts from 33 patients submitted to transmastoid facial nerve decompression in the past 15 years and we assessed their hearing loss and facial paralysis. RESULTS: There was a high percentage (61% of patients with some degree of hearing loss after the procedure and in all cases there was improvement in the paralysis. DISCUSSION: The values obtained are similar to those reported in the literature. One possible explanation for this hearing loss is the vibration transmission by drilling near the ossicular chain. CONCLUSION: The surgical procedure is not risk free; indications, risks and benefits should be explained to patients through an informed consent form.

  2. Jordan's algebra of a facially homogeneous autopolar cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that a Jordan-Banach algebra with predual may be canonically associated with a facially homogeneous autopolar cone. This construction generalizes the case where a trace vector exists in the cone

  3. Neural Mechanism of Facial Expression Perception in Intellectually Gifted Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between general intelligence and the three stages of facial expression processing. Two groups of adolescents with different levels of general intelligence were required to identify three types of facial expressions (happy, sad, and neutral faces...... average IQ adolescents during the facial expression identification task. The electrophysiological responses showed that no significant IQ-related differences were found for P1 responses during the early visual processing stage. During the middle processing stage, high IQ adolescents had faster structural...... attentional modulation, with larger late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes compared to adolescents with average IQ. The current study revealed that adolescents with different intellectual levels used different neural dynamic processes during these three stages in the processing of facial expressions....

  4. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreedhar Bhata; Uday Maitra

    2008-11-01

    A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  5. Enfisema subcutneo facial autoinducido con la finalidad de conseguir deformidad facial y evitar reconocimiento legal / Self-induced facial subcutaneous emphysema with the achieving facial deformity and prevent legal recognition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F., Bedoya; M.J., Leal; N., Lleopart; P.A., Martnez-Carpio; M.T., Marrn.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El enfisema facial subcutneo se presenta en ocasiones en el marco de procedimientos odontolgicos, traumatismos o ciruga. No es habitual que este enfisema sea auto-provocado por el paciente. Se informan tres casos de enfisema facial autoprovocado en reclusos con la intencin de deformar la cara y [...] evitar ser reconocidos por testigos en el juzgado. Abstract in english Facial subcutaneous emphysema may occur in the context of dental procedures, trauma or surgery. It is unusual that this emphysema is self-caused by the patient. We report three cases of facial emphysema produced by inmates in the prison with intent to disfigure the face and avoid being recognized by [...] witnesses in court.

  6. Retraccin a largo plazo del rbol dendrtico de neuronas piramidales crtico-faciales por lesiones perifricas del nervio facial / Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Urrego; Alejandro, Mnera; Julieta, Troncoso.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. Poco se sabe sobre las modificaciones morfolgicas de las neuronas de la corteza motora tras lesiones en nervios perifricos, y de la implicancia de dichos cambios en la recuperacin funcional tras la lesin. Objetivo. Caracterizar en ratas el efecto de la lesin del nervio facial sobr [...] e la morfologa de las neuronas piramidales de la capa V de la corteza motora primaria contralateral. Materiales y mtodos. Se reconstruyeron neuronas piramidales teidas con la tcnica de Golgi-Cox, de animales control (sin lesin) y animales con lesiones y sacrificados a distintos tiempos luego de la lesin. Se utilizaron cuatro grupos: sham (control), lesin 1S, lesin 3S y lesin 5S (animales con lesiones y evaluados 1, 3 y 5 semanas despus de la lesin irreversible del nervio facial, respectivamente). Se evaluaron mediante el anlisis de Sholl, las ramificaciones dendrticas de las clulas piramidales de la corteza motora contralateral a la lesin. Resultados. Los animales con lesiones presentaron parlisis completa de las vibrisas mayores durante las cinco semanas de observacin. Comparadas con neuronas de animales sin lesiones, las clulas piramidales crtico-faciales de los lesionados mostraron una disminucin significativa de sus ramificaciones dendrticas. Esta disminucin se mantuvo hasta cinco semanas despus de la lesin. Conclusiones. Las lesiones irreversibles de los axones de las motoneuronas del ncleo facial, provocan una retraccin sostenida del rbol dendrtico en las neuronas piramidales crtico-faciales. Esta reorganizacin morfolgica cortical persistente podra ser el sustrato fisiopatolgico de algunas de las secuelas funcionales que se observan en los pacientes con parlisis facial perifrica. Abstract in english Introduction. Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on post lesion functional recovery. Objective. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characteriz [...] ed with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury. Materials and methods. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery), and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial) neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis. Results. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the fiveweek observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury. Discussion. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

  7. Facial Emotion Recognition in Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Stella, Eleonora; Balzotti, Angela; Bellomo, Antonello; Palumbo, Rocco; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth

    2016-03-01

    Emotional face recognition is impaired in bipolar disorder, but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness. Here, we investigated how aging and bipolar disorder influence dynamic emotional face recognition. Twenty older adults, 16 bipolar patients, and 20 control subjects performed a dynamic affective facial recognition task and a subsequent rating task. Participants pressed a key as soon as they were able to discriminate whether the neutral face was assuming a happy or angry facial expression and then rated the intensity of each facial expression. Results showed that older adults recognized happy expressions faster, whereas bipolar patients recognized angry expressions faster. Furthermore, both groups rated emotional faces more intensely than did the control subjects. This study is one of the first to compare how aging and clinical conditions influence emotional facial recognition and underlines the need to consider the role of specific and common factors in emotional face recognition. PMID:26741464

  8. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  9. Parental consent to cosmetic facial surgery in Down's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    JONES, R.

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested that the practice of attempting to normalise children with Down's syndrome by subjecting them to major facial plastic surgery has no therapeutic benefit, and should be seen as mutilating surgery comparable to female circumcision.

  10. Estimation of human emotions using thermal facial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Kotani, Kazunori; Chen, Fan; Le, Bac

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on human emotion estimation using thermal infrared (IR) imagery has appealed to many researchers due to its invariance to visible illumination changes. Although infrared imagery is superior to visible imagery in its invariance to illumination changes and appearance differences, it has difficulties in handling transparent glasses in the thermal infrared spectrum. As a result, when using infrared imagery for the analysis of human facial information, the regions of eyeglasses are dark and eyes' thermal information is not given. We propose a temperature space method to correct eyeglasses' effect using the thermal facial information in the neighboring facial regions, and then use Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Eigen-space Method based on class-features (EMC), and PCA-EMC method to classify human emotions from the corrected thermal images. We collected the Kotani Thermal Facial Emotion (KTFE) database and performed the experiments, which show the improved accuracy rate in estimating human emotions.

  11. Evaluation of Variation in the Course of the Facial Nerve, Nerve Adhesion to Tumors, and Postoperative Facial Palsy in Acoustic Neuroma

    OpenAIRE

    Sameshima, Tetsuro; MORITA, Akio; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Fukushima, Takanori; Friedman, Allan H.; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Mastronardi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variation in the course of the facial nerve (FN) in patients undergoing acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery, its adhesion to tumors, and the relationship between such adhesions and postoperative facial palsy.

  12. Oro-facial-digital syndrome Type 1: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Singh Dhull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oro-Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS is a generic term for group of apparently distinctive genetic diseases that affect the development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. One of these is OFDS type I (OFDS-I which has rarely been reported in Asian countries. This is the case report of a 13 year old patient with OFDS type I who reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, with the complaint of discolored upper front teeth.

  13. Neural systems for recognising emotion from facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Hennenlotter, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Humans are probably unique in the extent of their reliance on socially transmitted information in coping with physical and social environments. The face is a visible signal both of others� intentions and internal states, and facial expression continues to be a critical variable in social interaction. The exploration of the neural basis that underlies the perception of such facial signals was the main subject of this thesis. Our findings provide some new insights concerning neural substrates i...

  14. Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Schriefer, T N; Mills, K.R.; Murray, N M; Hess, C W

    1988-01-01

    A magnetic stimulator was used for direct transcutaneous stimulation of the intracranial portion of the facial nerve in 15 normal subjects and in patients with Bell's palsy, demyelinating neuropathy, traumatic facial palsy and pontine glioma. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) thus elicited in the orbicularis oris muscle of controls were of similar amplitude but longer latency (1.3 SD 0.15 ms) compared with CMAPs produced by conventional electrical stimulation at the stylomastoid foram...

  15. Facial Nerve Neuroma: Surgical Concept and Functional Results

    OpenAIRE

    Minovi, Amir; Vosschulte, Regina; Hofmann, Erich; Draf, Wolfgang; Bockmühl, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    This study reviewed the management and outcomes of 11 facial nerve neuromas treated in our institution during the past two decades with particular emphasis on surgical concepts and functional outcomes. All patients underwent complete surgical resection of their tumor. Eight patients (73%) were followed on an outpatient basis. A retrospective chart review for pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological data was performed. All facial neuromas were multisegment tumors. All segments of the f...

  16. A Facial Expression Parameterization by Elastic Surface Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Yano; Koichi Harada

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel parameterization of facial expressions by using elastic surface model. The elastic surface model has been used as a deformation tool especially for nonrigid organic objects. The parameter of expressions is either retrieved from existing articulated face models or obtained indirectly by manipulating facial muscles. The obtained parameter can be applied on target face models dissimilar to the source model to create novel expressions. Due to the limited number of control poi...

  17. Heartbeat Signal from Facial Video for Biometric Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Thomas B. Moeslund

    2015-01-01

    Different biometric traits such as face appearance and heartbeat signal from Electrocardiogram (ECG)/Phonocardiogram (PCG) are widely used in the human identity recognition. Recent advances in facial video based measurement of cardio-physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, respiratory rate, and blood volume pressure provide the possibility of extracting heartbeat signal from facial video instead of using obtrusive ECG or PCG sensors in the body. This paper proposes the Heartbeat Sign...

  18. Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

  19. Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Rachael E.; Garrod, Oliver G. B.; Yu, Hui; Caldara, Roberto; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2012-01-01

    Since Darwins seminal works, the universality of facial expressions of emotion has remained one of the longest standing debates in the biological and social sciences. Briefly stated, the universality hypothesis claims that all humans communicate six basic internal emotional states (happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad) using the same facial movements by virtue of their biological and evolutionary origins [Susskind JM, et al. (2008) Nat Neurosci 11:843850]. Here, we refute this ass...

  20. Automatic Emotional State Detection using Facial Expression Dynamic in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Hongying Meng; Di Huang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic emotion detection system is built for a computer or machine to detect the emotional state from facial expressions in human computer communication. Firstly, dynamic motion features are extracted from facial expression videos and then advanced machine learning methods for classification and regression are used to predict the emotional states. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, i.e. GEMEP_FERA and AVEC2013, and satisfied performances are achie...