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Sample records for ecotype indigenous chickens

  1. Indigenous Chicken Production in Kenya: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kingori, A. M.; Wachira, A. M.; Tuitoek, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous chickens in Kenya are about 22 million and are kept by 90% of the rural communities in small flocks of up to 30 birds mainly under free range system. The industry is flexible and does not require a lot of space. When people retire or are retrenched they easily start poultry keeping. Distinct indigenous chicken ecotypes have been identified and named. The names are phenotypic descriptions of the birds. The names used to describe the common phenotypes in Kenya are-frizzled feathered,...

  2. Microsatellite DNA Loci for Population Studies in Brazilian Chicken Ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, F. M.; Britto, F. B.; Campelo, E. G.; Carvalho, A. M. F.; Costa-filho, R. A. R.; Silva, G. R.; Barbosa, F. J. V.; Clementino, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    In poultry, the reduction in genetic variability of native chicken populations has led to the use of microsatellites in many genetic studies of chicken ecotypes. To be of maximum usefulness as a genetic marker, microsatellite primers should be amplifying the same locus other than the source of the primer sequence in different populations. Even in closely related lines or breeds microsatellite genotyping errors may be introduced from primer mismatches as a result of mutations in the primer bin...

  3. Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria / Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O. O, Olawunmi; A. E, Salako; A. A, Afuwape.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información bás [...] ica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P Abstract in english Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani an [...] d Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P

  4. Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria

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    O. O Olawunmi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información básica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P <0,01 que las del ecotipo Yoruba. Los machos también fueron mayores (P <0,01 a las hembras en la longitud de la cresta y ala, largo de la pata y ancho de pecho, mientras que el peso vivo, longitud del dedo del pie y el muslo también fueron diferentes (P <0,05 dentro de cada ecotipo. La cresta de los machos fue más prominente que las de hembras. Los coeficientes de variación fueron muy pequeños, lo que significa una condición monotípica y una similitud de oportunidades de selección para el tipo, basada en parámetros corporales. El ecotipo Fulani fue más grande que Yoruba. El significativo mayor cuerpo (P <0,05 del Fulani sugiere una salida en función entre los genotipos. El pollo Fulani parece más adecuado para la producción de huevos que el tipo Yoruba. Su potencial para el desarrollo de un stock comercial más adaptado y la mejora genética de los pollos de la región y otras implicancias del tipo función se discuten.

  5. Assessing the genetic diversity of five Tanzanian chicken ecotypes using molecular tools

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M., Lyimo; A., Weigend; U., Janßien-Tapken; P.L., Msoffe; H., Simianer; S., Weigend.

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of Tanzanian chicken populations through phylogenetic relationship, and to trace the history of Tanzanian indigenous chickens. Five ecotypes of Tanzanian local chickens (Ching'wekwe, Kuchi, Morogoro-medium, Pemba and Unguja) from eight regions were s [...] tudied. Diversity was assessed based on morphological measurements and 29 microsatellite markers recommended by ISAG/FAO advisory group on animal genetic diversity. A principal component analysis (PCA) of morphological measures distinguished individuals most by body sizes and body weight. Morogoro Medium, Pemba and Unguja were grouped together, while Ching'wekwe stood out because of their disproportionate short shanks and ulna bones. Kuchi formed an independent group owing to their comparably long body sizes. Microsatellite analysis revealed three clusters of Tanzanian chicken populations. These clusters encompassed i) Morogoro-medium and Ching'wekwe from Eastern and Central Zones ii) Unguja and Pemba from Zanzibar Islands and iii) Kuchi from Lake Zone regions, which formed an independent cluster. Sequence polymorphism of D-loop region was analysed to disclose the likely maternal origin of Tanzanian chickens. According to reference mtDNA haplotypes, the Tanzanian chickens that were sampled encompass two haplogroups of different genealogical origin. From haplotype network analysis, Tanzanian chickens probably originated on the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia. The majority of Kuchi chickens clustered in a single haplogroup, which was previously found in Shamo game birds sampled from Shikoku Island of Japan in the Kõchi Prefecture. Analysis of phenotypic and molecular data, as well as the linguistic similarity of the breed names, suggests a recent introduction of the Kuchi breed to Tanzania.

  6. The past, present and future genetic improvement of indigenous chicken of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O

    2014-01-01

    Genetic improvement of farm animals encompasses both mating and selection for desired traits and indigenous chicken genetic resources are no exception. In Kenya, previous attempts to genetically improve indigenous chicken involved cross-breeding scheme by utilizing cockerels and pullets of exotic breeds with the local indigenous chicken. This scheme was complimented with farmer training on good management practices and vaccination for disease control. The scheme was partially successful with improved performance in the crossbreds that declined with subsequent generations. Failure of the programme to meet stakeholder’s expectation led to its’ termination. The current attempt through the Smallholder Indigenous Chicken Improvement Programme has initiated an holistic and comprehensive approach to analysing the entire indigenous chicken actors and avert the causes of previous failures. The programme has genetically and phenotypically characterized the chicken; established reference/base population collected from different ecotypes/counties, established the breeding goals and designed breeding programmes that best suit the Kenyan takeholders. The on-station research has reported variation on production traits, determined heritability estimate on growth. Current and ongoing research is focused on molecular characterization, selection for improved immune response, carcass quality, eggs production, growth and adaptation traits. The research is also concerned with conservation of these genetic resources

  7. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kusdiyantini; T. Yudiarti; Yunianto, V.D.; R. Murwani

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two ...

  8. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

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    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  9. STUDY OF NEMATODES IN INDIGENOUS CHICKENS IN SWAT DISTRICT

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    R.S. Sayyed, M. S. Phulanl, W.M. Bhatti1, M. Pardehi1 and Shamsher Ali

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted on IO< indigenous chickens. Examination of guts revealed that out of 100 guts. 51 per cent were positive for nematodes. Mixed infestation was 16 per cent. Two species i.e., Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum were identified. The incidence rate of Ascaridia galli was higher (42 % as compared to Heterakis gallinarum (9 %.

  10. Hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos intoxication in indigenous chicken

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    Shameem Ara Begum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to elaborate hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos (CPF toxicity in indigenous chicken. Since there is no available literature on the detailed hematobiochemical changes of CPF in indigenous chicken, hence, the present study was designed to establish toxicological effect of CPF on blood biochemical parameters of indigenous chicken which are at a great risk of exposure to pesticides. These will help physiologist, pathologist, and poultry scientists for effective production strategy as well as disease control regime. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two major Groups I and II. Group I served as control and Group II was treated with CPF (36 mg/kg. Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocyte count (TEC, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, cholinesterase (CHE, total protein, and uric acid. Results: Hb, TEC, and TLC levels increased significantly (p<0.01 in toxin fed birds, whereas, lymphocyte percent decreased significantly, and heterophil percent increased significantly. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly in CPF treated birds. Decreased serum CHE values were observed in CPF fed group. The protein level remained almost same. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group compared to control. Conclusion: The results indicated that acute CPF intoxication produce changes in hematology and biochemical constituents of the treated birds.

  11. Part-period Egg Production and Egg Quality Characteristics of Two Ecotypes of Nigerian Local Chickens and Their F1 Crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwuowo, L. C.; Ani, A. O.; Momoh, O. M.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation of the local chickens in Nigeria to the different agro-ecological zones has produced ecotypes that can be conveniently classified on the basis of body weight and size into two viz; Heavy Ecotype (HE) and Light Ecotype (LE). These distinct types may differ in their egg production characteristics. Short-term egg production and egg quality characteristics of HE and LE and their F1 crosses (HExLE and LExHE) were studied. The objective of the study was to evaluate the short-term egg pro...

  12. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity. PMID:21805308

  13. Growth Characteristics of Six Reciprocal Crosses of Kenyan Indigenous Chicken

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    J. M. Ndegwa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out at the poultry research unit of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Animal Husbandry Research Centre, Naivasha in 1993 and 1994, to investigate growth performance of six reciprocal crosses of indigenous chicken originating from the Taita, Nyeri and Kericho districts in Kenya. Six hundred mixed sex day old chicks were used. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and the birds weighed individually on weekly basis up to the age of 30 weeks. Non-linear regression model procedures of the statistical analysis system (SAS were used in data analysis. The gompertz growth model was used in fitting the body weight data with three parameter estimates, A, B and K. A statistical analysis of residual variations was used to determine differences between fitted curves. There were significant differences in growth pattern among the reciprocal crosses of indigenous chicken and between male and female birds. There was a possible effect of the choice of dam or sire in a given combination. The Nyeri line seemed to perform potentially better as a dam for both male and female offspring. The Taita line on the other hand, seemed to potentially perform better as a sire and so was the Kericho line. Use of growth data beyond 20 weeks resulted in better expression of asymptotic nature of fitted curves. There is some potential for improvement of the performance among indigenous flocks by judicious cross breeding strategies.

  14. Serological evidence of chicken anaemia virus infection in Nigerian indigenous chickens : research communication

    OpenAIRE

    Oladele, O. A.; Ohore, O. G.; Oluwayelu, D. O.; Emikpe, B. O.; Oladokun, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples from 20 out of 180 (11.1 %) apparently healthy Nigerian indigenous chickens were negative for antibodies against chicken anaemia virus using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 160 positive sera (88.9 %), 12 (7.5 %) had titres ranging from 1 500-3 000, 46 (28.8 %) had titres from 3 000-5 000 while 102 (63.8 %) had titres between 5 000-11 000. The overall mean titre value was 5 845 Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period

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    Tawatchai Teltathum, Supamit Mekchay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1, apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1, triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1, heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25 and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3. These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05, (ii the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05 and (iii the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05, whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period.

  15. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Itebeng, K.; Chabo, R. G.; Binta, M. G.; Mushi, E. Z.

    2012-01-01

    his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were foun...

  16. Bio-Economic Model to Support Breeding of Indigenous Chicken in Different Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Menge, E. O.; Kahi, A. K.; Kosgey, I. S.

    2005-01-01

    A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to support breeding of indigenous chicken and used to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterise indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production systems in Kenya. The systems were defined on the basis of the feeding regime, level of confinement and healthcare provided and included; confined full ration system, where the chicken are confined all the time and provided with commercial feed and proper healthcare; semi-int...

  17. Blood Cell Characteristics, Hematological Values and Average Daily Gained Weight of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens

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    Chinrasri Orawan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried at the Experimental Laboratory Unit, Division of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand in August to December 2004. Three different breeds of poultry were used, i.e., Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with three replications. The three poultry breeds were used as main plots, whilst gender (male and female and sampling periods were used as subplots. An assay on blood characteristics and blood counts of red and white blood cells were carried out. Feed intake and average daily gained weight (ADG/week were determined. The results showed that the appearances on blood cells characteristics of erythrocyte of red blood cells and white blood cells of heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, basophil and thrombocyte of the three poultry breeds were not different from one another. Hematological values of the three different breeds possessed normal blood values for normal growth and they fitted within a normal range of blood of normal chickens. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb of Thai indigenous chickens was higher than both Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. White blood cells of heterophil of Thai indigenous crossbred chickens were higher than broiler chickens, whilst white blood of lymphocyte of female was higher than female. However, the differences found on hematological values of both male and female were not statistically significant. Daily feed intake/week and average daily gained weight increased/week of broiler chickens ranked the highest followed by Thai indigenous crossbred and the lowest was with Thai indigenous chickens.

  18. Serological evidence of chicken anaemia virus infection in Nigerian indigenous chickens : research communication

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    O.A. Oladele

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 20 out of 180 (11.1 % apparently healthy Nigerian indigenous chickens were negative for antibodies against chicken anaemia virus using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Of the 160 positive sera (88.9 %, 12 (7.5 % had titres ranging from 1 500-3 000, 46 (28.8 % had titres from 3 000-5 000 while 102 (63.8 % had titres between 5 000-11 000. The overall mean titre value was 5 845 + 2 402. This appears to be evidence of a natural outbreak of the infection since the chickens had no history of vaccination against any poultry disease.

  19. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  1. Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yushi, Gao; Yunjie, Tu; Haibin, Tong; Kehua, Wang; Xiujun, Tang; Kuanwei, Chen.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using six marker combinations were applied to detect genetic variation and phylo genetic relationships among 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds and a Recessive White chicken breed introduced from France. The DNA was pooled for each group. Polymorphic b [...] ands, breed-specific bands and genetic similarity coefficients of 13 chicken breeds were derived from the AFLP data. A total of 280 polymorphic bands was generated from which nine specific bands were observed for the Shouguang and the Dongxiang Dark chicken. One specific band was observed in the pooled DNA of the Jiuyuan Dark chicken, the Xingyi Bantam chicken and the Recessive White chicken. The genetic similarity coefficients among the 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds varied between 0.635 - 0.860, and 0.188 - 0.360 between the Recessive White and the indigenous Chinese chicken breeds. The UPGMA based tree yielded two clusters for the 13 chicken breeds, with the Recessive White chickens forming a distinct cluster. In summary, the genetic similarity coefficients and the UPGMA tree of the 13 chicken breeds were consistent with their breeding history and geographical distribution. These results provide useful data with regard to the genetic diversity, genetic relationships and identification of chicken breeds in China.

  2. A Comparative Study of Growth Performance and Feed Efficiency in Dominant Black Strain, Fulani Ecotype Chicken and Progeny from their Reciprocal Crosses

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    Sola-Ojo, F. E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the relative performance of a local chicken (Fulani Ecotype or FExFE, an exotic chicken (Dominant Black or DBxDB, and their reciprocal crosses (DBxFE and FExDB was undertaken. A total of three hundred and thirty (330 chickens comprising 100 DBxDB, 80 DBxFE, 80 FExDB and 70 FExFE were studied. All animals were raised from day old to 21 weeks age contemporaneously under identical housing, feeding and management procedures during which growth parameters were measured. Significant (p DBxFE 1346.80±3.05 > DBxDB 1314.40±3.61 over the 21 week experimental period. FExFE had significantly (p FExFE 67.50±0.02 over the same period. Low mortality (? 2% occurred across genotypes with FExFE having the least mortality. The results indicated that reciprocal crossing of pure local Fulani Ecotype with exotic Dominant Black strain produces chickens with indistinguishable Feed Efficiency from the highly improved Dominant Black, and superior to the pure Fulani. Cross breeding of the type reported here may therefore serve as a tool for improving efficiency of Fulani Ecotype local poultry whilst retaining elements of their valued characteristics which include meat value. Further studies will evaluate the hybrids (F1 of FE and DB for retention of desirable characteristics of local breeds.

  3. Protein Intake of Growing Indigenous Chickens on Free-Range and Their Response to Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Kingori; J.K. Tuitoek; H.K. Muiruri; A. M. Wachira; E.K. Birech

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine protein intake and the response of growing indigenous chickens to protein supplementation under free-ranging conditions. In the first experiment, data were collected from which a model was designed to estimate daily feed intake of free-ranging indigenous chicken from the Crop Contents (CC). The second experiment applied the model under on-farm conditions to estimate feed intake of free-ranging growers. Crude Protein (CP) intake was calculated as t...

  4. Blood Cell Characteristics, Hematological Values and Average Daily Gained Weight of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Chinrasri Orawan; W. Aengwanich

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was carried at the Experimental Laboratory Unit, Division of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand in August to December 2004. Three different breeds of poultry were used, i.e., Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with three replications. The three poultry breeds were used as main plots, whilst gender (male and female) and sampling perio...

  5. Antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in the sera of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, E. Z.; Binta, M.G.; Chabo, R.G.; J.M.K. Hyera; Thibanyane, K.M.; Mkaria, J.

    2001-01-01

    A serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in apparently healthy and unvaccinated adult indigenous chickens. Haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to Newcastle disease virus were found in the sera of 51 out of 89 (57.3%) chickens sampled.

  6. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

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    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  7. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

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    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  8. Relationships between cock semen viability and the fertility of artificially inseminated South African indigenous chicken breeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.T., Molekwa; D.O., Umesiobi.

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty hens and 32 cocks of four different South African indigenous chicken breeds (Naked Neck (NN), Ovambo (OVB), Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) and Venda (VD) were used in this study. Reproductive performance tests as determined by the number of ejaculations per five minutes of abdomina [...] l sexual massage (5ASM) were used to select 16 high performing (HP) and 16 low performing (LP) cocks from a population of 80 cocks. Cocks with >2 ejaculates/60 min or

  9. Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in China using microsatellite markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lin, Wei; Bin, Chen; Xiao-ying, Li; Sheng-gui, Liu; Jing-jing, Wang.

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds was evaluated with 25 microsatellite markers. Polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity with the estimator of genetic differentiation F ST and Nei's genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these four prot [...] ected local chicken populations showed high levels of diversity. The proportion of inter-population subdivision among the four protected local chicken populations was 16.0%. The average heterozygosity was 0.514, 0.581, 0.567 and 0.589 in Dongan, Xuefeng black-bone, Xianghuang and Taoyuan chickens, respectively, while the average PIC estimates were 0.455, 0.581, 0.557 and 0.576. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using genetic distance and the neighbour-joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local breeds estimated by microsatellite analysis may be useful as an initial guide for the effective conservation of chicken genetic diversity and developing conservation strategies.

  10. The growth performance of indigenous Kenyan chickens fed diets containing different levels of protein during rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndegwa, J M; Mead, R; Norrish, P; Kimani, C W; Wachira, A M

    2001-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the growth response of indigenous chickens in Kenya offered ad libitum diets with 18%, 20%, 22% or 24% crude protein. The body weights of the birds were recorded weekly and used in statistical analysis to determine the effect of the diets, using covariance analysis to adjust for the effect of the proportion of males in each pen. There was a significant effect only in the early growth stages, when diets of a higher protein level gave better growth than diets with less protein. This advantage was later lost. Adjusting for the differences in the proportion of males was important for determining the dietary effect. PMID:11556623

  11. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

  12. Meat Quality of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittawat Molee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing system on meat quality of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1 day old chicks were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: indoor treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 or outdoor access treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2 from 8 weeks of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16th weeks of age, 24 birds per treatment were slaughtered to evaluate the quality of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that there was no difference in nutrient composition of breast meat among treatments (p>0.05. However, thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had higher protein content than that of indoor treatment (p0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had a higher shear force value (p = 0.05 than from indoor treatment. Thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was higher in soluble, insoluble and total collagen contents compared with indoor treatment (p<0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was less red (a*; p<0.05 and more yellow (b*; p<0.05 than those from indoor treatment. Breast skin from outdoor access treatment had more yellow than that of indoor treatment (p<0.05. The data indicated that Thai indigenous chickens raised with outdoor access could significantly increase shear value and collagen content in meat and increase yellow color in breast skin.

  13. Effect of transient prepubertal hypothyroidism on serum testosterone level and seminal characteristics of Iranian indigenous chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Forty 6-week-old male Iranian indigenous chickens were randomly assigned into two equal groups, designated as control or propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated group. The goitrogen, PTU, was administered at a level of 0.1% (w:w) to the diet of PTU-treated group between the weeks 7 and 13 of age. From the week 13 to 26, both groups were fed with a PTU-free diet. The lighting schedule was 14 h-light:10 h-darkness. Blood sampling started at week 7 of age, and repeated every other week until the week 19 as well as body weighing simultaneously. Chicks were trained by the abdominal massage method and semen samples were collected from the week 21 and repeated once a week for seven weeks. Proc Mixed of SAS (6.03 edn.) was used to data analysis and body weight was considered as covariate in statistical model. The effect of PTU treatment on serum thyroxine (T4) levels (P 0.05). The effect of age on all parameters, including body weight (P 0.05); but the interaction was significant for body weight (P 0.05). No significant correlation observed between testosterone and T4 levels in both groups. (author)

  14. In-vitro Quantitative Assay of Interferon Gamma in Serum of Nigerian Indigenous and Exotic Breeds of Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esan Oluwaseun and Oladele Omolade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Indigenous breeds of Chicken (NIC have thrived in harsh tropical environment with little veterinary care and poor nutrition compared with the introduced exotic breeds which performs sub-optimally in the tropics. However, they receive little attention for commercial production in spite of low input required. A comparative assessment of cellular immune response of the indigenous and exotic breeds was carried out to provide scientific explanation for their hardy nature and justify production for economic purposes. Fifteen chickens from each of three indigenous breeds i.e. Frizzled- feathered, Naked-neck and Smooth-feathered, and 8 Isa Brown pullets were 10 weeks old and reared in separate cages. The chickens were stabilized and administered Newcastle Disease Vaccine (NDV, LaSota strain. At 14 and 16 weeks old, all breeds were administered NDV Komarov strain in Freund’s adjuvant and in PBS intramuscularly as sensitizing and challenge inoculants, respectively. They were bled for serum 5 days later and concentrations of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma were determined using competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that the Frizzled-feathered chickens had the highest concentration of IFN-gamma (58±2.8 pg/ml which was significantly higher than 49±3.2 pg/ml and 44±2.5 pg/ml recorded for Smooth-feathered and Isa brown breeds respectively. Also, concentration in Naked-neck breed was 54±2.9 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than Isa Brown. Isa Brown had the significantly lowest concentration. It was concluded that the three NIC studied, have inherent capacity to mount higher levels of cellular immune response compared with the exotic Isa brown, when challenged.

  15. Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens in Polokwane, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.W., Ng' ambi; M.W., Thamaga; D, Norris; M, Mabelebele; O.J., Alabi.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens. Three hundred and sixty indigenous Venda chicken eggs were collected for a period of a week and selection was done based on the weight [...] of the eggs. A complete randomized design was used, with four treatment weights, each with 90 eggs. The four treatment weights were as follows: below 49 g, between 50 and 59 g, between 60 and 69 g, and above 70 g. Egg weight was positively and strongly correlated with egg hatchability (r² = 0.727) and chick hatch-weight (r² = 0.953). Heavier-sized eggs hatched chicks had higher mortality rates. Growth rate and live weight of the chickens were optimized at different egg weig hts of 56 (r² = 0.657) and 60 (r² = 0.870) g, respectively, for chickens aged 1 to 7 weeks, and egg weig hts of 61 g (r² = 0.514) and 60 g (r² = 0.948), respectively, for chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks. It is concluded that indigenous Venda chicken egg weight affects hatchability, hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of the chickens. It is concluded that production variables were optimized at different egg weights. This means that the selection of eggs for incubation will depend on the parameter in question.

  16. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.J, Alabi; J.W, Ng' ambi; D, Norris.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks in [...] dicated as EVS1, EVS2, EVS3 and EVS4 (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM, respectively) and each treatment was replicated five times. In the second phase (8 - 13 weeks), 160 indigenous Venda female chickens, aged eight weeks, were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments and each treatment was replicated five times in a completely randomized design. The diets used in both trials were isonitrogenous but with different energy levels. A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake, respectively, for the starter phase. At the grower phase, dietary energy levels of 12.56, 12.66, 12.62 and 12.71 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake, respectively. Carcass, drumstick, thigh and wing had optimum weights at dietary energy levels of 13.81, 13.23, 13.43 and 13.18 MJ ME/ kg DM, respectively. Thus, dietary energy level for optimization depended on the particular production parameter in question.

  17. Hawks and Baby Chickens: Cultivating the Sources of Indigenous Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…

  18. Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsang, A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and two sexes. The Naked-Neckchickens had lower breast (Pectoralis major, fillet (Pectoralis minor (P0.05 in drip loss and cooking loss values. The shear value of cooked breast and thigh muscles of Naked-Neck chickens was significantly lower (P0.05, redness (a* (P0.05 in moisture, protein, fat and ash contents. The Naked-Neck chicken contained higher (P0.05 between breeds in soluble collagen percentage of both types of muscles. For the fatty acid composition ofNaked-Neck and indigenous chickens, both breast and thigh muscles contained more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. An evaluation of ratios as a measure of carcass traits using mature indigenous chickens in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.J., Tshovhote; A.E., Nesamvuni; K.A., Nephawe; I., Groenewald.

    Full Text Available Live weight and weight of body parts of 60 mature indigenous chickens were collected to investigate whether the use of ratios in poultry science may cause misinterpretation of data and misleading conclusions. Three villages from Mukula Tribal land in Thulamela municipality from Vhembe District in Li [...] mpopo Province of South Africa were identified for the purpose of this study. Five mature chickens were bought from each village, weighed, killed, dressed and cut to get the body parts using the standard procedures. This was done across the four distinct seasons from March 2005 to March 2006. The data was collected using a weighing scale with variables of interest being the sex, season and village. Summary statistics were computed and data was analyzed in two separate ways using the Statistical Analysis Software Packages as follows: Firstly each individual body part was expressed as ratio of body weight and data analyzed using a simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Secondly, live body weight was used a covariate in the analysis of other body parts using the ANCOVA procedures. Ratios suggested differences gizzard, liver, head and feet and body length due to sex and in gizzard, liver and body length due to village which were not apparent with ANCOVA. The results from this study suggested that ratios did not remove the variation due to differences in sex and village and may lead us to wrong conclusions. From this study, one can draw conclusions that use of ANCOVA gives us the exceptional method for interpreting the data correctly.

  20. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV) IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage...

  1. Low-Input Intervention for Traditional Free-Range Indigenous Chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of the study were to determine the effects on productivity, flock dynamics and bird offtake of 3 low input interventions were evaluated in 4 locations in western Kenya representing different agro ecological zones (Butula (LM1); Malava (LM2); Uranga (LM3) and Sabatia (UM1)). These interventions were: (1) daytime confinement of chicks using a coop or pen while feeding them most of the day (CONF); (2) supplementation using locally available feed resources above scavenging levels for the rest of the flock (SUPP), and (3) vaccination against Newcastle disease (VACC) significantly improved survival rates by more than 60%, egg production improved by 48.3% and weekly losses of birds in flocks were reduced. Growth rates however were not affected. Intervention CONF significantly (p<0.05) improved survival rates; egg production per hen per year, growth rates and it reduced annual general losses of birds. The intervention SUPP in addition to CONF further improved productivity of village flocks.S Results confirm the general statement of that NCD is the number one killer in scavenging chicken production systems. Farmers observed that VACC had a negative effect on young chicks less than 3 weeks old, suggesting that vaccination of chickens should be carried at latter ages. Results further indicated that the existing village feed resource base limited growth rates, survival rates, and egg production in a scavenging system. It also suggests that there was a quantitative defiuggests that there was a quantitative deficit of the village feed resource base in scavenging system. NCD vaccination had the highest average returns to labour (Ksh. 280 per man per day) with other interventions having less than Ksh. 280 pere man-day. The perception of farmers seen in proportion of farmers interested in the intervention showed that VACC was preferred more than other interventions because it delt with the most serious problem and results were immediately obvious. Subsequent choice of feeding and housing interventions further improved local poultry production. VACC was the best intervention in terms of survival rates, return to labour and acceptability by farmers because it was cheap and effective. Subsequent cash requiring interventions in the free-range system should be introduced as farmers moved from subsistence to semi-commercial production

  2. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

  3. Gross Morphological and Morphometric Studies on Digestive Tracts of Three Nigerian Indigenous Genotypes of Chicken with Special Reference to Sexual Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and morphometric studies were carried out on the Gastrointestinal Tracts (GIT of three Nigerian indigenous genotypes of chicken with special reference to sexual dimorphism. Eighteen adult chickens of the three genotypes (three male and three female per genotype, all above one year of age were bought from Mokwa local markets. They were quarantined for two weeks, stabilized for another weeks, live weights taken and then slaughtered using Halal method. After careful evisceration, GIT segments were examined grossly and then weights, lengths, thickness and width of the segments were obtained. The GIT of Normal feathered (No, Naked neck (Na and Frizzle feathered (F genotypes like in other breeds of chicken was found to consist of the crop, an expansion of the esophagus, located in the lower neck region, the glandular stomach (proventriculus, the muscular stomach (ventriculus, small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and large intestine (ceca and colorectum. The mean weights, lengths, thickness and widths of esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of the three genotypes studied were not significantly different from one another, except the weight of oesophagus and width of ventriculus. Also, no significant difference was found between male and female when the means of these parameters were compared irrespective of genotype involved. In conclusion, all the three genotypes have similar gross and morphometric patterns and in addition their ileum was the longest portion of the intestine in contrast to what was reported in other breeds of chicken in the literature.

  4. Assessing nutrient adequacy from the crop contents of free-ranging indigenous chickens in rural villages of the Venda region of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T., Raphulu; C., Jansen van Rensburg; J.B.J., van Ryssen.

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status of scavenging chickens by assessing the composition of their crop contents. The study was conducted on 288 free-ranging indigenous chickens from six adjacent rural villages in Venda region of South Africa over three seasons (autumn, winter [...] and spring). The chickens consumed grains, kitchen waste, seeds from the environment, plant materials, worms and insects, and some undistinguishable materials. Household waste accounted for 78.6%, 91.1% and 75.8% and materials of animal origin, including insects and worms, accounted for 7.4%, 10.4% and 16% of the crop content in autumn, winter and spring, respectively. Grains and kitchen waste consumption and macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations varied with season. The crude protein (CP) level of the crop contents of adult chickens in all seasons and the calcium and phosphorus levels in winter corresponded with the requirements of poultry for maintenance and growth, but not egg production. Supplementation of CP to young birds in all seasons and calcium and phosphorus in autumn and spring might be necessary to improve their growth. Concentrations of copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt were above the requirements of poultry, but below their maximum tolerance levels (MTL). Iron concentrations ranged from 2907 mg/kg DM to 6424 mg/kg DM, which are well above MTL, suggesting potential detrimental effects on the birds if the iron in the crop contents is bioavailable. Aluminium concentrations ranged from 2256 mg/kg DM to 4192 mg/kg DM, though aluminium is considered non-toxic. It was concluded that the birds would not suffer from micro-mineral deficiencies, and that a risk of toxicity would depend on the bioavailability of the consumed element.

  5. A Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR to Assess Differential Expression Levels of TCF3 Gene in Two Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hassan Musa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR was applied to quantify and compare variations in avian TCF3 expression level between two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds for different tissues. Six primer combinations in addition to -actin as an internal control were used. The expression level of TCF3 was greater in Jinghai breed than Suqin breed for different tissues. The variability of gene expression between two breeds showed 18.55, 37.85 and 66.15% higher expression in Jinghai breed than Suqin breed for kidney, lung and spleen tissues, respectively. Differences were found to be significant (p<0.05 only for expression level in lung and spleen tissues. Significant effect of sex upon TCF3 expression was detected for both breeds.

  6. Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W

    2012-01-01

    Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using functional gene data was consistent in neighbor joining and principal component plot analyses, while genetic characterization using microsatellite data gave varied results depending on the analysis methodology. PMID:22869543

  7. Dry season juvenile growth and physiological parameters in exotic and Nigerian indigenous chicken / Crecimiento juvenil y parámetros fisiológicos en pollos exóticos y nigerianos durante la estación seca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.E., Oke; L.O., Obanla; O.M., Onagbesan.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el crecimiento juvenil y perfil de hormonas plasmáticas en cepas exóticas de broilers y pollos nigerianos, empleando un total de 1200 huevos eclosionados, 300 de cada una de las cuatro líneas estudiadas. Las líneas estudiadas fueron Pollo Indígena Nigeriano (NIC) y las líne [...] as Arbor Acre, Hubbard y Marshall. Semanalmente se controló el peso y se tomaron muestras de sangre a la eclosión (1 día) y semanas 1, 2, 3 y 4 de vida para la determinación de triyodotironina (T3) y corticosterona. Los pollos fueron distribuidos al azar en cuatro jaulas de cría para evaluación del crecimiento en 28 días. Los resultados mostraron que el peso en las líneas de broilers fueron mayores que en los pollos NIC en todo el periodo. No hubo diferencias significativas en los niveles de T3 a 1 día de edad y semana 1 hasta el final de la fase de crecimiento. Los niveles de corticosterona no variaron en el día 1, pero se hicieron diferentes desde la semana 1. Los niveles de T3 no fueron diferentes en la primera semana de crecimiento. En la segunda semana de crecimiento hubo diferencias entre las cuatro líneas estudiadas. El nivel en NIC fue conmparable al de las líneas Arbor Acre y Marshall. El nivel en la línea Hubbard fue inferior al de NIC, Arbor Acre y Marshall. En la tercera semana de crecimiento, el nivel en NIC fue similar al de Marshall y superior al de Hubbard y Arbor Acre. El estudio demostró que a la eclosión, no hubo diferencias en la tasa metabólica y nivel de estrés entre las cepas estudiadas como se comprueba por los niveles de T3 y corticosterona respectivamente. El peso de los pollos de un día y el peso en las siguientes semanas fueron más bajos en los pollos NIC. Sin embargo, las diferencias en los parámetros fisiológicos y metabólicos en el crecimiento juvenil, pueden ser parcialmente debidas a las diferencias genéticas. Abstract in english This study evaluated early growth and plasma hormonal profile in exotic strains of broiler and Nigerian indigenous chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included the Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), the Arbor acre, Hubba [...] rd, and Marshall broiler strains. Chicks weights were monitored weekly. Blood samples were collected at hatch (day-old), weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-hatch for triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone level determination. The chicks were randomly distributed into four rearing pens for a 28-d assessment of growth rate. Results showed that the body weights (g) in the broiler strains were higher than that of the NIC throughout the rearing period. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the levels of T3 at day-old and at week 1 until later in the growth phase. Corticosterone levels did not differ significantly at day-old but became different from week 1 post-hatch. The levels of T3 were not statistically different in the first week of growth. In the second week of post-hatch growth, there was a statistical difference in the levels of T3 among the four strains of chicken. The level in the NIC was comparable (p0.05) in the metabolic rate and the stress level among the strains of chicken as shown by the levels of T3 and corticosterone respectively. The day-old chick weight and the weights in subsequent weeks post-hatch were smaller in the NIC than the broiler strains possibly as a result of low hatching weight. The early growth difference could not be explained by physiological parameters such as T3 and corticosterone. However, the differences in post-hatch physiological and metabolic parameters may be due partly to genetic differences.

  8. Environmental descriptors influencing performance of the Nguni ecotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguni is an indigenous breed of cattle in Southern Africa, specifically found in Swaziland, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Due to the ten years of civil war, cattle numbers in Mozambique was reduced from 1.6 million head in 1976 to approximately 200,000 in 1992. After 1996, large numbers of Nguni cattle were imported from South Africa into Mozambique as part of the livestock restocking program. A nucleus herd of Nguni cattle was established at the breeding station, Posto de Fomento do Impaputo (PFI), near Maputo and next to the Swaziland border. PFI has also a separate breeding nucleus of the Landim cattle. Both these ecotypes are registered at the Nguni Breed's Society of South Africa. This study whose results are reported here aims to determine the environmental descriptors that influence the performance of the Nguni and the Landim cattle ecotypes in Mozambique. Results from the analysed data will help to provide information for sustainable country level utilization and conservation programs in the region. Reproductive and productive data, between 1997 and 2008, were analysed for the two ecotypes using PROC GLM from SAS (1999). Variation sources such as type of breed, place of origin of foundation herd, parity, season and year of calving were taken into consideration in preliminary runs. Results of the preliminary runs on PFI herds indicate that the age at first calving (AFC) was 1089.2 ± 193 d and the calving interval (CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for b(CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for both ecotypes. For AFC there were interactions between the year and season of calving (Nguni or Landim; P < 0.05) and place of birth (Chobela, RSA or Impaputo; P < 0.01) for both ecotypes. CI decreased as the number of parities increased. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) was found on CI for the place of herd's birth, parity and interaction between the year and season of calving (dry and rainy seasons). It is concluded that there is sufficient data to demonstrate within and between population variations in the different ecotypes in terms of reproductive performance. A more complete analysis, which includes information from both ecotypes and data from South Africa as well as other similar environments, should be done. These results can thus be used for the design and implementation of breeding and sustainable conservation programs for the Nguni and the Landim ecotypes under Mozambique and South Africa as well as similar environments. (author)

  9. MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida orAscaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T W; Labouriau, R

    2010-01-01

    In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance Udgivelsesdato: 15. May

  10. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308

  11. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongwiwat, P.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

  12. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and ?-amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  13. Nutrient utilization during incubation and juvenile growth of indigenous and exotic chicken in Nigeria / Utilización de nutrientes durante la incubación y crecimiento juvenil de pollos indígenas y exóticos en Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.O., Obanla; O.E., Oke; O.M., Onagbesan; T.J., Williams; M.O., Abioja; J.O., Daramola; J.A., Abiona.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En tres líneas de pollos (Nigerian indigenous chicken, NIC; ISA Brown, IB y Nera Black, NB) se estudió la utilización de nutrientes durante la incubación y crecimiento juvenil, empleando 900 huevos (300 de cada línea). A los días embrionarios (ED) 7, 11, 15 y 18 de la incubación, diez huevos por lín [...] ea fueron seleccionados al azar, para obtener datos sobre el peso del albumen y determinar su tasa de reducción embrionaria y peso de la yema. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre con un día de edad (a la eclosión) y a las semanas 1, 2, 3 y 4 desde la eclosión para determinacion de triiodotironina (T3), tiroxina (T4) y corticosterona (CORT). Los pollos fueron distribuidos al azar en cuatro jaulas de cría para la evaluación del crecimiento durante 28 días. Los resultados demuestran que al día 18 de la incubación (ED18), el peso de la yema y la tasa de su consumo fueron similares en todas las líneas estudiadas. Además desde ED0 a ED7 y desde ED11 a ED15, la tasa de reducción del albumen en los huevos IB fue mayor que la de NB y NIC, siendo la de NIC la más baja. Desde el ED7 al ED11 NIC mostró la mayor velocidad de reducción seguida de NB, siendo la menor la de huevos IB. En los días 7 y 28 de crecimiento, la ganancia relativa de peso fue mayor en los pollos NIC, resultando similares entre sí los de IB y NB al día 7; NB demostró un crecimiento relativo intermedio al día 28. La línea no afectó significativamente al peso corporal en nuinguna etapa. En los días 14 y 21 de los pollos, la línea no afectó a la ganancia relativa de peso pero, a los 7 y 28 días de edad, la ganacia relativa de peso fue superior en los pollos NIC. IB y NB tuvieron incrementos relativos de peso similares al día 7 pero el de NB al día 28 fue intermedio. En ninguna línea el nivel plasmático de CORT varió desde el día 1 al 28, tampoco hubo diferencias entre líneas. La concentración de T3 aumentó desde el día 1 hasta el 7, estabilizándose después en todas las edades y cepas. Las diferencias de peso entre los embriones al ED18 y los pollos de un día, el día de la eclosión, sugieren la posibilidad de diferencias genéticas y posiblemente un inadecuado protocolo de incubación en esta etapa. Abstract in english Nutrient utilization and early growth rate in three strains of chicken were investigated using 900 hatching eggs, 300 from each strain. The strains of chicken used were Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), ISA Brown (IB) and Nera Black strains (NB). Ten eggs per strain were randomly selected for break [...] out at embryonic day (ED) 7, 11, 15, and 18 of incubation to collect data on albumen weight in order to determine the embryonic albumen reduction rate during incubation and yolk weight to monitor its utilization. Blood samples were collected at hatch (day-old), weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-hatch for triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and corticosterone level (CORT) determination. The chicks were randomly distributed into four rearing pens for a 28-day assessment of growth rate. The results showed that at day 18 of incubation (ED 18), weight of egg yolk and rate of yolk loss were similar among all the strains. Also, from ED 0 to 7 and11 to 15, albumen reduction rate in the eggs of IB was higher compared to NB and NIC, while it was lowest in NIC. From ED7 to 11, NIC showed highest reduction rate, followed by NB. Lowest reduction rate was shown in the eggs of IB. At day 7 and 28 of post-hatch growth, relative weight gain by the NIC was higher compared to NB and IB chicks. While IB and NB strains were similar at day 7, NB showed an intermediate relative weight gain at day 28. Strain did not significantly (p>0.05) affect body weight at all the ages. At day 14 and 21 of post-hatch growth, strain did not affect relative weight gain except at day 7 and 28. At day 7 and 28 relative weight gain by the NIC chicks was higher compared to NB and IB chicks. While IB and NB were similar at day 7, NB showed an intermediate relative weight gain at day 28. Plasma CORT level did not change from day-old un

  14. Indigenous Labor and Indigenous History

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Mary Jane Logan

    2009-01-01

    This article was originally a response to a call from the Western History Association for papers by Indigenous academics. The call aimed to showcase Indigenous scholarship on certain terms: that it delves into some of the opportunities, challenges, and obstacles involved with "working from home" or doing research that bridges a space called "home"…

  15. An ex situ study on body characteristics and effect of plumage color on body weight of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Bangladesh / Investigação ex situ sobre as características do corpo e os efeitos da cor das penas no peso corporal de frangos indígenas (Gallus domesticus) em Bangladesh

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nipa Rani, Sarker; Azharul, Hoque; Shakila, Faruque; Nazrul, Islam; Fazlul Haque, Bhuiyan.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido no Instituto de Pesquisa Animal (BLRI) em Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, para comparar as características corporais e o peso corporal de três genótipos de frangos indígenas, Common Desi, Hilly e Naked Neck. A proporção dos genótipos Common Desi, Naked Neck e Hilly foi respectivamen [...] te 49,49, 24,95 e 25,56% num total de 489 aves analisadas. A cor predominante das penas foi preto avermelhado com 33.13%. Foram observados os quarto tipos de cores mais frequentes das pernas: branca (39,87%), amarela (37,22%), preta (20,04%) e mista (2,87%). A cor das orelhas era geralmente branca avermelhada (44,79%), seguida por branca (29,24%) e vermelha (25,97%). A cor da pele mais predominante era branca (92,22%). A maioria das aves tinha uma só cresta (96,12%). As aves Hilly eram mais pesadas do que os outros grupos de aves indígenas (p 0,05), mas havia diferença significativa do peso das aves Hilly. Em termos de cumprimento de perna e circunferência, não havia diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre Common Desi e Naked Neck, embora as aves Hilly diferissem significativamente (p Abstract in english The study was conducted at the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh with the objectives of comparing the body characteristics and body weight of three Indigenous chicken genotypes namely Common Desi, Hilly and Naked Neck. Of the four hundred and eighty nine birds [...] analyzed the proportion of Common Desi, Naked Neck and Hilly chicken were 49.49, 24.95 and 25.56% respectively. The most predominant plumage color was reddish black (33.13%). Four types of shank colors were most frequently observed, i.e. white (39.87%), yellow (37.22%), black (20.04%) and mixed (2.87%). The earlobes were mainly reddish white (44.79%) followed by white (29.24%) and red (25.97%). The most predominant skin color was white (92.22%). Most birds had a single comb (96.12%). Hilly birds were heavier than the other Indigenous chicken groups (p 0.05) but significantly differed from that of Hilly chicken. In terms of shank length and circumference, there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between Common Desi and Naked Neck chicken, but Hilly chicken had significant (p

  16. Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest Ethiopia using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen, Halima; Neser, F.W.C.; Kock, A.; Van Marle-Koster, Este

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indigenous chicken populations representing seven different areas of northwest Ethiopia were studied using microsatellite markers to determine genetic diversity and variation. Three local lines of South African chicken and two commercial chicken strains were included for comparison. The Ethiopian chicken population Gassay/Farta had the highest number of alleles per locus (10) for microsatellite marker MCW 158. MCW 154 was the most polymorphic marker across all populations with ...

  17. Ecotype Zones for Minnesota and Iowa Prairie Lands

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map of local ecotype seed harvest zones for Iowa and Minnesota and documentation explaining how these zones were defined. This document...

  18. Spatial Distribution of Rhodopseudomonas palustris Ecotypes on a Local Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, S. J.; Gucker, C. L.; Oda, Y.; Forney, L. J.

    2003-01-01

    The number, spatial distribution, and significance of genetically distinguishable ecotypes of prokaryotes in the environment are poorly understood. Oda et al. (Y. Oda, B. Star, L. A. Huisman, J. C. Gottschal, and L. J. Forney, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:xxx-xxx, 2003) have shown that Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes were lognormally distributed along a 10-m transect and that multiple strains of the species could coexist in 0.5-g sediment samples. To extend these observations, we investig...

  19. Prairie Chicken

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  20. Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Bangladeshi Chicken using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    M.B.R. Mollah; F.B. Islam; Islam, M. S.; Ali, M. A.; Alam, M. S.(State University of New York, 12222, Albany, New York, USA)

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the genetic diversity at molecular level is a prerequisite in developing strategies for effective conservation and utilization of chicken genetic resources. We studied the genetic variation within and between Bangladeshi native (Naked Neck, Frizzle and Non-descriptive indigenous) and exotic (White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, Commercial layer and broiler) chicken populations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Four out of the 20 random primers exhibited sufficient variabil...

  1. Morphological and Anatomical Analyses of the Serpentine Ecotype of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Campanulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Ohga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and anatomical analyses of leaves in the serpentine ecotype of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Regel H. Hara were carried out. In comparison to the normal type of this variety, the serpentine ecotype has a narrower leaf due to decrease in the number and size of cells. The stenophyllization process of the serpentine ecotype is similar to that of the rheophytic ecotype. The study further indicates that the decreased number and size of cells is a general tendency in stenophyllization. By contrast, leaf thickness and stomatal density of the serpentine ecotype differed significantly from those of the rheophytic ecotype, suggesting that the two ecotypes are differently adapted to solar radiation and evaporation.

  2. Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemanová V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

  3. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Jahfari, S.; Coipan, E. C.; Fonville, M.; Leeuwen, A. D.; Hengeveld, P.; Heylen, D.; Heyman, P.; Maanen, C.; Butler, C. M.; Foldvari, G.; Szekeres, S.; Duijvendijk, L. A. G.; Tack, W.; Rijks, J. M.; Giessen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonotic potential and transmission dynamics has only incompletely been resolved. Methods. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in more than 6000 ixodid ticks collected from the vegetatio...

  4. Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Zemanová V.; Pavlíková D.; Najmanová J.

    2013-01-01

    A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL) was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol) spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and ro...

  5. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, Daniela

    2015-05-15

    Changes in the fatty acid (FAs) composition in response to the extent of Cd contamination of soils (0, 30, 60 and 90mgCdkg(-1)) differed between ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens originating from France - Ganges, Slovenia - Mežica and Austria - Redlschlag. Mežica ecotype accumulated more Cd in aboveground biomass compared to Ganges and Redlschlag ecotypes. Hyperaccumulators contained saturated fatty acids (SFAs) rarely occurring in plants, as are cerotic (26:0), montanic (28:0), melissic (30:0) acids, and unusual unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), as are 16:2, 16:3, 20:2 and 20:3. Typical USFAs occurring in the family Brassicaceae, such as erucic, oleic and arachidonic acids, were missing in tested plants. Our results clearly indicate a relationship between Cd accumulation and the FAs composition. The content of SFAs decreased and the content of USFAs increased in aboveground biomass of Ganges and Mežica ecotypes with increasing Cd concentration. Opposite trend of FAs content was determined in Redlschlag ecotype. Linoleic (18:2n-6), ?-linolenic (18:3n-3) and palmitic (16:0) acids were found in all ecotypes. The results observed in N. caerulescens ecotypes, showed that mainly Mežica ecotype has an efficient defense strategies which can be related on changes in FAs composition, mainly in VLCFAs synthesis. The most significant effect of ecotype on FAs composition was confirmed using multivariate analysis of variance. PMID:25886397

  6. A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Nielsen, Mads Einar

    2013-01-01

    The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome?wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced. Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate genomic patterns of diversity and population differentiation in a natural system characterized by high gene flow and large effective population sizes, properties which theoretically could restrict divergence in local genomic regions. We identify a genomic region of strong population differentiation, extending over approximately 20 cM, between pairs of migratory and stationary ecotypes examined at two different localities. Furthermore, the region is characterized by markedly reduced levels of genetic diversity in migratory ecotype samples. The results highlight the genomic region, or ‘genomic island’, as potentially associated with ecological divergence and suggest the involvement of a selective sweep. Finally, we also confirm earlier findings of localized genomic differentiation in three other linkage groups associated with divergence among eastern Atlantic populations. Thus, although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, the results suggest that ‘genomic mosaics’ of differentiation may even be found under high levels of gene flow and that marine fishes may provide insightful model systems for studying and identifying initial targets of selection during ecological divergence.

  7. The ecotype concept to measure bovine adaptability under tropical climatic conditions: reproductive performance in dairy cattle breed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data was collected from 2663 registers from 657 cows of the breed Lucerna. The ecotypes were selected on basis of color and uniformity of coat, length of hair besides skin and mucous color. Tests analysis shown statistical difference among ecotypes in reference to the mean of the days open (p < 0.05) and Calving periods (p<0.01). No statistical difference between ecotypes in dry period. Lucerna ecotypes show good reproductive performance and adaptability under tropical climatic conditions

  8. Floral stem growth of Arabidopsis ecotypes. I. Differences during synchronized light regime and continuous light free run

    OpenAIRE

    Jouve, Laurent; Greppin, Hubert; Degli Agosti, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The primary inflorescence architecture and the dynamic of the floral stem development have been studied in 4 ecotypes of Arabidopsis. Clear differences have been found between ecotypes. Lansberg erecta (Ler) ecotype has a short inflorescence and a progressive decreasing in the internode length train. The three other ecotypes showed an organization with successive alternation of long and short internodes. At the level of the internode, floral stem growth dynamic showed on! y a weil synchroniza...

  9. Indigenous Existentialism and the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Hokowhitu

    2011-01-01

    This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive), detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined o...

  10. Phytoaccumulation potentials of two biotechnologically propagated ecotypes of Arundo donax in copper-contaminated synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhawat, N; Alshaal, T; Domokos-Szabolcsy, É; El-Ramady, H; Márton, L; Czakó, M; Kátai, J; Balogh, P; Sztrik, A; Molnár, M; Popp, J; Fári, M G

    2014-06-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to evaluate the phytoremediation potentials of two somatic embryo-derived ecotypes of Arundo donax-BL (American ecotype) and 20SZ (Hungarian ecotype)-of copper from synthetic wastewater. The two ecotypes were grown under sterile conditions in tubes containing a nutrient solution supplied with increasing doses of Cu (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 26.8 mg L(-1)) for 6 weeks. The translocation and bioaccumulation factors and removal rate were estimated. In general, increasing Cu concentration in nutrient solution slightly decreased root, stem and leaf biomass without toxicity symptoms up to 26.8 mg L(-1). Moreover, both ecotypes showed high Cu removal efficiency from aqueous solution. However, Cu removal rate ranged between 96.6 to 98.8% for BL ecotype and 97 to 100% for 20SZ ecotype. Data illustrated that both BL and 20SZ ecotypes may be employed to treat Cu-contaminated water bodies up to 26.8 mg L(-1). PMID:24638838

  11. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

  12. Spatial distribution of Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, S J; Gucker, C L; Oda, Y; Forney, L J

    2003-09-01

    The number, spatial distribution, and significance of genetically distinguishable ecotypes of prokaryotes in the environment are poorly understood. Oda et al. (Y. Oda, B. Star, L. A. Huisman, J. C. Gottschal, and L. J. Forney, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:xxx-xxx, 2003) have shown that Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes were lognormally distributed along a 10-m transect and that multiple strains of the species could coexist in 0.5-g sediment samples. To extend these observations, we investigated the clonal diversity of R. palustris in 0.5-g samples taken from the corners and center of a 1-m square. A total of 35 or 36 clones were recovered by direct plating from each sample and were characterized by BOX A1R repetitive element-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting. Isolates with fingerprint images that were >/=80% similar to each other were defined as the same genotype. Among the 178 isolates studied, 32 genotypes were identified, and each genotype contained between 1 and 40 isolates. These clusters were consistent with minor variations found in 16S rRNA gene sequences. The Shannon indices of the genotypic diversity within each location ranged from 1.08 (5 genotypes) to 2.18 (13 genotypes). Comparison of the rank abundance of genotypes found in pairs of locations showed that strains from three locations were similar to each other, with Morisita-Horn similarity coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.71. All comparisons involving the remaining two locations resulted in coefficients between 0 and 0.12. From these results we inferred that the patterns of ecotype diversity at the sampling site are patchy at a 1-m scale and postulated that factors such as mixing, competitive interactions, and microhabitat variability are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the similarities between some locations and the differences between others. PMID:12957901

  13. Indigenous Existentialism and the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Hokowhitu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive, detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined only in relation to an imagined authentic past, indigenous existentialism is inhibited because indigenous people lack a conscious awareness of cultural immediacy. There is nothing more immediate than the body and, thus, I began to theorise indigenous existentialism through an analyses of the indigenous body, its genealogy, and its immediacy. To help me process this theorisation I engage with current Cultural Studies debates surrounding the analyses of the body. I conclude that an indigenous existentialism will recognise that the power of the body is still unknown.

  14. Mismatch in the distribution of floral ecotypes and pollinators: insights into the evolution of sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Bohman, B; Anthony, J M; Krauss, S L; Dixon, K W; Peakall, R

    2015-03-01

    Plants are predicted to show floral adaptation to geographic variation in the most effective pollinator, potentially leading to reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Many sexually deceptive orchids attract just a single pollinator species, limiting opportunities to experimentally investigate pollinator switching. Here, we investigate Drakaea concolor, which attracts two pollinator species. Using pollinator choice tests, we detected two morphologically similar ecotypes within D. concolor. The common ecotype only attracted Zaspilothynnus gilesi, whereas the rare ecotype also attracted an undescribed species of Pogonothynnus. The rare ecotype occurred at populations nested within the distribution of the common ecotype, with no evidence of ecotypes occurring sympatrically. Surveying for pollinators at over 100 sites revealed that ecotype identity was not correlated with wasp availability, with most orchid populations only attracting the rare Z. gilesi. Using microsatellite markers, genetic differentiation among populations was very low (GST = 0.011) regardless of ecotype, suggestive of frequent gene flow. Taken together, these results may indicate that the ability to attract Pogonothynnus has evolved recently, but this ecotype is yet to spread. The nested distribution of ecotypes, rather than the more typical formation of ecotypes in allopatry, illustrates that in sexually deceptive orchids, pollinator switching could occur throughout a species' range, resulting from multiple potentially suitable but unexploited pollinators occurring in sympatry. This unusual case of sympatric pollinators highlights D. concolor as a promising study system for further understanding the process of pollinator switching from ecological, chemical and genetic perspectives. PMID:25619237

  15. [Quality variation and ecotype division of Panax quinquefolium in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin-Fang; Suo, Feng-Mei; Song, Jing-Yuan; Wen, Mei-Jia; Jia, Guang-Lin; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2013-04-01

    Quality variation and ecotype classification of Chinese herbal medicine are important scientific problems in Daodi herbal medicine research. The diversity of natural environmental conditions has led to form unique multi-Daodi, multi-product areas that produce particular Chinese herbal medicine. China is one of three big American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) producing areas worldwide, with over 300 years of application and 40 years of cultivation history. Long-term production practice has led to the formation of three big advocate produce areas in China: Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong. P. quinquefolium L. grown under certain environmental conditions will develop long-term adaptations that will lead to more stable strains (different ecotypes). P. quinquefolium L., can vary greatly in quality; however, the ecological mechanisms causing this variation are still unclear. Root samples were collected from four-year-old cultivated P. quinquefolium L. plants in the three major genuine (Daodi) American ginseng-producing areas of Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong province, China. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the contents of eight ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg2). Data for nine ecological factors, including temperature, moisture and sunlight, were obtained from the ecological database of Geographic Information System for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Soil samples from the sampling sites were collected. Effective boron and iron, available nitrogen and potassium, as well as other trace elements and soil nutrients, were determined by conventional soil physicochemical property assay methods. Analytical methods of biostatistics and numerical taxonomy were used to divide ecotypes of the three main Panax quinquefolium L. producing areas in China based on ginsenoside content, climate, soil and other ecological factors. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ecological division of P. quinquefolium L. producing areas in China has ever been conducted. The results show that there are two chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. in China: ginsenoside Rb1-Re from outside Shanhaiguan, and ginsenoside Rg2-Rd from inside Shanhaiguan. Similarly, there are two types of climatic characteristics: inside Shanhaiguan (Beijing, Shandong) and outside Shanhaiguan (Northeast). This suggests that the formation and differentiation of chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. is closely related to variability of the climatic and geographical environment. Additionally, ecological variation of the three main producing areas, characteristics of two climatic ecotypes, and soil characteristics are also discussed and summarized. These results provide experimental scientific evidence of the quality variation and ecological adaptation of P. quinquefolium L. from different producing areas. They also deepen our understanding of the biological nature of Daodi P. quinquefolium L. formation, and offer novel research models for other multi-origin, multi-Daodi Chinese herbal medicines ecotypes. In addition, the results demonstrate the critical need for improving quality, appropriate ecological regionalization and promoting industrialized development of P. quinquefolium L. PMID:23833949

  16. Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shokrpour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions and southern (9 accessions regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differences for most of the traits in the northern ecotypes (first collection while for southern ecotypes no significant differences were obtained for the studied traits except seed yield. Among and within ecotypes genotypic coefficient of variation indicated higher level of variation among ecotypes than within ecotypes. In both of the experiments, there was a large genetic variation for silybin and silymarin quality and quantity. Cluster analysis of 34 accessions was performed for morphological traits and silymarin and silybin characteristics, separately. The resulting dendrogram based on silybin and silymarin characteristics revealed that the native accessions such as Dezfoul, Fereydounkenar and Nour, had highest flavonolignans and they were better than the foreign varieties. Also, there was no clear relationship between clustering based on morphological traits and flavonolignan compounds.

  17. Reproductive Activity of Tsigaie Sheep Belonging to the Hill and Mountain Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Miclea

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive value of sheep belonging to the hill and mountain ecotypes of the Tsigaie breed was characterized based on the analysis of specific indexes. This operation was deemed necessary given our interest in the ex situ conservation of these ecotypes. Our research resulted in establishing that the hill ecotype is superior to the mountain ecotype, as is apparent by comparing indices for the two. The number of sheep in oestrus is higher by 9.56%, the pregnancy rate by 9.14%, the insemination index by 37.11%, the index of abortions by 6.96%, the fertility index by 19.76%, the sterility index by 14.18% and the number of lambed sheep by 15.06%. Only the prolificacy index is higher in the mountain ecotype by 5.96%. This situation stems from the particular biology of each ecotype and warrants optimal keeping and feeding for the mountain ecotype so that future research will not negatively influenced.

  18. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Ligang Tang; Lianqin Zhu; Chen Gao; Dongying Yang; Juan Liu; Haisheng Nie

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...

  19. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results show...

  20. Phenotypic plasticity in response to the social environment: effects of density and sex ratio on mating behaviour following ecotype divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristina; Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice; Svensson, Erik I

    2010-01-01

    The ability to express phenotypically plastic responses to environmental cues might be adaptive in changing environments. We studied phenotypic plasticity in mating behaviour as a response to population density and adult sex ratio in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus). A. aquaticus has recently diverged into two distinct ecotypes, inhabiting different lake habitats (reed Phragmites australis and stonewort Chara tomentosa, respectively). In field surveys, we found that these habitats differ markedly in isopod population densities and adult sex ratios. These spatially and temporally demographic differences are likely to affect mating behaviour. We performed behavioural experiments using animals from both the ancestral ecotype ("reed" isopods) and from the novel ecotype ("stonewort" isopods) population. We found that neither ecotype adjusted their behaviour in response to population density. However, the reed ecotype had a higher intrinsic mating propensity across densities. In contrast to the effects of density, we found ecotype differences in plasticity in response to sex ratio. The stonewort ecotype show pronounced phenotypic plasticity in mating propensity to adult sex ratio, whereas the reed ecotype showed a more canalised behaviour with respect to this demographic factor. We suggest that the lower overall mating propensity and the phenotypic plasticity in response to sex ratio have evolved in the novel stonewort ecotype following invasion of the novel habitat. Plasticity in mating behaviour may in turn have effects on the direction and intensity of sexual selection in the stonewort habitat, which may fuel further ecotype divergence. PMID:20862332

  1. Phylogenomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype divergence in sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A E; Kenny, J G; Chaudhuri, R R; Hughes, M A; Reisinger, R R; de Bruyn, P J N; Dahlheim, M E; Hall, N; Hoelzel, A R

    2015-01-01

    For many highly mobile species, the marine environment presents few obvious barriers to gene flow. Even so, there is considerable diversity within and among species, referred to by some as the 'marine speciation paradox'. The recent and diverse radiation of delphinid cetaceans (dolphins) represents a good example of this. Delphinids are capable of extensive dispersion and yet many show fine-scale genetic differentiation among populations. Proposed mechanisms include the division and isolation of populations based on habitat dependence and resource specializations, and habitat release or changing dispersal corridors during glacial cycles. Here we use a phylogenomic approach to investigate the origin of differentiated sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Killer whales show strong specialization on prey choice in populations of stable matrifocal social groups (ecotypes), associated with genetic and phenotypic differentiation. Our data suggest evolution in sympatry among populations of resource specialists. PMID:25052415

  2. Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D.; Pinto, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    The natural diversity of honey bees in Europe is eroding fast. A multitude of reasons lead to a loss of both genetic diversity and specific adaptations to local conditions. To preserve locally adapted bees through breeding efforts and to maintain regional strains in conservation areas, these valuable populations need to be identified. In this paper, we give an overview of methods that are currently available and used for recognition of honey bee subspecies and ecotypes, or that can be utilised to verify the genetic origin of colonies for breeding purposes. Beyond summarising details of morphometric, allozyme and DNA methods currently in use, we report recommendations with regard to strategies for sampling, and suggest methods for statistical data analysis. In particular, we emphasise the importance of reference data and consistency of methods between laboratories to yield comparable results.

  3. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam BARGHI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, ?Seyah-Roud?, ?Ahar-Hourand?, ?Oskou?, ?Malekan? and ?Sefida-Khan? were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and ?Sefida-Khan? had comparatively less sodium contents than ?Oskou?, ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes ?Malekan?, Ahar- Hourand and ?Oskou? were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes ?Malekan? and ?Ahar-Hourand? were better.

  4. Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Chris C.; Bickham, John W.; John Nelson, R.; Foote, Chris J.; Patton, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The ‘recurrent evolution’ (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a ‘straying’ form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations betw...

  5. [Effect of red and blue spectrum on photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Kun

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were studied under different red and blue light excitation by LED red and blue lamp-house. Photosynthesis did not carry on under red and blue light of 50 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). When red and blue light intensity was increased, photosynthesis rate, stoma limit value and transpiration rate of the two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were all increased. But photosynthesis rate stopped increasing under red and blue light of 1 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis and of 907 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis, which is known as light saturation. And the effect of blue light on photosynthesis became weaker than red light under higher light intensity. Increasing light intensity can promote plant photosynthesis rate in the range of low light intensity. But when light intensity reaches light saturation, photosynthesis rate does not increases but decreases. Because though light quantum numbers is increasing, the numbers of coloring mater does not change and is saturated. On the other hand, when the light intensity is of light saturation, the stoma limit value was increased and the transpiration rate was decreased in order to reduce water waste. When light intensity reaches the value that plant can bear, the plant will automatically close stoma in order to decrease transpiration and to save water. Plant balances every physiological index and makes sure that physiology damage is the least and production is the greatest. Although grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis has lower stoma limit and higher water waste, it also has higher photosynthesis rate than yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis. And the photosynthesis capability and physiology adaptation of grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis is greater than that of yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis. PMID:18844135

  6. Floral stem growth of Arabidopsis ecotypes. II. Short time scale events and evidence for ultradian rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Jouve, Laurent; Greppin, Hubert; Degli Agosti, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The extension rate of the first inflorescence node of four Arabidopsis ecotypes was measured during light/dark or continuous 1ight exposure and was found to exhibit oscillations that showed various ultradian rhythms. During the processes Arabidopsis ecotypes growth rate displays ultradian rhythms with periods in the range of 18 to 72 min. The rate oscillations were not in relation with mechanical noise or environmental oscillatory conditions. Indeed, our studies suggest that the oscillations ...

  7. Assessment of Milk Thistle Ecotypes for Drought Resistance in a Hydroponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deliri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate drought resistance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at seedling stage. The experiment was designed as a split plot in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were combination of drought stress levels as main plots and different milk thistle ecotypes as subplot layouts replicated 3 times and run in a hydroponic system. Root length, root volume, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and dry weight of root were measured for assessing the ecotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences between the measured traits at 1% level. Significant interaction between stress and ecotypes, indicated that the ecotypes had different trends over stress levels. Mean comparison of ecotypes suggested that decreased chlorophyll, root tolerance index, root volume and dry weight and increased electrolyte leakage were related to the increased stress intensity. Values of root tolerance index and electrolyte leakage suggested Ghaemieh as a drought tolerant ecotype. Correlation among root characteristics and root tolerance index showed that root volume and dry weight are more efficient criteria, compared to root length, for evaluation of drought tolerance in milk thistle genotypes.

  8. Natural variation in stomatal responses to environmental changes among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Sho; Monda, Keina; Negi, Juntaro; Konishi, Fumitaka; Ishikawa, Shinobu; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Goto, Nobuharu; Iba, Koh

    2015-01-01

    Stomata are small pores surrounded by guard cells that regulate gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Guard cells integrate multiple environmental signals and control the aperture width to ensure appropriate stomatal function for plant survival. Leaf temperature can be used as an indirect indicator of stomatal conductance to environmental signals. In this study, leaf thermal imaging of 374 Arabidopsis ecotypes was performed to assess their stomatal responses to changes in environmental CO2 concentrations. We identified three ecotypes, Köln (Kl-4), Gabelstein (Ga-0), and Chisdra (Chi-1), that have particularly low responsiveness to changes in CO2 concentrations. We next investigated stomatal responses to other environmental signals in these selected ecotypes, with Col-0 as the reference. The stomatal responses to light were also reduced in the three selected ecotypes when compared with Col-0. In contrast, their stomatal responses to changes in humidity were similar to those of Col-0. Of note, the responses to abscisic acid, a plant hormone involved in the adaptation of plants to reduced water availability, were not entirely consistent with the responses to humidity. This study demonstrates that the stomatal responses to CO2 and light share closely associated signaling mechanisms that are not generally correlated with humidity signaling pathways in these ecotypes. The results might reflect differences between ecotypes in intrinsic response mechanisms to environmental signals. PMID:25706630

  9. Influence of light and temperature on Prochlorococcus ecotype distributions in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, E.R.; Johnson, Z.I.; Coe, A.; Karaca, E.; Veneziano, D.; Chisholm, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    In a focused analysis of Prochlorococcus population structure in the western North Atlantic, we found that the relative abundances of ecotypes varied significantly with depth and, at seasonally stratified locations, with degree of vertical mixing. More limited regional variation was observed (e.g., Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, continental slope, and equatorial current), and local patchiness was minimal. Modeling of a combined North and South Atlantic data set revealed significant, independent effects of light and temperature on ecotype abundances, suggesting that they are key ecological determinants that establish the different habitat ranges of the physiologically and genetically distinct ecotypes. This was in sharp contrast with the genus Synechococcus, whose total abundance was related to light but did not vary in a predictable way with temperature. Comparisons of field abundances with growth characteristics of cultured isolates of Prochlorococcus suggested the presence of ecotype-specific thermal and light adaptations that could be responsible for the distinct distribution patterns of the four dominant ecotypes. Significantly, we discovered that one "low-light-adapted" ecotype, eNATL2A, can thrive in deeply mixed surface layers, whereas another, eMIT9313, cannot, even though they have the same growth optimum for (low) light. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  10. The Health Status of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L.; Carroll, Nick

    2005-01-01

    We use unique survey data to examine the determinants of self-assessed health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. We explore the degree to which differences in health are due to differences in socio-economic factors, and examine the sensitivity of our results to the inclusion of ?objective? health measures. Our results reveal that there is a significant gap in the health status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, with the former characterised by significantly worse health....

  11. Comparative Analyses of Stomatal Size and Density among Ecotypes of Aster hispidus (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuya Fukuda; Katsura Ito; Ryo Arakawa; Shin-ichi Tebayashi; Jun Yokoyama; Kyohei Ohga; Hiroshi Hayakawa; Yoshimasa Kumekawa; Haruki Miyata

    2013-01-01

    To determine the size and the density of stomata among different environments, we conducted anatomical analyses using Aster hispidus var. hispidus (open field), As. hispidus var. leptocladus (serpentine soil), and As. hispidus var. insularis (coastal). The stomatal size was not significantly different among these ecotypes but the density of stomata in the serpentine and coastal ecotypes was significantly lower than that of As. hispidus var. hispidus, which suggests that these ecotypes have e...

  12. Morphological and Anatomical Variations in Rheophytic Ecotype of Violet, Viola mandshurica var. ikedaeana (Violaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ryosuke Matsui; Shogo Takei; Kyohei Ohga; Hiroshi Hayakawa; Masataka Yoshida; Jun Yokoyama; Katsura Ito; Ryo Arakawa; Toshiro Masumoto; Tatsuya Fukuda

    2013-01-01

    We compared the leaf morphology and anatomy of the putative rheophytic ecotype of Viola mandshurica W. Becker var. ikedaeana (W. Becker ex Taken.) F. Maek. and its closely related variety, V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. We showed that the leaf of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana was narrower than that of V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. Moreover, the leaf thickness and guard cell size of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana were significantly large...

  13. Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…

  14. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    P. F. Mtui; M. J. Kessy; P N Sanka; E S Swai

    2012-01-01

    A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study re...

  15. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-13

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system. PMID:25820686

  16. The Expanded Diversity of Methylophilaceae from Lake Washington through Cultivation and Genomic Sequencing of Novel Ecotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David A. C.; McTaggart, Tami L.; Setboonsarng, Usanisa; Vorobev, Alexey; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Ivanova, Natalia; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    We describe five novel Methylophilaceae ecotypes from a single ecological niche in Lake Washington, USA, and compare them to three previously described ecotypes, in terms of their phenotype and genome sequence divergence. Two of the ecotypes appear to represent novel genera within the Methylophilaceae. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction highlights metabolic versatility of Methylophilaceae with respect to methylotrophy and nitrogen metabolism, different ecotypes possessing different combinations of primary substrate oxidation systems (MxaFI-type methanol dehydrogenase versus XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase; methylamine dehydrogenase versus N-methylglutamate pathway) and different potentials for denitrification (assimilatory versus respiratory nitrate reduction). By comparing pairs of closely related genomes, we uncover that site-specific recombination is the main means of genomic evolution and strain divergence, including lateral transfers of genes from both closely- and distantly related taxa. The new ecotypes and the new genomes contribute significantly to our understanding of the extent of genomic and metabolic diversity among organisms of the same family inhabiting the same ecological niche. These organisms also provide novel experimental models for studying the complexity and the function of the microbial communities active in methylotrophy. PMID:25058595

  17. Morphological and Anatomical Variations in Rheophytic Ecotype of Violet, Viola mandshurica var. ikedaeana (Violaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Matsui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We compared the leaf morphology and anatomy of the putative rheophytic ecotype of Viola mandshurica W. Becker var. ikedaeana (W. Becker ex Taken. F. Maek. and its closely related variety, V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. We showed that the leaf of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana was narrower than that of V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. Moreover, the leaf thickness and guard cell size of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana were significantly larger than those of V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. We further showed that leaves of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana contained fewer cells than did those of V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. Our results suggest that the narrower leaves of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana are caused by a decrease in the number of cells. A narrower leaf may enable the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana to resist the strong flow of water that occurs after heavy rainfall, while a thicker leaf may enhance tolerance to desiccation and high- intensity light.

  18. A Study of Genetic Diversity in Sardari Wheat Ecotypes Using AFLP Markers and Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Siosemardeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying genetic diversity is important because a decrease in genetic variability might result in a reduction of the plasticity of the crops to respond to changes in climate, pathogen populations, or agricultural practices. In this study, 72 Sardari wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ecotypes were analyzed by AFLP markers and 17 phenotypic characters. Three pairs of EcoRI/MseI primer combinations produced 1582 polymorphic bands (with mean percentage of polymorphic 73.92%. Cluster analysis using Jaccard coefficient and the entire AFLP data divided all ecotypes into eight major groups. Mean, coefficient of variation, phenotypic, genotypic and environment variance were calculated in each quantitative character. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance through the quantitative characters divided all ecotypes into six major groups. Comparison of genetic distances obtained from AFLP and agronomic data showed low correlation between the two diversity measurements (0.02. The results showed a high degree of genetic diversity between the Sardari ecotypes, suggesting that Sardari is not a single cultivar, but it is the mass of ecotypes and could be introduced in the gene bank.

  19. Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.

    2011-01-01

    How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can be related to fish ecotypes. Broadly speaking, there were steady increases in abundance of species that were either Lusitanian, small-bodied, or low-/mid-trophic-level ecotypes, and generally declining or only marginally increasing trends of most Boreal, large-bodied, or high-trophic-level ecotypes or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure.

  20. Chicken Wing Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Science Center

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore cooked chicken wings and identify the various parts including: bones (radius, ulna, humerus, shoulder joint, elbow joint), tendons, and cartilage. Learners observe the relationships between bones, tendons, and cartilage and identify how a chicken wing is similar to a human arm.

  1. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat. The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For example, compared to mammals, the use of a Z/W sex determination system is a special aspect of the avian genome where the female is the heterogametic sex (ZW and the male is the homogametic (ZZ sex. A comparison of the genomic sequences of platypus, chicken and human showed that sex chromosomes evolved separately in birds and mammals.

  2. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Engel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  3. Genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z W; Jarret, R L; Duncan, R R; Kresovich, S

    1994-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of the turfgrass seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz). Vegetative tissues or seeds of 46 seashore paspalum ecotypes were obtained from various locations in the United States, Argentina, and South Africa. Leaf DNA extracts were screened for RAPD markers using 34 10-mer random primers. A total of 195 reproducible RAPD fragments were observed, with an average of six fragments per primer. One hundred and sixty-nine fragments (87% of the total observed) were polymorphic, among which 27 fragments (16%) were present in three or less ecotypes, indicating the occurrence of a high level of genetic variation among the examined accessions of this species. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal coordinates analysis were performed on the RAPD data set. The results illustrate genetic relationships among the 46 ecotypes, and between ecotypes and their geographical origins. Ecotypes from southern Africa could be differentiated from the U.S. and most of the Argentinean ecotypes. With a few exceptions, ecotypes collected from Argentina, Hawaii, Florida, and Texas were separated into distinct clusters. PMID:18470139

  4. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities. PMID:23064403

  5. Indigenization of Urban Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zimo; Xie, Xing; Lian, Defu; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Uncovering urban mobility patterns is crucial for further predicting and controlling spatially embedded events. In this article, we analyze millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a Chinese leading location-based social networking service, Jiepang.com, which contains demographical information and thus allows the group-specific studies. We found distinguishable mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities under consideration, and by assigning different algorithms onto natives and non-natives, the accuracy of location prediction can be largely improved compared with pure algorithms. We further propose the so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify to which extent an individual behaves like a native, which depend only on check-in behaviors, instead of any demographical information. To our surprise, a hybrid algorithm weighted by the indigenization coefficients outperforms the mixed algorithm accounting for additional demographical information.

  6. Changes in behavioural trait integration following rapid ecotype divergence in an aquatic isopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S; Eroukhmanoff, F; Green, K K; Svensson, E I; Pettersson, L B

    2011-09-01

    Colonization of new habitats can relax selection pressures, and traits or trait combinations no longer selected for might become reduced or lost. We investigated behavioural differentiation and behavioural trait integration in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. This isopod has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes which encounter different predator faunas. We investigated sex-specific behavioural differences and phenotypic integration in three behavioural assays: (i) time to emerge (TE) from a shelter, (ii) activity and (iii) escape behaviour. General activity and escape behaviour differed between ecotypes. Furthermore, general activity and TE differed between sexes. Behavioural traits were more frequently correlated in the ancestral habitat, and phenotypic integration tended to be higher in this habitat as well. Our study suggests that different predator types, but also other ecological factors such as habitat matrices and population densities, might explain the differences in behavioural integration in these ecotypes. PMID:21658187

  7. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. RESULTS: In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p <0.01) in 10 ecotypes, including 498 transcription factors and 315 transposable elements. The majority of the transcripts (75%) showed ecotype specific expression pattern. By using sequence data available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. CONCLUSIONS: A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted regulatory network model was able to identify new ecotype specific transcription factors and their regulatory interactions, which might be crucial for their local geographic adaptation to cold temperature. Additionally, since the approach presented here is general, it could be adapted to study networks regulating biological process in any biological systems.

  8. Genetic diversity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium ecotypes based on morphological traits, allicin content and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen ecotypes of Allium hirtifolium, collected from their main local growth areas of Lorestan in Iran, were evaluated for genetic variation of morphological traits, allicin content and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD data. The investigated morphological characteristics include: mean bulb weight, clove number, plant height, leaf number, leaf width, leaf length, days-to-emergence and days-to-flowering. Duncan`s multiple range test showed that the ecotypes were significantly different for most morphological characters. A dendrogram prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using UPGMA algorithm separated the 16 ecotypes in six groups. There was no significant correlation between ecological conditions and morphological traits. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between allicin content and bulb weight, which is useful for indirect selection of ecotypes with high bulb weight and therefore, high amount of allicin content. Molecular analysis of diversity was carried out using RAPD technique with 16 random primers of 10-mer oligonucleotides. Out of 353 bands obtained, 336 were polymorphic among ecotypes. Cluster analysis on RAPD data separated the 16 ecotypes into four groups. Our results indicate that genetic parameters were very effective in morphological and phytochemical divergence of ecotypes.

  9. Sensitivity of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis Thaliana (Cvi and Te) towards UV-B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana towards the detrimental effect of UV-B irradiation was investigated using two ecotypes, Cvi and Te. The effect of UV-B treatment on primary photosynthetic reactions - energy interaction between the main pigment-protein complexes and oxygen evolution, was evaluated at low (40C) and at room (220C) temperature. UV-B-induced alterations of investigated photosynthetic reactions are better expressed at 220C than at 40C for Cvi. For Te ecotype the energy interaction was suppressed to higher extent at 220C, while oxygen evolving activity was affected similarly at both temperatures. At low and room temperature, the energy interaction in the complex PSII-core antenna is affected stronger by UV-B treatment than the energy distribution between both photosystems, as revealed by fluorescence ratios of 77 K spectra. The results presented indicate that the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi (Cape Verde Islands) is less affected by UV-B irradiation in respect to the investigated primary photosynthetic reactions than the ecotype Te (Finland)

  10. Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Andre E; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy; Hughes, Margaret A; J Welch, Andreanna; Reisinger, Ryan R; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hall, Neil; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species together with strong resource specializations, understanding the process of differentiation will require an understanding of the relative importance of both genetic drift and local adaptation. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis based on nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphic markers and inference about differentiation at both neutral loci and those potentially under selection. We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry. Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion). The pattern of differentiation for one ecotype in the North Pacific suggests local adaptation and shows some fixed differences among sympatric ecotypes. We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift. PMID:25244680

  11. Chicken major histocompatibility complex polymorphism and its association with production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Esmailnejad, Atefeh

    2015-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best characterized genetic region controlling disease resistance and immune responses in chicken. MHC genes are also involved in various non-immune functions such as productive traits and reproductive success. The genetic diversity of MHC in an Iranian indigenous chicken (Khorasan) was studied, and association of the MHC alleles with production traits was determined. The MHC polymorphism was ascertained by genotyping the LEI0258 microsatellite locus by PCR-based fragment analysis. LEI0258 microsatellite marker is a genetic indicator for MHC, which is located on microchromosome 16 and strongly associated with serologically defined MHC haplotypes. A total of 25 different LEI0258 alleles (185-493 bp) and 76 genotypes were identified in 313 chickens. An allele of 361 bp had the highest frequency (26.44%), and alleles of 207 and 262 bp had the lowest (0.16%). High level of heterozygosity (87%) and good genotype frequency fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in this population (P?=?0.238). The association study also revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on body weight, egg weight, egg laying intensity, and weight of sexual maturity in Khorasan population (P?chicken. These data would be applicable in designing breeding and genetic resource conservation for indigenous chicken populations. PMID:25737311

  12. [Relationships among immune traits and MHC B-LBII genetic variation in three chicken breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuwei; Li, Shuqing; Lu, Yan; Lei, Qiuxia; Han, Haixia; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Bin; Cao, Dingguo

    2013-07-01

    We have assessed the relationships between immune trait (antibody titers of Sheep red blood cell, SRBC; Avian influenza, AI; Newcastle disease, ND) and varieties of MHC B-LBHII Gene in local chicken breeds (Wenshang Barred chicken, LH; Laiwu Black chicken, LWH; and Jining Bairi chicken, BR). We selected 300 chickens randomly from the three indigenous chicken populations. The variations of MHC B-L BII gene were detected by directly DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). The results indicated that there were about 19-22 nucleotide mutations in the three local breeds, which could affect 16-18 amino acid variations. Another results indicated that there was significantly relationship between seven to eight SNPs of the MHC B-LBII region and some immune traits (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Both locus G97A and locus T138A were found in the three species, which were significantly related to the antibodies of SRBC, ND and AI antibody titers (P < 0.05). Among them, the locus G97A was significantly associated with ND antibody titers (P < 0.05) in BR chicken, with SRBC antibody titers (P < 0.05) in LWH chicken, and with H9 antibody titers (P < 0.05) in LH chicken. Furthermore, locus T138A was significantly associated with H9 antibody titers in BR and LH chickens (P < 0.05). All those results suggest relationships among the different varieties of MHC B-LBII and immune traits in the three local breeds. PMID:24195357

  13. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zandra, Balbinot; Luciano, Minghini; Rafael, Borim-de-Souza.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to co [...] llect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998) management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers.

  14. Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, R.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of active SAR11 ecotypes in the oligotrophic Northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Ian; Galand, Pierre E; Fagervold, Sonja K; Lebaron, Philippe; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Oliver, Matthew J; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Tricoire, Cyrielle

    2015-02-01

    A seven-year oceanographic time series in NW Mediterranean surface waters was combined with pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and ribosomal RNA gene copies (16S rDNA) to examine the environmental controls on SAR11 ecotype dynamics and potential activity. SAR11 diversity exhibited pronounced seasonal cycles remarkably similar to total bacterial diversity. The timing of diversity maxima was similar across narrow and broad phylogenetic clades and strongly associated with deep winter mixing. Diversity minima were associated with periods of stratification that were low in nutrients and phytoplankton biomass and characterised by intense phosphate limitation (turnover timemixing of the water column periodically resets SAR11 communities to a high diversity state and the seasonal evolution of phosphate limitation competitively excludes deeper-dwelling ecotypes to promote low diversity states dominated (>80%) by SAR11 Ia. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed that could reliably predict sequence abundances of SAR11 ecotypes (Q(2)=0.70) from measured environmental variables, of which mixed layer depth was quantitatively the most important. Comparison of clade-level SAR11 rRNA:rDNA signals with leucine incorporation enabled us to partially validate the use of these ratios as an in-situ activity measure. However, temporal trends in the activity of SAR11 ecotypes and their relationship to environmental variables were unclear. The strong and predictable temporal patterns observed in SAR11 sequence abundance was not linked to metabolic activity of different ecotypes at the phylogenetic and temporal resolution of our study. PMID:25238399

  16. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous

  17. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  18. Comparison of two ecotypes of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL) at the transcriptional level

    OpenAIRE

    Plessl, M.; Rigola, D.; Hassinen, V. H.; Tervahauta, A.; Karenlampi, S.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M. G. M.; Ernst, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates differences in gene expression among the two Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes La Calamine (LC) and Lellingen (LE) that have been shown to differ in metal tolerance and metal uptake. LC originates from a metalliferous soil and tolerates higher metal concentrations than LE which originates from a non-metalliferous soil. The two ecotypes were treated with different levels of zinc in solution culture, and differences in gene expression were assessed through application of a c...

  19. Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Noldin; J.M. Chandler; G.N. McCauley

    2006-01-01

    Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (

  20. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium uptake in Scots pine seedlings was mainly regulated by biomass production. - A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 deg. C), light intensity (50 and 200 ?mol photons m-2 s-1), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 ?mol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd uptake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake increased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. rthern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin

  1. [Salinity effect on germination, growth, and grain production of some autochthonous pear millet ecotypes (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouane, Leila

    2008-04-01

    This study compared the behaviour of six autochthonous pear millet ecotypes collected through the Tunisian territory under salt stress from germination to maturity. It showed that salt has little effect on germination rate and coleoptile emergence. However, this effect is more significant for radicular growth and between ecotypes. Salinity did not influence plant height, which seems to be a varietal characteristic, but revealed a positive effect on the foliar expansion. On the productivity level, salinity did not exert a prejudicial effect over the length of the principal candle, but improved the yield component. This adaptation to salinity is mainly due to its root system. This effect varied according to stress intensity and ecotype. Vegetative growth and yield of high-straw ecotypes was decreased by severe salinity, while ecotypes with low or medium height appear very stable on the productivity level. Such ecotypes can play an important role in the conservation and development of fragile grounds, and also be useful as a source of desirable genes for genetic improvement in salinity conditions. PMID:18355750

  2. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Garth Nettheim

    2009-01-01

    The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to id...

  3. A test of the chromosomal theory of ecotypic speciation in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Manoukis, Nicholas C.; POWELL, JEFFREY R.; Touré, Mahamoudou B.; Sacko, Adama; Edillo, Frances E.; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sekou F; TAYLOR, CHARLES E.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2008-01-01

    The role of chromosomal inversions in speciation has long been of interest to evolutionists. Recent quantitative modeling has stimulated reconsideration of previous conceptual models for chromosomal speciation. Anopheles gambiae, the most important vector of human malaria, carries abundant chromosomal inversion polymorphism nonrandomly associated with ecotypes that mate assortatively. Here, we consider the potential role of paracentric inversions in promoting speciation in A. gambiae via “e...

  4. Plant response to climate change varies with topography, interactions with neighbors, and ecotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Song, Daniel S; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2013-02-01

    Predicting the future of any given species represents an unprecedented challenge in light of the many environmental and biological factors that affect organismal performance and that also interact with drivers of global change. In a three-year experiment set in the Mongolian steppe, we examined the response of the common grass Festuca lenensis to manipulated temperature and water while controlling for topographic variation, plant-plant interactions, and ecotypic differentiation. Plant survival and growth responses to a warmer, drier climate varied within the landscape. Response to simulated increased precipitation occurred only in the absence of neighbors, demonstrating that plant-plant interactions can supersede the effects of climate change. F. lenensis also showed evidence of local adaptation in populations that were only 300 m apart. Individuals from the steep and dry upper slope showed a higher stress/drought tolerance, whereas those from the more productive lower slope showed a higher biomass production and a greater ability to cope with competition. Moreover, the response of this species to increased precipitation was ecotype specific, with water addition benefiting only the least stress-tolerant ecotype from the lower slope origin. This multifaceted approach illustrates the importance of placing climate change experiments within a realistic ecological and evolutionary framework. Existing sources of variation impacting plant performance may buffer or obscure climate change effects. PMID:23691663

  5. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region. PMID:24283538

  6. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  7. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the...

  8. Effects of environmental biomass-producing factors on Cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Lars; Greger, Maria

    2003-01-01

    A factorial design was used to study direct effects of external biomass-producing factors such as light, temperature and photoperiod on cadmium (Cd) uptake and indirect effects, via change in biomass production in two ecotypes of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The aim was to find out if the external factors affect the Cd uptake directly or via change in biomass production, and if the effect differs between ecotypes. Seedlings were grown under 10 combinations of external factors, i.e. temperature (15 and 20 degrees C), light intensity (50 and 200 micromol photons m(-2) S(-1)), photoperiod (18 h light/8 h darkness and continuous light) and external Cd concentration (totally 1.88 and 7.50 micromol). The treatment lasted for 18 days and Cd concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by AAS. The results showed that an increased biomass production increased the total Cd uptake but had a dilution effect on the Cd concentration, especially in the root tissues. The external factors tested did not have any direct effects on the Cd untake, only in the case of Cd translocation to the shoot did the higher temperature show a direct increase, but only in the southern ecotype. The two ecotypes reacted differently in Cd uptake and translocation to the external factors studied. The relative Cd uptake creased with increasing photoperiod in the northern but not in the southern ecotype. The southern ecotype decreased the Cd concentration in the shoot with increased light intensity caused by a dilution effect due to extensive shoot growth of this ecotype. The conclusion is that the uptake in pine seedlings is mainly regulated via biomass production, and not directly by light and temperature and that resulting plant Cd contents to a certain extent depend on plant origin. PMID:12685768

  9. Biogeography and diversity of methane and sulfur-cycling ecotypes in deep subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. M.; Biddle, J.; Girguis, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is critical for regulating the flux of methane from the ocean. AOM is coupled to sulfate availability in many anoxic marine environments, which has been extensively studied at cold seeps, hydrothermal vents, and the sulfate-methane transition zone at the seafloor. The microbes known to catalyze AOM form phylogenetically distinct anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) clusters and sometimes live in concert with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Strikingly, certain ANME groups and subgroups have been shown to occupy different ecological niches in both hydrocarbon seep and hydrothermal vent sediments. However, the environmental parameters that select for certain phylogenetic variants or 'ecotypes' in a wide range of marine systems are still unknown. A marine environment that remains elusive to characterization of potential ANME and SRB ecotype diversity is methane hydrate formations in the deep subsurface. Current estimates indicate that seafloor hydrates may exceed 10,000 GtC at standard temperature and pressure conditions. However, only a handful of studies have investigated the potential for AOM in the deep subsurface associated with methane hydrates. To gain a better understanding of the distribution of methane- and sulfur- cycling ecotypes in biogeochemically distinct marine subsurface ecosystems, we generated a substantial library of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these uncultivable deep sea microorganisms using Illumina sequencing. Sediment strata were collected from the methane-hydrate associated deep subsurface of Hydrate Ridge (30 - 100 mbsf), hydrocarbon cold seeps of Monterey Bay, metalliferous sedimented hydrothermal vents of Juan de Fuca Ridge, and organic-rich hydrothermally influenced sediments of Guaymas Basin. We used the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform to assess Archaeal and Bacterial richness in a total of 36 deep sea sediment samples followed by qPCR for quantification of ANME and SRB phylotype abundance across geographic ranges and environmental gradients. Co-registered metadata were used to establish the relationships between ANME and SRB phylotype distribution and geochemistry as well as the extent of these ecotypes in the deep subsurface compared to seafloor sediments. Our results shed light on the degree to which physical, geochemical, and biological constraints drive the distribution of different ecotypes over spatially and biogeographically separated sites, in particular temperature, substrate availability, and the presence of associated phylotypes.

  10. Indigenous communities and evidence building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echo-Hawk, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous populations in the U.S. and Pacific Islands are underrepresented in mental health and substance abuse research, are underserved, and have limited access to mainstream providers. Often, they receive care that is low quality and culturally inappropriate, resulting in compromised service outcomes. The First Nations Behavioral Health Association (U.S.) and the Pacific Substance Abuse and Mental Health Collaborating Council (Pacific Jurisdictions), have developed a Compendium of Best Practices for American Indian/Alaska Native and Pacific Island Populations. The private and public sector's increasing reliance on evidence-based practices (EBP) leaves many Indigenous communities at a disadvantage. For example, funding sources may require the use of EBP without awareness of its cultural usefulness to the local Indigenous population. Indigenous communities are then faced with having to select an EBP that is rooted in non-native social and cultural contexts with no known effectiveness in an Indigenous community. The field of cultural competence has tried to influence mainstream research, and the escalating requirement of EBP use. These efforts have given rise to the practice-based evidence (PBE) and the community-defined evidence (CDE) fields. All of these efforts, ranging from evidence-based practice to community-defined evidence, have a shared goal: practice improvement. PMID:22400456

  11. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, N. M.; Hamacher, D. W.; Warren, J.; Byrne, A.; Pagnucco, M.; Harley, R.; Venugopal, S.; Thorpe, K.; Neville, R.; Bolt, R.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the ge...

  12. Conversations, collaborations and contestations: Building a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways collaborative research offers ethnomusicologists a “dialogic alternative: speaking with rather than for” Indigenous people (Fielding 305. Drawing on my research experiences collaborating with Indigenous Australian women, I consider the difficulties, dilemmas, ethics and the benefits of cross-cultural collaborative research. I focus on two collaborative projects and incorporate interviews with my co-researchers and theoretical perspectives on collaborative research, to examine the complexities of including Indigenous people as “co-researchers”, the implication of knowledge production with and for Indigenous people, and the importance of a dialogic approach to collaborative research. I discuss my perspective as a non-Indigenous ethnomusicologist and my shared lived experiences with Indigenous researchers. Ultimately, I consider how collaborative research can allow Indigenous and non-Indigenous ethnomusicologists to engage in dialogue, have equal voices in projects, and facilitate relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

  13. Chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, K A

    2009-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In contrast to TTV, the genome of CAV is highly conserved. Another important difference is that CAV can be isolated in cell culture. CAV produces a single polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA), which is translated into three proteins. The promoter-enhancer region has four direct repeats resembling estrogen response elements. Transcription is enhanced by estrogen and repressed by at least two other transcription factors, one of which is COUP-TF1. A remarkable feature of CAV is that the virus can remain latent in gonadal tissues in the presence or absence of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to TTV, CAV can cause clinical disease and subclinical immunosuppression especially affecting CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response. PMID:19230563

  14. The Making of Indigeneity: a Study of Indigenous Representation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gandrup, Tobias; Jespersgaard Jakobsen, Line

    2012-01-01

    This project is set out to analyse the negotiation of indigeneity. This will be done by unfolding the semiotic practices of two organisations that represents indigenous interests in contemporary Peruvian politics. It examines the rise of the term indigeneity in international politics through the emergence of an international framework and asks to how this has shaped political possibilities for the local indigenous organisations to represent the indigenous interests. The analysis shows that th...

  15. Two-eyed seeing: a framework for understanding indigenous and non-indigenous approaches to indigenous health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Debbie H

    2012-06-01

    This article presents two-eyed seeing as a theoretical framework that embraces the contributions of both Indigenous and Western "ways of knowing" (world-views). It presents key characteristics and principles of these different perspectives and suggests ways in which they might be used together to answer our most pressing questions about the health of Indigenous people and communities. Presenting a critique of positivism, which has historically undermined and/or dismissed Indigenous ways of knowing as "unscientific," it discusses the origins of both Western and Indigenous approaches to understanding health; the importance of giving equal consideration to diverse Indigenous and non-Indigenous worldviews such that one worldview does not dominate or undermine the contributions of others; and how balanced consideration of contributions from diverse worldviews, embraced within a two-eyed seeing framework, can reshape the nature of the questions we ask in the realm of Indigenous health research. PMID:22894005

  16. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype. PMID:25689922

  17. Specific learning processes and indigenous teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Casaro Nascimento

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous teacher formation and the issue of specific learning processes, as a right of the indigenous peoples derived from the 1988 Constitution, aim at the re-signification of pedagogical practices in specific socio-cultural contexts and at the visibility of indigenous education. Taking indigenous children as a reference, or rather, the agents that produce knowledge within the context of their particularities and territorialities, the essay points to the necessity of constructing new theoretical bases and a pedagogy that gives visibility to other local epistemic logics produced by “power coloniality”. They are different from the dominant Western logic in the process of training indigenous educators.

  18. Age standardisation – an indigenous standard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmonds Shirley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous M?ori population has a substantially younger age structure than the non-indigenous population making it necessary to account for age differences when comparing population health outcomes. An age-standardised rate is a summary measure of a rate that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Changing age standards have stimulated interest in the potential impact of population standards on disparities data and consequently on health policy. This paper compares the age structure of the M?ori and non-M?ori populations with two standard populations commonly used in New Zealand: Segi's world and WHO world populations. The performance of these standards in M?ori and non-M?ori mortality data was then measured against the use of the M?ori population as a standard. It was found that the choice of population standard affects the magnitude of mortality rates, rate ratios and rate differences, the relative ranking of causes of death, and the relative width of confidence intervals. This in turn will affect the monitoring of trends in health outcomes and health policy decision-making. It is concluded that the choice of age standard has political implications and the development and utilisation of an international indigenous population standard should be considered.

  19. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

    2011-02-01

    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice. PMID:21333035

  20. Rapid adaptive divergence between ecotypes of an aquatic isopod inferred from F-Q analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice; Hargeby, Anders; Svensson, Erik I

    2009-12-01

    Divergent natural selection is often thought to be the principal factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. We studied two ecotypes of the aquatic isopod Asellus aquaticus which have diverged in parallel in several Swedish lakes. In these lakes, isopods from reed belts along the shores colonized new stonewort stands in the centre of the lakes and rapid phenotypic changes in size and pigmentation followed after colonization. We investigated if selection was likely to be responsible for these observed phenotypic changes using indirect inferences of selection (F(ST)-Q(ST) analysis). Average Q(ST) for seven quantitative traits were higher than the average F(ST) between ecotypes for putatively neutral markers (AFLPs). This suggests that divergent natural selection has played an important role during this rapid diversification. In contrast, the average Q(ST) between the different reed ecotype populations was not significantly different from the mean F(ST). Genetic drift could therefore not be excluded as an explanation for the minor differences between allopatric populations inhabiting the same source habitat. We complemented this traditional F(ST)-Q(ST) approach by comparing the F(ST) distributions across all loci (n = 67-71) with the Q(ST) for each of the seven traits. This analysis revealed that pigmentation traits had diverged to a greater extent and at higher evolutionary rates than size-related morphological traits. In conclusion, this extended and detailed type of F(ST)-Q(ST) analysis provides a powerful method to infer adaptive phenotypic divergence between populations. However, indirect inferences about the operation of divergent selection should be analyzed on a per-trait basis and complemented with detailed ecological information. PMID:19878452

  1. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Races, Ecotypes and Their General Charecterisctisc in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Ozkok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies carried out before the development of migratory beekeeping on the identification of the Anatolian honeybee population showed that the honeybee population could be a valuable genetic potential for breeding and also preservation. Since these initial studies, many research have been carried out to identify races, ecotypes; morphological, physiological and behavioural characteristics of honeybees inhabited in Turkey. According to the behavioural and ecological data of Ruttner (1, there are three different honeybee races in Turkey, Apis mellifera anatoliaca, Apis mellifera caucasica, Apis mellifera meda.

  2. Out of the Pacific and back again: the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Morin, PA

    2011-01-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous.

  3. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  4. A test of the chromosomal theory of ecotypic speciation in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Powell, Jeffrey R; Touré, Mahamoudou B; Sacko, Adama; Edillo, Frances E; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Traoré, Sekou F; Taylor, Charles E; Besansky, Nora J

    2008-02-26

    The role of chromosomal inversions in speciation has long been of interest to evolutionists. Recent quantitative modeling has stimulated reconsideration of previous conceptual models for chromosomal speciation. Anopheles gambiae, the most important vector of human malaria, carries abundant chromosomal inversion polymorphism nonrandomly associated with ecotypes that mate assortatively. Here, we consider the potential role of paracentric inversions in promoting speciation in A. gambiae via "ecotypification," a term that refers to differentiation arising from local adaptation. In particular, we focus on the Bamako form, an ecotype characterized by low inversion polymorphism and fixation of an inversion, 2Rj, that is very rare or absent in all other forms of A. gambiae. The Bamako form has a restricted distribution by the upper Niger River and its tributaries that is associated with a distinctive type of larval habitat, laterite rock pools, hypothesized to be its optimal breeding site. We first present computer simulations to investigate whether the population dynamics of A. gambiae are consistent with chromosomal speciation by ecotypification. The models are parameterized using field observations on the various forms of A. gambiae that exist in Mali, West Africa. We then report on the distribution of larvae of this species collected from rock pools and more characteristic breeding sites nearby. Both the simulations and field observations support the thesis that speciation by ecotypification is occurring, or has occurred, prompting consideration of Bamako as an independent species. PMID:18287019

  5. Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam A. PARRAY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain length:breadth (L:B ratio and panicle density. High heritability accompanied by high to moderate genetic advance for panicle density, days to 50% flowering, plant height, grain number indicated the predominance of additive gene action for the expression of these characters. Grain yield was found to be positively and significantly correlated with number of tiller per plant, panicle density m-2 and number of grain per panicle at both genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating the importance of these characters for yield improvement in this material. The results of genotypic path analysis revealed that panicle density had the highest positive direct effect followed by plant height and days to flower. The overall results indicated that selection favouring higher panicle density, test weight and panicle weight and medium plant height with a reasonable balance for moderate grain number would help to achieve higher grain yield in this population of red rice ecotypes.

  6. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  7. Experimental Campylobacter diarrhea in chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Palacios, G. M.; Escamilla, E.; Torres, N.

    1981-01-01

    An animal model for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni enteritis was developed in 3-day-old chickens. Diarrhea was induced in 88% (22 of 25) of chickens inoculated with 9 X 10(7) bacteria given orally. The mean incubation time was 45 h (range, 24 to 72 h). Considerable weight loss was observed in the experimental group compared with the control group. Ninety bacteria was the minimal infective dose capable of inducing diarrhea in 90% of the chickens. Overall mortality was 32% (8 of 25). Light m...

  8. Indigenous development of helium liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium Liquefiers/refrigerators have become an essential part of future accelerator developments in India. Apart from designing, systems operating at liquid helium temperature viz. 4.2 K or lower, require additional technical skills to make them work as designed. To get insight in these intricacies, development of helium liquefier was taken up at RRCAT. An indigenous helium liquefier has been developed. This system is based on reciprocating type expansion engine and uses cross counter flow type heat exchangers, based on high finned density copper tubes. The cyclic compressor is a four stage air cooled reciprocating type compressor. Its oil removal system is also designed and developed indigenously. Initially, a liquefaction rate of 6 lit/hr was achieved. More than 150 liters of liquid helium was collected during its maiden trial itself, while operating for more than 25 hours continuously. This liquefier has at present crossed a liquefaction rate of 10 lits/hr by further tuning and reducing thermal in-leaks. Based on the experience gained in the present system and validation of design parameters under actual working conditions, a second model is being designed, which will be able to produce about 35 lit/hr of liquid helium. Further work is also being initiated to develop aluminium plate fin heat exchangers for developing helium liquefiers of larger capacity in the range of 100-200 lits/hr. Design, development and performance details of indigenous development of helium tails of indigenous development of helium liquefier will be presented and ongoing efforts to increase the liquefaction capacity will be discussed. (author)

  9. Comparison of two ecotypes of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL) at the transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessl, Markus; Rigola, Diana; Hassinen, Viivi H; Tervahauta, Arja; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G M; Ernst, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates differences in gene expression among the two Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes La Calamine (LC) and Lellingen (LE) that have been shown to differ in metal tolerance and metal uptake. LC originates from a metalliferous soil and tolerates higher metal concentrations than LE which originates from a non-metalliferous soil. The two ecotypes were treated with different levels of zinc in solution culture, and differences in gene expression were assessed through application of a cDNA microarray consisting of 1,700 root and 2,700 shoot cDNAs. Hybridisation of root and shoot cDNA from the two ecotypes revealed a total of 257 differentially expressed genes. The regulation of selected genes was verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of the expression profiles of the two ecotypes suggests that LC has a higher capacity to cope with reactive oxygen species and to avoid the formation of peroxynitrite. Furthermore, increased transcripts for the genes encoding for water channel proteins could explain the higher Zn tolerance of LC compared to LE. The higher Zn tolerance of LC was reflected by a lower expression of the genes involved in disease and defence mechanisms. The results of this study provide a valuable set of data that may help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms employed by plants to tolerate toxic concentrations of metal in the soil. PMID:19937357

  10. Defining 'Indigenous': Between Culture and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Pritchard

    2013-01-01

    This essay considers a range of discourses on identity and the definition of culture. I have little doubt that, generally speaking, Indigenous people are quite capable of defining the meaning of ‘Indigenous person’ or ‘culture’ in a way that satisfies their specific immediate needs and interests. My concern here is with the definition of ‘Aboriginal or Indigenous person’ in Australian law and legislation and with the critical response, by members of the scientific community as wel...

  11. Resilience and Indigenous Spirituality: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous spirituality is a more complex phenomenon than the term spirituality alone, as generally understood, implies. Spirituality is closely bound up with culture and ways of living in Indigenous communities and requires a more holistic or comprehensive research approach. Two conceptual frameworks could help to orient Indigenous resilience research. One is the enculturation framework. Enculturation refers to the degree of integration within a culture, which can be protective in social beh...

  12. China's Indigenous IP Policies -- Here to Stay?

    OpenAIRE

    Prud Homme, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, foreign businesses and governments welcomed measures believed to dramatically reform a highly controversial branch of China’s indigenous innovation policy which provided government procurement preferences to applicants who can meet restrictive indigenous intellectual property (IP) rights requirements. However, this article describes specific examples of (what can be labeled) China’s “indigenous IP policy” that are still very much in force, in particular several progr...

  13. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  14. Investigating the Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Weed Management on Forage and Seed Yield of Alfalfa Ecotypes (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Heidarian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate fertilizing and weed management effects on forage and seed yield of alfalfa ecotypes, a field trial was conducted during 2008-2009 growing season at Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Alfalfa ecotypes including (Ghareghozlo, Hoakmabad, Malekkandi, Kozre, Faminin, Galebani, Rahnani, Shorkat, Chaleshtar, Ghareaghaj, Gharoghlogh, Ordobad, Sedighan, Silvana, Sahandava, Ghahavand, Mohajerankaraj and Mashhad were allocated to main plots; sub plots consisted of two levels of none fertilizing and fertilization treatments using simultaneous application of potassium sulphate and phosphate triple at rates of 150 and 350 K/ha, respectively and sub-sub plots were allocated to weeding and none weeding treatments based on a complete randomized block design in a splitsplit- plot scheme with three replicates. Results showed that the effect of ecotype on forage yield was not significant. Gharoghlogh and Silvana produced the highest (18270 kg/ha and the lowest (14630 kg/ha green forage yield, respectively at both cuttings (first and second cuts. The interaction of fertilization and weeding on forage yield was significant (p<0.01. On the other hand, with application of fertilizer, forage yield 11.74% was increased and it was enhanced 26.93% by manual weeding. Furthermore, results revealed that ecotype fertilizer interaction was significant (p<0.05 for weed dry weight. Ecotype weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per pod and seed weight (p<0.01. In addition, fertilizer weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per plant. Among the treatments, highest number of seed per plant was produced by fertilizer and weeding treatment (2734 and the lowest one was obtained by non-fertilizer and non-weeding treatment (559.5.

  15. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  16. Digital Library for Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Science Resources is a collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science that includes knowledge about the natural world and ways of teaching and learning about it. All resources are authored and/or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations or approved for inclusion in the collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource. It is intended for users of all cultures, but can be a particularly important resource for teachers and students in Native Studies programs and in tribal schools and colleges. The current sets of resources are primarily from SnowChange, Tribal College Journal and Winds of Change.

  17. Symbiotic relationships between native ecotypes of Desmodium incanum and Rhizobia in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmodium incanum is a herbaceous legume native to Uruguay. Its perennial characteristics and good adaptability make this legumen interesting for animal nutrition and introduction in agricultural management practices. The research on native legume species well adapted to diverse ecological conditions,is an important subject for the agronomic potential that many species show. The objective of this work was to assess the nodulation status in the field and the nitrogen fixing capacity of rhizobial strains. This legume is well nodulated in the field and its nodulation is specific. None of the rhizobial strains isolated from other legume species (native o exotic)nodulated D.incanum.There were differences among the ecotypes studied in their symbiotic behaviour. 15 N methods permitted differentiation of the N-fixing capacity of rhizobial strains

  18. Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cecilia, Andere; M.A., Palacio; E.M., Rodriguez; E., Figini; M.T., Dominguez; E., Bedascarrasbure.

    Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defens [...] ive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p

  19. Considerations on the relationship between chromosome constitution and biochemical phenotype in five ecotypes of seabuckthorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vochita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seabuckthorn is a small tree showing pronounced morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic variability, high ecological plasticity and large limits of resistance to unfavourable factors and to phytopathogens. It is largely exploited in biotechnological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical purposes, cosmetics domain and in environmental protective field. The possibility that some karyotype traits of five seabuckthorn ecotypes to be used as markers in relation with some specific biochemical features was discussed in this paper. There is intraspecific chromosome variability; the formula of haploid complement is different concerning the preponderance of chromosome morphotypes. Also a marked chemical heterogeneity was evidenced. At this research stage, the results not allow us to establish a direct relationship between some chromosome characteristics and certain morphological and biochemical parameters.

  20. Defense Responses in Two Ecotypes of Lotus japonicus against Non-Pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Menendez, Ana B.; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Gárriz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important processes as nitrogen fixing nodule formation and adaptation to salt stress. However, no studies on the defense responses occurring in this species against invading microorganisms have been carried out at the present. Understanding how this model plant protects itself against pathogens will certainly help to develop more tolerant cultivars in economically important Lotus species as well as in other legumes. In order to uncover the most important defense mechanisms activated upon bacterial attack, we explored in this work the main responses occurring in the phenotypically contrasting ecotypes MG-20 and Gifu B-129 of L. japonicus after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv. tomato. Our analysis demonstrated that this bacterial strain is unable to cause disease in these accessions, even though the defense mechanisms triggered in these ecotypes might differ. Thus, disease tolerance in MG-20 was characterized by bacterial multiplication, chlorosis and desiccation at the infiltrated tissues. In turn, Gifu B-129 plants did not show any symptom at all and were completely successful in restricting bacterial growth. We performed a microarray based analysis of these responses and determined the regulation of several genes that could play important roles in plant defense. Interestingly, we were also able to identify a set of defense genes with a relative high expression in Gifu B-129 plants under non-stress conditions, what could explain its higher tolerance. The participation of these genes in plant defense is discussed. Our results position the L. japonicus-P. syringae interaction as a interesting model to study defense mechanisms in legume species. PMID:24349460

  1. Assessing genetic variability in two ancient chicken breeds of Padova area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in two ancient indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region was assessed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. A total of 63 individuals were analysed using three selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 66 clear polymorphisms. The breeds analyzed were the Padovana and the Polverara (two ancient breeds and a reference broiler line. The expected heterozygosity (Het did not differ significantly among breeds. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained across breeds, as indicated by the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst value. The lowest genetic distance is found between the Padovana and Polverara breeds suggesting that they could be genetically close.

  2. Combining abilities among four breeds of chicken for feed efficiency variation: a preliminary assessment for chicken improvement in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebambo, Ayotunde Olutumininu

    2011-12-01

    General and specific combining abilities for feed efficiency in 5,191 chicks from a combination of four breeds of chickens, (Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G), and normal indigenous (N) chickens) were examined by means of diallel analysis. The analysis revealed that Anak Titan had the highest general combining ability of 0.07 ± 0.00 while the least was Alpha with a value of -0.09 ± 0.00. The results of the specific combining abilities (SCA) reveal a high value of SCA in GN cross with a value of 0.08 ± 0.01 while the least value was -0.12 ± 0.01 (AN cross). It is recommended that an improvement process for feed efficiency that involves all the breeds should be adapted using a reciprocal recurrent selection or modifications of it. Anak Titan will be a good sire line and the GN cross a good dam line to use in such an improvement program. PMID:21475960

  3. Development of Indigenous Science Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to develop an indigenous science instructional model. The samples were divided into two groups. Firstly, 24 experts for designing an indigenous science instructional model using Delphi Technique. Secondly, three classrooms of Mathayomsuksa 3 students for developing an instructional model. The findings revealed that Delphi technique…

  4. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  5. Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

  6. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  7. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground...

  8. Root physiological adaptations involved in enhancing P assimilation in mining and non-mining ecotypes of Polygonum hydropiper grown under organic P media

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Zheng, Zicheng; Zhang, Xizhou; Chen, Guangdeng; Yu, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    It is important to seek out plant species, high in phosphorus (P) uptake, for phytoremediation of P-enriched environments with a large amount of organic P (Po). P assimilation characteristics and the related mechanisms of Polygonum hydropiper were investigated in hydroponic media containing various concentrations of Po (1–8 mmol L-1) supplied as phytate. The mining ecotype (ME) showed significantly higher biomass in both shoots and roots compared to the non-mining ecotype (NME) at 4, 6, and 8...

  9. Control of Leaf Spot Diseases on Ecotypes of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Produced in the Andean Region of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Coca-Morante; F. Mamani-Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    The basin of Lake Titicaca is a faba bean-producing microregion of Bolivia where the crop is destined for export. The most commonly cultivated ecotypes “Gigante de Copacabana” and “Usnayo” are affected by diseases that can cause production losses. The aims of the present work were to identify the causal agents of leaf spot affecting these ecotypes, to record disease intensity levels, and to estimate their effect on production. In 2004 and 2005, leaflet, stem and pod samples were taken from fa...

  10. Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy, longevity and germination requirements in wild/weedy Sorghum bicolor in Ethiopia: implications for seed mediated transgene dispersal and persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Adugna, Asfaw

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal is one of the vehicles of gene flow in plants. If a seed carrying transgene(s) is dispersed into the environment, the fate can be determined by its persistence in the soil bank, which can also vary in different ecotypes of a species and the physical environment of the soil including temperature and moisture. This study aimed at investigating ecotypic differences in wild sorghum for dormancy and longevity and their response to varying levels of temperature and moisture for seed ...

  11. Evaluation of the Impacts of Fall Sowing Dates on Different Ecotypes of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum, Apiaceae L. Productivity in Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad NEZAMI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Locally adapted plants can be considered as an alternative to commercial crops for cultivation in harsh environments within semi-arid regions. Nowadays, exploring these plants industrial benefits has motivated many farmers around the world to extend their cultivation. However, agronomic characters of these forgotten plants are still unknown. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fall sowing dates on yield and yield components of different Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., Apiaceae ecotypes in the semi-arid region of Khorasan Iran. An experiment of two years duration was performed using a split-plot randomized complete block design, employing sowing dates as main-plot factor, and cumin ecotypes as sub-plot factor in three replicates. Three levels of sowing dates included the following: mid October, mid November and mid December. Additonally, sub-plot treatments consisted of four local ecotypes of cumin from different regions of the Khorasan province (Gayen, Torbat, Sabzevar and Khaf. The plants? survival percentage in field conditions, number of umbels m-2, number of seeds per umbel, thousand seed weight, biological, and seed yield were measured in this experiment. The results showed that all study parameters were influenced by different sowing dates except thousand seed weight. The third sowing date resulted in the highest biological (110 g m-2 and 94 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007 and seed yield (50 g m-2 and 55 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007. There was a significant positive correlation between average minimum temperature and biological yield of cumin across all ecotypes and years. The results showed significant difference in productivity of different ecotypes of cumin from various parts of northeast of Iran. The Gayen and Khaf ecotypes showed the highest plant survival percentage, biological and seed yield across study ecotypes under the third sowing date. In conclusion, delayed fall sowing date and appropriate cumin ecotypes are able to increase yield of this plant in northeast of Iran.

  12. Intellectual disability and indigenous Australians: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Meera; Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran

    2014-12-01

    The review summarizes important literature in the emerging field of intellectual disability (ID) in indigenous Australians. Search of various electronic databases revealed 19 papers that provide information regarding prevalence, sociodemographic factors, and issues in assessment and management. Overall, there is limited information regarding ID in indigenous Australians, which is reported to be more prevalent compared with nonindigenous Australians. Sociocultural constructs affect what is considered to be ID in indigenous communities and this may be at odds with western notions. Other difficulties include lack of validated psychometric instruments to effectively measure cognitive functioning in indigenous Australians. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors are significant factors that impair brain development and contribute to ID in indigenous communities. Comorbid physical and psychiatric disorders need to be assessed and managed. This paper provides an overview of current knowledge regarding this important area that requires further research, appropriate training, and resourcing. PMID:25339537

  13. Expression and functional analysis of metal transporter genes in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Sonia; Tearall, Kathryn L; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Buchner, Peter; McGrath, Steve P; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2007-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation is a constitutive property of Thlaspi caerulescens, whereas cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation varies greatly among different ecotypes. The molecular basis of this variation is unknown. Ecotypic differences in the sequences and expression of four representative ZIP family transporter genes were investigated. Genome analysis indicated the presence of at least two closely related copies of the TcIRT1 gene in both Ganges (high Cd accumulating) and Prayon (low Cd accumulating) ecotypes, with different copies being expressed in each, and, furthermore, the two genes potentially encode different length transcripts. The predominant transcript in Prayon was truncated, missing sequence coding for the putative metal-binding site and the five C-terminal transmembrane helices. The two ecotypes were grown hydroponically +/-Fe and Cd, and mRNA abundance determined for four ZIP genes. The four ZIP genes studied (TcIRT1, TcIRT2, TcZNT1, and TcZNT5) were expressed in roots only. TcIRT1 expression (full-length in Ganges, TcIRT1-1G; truncated in Prayon, TcIRT1-2P) was enhanced by Fe deficiency or by exposure to Cd. TcIRT2 expression was induced by Fe deficiency, but was unaffected by Cd exposure. TcZNT5-G showed greater expression in Prayon compared with Ganges. The functions of TcIRT1 from Ganges and Prayon and the Arabidopsis homologue were analysed by heterologous expression in yeast. All three IRT1 genes were able to facilitate growth on low Fe concentrations. Cd sensitivity of yeast was conferred in the order AtIRT1>TcIRT1-1G>TcIRT1-2P (truncated). Cd uptake after 4 h was only detectable following complementation by AtIRT1. The results suggest that although TcIRT1-G may be involved in Cd hyperaccumulation in the Ganges ecotype of T. caerulescens, the transporter expressed in yeast does not have an enhanced ability to transport Cd compared with AtIRT1. Therefore, the unique Cd-accumulating ability of the T. caerulescens Ganges ecotype must be due to the levels of expression of the protein or to other factors such as interacting proteins. PMID:17404382

  14. Neuroendocrine Responses to Cold Stress in Chinese Indigenous Breeds from Different Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that stress is related to neurochemical and hormonal changes including alterations in adrenal and thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, thyroid axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis related hormomal, Triiodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH, Adreno-Cortico-Tropic-Hormone (ACTH and Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH mRNA, ACTH mRNA changes during cold stress with different intensities were recorded in two Chinese indigenous breeds from different latitude. The results showed that Huainan partridge chicken from central China, showed obvious conversion in T3 and T4 under severe cold stress. Plasma TSH and pituitary TRH mRNA highly expressed over 12-24 h long time severe cold exposure. However, mild cold did not obviously affect those hormones mentioned above. In the Wenchang chicken which from south of China, severe and mild cold stress showed the same affection on the thyroid axis but not obvious on the adrenal axis. The results would further help the revealing of the mechanism of injury caused by cold stress and provide better controls for chicken from loss of cold stress in different areas.

  15. Environmental education and indigenous approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

  16. Minor loading vein acclimation for three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in response to growth under different temperature and light regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Cohu, Christopher M.; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the important role of foliar phloem as the nexus between energy acquisition through photosynthesis and distribution of the products of photosynthesis to the rest of the plant, as well as communication between the whole plant and its leaves, we examined whether foliar minor loading veins in three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes undergo acclimation to the growth environment. As a winter annual exhibiting higher rates of photosynthesis in response to cooler vs. warmer temperatures, thi...

  17. From Prediction to Function Using Evolutionary Genomics: Human-Specific Ecotypes of Lactobacillus reuteri Have Diverse Probiotic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Spinler, Jennifer K.; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B.; Venable, Susan F.; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A.; Saulnier, Delphine M. A.; Mistretta, Toni-ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host–microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-deriv...

  18. The Biological Responses of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) in Diverse Ecotypes of Sichuan

    OpenAIRE

    H.J. Xie; Li, J; Sun, S.X.; G. L. Zhang; Jiang, G. L.; Chen, D.; M.Y. Tu

    2010-01-01

    Loquats (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) have formed different ecological types in various zones during the long course of their cultivation and acclimatization. The data of biological responses and ecological suitability was very important for loquat plantation in different eco-zones. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development characters, flowering and fruiting habits and fruit quality of loquat in three diverse ecotypes of Sichuan by field survey. The results showed that in mid-subt...

  19. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.O., Oluwayelu; D., Todd; O.D., Olaleye.

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined fo [...] r three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  20. Predator faunas past and present: quantifying the influence of waterborne cues in divergent ecotypes of the isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sanna; Karlsson Green, Kristina; Pettersson, Lars B

    2013-11-01

    Waterborne chemical cues are an important source of information for many aquatic organisms, in particular when assessing the current risk of predation. The ability to use chemical cues to detect and respond to potential predators before an actual encounter can improve prey chances of survival. We investigated predator recognition and the impact of chemical cues on predator avoidance in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. This isopod has recently colonised a novel habitat and diverged into two distinct ecotypes, which encounter different predator communities. Using laboratory-based choice experiments, we have quantified behavioural responses to chemical cues from predators typical of the two predator communities (larval dragonflies in the ancestral habitat, perch in the newly colonised habitat) in wild-caught and lab-reared Asellus of the two ecotypes. Individuals with prior experience of predators showed strong predator avoidance to cues from both predator types. Both ecotypes showed similar antipredator responses, but sexes differed in terms of threat-sensitive responses with males avoiding areas containing predator cues to a larger extent than females. Overall, chemical cues from fish elicited stronger predator avoidance than cues from larval dragonflies. Our results indicate that in these isopods, prior exposure to predators is needed to develop antipredator behaviour based on waterborne cues. Furthermore, the results emphasise the need to analyse predator avoidance in relation to waterborne cues in a sex-specific context, because of potential differences between males and females in terms of vulnerability and life history strategies. PMID:23636460

  1. Microsatellite diversity in sympatric reproductive ecotypes of pacific steelhead (Oncorhynchus my kiss) from the Middle Fork Eel River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Fountain, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic differentiation between two reproductive ecotypes of anadromous steelhead found in the Middle Fork Eel River in northern California was tested using 16 microsatellite loci. Twelve of these loci showed significant differences in allelic frequency between the two Middle Fork Eel River steelhead populations (Fisher's exact P<0.05). Fisher's combined test for independence also supported significant genetic separation between the two reproductive ecotype (P<0.001). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that only 1% of the overall microsatellite allelic variation contributed to differences between summer- and winter-run steelhead in the Middle Fork Eel River. Variation found among individuals within the two runs equaled 18.2%. Analyses showed less genetic distance between the two populations of steelhead in the Middle Fork Eel River than in comparisons made with geographically proximate coastal winter-run fish. Divergence time based on genetic distance for the two within-basin reproductive ecotypes was estimated to be 16,000-28,000 years ago. Copyright ?? Munksgaanl 1999.

  2. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O2·-) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

  3. Acquisition of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis and two contrasting ecotypes of the extremophile Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Nityananda; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R

    2015-05-15

    Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) is an extremophile, a close relative of Arabidopsis, but possessing much higher constitutive levels of tolerance to abiotic stress. This study aimed to characterize the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis (Columbia ecotype) and two ecotypes of Eutrema (Yukon and Shandong) isolated from contrasting geographical locations. Under our growth conditions, maximal freezing tolerance was observed after two- and three-weeks of cold acclimation for Arabidopsis and Eutrema, respectively. The ecotypes of Eutrema and Arabidopsis do not differ in their constitutive level of freezing tolerance or short-term cold acclimation capacity. However Eutrema remarkably outperforms Arabidopsis in long-term acclimation capacity suggesting a wider phenotypic plasticity for the trait of freezing tolerance. The combination of drought treatment and one-week of cold acclimation was more effective than long-term cold acclimation in achieving maximum levels of freezing tolerance in Eutrema, but not Arabidopsis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated growth conditions, particularly irradiance, are determinates of the level of freezing tolerance attained during cold acclimation suggesting a role for photosynthetic processes in adaptive stress responses. PMID:25889872

  4. ??????????????????The Critical Discourse Analysis of Taiwan Indigenous Language Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???Su-Chen Chao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ?????Fairclough?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????This research followed Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis model to explore the discourse text, discourse practice, and social practice of Taiwan indigenous language education. It conducted text analysis, processing analysis, and social analysis. The conclusions are as follows: (1 The existing decision making and execution process for indigenous language education policy are lack of evaluation and monitoring. (2The Indigenous language education has concealed ethnocentrism and power conflicts. (3 The indigenous subjectivism discourse has become the hegemony that manipulates present indigenous language education policy. (4 The existence of dialectic relationship among indigenous discourse practice, Taiwan ethnic consciousness and politics. (5The indigenous language policyscourse system rebuilds the knowledge and belief of indigenous society. (6 Indigenous language education policy and indigenous ethnic identity should be detached from each other.

  5. Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to enhance scientific and adaptive capacity in Tribal communities in the United States around climate change. The first is the American Indian Alaska Native Climate Change Working Group, led out of Haskell Indian Nations University. The second is a newly funded effort led by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges that will use NASA resources to explore climate change on the great planes. Finally, we will present an effort led by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) that seeks to develop an undergraduate course introducing climate change to tribal college students. Our presentation will also describe how a geoscience research facility, in this case the National Center for Atmospheric Research, can support efforts led by indigenous communities.

  6. Not all semantics: similarities and differences in reminiscing function and content between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember. PMID:24999815

  7. The Mapuche People's Battle for Indigenous Land. Litigation as a Strategy to Defend Indigenous Land Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Skjævestad, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Land is the foundation for the economic sustenance of indigenous peoples and for the continued survival of their cultures. One of the major problems faced by indigenous peoples is the dispossession of their traditional lands and territories. The activities of business interests and economic development projects in indigenous territories – such as forest logging and infrastructure projects - and the environmental implications of such activities, often constitute a great threat to the livelih...

  8. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Stoneham, Melissa J.; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  9. Behavioural defenses of the honey bee ecotype from Sjenica–Pešter against Varroa destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirovi? Zoran Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two behaviours of honey bees, hygienic and grooming, are mechanisms of defense against brood diseases and parasitic mites, including Varroa destructor. Apis mellifera colonies remove the worker brood infested with Varroa destructor mites from the nest (hygienic behaviour, and groom the mites off other adult bees (grooming behaviour. In this study hygienic and grooming behaviours of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype were analysed in 440 honey bee colonies from 11 localities in the region of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski plateau, Podpešterje, Golija Mt. and Rogozna ML At each locality 40 honey bee colonies were investigated: 10 potent colonies with one-year old queen, 10 potent colonies with two-year old queen, 10 medium potent and 10 weak honey bee colonies. Hygienic behaviour was expressed in a range from 95.12% to 99.50% in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old and two-year old queens. Statistically highly significant (p<0.01 differences were registered among the analysed honey bee colonies at the investigated region, in favour of the potent honey bee colonies, compared to the medium potent and weak colonies. Also, statistically highly significant (p<0.01 differences were recorded between potent colonies with one-year old queens and colonies with two-year old queens, in favour of the colonies with one-year old queens. In general, investigated colonies belong to a category of the so called "hygienic colonies", as the efficiency of elimination of damaged pupae amounted to 91.50%. Grooming behaviour of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype potentially exists, but its significance cannot be discussed as, on the whole, investigated colonies showed potential of 34,04%. Our results point to an indisputable relationship between analysed behaviours and the strength of honey bee colonies: hygienic behaviour is more expressed in potent colonies (from 95.12% to 99.50% regardless of queen age; grooming behaviour was expressed only in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old queen at all 11 localities, where the number of damaged mites ranged from 36,05% to 39,61%. The damaged mites were separated into six categories. The most frequent category of damage was damaged legs (53.38% in potent colonies with one-year old queens and 52.02% in potent colonies with two-year old queens. The potent honey bee colonies from the investigated region especially with one-year old queen, could be used for highly selected breeds improving and queens rearing.

  10. Check Out The Chicken Wing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    admin admin

    2011-10-07

    Students will examine a chicken wing to discover the different tissues and organs that make it up. They will relate this to the concept that cells make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems in the organism.

  11. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Alkon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children’s work.

  12. The role of different reproductive barriers during phenotypic divergence of isopod ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice; Hargeby, Anders; Svensson, Erik I

    2011-09-01

    The question of how diverging populations become separate species by restraining gene flow is a central issue in evolutionary biology. Assortative mating might emerge early during adaptive divergence, but the role of other types of reproductive barriers such as migration modification have recently received increased attention. We demonstrate that two recently diverged ecotypes of a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus) have rapidly developed premating isolation, and this isolation barrier has emerged independently and in parallel in two south Swedish lakes. This is consistent with ecological speciation theory, which predicts that reproductive isolation arises as a byproduct of ecological divergence. We also find that in one of these lakes, habitat choice acts as the main barrier to gene flow. These observations and experimental results suggest that migration modification might be as important as assortative mating in the early stages of ecological speciation. Simulations suggest that the joint action of these two isolating barriers is likely to greatly facilitate adaptive divergence, compared to if each barrier was acting alone. PMID:21884061

  13. Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS

  14. Investigation of the effect of phosphogypsum amendment on two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Amal; Chorriba, Amal; Fourati, Amine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2015-06-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock leads to an industrial waste called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid produced. This acidic waste (pH 2.2) is mostly disposed of by dumping into large stockpiles close to fertilizer production units, where they occupy large land areas that can cause serious environmental damages. Several attempts were made to test PG valorization via soil amendment because of its phosphate, sulphate and calcium content. The aim of the this study was to evaluate the potential use of PG as phosphate amendment in soil using two wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Wassilewskija and Colombia) as model plants. Plants were grown in a greenhouse for 30 days, on substrates containing various PG concentrations (0%, 15%, 25%, 40% and 50%). The growth rate and physiological parameters (fresh weight, phosphate and chlorophyll content) were determined. The data revealed that 15% PG did not alter plant survival and leaf's dry weight, and the inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake by plant seemed to be efficient. However, some alterations in Chlorophyll a/Chlorophyll b ratio were noticed. Higher PG concentrations (40 and 50% PG) exhibited an enhanced negative effect on plant growth, survival and Pi uptake. These inhibitory effects of the substrates may be related to the acidity of the medium in addition to its Cd content. PMID:25495660

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from three ecotypes of Zataria multiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomorodian K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zataria multiflora Boiss. is a traditional and popular spice in Iran. The effects of 3 ecotypes (ECTPs of Z. multiflora essential oils (EOs against most common causes of food-borne and nosocomial infections were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the EOs were examined by broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The chemical compositions of the EOs from 3 ECTPs of Z. multiflora have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Analysis of the EOs indicated that 3 chemotypes were present in Z. multiflora, including carvacrol, thymol-carvacrol, and linalool, whereas previous studies have only found carvacrol and thymol. Inhibition studies showed that the tested EOs entirely inhibited the growth of yeasts at concentrations of less than 1 ?L/mL. Moreover, the oils exhibited significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 ?L/mL. Conclusion: These results suggest that the EOs from Z. multiflora should be investigated further for possible use in antimicrobial products and food preservatives.

  16. Fine-scale differentiation between sockeye salmon ecotypes and the effect of phenotype on straying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Quinn, T P; Hilborn, R; Hauser, L

    2008-10-01

    A long-standing goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the factors that drive population divergence, local adaptation and speciation. In particular, the effect of selection against dispersers on gene flow and local adaptation has attracted interest, although empirical data on phenotypic characters of dispersers are scarce. Here, we used genetic and phenotypic data from beach and creek ecotypes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Little Togiak Lake, Alaska, to examine the relationship between gene flow and phenotypic and genetic differentiation. Despite close geographic proximity, both genetic and phenotypic differentiation between beach and creek fish was high and significant in all sampling years, with beach males having deeper bodies than creek males. Strays, or fish that did not return to their natal sites to spawn as determined by genetic assignment, tended to morphologically resemble the fish in the population that they joined. Male strays from beaches to creeks were shallower bodied than other beach fish, and male strays from creeks to beaches were deeper bodied than other creek males. Our results indicated that selection against strays may be moderated by the strays' phenotypic similarity to individuals in the recipient populations, but comparison of assignment results with long-term estimates of gene flow from F(ST) still suggested that strays had low reproductive success. PMID:18594560

  17. Metal phytoremediation by the halophyte Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss: two contrasting ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Eleni; Galanaki, Kosmoula; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of the halophyte Limoniastrum monopetalum for the removal of Cd and Pb from polluted sites is assessed in this work. Two pot experiments were conducted; the first with wild L. monopetalum grown on soil polluted with Cd and Pb irrigated at different salinities, and the second with commonly cultivated ornamental L. monopetalum grown on soil polluted with Cd irrigated also at different salinities. The data revealed that wild L. monopetalum is a Cd and Pb tolerant plant able to accumulate at least 100 ppm of cadmium in its shoots without showing any significant decrease in terms of biomass production, chlorophyll content or water content suggesting that it could be an accumulator of Cd. Pb above-ground accumulation was kept at low levels with the majority of Pb localized in the roots. On the other hand, contrasting results were obtained for ornamental L. monopetalum which although it was found to be also Cd tolerant, Cd accumulation in its tissues was kept at significantly lower levels especially compared to that of the wild ecotype. In addition for ornamental L. monopetalum salinity did not have a positive effect on Cd accumulation and translocation as observed in the wild type and in other halophytes. Analysis of the salt excretion crystals on the leaf surface confirmed that wild and cultivated ornamental L. monopetalum excrete cadmium and lead through their salt glands as a possible metal detoxification mechanism, although the amount excreted by the ornamental L. monopetalum is significantly less. PMID:24933883

  18. Leadership as a Personal Journey: An Indigenous Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher levels of mental illness, self-harm, suicide and substance abuse than non-Indigenous Australians, as well as more frequent contact with the criminal justice system. These indices point to the need for strong leadership to support Close the Gap programmes that have now been implemented across Australia. This article considers leadership as a journey of learning for Australian Indigenous leaders. Through the use of story, it is suggested that a situational leadership approach, incorporating the principles of mindfulness, provides the most appropriate framework for Indigenous leaders who work with Indigenous communities. Flexible approaches are needed to meet the needs of diverse Indigenous populations, and address the complex challenges involved, including lateral violence. Such flexibility will enable Indigenous leaders and communities to work together to achieve improvements in the health outcomes, not only for Indigenous Australians, but also for Indigenous populations worldwide. PMID:26091079

  19. Research on Indigenous Elders: From Positivistic to Decolonizing Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

  20. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  1. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella Serogroups in Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    GONCAGÜL, Gül?en; GÜNAYDIN, Elçin; Carli, K. Tayfun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella serogroups in chicken meat. A total of 315 skins from the wing part of chicken carcasses were collected from 8 chicken carcass retailers. Salmonella isolation was performed as described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual of the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in Serogroup D was isolated from...

  3. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  4. Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Orla B; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mitchell, Peter C; Thurnham, David I

    2005-04-01

    Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group discussion; and sensory assessment under controlled lighting conditions. Initial consumer sensory assessment indicated that wheat-fed chicken was perceived to be tenderer and to have a more intense flavour than that which was corn-fed. Qualitative enquiry discerned that this was because consumers perceived the yellow colour of corn-fed chicken negatively. Yellow-coloured corn-fed chicken was therefore again compared with wheat-fed chicken in terms of flavour, texture and overall liking with the flesh colour disguised by means of controlled lighting. Quality ratings for corn-fed chicken were more positive when the yellow flesh colour was disguised, with corn-fed chicken judged to be tenderer than wheat-fed chicken and more flavoursome. This study illustrates the importance of using a combination of methods to gain insight into interactions between different sensory modalities in consumer quality judgements and adds to previous research on the importance of colour upon consumer choice of real foods. PMID:15808892

  5. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and ?-32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  6. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E S, Swai; M J, Kessy; P N, Sanka; P F, Mtui.

    Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or 'Gumboro disease' seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level i [...] nformation was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90) of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (?2= 16.1, P

  7. Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massino De Marchi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Price, Andrew J.; McElroy, J. Scott; Torbert, H. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 ? mol mol?1) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops. PMID:25309569

  9. Pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis, and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülçin, Ilhami; Topal, Fevzi; Çakmakç?, Ramazan; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet C; Erdogan, Ummugulsum

    2011-05-01

    The raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically important berry crop that contains many phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. In this study, important pomological features, including nutrient content and antioxidant properties, of a domesticated and 3 wild (Yayla, Yavuzlar, and Yedigöl) raspberry fruits were evaluated. Also, the amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs) and quercetin equivalents (QE). The highest phenolic compounds were found in wild Yayla ecotype (26.66 ± 3.26 GAE/mg extract). Whilst, the highest flavonoids were determined in wild Yedigöl ecotype (6.09 ± 1.21 QA/mg extract). The antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were investigated as trolox equivalents using different in vitro assays including DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), DMPD(•+), and O(•-)(2) radical scavenging activities, H(2)O(2) scavenging activity, ferric (Fe(3+)) and cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing abilities, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, ?-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results clearly show that p-coumaric acid is the main phenolic acid responsible for the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits. PMID:22417339

  10. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A; Brewer, Shannon K; Grabowski, Timothy B; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375-780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery. PMID:23873736

  11. Backyard poultry in Kabylie (Algeria): from an indigenous chicken to a local poultry breed?

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Salhi, Abdellah; Iguer Ouada, Mokrane; Leroy, Pascal(*); Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    L’élevage de volailles d’arrière-cour constitue un outil important de lutte contre la pauvreté. Il est en outre promu comme mode de renforcement de la position féminine dans une communauté, sous réserve de l’observation dans les faits du biais de genre classiquement rapporté dans le contrôle de cet élevage. Les systèmes à faible niveau d’intrant concernés sont basés sur des races locales rustiques, adaptées à leur environnement. Néanmoins, des processus socio-économiques mettent sous pression...

  12. Avaliação de germinação e dormência de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho Seed germination and dormancy of red rice ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.L. Schwanke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relativos à germinação e dormência de 16 ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os ecótipos foram estudados e comparados com os cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em condições de casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram realizados durante o ano agrícola 2001/02, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Foram avaliadas em laboratório a biometria e a massa de mil grãos, além de testes de germinação e dormência aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita dos genótipos. Os resultados evidenciaram grande variabilidade nas características morfofisiológicas dos ecótipos estudados. Os ecótipos de arroz-vermelho avaliados, procedentes de lavouras de arroz irrigado do RS e SC, apresentaram alta variabilidade quanto às características das sementes e à intensidade e duração da dormência. Alguns ecótipos avaliados apresentaram sementes com período de dormência maior que 150 dias após a colheita. Os resultados deste trabalho confirmam também que o êxito no manejo do arroz-vermelho em lavouras infestadas depende da recomendação e adoção por parte dos produtores não de medidas isoladas, mas de um grupo de medidas complementares que, quando adotadas conjuntamente, permitem minimizar os problemas com o arroz-vermelho.The objective of this work was to evaluate aspects related to the phenotypic characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The ecotypes were studied and compared to the commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. In the laboratory experiment, seed biometry, 1000 seed-weight and seed germination and dormancy 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after harvesting were evaluated. The red rice ecotypes from the rice fields evaluated showed wide variability in seed characteristics and dormancy intensity and duration. Some ecotypes showed dormancy period above 150 days after harvesting. The results of this study confirm that red rice populations infesting rice fields are quite diverse, and appropriate control of red rice is only achieved when growers adopt not only isolated control measures, but also several management practices to reduce red rice yield losses.

  13. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration and formation of undesirable "warmed over flavour" in chicken meat products are supposed to be the lack of ?-tocopherol in chicken meat. PMID:25049846

  14. Zoonotic Chicken Toxoplasmosis in Some Egyptians Governorates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Kotb El-Mahllawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR (69.5% than commercial farm Chickens (C (68.5%; while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  15. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Thai Inheritance Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarin Pripwai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance chickens are important in the developing countries, because of their meat quality. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic background of Baetong, Black-boned, and Praduhangdum chickens. 30 chickens each and 4 replications of the chicken breeds were reared for 14 weeks. 10 chickens of each replication were sampled and analyzed, including carcass characteristics and meat quality as well as Shear’s value, water holding capacity, and color of their meat. No different marketable weight and hot carcass weight was found (P>0.05. Baetong chickens were lower hot carcass yield than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Conversely, Baetong chickens were higher structural frame than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens were edible portion, and wing yield than Baetong chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Baetong chickens have more leg yield than Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. While, Praduhangdum chickens have more breast yield than the other chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more Shear’s force and Shear’s energy than Baetong breast meat and Praduhangdum breast meat (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat and skin was darken than Baetong and Praduhangdum breast meat and skin (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more drip losses than the others (P<0.05, while being lower cooking losses than the others (P<0.05. At the typical marketable weight, Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens have better meat quality compared with the carcass from Baetong chickens.

  16. The EU, the Arctic and Arctic indigenous peoples : a proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpa, Federica

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates EU policies and legislations towards indigenous peoples of the Arctic. EU’s commitment to indigenous peoples has developed since 1997, when the issue was ?rs inserted into the EU’s Agenda. As a result, the EU now tries to integrate the issues of indigenous peoples into all aspects of its external relations, while actively supporting implementation of the 2007 UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples through the UN framework. Moreover, ...

  17. Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Santos H. Alvarado Dzul; Francisco J. Rosado-May; Susanne Kissmann; Gemma Burford; Marie K Harder

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenou...

  18. Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Y. Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available digenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

  19. Homestead Creator : a tool for indigenous designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2012-01-01

    The article presents in-situ findings of introducing a tablet prototype, with touch interaction and 3D graphical visualizations, to empower knowledgeable village elders in Namibia to locally re-create a 3D graphical context for previously recorded video clips of indigenous practices and narratives. Findings indicate that tablets enable those indigenous users to partake in design sessions more equally than with laptops and other input devices. Through a GUI design example we illuminate the unique opportunities and challenges in designing in the space where cultures meet.

  20. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  1. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  2. Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

  3. Partnership for Improving Outcomes in Indigenous Education: Relationship or Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Rhea, Zane

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Australian government's Indigenous policy by interrogating the concept of partnership between governments and Indigenous communities through three examples. Increasingly, the Australian federal government is focusing attention on the poor literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous children in remote and very remote…

  4. Cinders in Snow? Indigenous Teacher Identities in Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jo-Anne; Santoro, Ninetta

    2006-01-01

    The identity work engaged in by Indigenous teachers in school settings is highlighted in a study of Australian Indigenous teachers. The construction of identity in home and community relationships intersects with and can counteract the take up of a preferred identity in the workplace. In this paper we analyse data from interviews with Indigenous

  5. Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

    2013-01-01

    Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

  6. Situating Indigenous Student Mobility within the Global Education Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Sarah; Hill, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, as in other global contexts, Indigenous student education outcomes are well below those of their non-Indigenous counterparts. A more robust understanding of, and responsiveness to, Indigenous temporary mobilities is a critical step to redressing such educational inequalities. This paper draws together learnings from the papers in…

  7. Indigenous Rights and the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gunstone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.

  8. Empowering Identity Reconstruction of Indigenous College Students through Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity…

  9. Nontargeted biomonitoring of halogenated organic compounds in two ecotypes of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southern California Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Nellie J; Dodder, Nathan G; Aluwihare, Lihini I; Mackintosh, Susan A; Maruya, Keith A; Chivers, Susan J; Danil, Kerri; Weller, David W; Hoh, Eunha

    2015-02-01

    Targeted environmental monitoring reveals contamination by known chemicals, but may exclude potentially pervasive but unknown compounds. Marine mammals are sentinels of persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. Using nontargeted analysis, we constructed a mass spectral library of 327 persistent and bioaccumulative compounds identified in blubber from two ecotypes of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled in the Southern California Bight. This library of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) consisted of 180 anthropogenic contaminants, 41 natural products, 4 with mixed sources, 8 with unknown sources, and 94 with partial structural characterization and unknown sources. The abundance of compounds whose structures could not be fully elucidated highlights the prevalence of undiscovered HOCs accumulating in marine food webs. Eighty-six percent of the identified compounds are not currently monitored, including 133 known anthropogenic chemicals. Compounds related to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were the most abundant. Natural products were, in some cases, detected at abundances similar to anthropogenic compounds. The profile of naturally occurring HOCs differed between ecotypes, suggesting more abundant offshore sources of these compounds. This nontargeted analytical framework provided a comprehensive list of HOCs that may be characteristic of the region, and its application within monitoring surveys may suggest new chemicals for evaluation. PMID:25526519

  10. Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil / Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A., Noldin; J.M., Chandler; G.N., McCauley.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dific [...] ultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX). Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis ( Abstract in english Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US [...] states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (

  11. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  12. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  13. Indigenous Australian Artworks in Intercultural Contact Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Eleanore Wildurger

    2009-01-01

    This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998), by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my arg ument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I wil l argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural und erstanding and competence.

  14. Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Indigenous Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chung-hsu; Huang, Chun-kai; Chin, Chuen; Yang, Ya-ting; Lin, Hsiu-fang; Lin, Hsi-hsun

    2007-01-01

    We report the first indigenous case of disseminated histoplasmosis in Taiwan diagnosed by histopathology of bone marrow, microbiologic morphology, and PCR assay of the isolated fungus. This case suggests that histoplasmosis should be 1 of the differential diagnoses of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients in Taiwan.

  16. Indigenous Ways--Fruits of Our Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Itamar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the human-nature relationship is recognized as a major field of interest and a platform of ideas linked with it is explored. A "new" source to inform an alternative paradigm for outdoor education is proposed; it is millennia old, has roots all over the globe and is a living, breathing, and evolving tradition--indigenous ways. While…

  17. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  18. Stable isotopes reveal ecotypic variation of water uptake patterns in Aleppo pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Regina; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) has a large natural distribution range that encompasses a multitude of thermal and moisture conditions found in the Mediterranean basin. We hypothesized that due to the recurrent incidences of drought stress and high temperatures that occur at varying degrees along its distribution range, populations of Aleppo pine have undergone ecotypic differentiation in soil water uptake patterns. This study analyzed stable isotopic compositions (?18O and ?2H) of xylem water to identify adaptive divergence associated to the pattern of soil water consumption by roots of Aleppo pine populations originating from the Mediterranean region. The results from this study show that genetic diversity in the extraction pattern of soil water can be found among populations and ecological regions of Aleppo pine under common garden conditions. However, the ability to detect such differences depended on the period of the year examined. In particular, data collection in full summer (end of July) proved to be the most adequate in revealing genetic divergence among populations, while end of spring and, to a lesser extent, end of summer, were less successful for this purpose. Both water uptake patterns (as estimated by ?18O and ?2H) and above-ground growth, exhibited significant relationships with both climatic and geographical variables. This suggests that the underlying variation among populations can be explained by certain characteristics at origin. In addition, we used a bayesian mixing model (SIAR package for R) that incorporated isotopic signatures from xylem and soil water in order to determine the predominant soil layer of water source consumption at the aforementioned periods of the growing season, where water availably ranged from lowest to highest. This allowed us to gain some understanding of Aleppo pines' differential reaction to drought, at the intraspecific level, across the fluctuating conditions of the growing season by comparing the relative contribution of each water source. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the Spanish project FENOPIN (AGL 2012-40151-C03). J.P.F. has been supported by the Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MCINN, Spain) and a Marie Curie Reintegration Grant (MC-ERG-246725, FP7, EU). We acknowledge M. Lucà and P. Sopeña for field and technical assistance.

  19. Geographic Distribution of Isolated Indigenous Societies in Amazonia and the Efficacy of Indigenous Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world’s last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples. PMID:25970612

  20. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Thai Inheritance Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Nakarin Pripwai; Wiwat Pattanawong; Montri Punyatong; Tawatchai Teltathum

    2014-01-01

    Inheritance chickens are important in the developing countries, because of their meat quality. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic background of Baetong, Black-boned, and Praduhangdum chickens. 30 chickens each and 4 replications of the chicken breeds were reared for 14 weeks. 10 chickens of each replication were sampled and analyzed, including carcass characteristics and meat quality as well as Shear’s value, water holding capacity, and color of their meat....

  1. PHYTOTOXICITY AND FIELD EFFICACY OF EXSEROHILUM LONGIROSTRA JC/MIN THE CONTROL OF BARNYARDGRASS ECOTYPES (ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI VAR. CRUS-GALLI(L. BEAUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAIMI NAPIS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Five selected ecotypes of bamyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-gatti from several rice growing areas in Malaysia and Indonesia were tested for their susceptibility to the potentia l bioherbicide (Exserohilum longirostratum. Bamyardgrass seedlings at the 2-3-lcaf stage were treated with 2.5xl07 conidia/ml from E. longirostratum at different application frequencies (single, double and triple. In addition, aqueous extract assays were ev aluated for the presence of a phytotoxic compound responsible for the virulence of the bioherbicide. Results of the study showed that disease severity significantly increased 20 days after treatment and resulted in mortality of the seedlin gs. Ecotypes from Perak and Lampung were most susceptible to the bioherbicide upon triple applications. Percentage dry weight reductions were 86.34 and 83.14%, respectively. Other ecotypes (Melaka, Banten and South Sulawesi were observed to have a relatively similar response. Moreover, aqueous extracts of E. longirostratum increased mortality up to 92.50% of bamyardgrass seedlings. These findings suggest that regular (double and triple applications of E. longirostratum at a concentration of 2.5xl07 conidia/ml significantly increased mortality among bamyardgrass ecotypes. Mortality of the seedlings was attributed to the presence of a secondary phytotoxic metabolite.

  2. Cadmium sorption, influx, and efflux at the mesophyll layer of leaves from ecotypes of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbs, S.D.; Zambrano, M.C.; Spiller, S.M.; Newville, M. (SIU); (UC)

    2009-01-23

    Differential sorption and transport characteristics of the leaf mesophyll layer of the Prayon and Ganges ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens were examined. {sup 109}Cd influx and efflux experiments were conducted with leaf sections, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data were collected from leaves as a general comparison of in vivo cadmium (Cd) coordination. There were modest differences in cell wall sorption of Cd between ecotypes. There were obvious differences in time- and concentration-dependent Cd influx, including a greater V{sub MAX} for Prayon but a lower K{sub M} for Ganges for concentration-dependent Cd uptake and a notably greater Cd uptake by Ganges leaf sections at 1000 {micro}m Cd. Leaf sections of Prayon had a greater Cd efflux than Ganges. The XANES spectra from the two ecotypes suggested differences in Cd coordination. The fundamental differences observed between the two ecotypes may reflect differential activity and/or expression of plasma membrane and tonoplast transporters. More detailed study of these transporters and the in vivo coordination of Cd are needed to determine the contribution of these processes to metal homeostasis and tolerance.

  3. Cadmium sorption, influx, and efflux at the mesophyll layer of leaves from ecotypes of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D; Zambrano, M Clemencia; Spiller, Shawna M; Newville, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Differential sorption and transport characteristics of the leaf mesophyll layer of the Prayon and Ganges ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens were examined. (109)Cd influx and efflux experiments were conducted with leaf sections, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data were collected from leaves as a general comparison of in vivo cadmium (Cd) coordination. There were modest differences in cell wall sorption of Cd between ecotypes. There were obvious differences in time- and concentration-dependent Cd influx, including a greater V(MAX) for Prayon but a lower K(M) for Ganges for concentration-dependent Cd uptake and a notably greater Cd uptake by Ganges leaf sections at 1000 microm Cd. Leaf sections of Prayon had a greater Cd efflux than Ganges. The XANES spectra from the two ecotypes suggested differences in Cd coordination. The fundamental differences observed between the two ecotypes may reflect differential activity and/or expression of plasma membrane and tonoplast transporters. More detailed study of these transporters and the in vivo coordination of Cd are needed to determine the contribution of these processes to metal homeostasis and tolerance. PMID:19054336

  4. A brief history of indigenous health in brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neyrian de Fátima Fernandes, Arieli Rodrigues Nóbrega, Rosinaldo Santos Marques, Ana Michele de Farias Cabral, Clélia Albino Simpson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide a brief history context on the indigenous struggle for rights. It was at its peak in the 1970s, until the Indigenous Health Subsystem implementation in 1999. Method: it is a bibliographic review research made through BIREME and Scielo databases, including documents and publications of FUNASA, FUNAI, and the Brazilian legislation on indigenous, from 1970s to 2000s using the term: indigenous health. Results: after a myriad of movements that fought for indigenous rights recognition, the Indian Statute was sanctioned in 1973 regulating the indigenous issues in Brazil. Thereafter the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 it took a new direction, recognizing the right for cultural and social diversity, among others. Conclusion: the indigenous people integration to the health systems happened, and is still happening, according to the SUS purpose of reduce health inequalities among the whole population.

  5. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, N M; Warren, J; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M; Harley, R; Venugopal, S; Thorpe, K; Neville, R; Bolt, R

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for the future. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project involving experts in the higher education, library, and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a cult...

  6. Elevated expression of TcHMA3 plays a key role in the extreme Cd tolerance in a Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype of Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Daisei; Milner, Matthew J; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Koyama, Emi; Clemencia Zambrano, M; Kaskie, Molly; Ebbs, Stephen; Kochian, Leon V; Ma, Jian Feng

    2011-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal for plants, but several unique Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species are able to accumulate this metal to extraordinary concentrations in the aboveground tissues without showing any toxic symptoms. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this hypertolerance to Cd are poorly understood. Here we have isolated and functionally characterized an allelic gene, TcHMA3 (heavy metal ATPase 3) from two ecotypes (Ganges and Prayon) of Thlaspi caerulescens contrasting in Cd accumulation and tolerance. The TcHMA3 alleles from the higher (Ganges) and lower Cd-accumulating ecotype (Prayon) share 97.8% identity, and encode a P(1B)-type ATPase. There were no differences in the expression pattern, cell-specificity of protein localization and transport substrate-specificity of TcHMA3 between the two ecotypes. Both alleles were characterized by constitutive expression in the shoot and root, a tonoplast localization of the protein in all leaf cells and specific transport activity for Cd. The only difference between the two ecotypes was the expression level of TcHMA3: Ganges showed a sevenfold higher expression than Prayon, partly caused by a higher copy number. Furthermore, the expression level and localization of TcHMA3 were different from AtHMA3 expression in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of TcHMA3 in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance to Cd and slightly increased tolerance to Zn, but did not change Co or Pb tolerance. These results indicate that TcHMA3 is a tonoplast-localized transporter highly specific for Cd, which is responsible for sequestration of Cd into the leaf vacuoles, and that a higher expression of this gene is required for Cd hypertolerance in the Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype of T. caerulescens. PMID:21457363

  7. Expression of the AtSUC1 gene in the female gametophyte, and ecotype-specific expression differences in male reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, A; Niedermeier, M; Bauer, K; Engelmann, S; Hoth, S; Stadler, R; Sauer, N

    2010-09-01

    Based on analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype C24, the AtSUC1 protein was previously characterised as a male gametophyte-specific H(+)/sucrose symporter. Later, expression analyses in ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) identified AtSUC1 expression also in trichomes (not detected in trichome-less C24 plants) and roots, suggesting ecotype-specific differences in AtSUC1 expression. Here, we present data on additional ecotype-specific differences in AtSUC1 expression in other tissues. Using different AtSUC1 promoter-reporter gene lines, we performed comparative analyses of AtSUC1 expression in floral tissues of C24 and Col-0 plants, and using an AtSUC1-specific antiserum, we performed immunohistochemical analyses on tissue sections from C24, Col-0, Landsberg erecta (Ler) and Wassilewskaija (Ws) ecotypes. We show that AtSUC1 expression occurs in the funicular epidermis of C24, Ler and Ws, but not in Col-0. In contrast, we observed high levels of AtSUC1 protein in pollen grains of Col-0, lower levels in pollen of C24 and Ler, and no AtSUC1 protein in Ws pollen. Moreover, our reporter gene analyses identified a previously undetected expression of AtSUC1 in the female gametophyte, and revealed that AtSUC1 expression in the funicular epidermis is absent from unpollinated siliques and is induced upon successful pollination. The impact of these findings on the potential physiological role of AtSUC1 is discussed. PMID:20712626

  8. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

  9. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K M; Neogy, P K; Islam, M; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro strain were more likely to develop C. jejuni-induced diarrhea than were White Leghorn chickens. Diarrhea was defined on the basis of amounts of gut fluid in 288 chicks fed with live C. jejuni versu...

  10. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

    2004-04-01

    Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

  11. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining an historical overview and first-hand account of the indigenous involvement with the UN with an analysis of global indigenous identity as a relativist and constructed term rather than a positivist definitional concept, Dahl addresses how indigenous peoples have implemented the UN achievements at home.

  12. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  13. Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

  14. Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Andersen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.  

  15. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  16. Are Supernovae Recorded in Indigenous Astronomical Traditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.

  17. LIBRARIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Civallero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews experiences on library services to indigenous people developed in Latin America, from Argentina to Mexico. It provides a brief introduction to the reality of native communities all around the continent, and points out the outstanding projects on this issue. Since native populations are subjected to serious problems -such as discrimination, social exclusion, diseases, unemployment, loss of identity, endangered languages and cultural pressure-it argues that libraries can become an option to the recovery of culture and a way to guarantee the egalitarian access to strategic information, a resource that is vital for a balanced development and progress.KEYWORDS: Indigenous People; Latin America-Libraries; Latin America-Culture

  18. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds r...

  19. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  20. The evolution of indigenous contractors in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Laryea, Samuel Amartei

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides some preliminary insights into the emergence and development of indigenous general contractors in Ghana. General contracting is the means by which an individual or organisation takes responsibility for supplying all of the materials, labour, equipment and services necessary for the construction of a project. Whereas the development of general contracting in places like the UK is well documented, the evolution of contractors in Ghana is not clearly articulated in the litera...

  1. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  2. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  3. A compatible interaction of Alternaria brassicicola with Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype DiG: evidence for a specific transcriptional signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gepstein Shimon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction of Arabidopsis with Alternaria brassicicola provides a model for disease caused by necrotrophs, but a drawback has been the lack of a compatible pathosystem. Infection of most ecotypes, including the widely-studied line Col-0, with this pathogen generally leads to a lesion that does not expand beyond the inoculated area. This study examines an ecotype, Dijon G (DiG, which is considered sensitive to A. brassicicola. Results We show that the interaction has the characteristics of a compatible one, with expanding rather than limited lesions. To ask whether DiG is merely more sensitive to the pathogen or, rather, interacts in distinct manner, we identified genes whose regulation differs between Col-0 and DiG challenged with A. brassicicola. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes, and their expression was verified using semi-quantitative PCR. We also tested a set of known defense-related genes for differential regulation in the two plant-pathogen interactions. Several known pathogenesis-related (PR genes are up-regulated in both interactions. PR1, and a monooxygenase gene identified in this study, MO1, are preferentially up-regulated in the compatible interaction. In contrast, GLIP1, which encodes a secreted lipase, and DIOX1, a pathogen-response related dioxygenase, are preferentially up-regulated in the incompatible interaction. Conclusion The results show that DiG is not only more susceptible, but demonstrate that its interaction with A. brassicicola has a specific transcriptional signature.

  4. India's first indigenously developed helium liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first indigenous development of helium liquefier at Cryo-engineering and Cryo-module Development Section at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. This system is based on reciprocating type expansion engine and uses cross counter flow type heat exchangers, based on high finned density copper tubes. The cyclic compressor is a four stage air cooled reciprocating type compressor. Its oil removal system is also designed and developed indigenously. Helium gas from commercial cylinders, as well as that recovered from user experiments, is used for liquefying, after passing it through a liquid nitrogen based gas purifier, made locally. First successful liquefaction in this system was achieved on August 14, 2010 at 4.35 K, 1140 mbara, approx. 2.5 psig. This was for the first time in the country using a indigenously developed system. More than 150 liters of liquid helium was collected during its maiden trial itself, while operating for more than 25 hours continuously. Details of the liquefier system and the performance of different components are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Quigley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

  6. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  7. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  8. Contrasting Colonist and Indigenous Impacts on Amazonian Forests

    OpenAIRE

    LU, FLORA; GRAY, CLARK; BILSBORROW, RICHARD E.; MENA, CARLOS F.; ERLIEN, CHRISTINE M.; BREMNER, JASON; Barbieri, Alisson; WALSH, STEPHEN J.

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist ...

  9. Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, A.; R.N. Goswami; Zaman, G.; R.B. Kayastha

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was ...

  10. Multinational companies and indigenous development : an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Go?rg, Holger; Strobl, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of the effect of foreign multinational companies on the development of indigenous firms in the host country, using data for the Irish manufacturing sector. Our starting point is a recent paper by Markusen and Venables (1999) that shows formally that multinationals, through the creation of linkages with indigenous suppliers, can exert positive effects on the development of indigenous firms. Based on the literature on entry in industrial organisation theor...

  11. Indigenous Territories and REDD in Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chris van Dam

    2011-01-01

    An important proportion of Latin America’s forests are located in indigenous territories, and indigenous peoples are the beneficiaries of about 85% of the area for which local rights to land and forest have been recognized in Latin America since the 1980s. Nevertheless, many of these areas, whether or not rights have been recognized, are subject to threats from colonists, illegal loggers, mining and oil interests and others, whose practices endanger not only the forests but also indigenous ...

  12. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  13. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  14. Isolation of chicken astrovirus from specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Luis Fabian N; Parra, Silvana H Santander; Mettifogo, Elena; Catroxo, Márcia Helena B; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2015-05-01

    Astroviruses have been associated with enteric disorders in many animal species, including chickens. Here, we describe the isolation, propagation, and pathological characteristics of chicken astrovirus (CAstV) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) from chickens with diarrhea and runting-stunting syndrome. The CEE were inoculated via the yolk sac route. Viral confirmation was carried out using PCR techniques and transmission electron microscopy negative staining with ammonium molybdate. The intestinal contents were screened for CAstV, and differential diagnostic testing was performed for avian nephritis virus, avian rotavirus, avian reovirus, chicken parvovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and fowl adenovirus Group I to detect co-infection with other infectious agents. Seven- or 14-day-old CEEs presented with hemorrhages, edema, a gelatinous aspect, deformities, and dwarfism. The supporting membranes did not show any alterations. Here, we have described the isolation of CAstV and its pathological characteristics in SPF CEE. PMID:25805833

  15. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    OpenAIRE

    Gwynn Josephine D; Flood Victoria M; D'Este Catherine A; Attia John R; Turner Nicole; Cochrane Janine; Louie Jimmy; Wiggers John H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (...

  16. REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

  17. Combining abilities of growth traits among pure and crossbred meat type chickens / Posibilidades de combinación de las características de crecimiento entre pollos para carne puros y cruzados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.O., Adebambo; C.O.N., Ikeobi; M.O., Ozoje; O.O., Oduguwa; A., Adebambo Olufunmilayo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco mil ciento diecinueve pollos fueron obtenidos, en un programa de mejora de pollos de engorde, a partir de una combinación dialélica de cuatro razas: Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) y Normal indígena (N). Los pollos fueron criados a 12 semanas en las que se registraron los datos sobre p [...] eso corporal por semana (BW), circunferencia del pecho (BG) y longitud de la tibia (TL). El genotipo de machos y hembras afectó significativamente (p Abstract in english Five thousand one hundred and nineteen chicks were obtained from a diallel combination of four breeds of chickens; (Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) and Normal indigenous (N) chickens) in a broiler improvement program. The chicks were reared to 12 weeks in which data on weekly body weight (BW [...] ), breast girth (BG) and tibia length (TL) were recorded. Sire and dam genotype significantly (p

  18. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  19. Domestication effects on foraging behaviour : consequences for adaptability in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to study domestication effects on foraging behaviour in chickens and to investigate whether and how domestication and selection for high production have influenced adaptability in chickens. Two domestic strains of chickens (egg layers and meat type chickens) and their wild ancestor, the red jungle fowl (RJF) were compared in different test situations with respect to foraging behaviour and adaptability. The domestic strains showed a modified foraging strategy, w...

  20. A study of head and neck cancer treatment and survival among indigenous and non-indigenous people in Queensland, Australia, 1998 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey Gail; Green Adèle C; Moore Suzanne P; Coory Michael D; Valery Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overall, Indigenous Australians with cancer are diagnosed with more advanced disease, receive less cancer treatment and have poorer cancer survival than non-Indigenous Australians. The prognosis for Indigenous people with specific cancers varies however, and their prognosis for cancers of the head and neck is largely unknown. We therefore have compared clinical characteristics, treatment and survival between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people diagnosed with head and neck...

  1. Interactions Between "Indigenous" and "Colonial" Astronomies: Adaptation of Indigenous Astronomies in the Modern World

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    In this chapter, we discuss the methodological aspects of cultural astronomy in the context of the interactions between indigenous groups and colonial powers. We seek to show the importance of relationships and flows in order to understand the production of sky's representations and practices in these contexts.

  2. Application of Chicken Feathers inTechnical Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHINTA S.K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The nonwoven is manufactured by using chicken feathers which are available at very low cost, so the end product too. The advantage is that there is a wide range of application of chicken feathers in textile field. The nonwoven which is prepared by chicken feather has very versatile and a wide application in the field of technical textiles.

  3. / Maximum bite force in elderly indigenous and non-indigenous denture wearers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Borie; Iara A, Orsi; Ramón, Fuentes; Víctor, Beltrán; Pablo, Navarro; Felipe, Pareja; Lariça B, Raimundo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar las medidas de fuerza maxima de mordida (MBF) en pacientes desdentados adultos mayores indigenas (Mapuches) y no indigenas, en el momento de recibir sus protesis totales y un mes posterior a la insercion. Una muestra de 100 sujetos adultos mayores fue dividid [...] a en dos grupos: 50 indigenas y 50 no indigenas, cada uno de ellos con 25 pacientes de sexo femenino y 25 masculino. Todos los individuos estudiados eran completamente edentulos, quienes recibieron protesis removibles totales nuevas tanto superior como inferior. Las medidas fueron realizadas en el momento de la insercion de ambas protesis y posterior a un mes de uso. Se les solicito a los sujetos que realizaran un esfuerzo maximo con tres mordidas por lado en maxima intercuspidacion, con un tiempo de descanso de 2 minutos entre cada medicion. El analisis estadistico fue realizado por medio del test t-Student's. Los valores de fuerza maxima observados en los sujetos indigenas fueron significativamente mayores que en los individuos no indigenas. Ademas, los valores de fuerza posterior al mes de uso de la protesis nueva fueron significativamente mas altos que los obtenidos al momento de la insercion de la protesis. Por otro lado, no se identificaron diferencias significativas en los valores entre los lados izquierdo y derecho. Asi, los pacientes indigenas mostraron valores mayores de fuerza masticatoria maxima. Tambien, se pudo observar que los pacientes sufrieron un proceso de adaptacion a las protesis nuevas, en los cuales la fuerza maxima masticatoria posterior a un mes aumento considerablemente. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the measures of maximum bite force (MBF) in elderly edentulous indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous individuals with new complete dentures at two different measuring times. A sample of 100 elderly subjects was divided into two groups: 50 indigenous and 50 non- [...] indigenous, each including 25 females and 25 males. All individuals were totally edentulous, with new maxillary and mandibular removable complete dentures. Measurements were taken at the time of new prosthesis placement and after 1 month of use. Subjects were asked to perform with maximum effort three bites per side at maximum intercuspidation, with a rest time of 2 minutes in between. Statistics were analyzed with Student 's t-test. The MBF values were significantly higher in indigenous than non-indigenous subjects. Force after 1 month of wearing the new prosthesis was significantly higher than at the time of new prosthesis placement. No significant difference was found between sides. Elderly indigenous complete denture wearers had the greatest MBF values. Denture wearers were observed to undergo an adaptation process to the new prosthesis, with MBF increasing considerably after one month of use.

  4. Deep Sequencing of Chicken microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Grace

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of new, deep sequencing technologies has greatly accelerated microRNA discovery. We have applied this approach to the identification of chicken microRNAs and to the comparison of microRNAs in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV to those present in uninfected CEF. Results We obtained 125,463 high quality reads that showed an exact match to the chicken genome. The majority of the reads corresponded to previously annotated chicken microRNAs; however, the sequences of many potential novel microsRNAs were obtained. A comparison of the reads obtained in MDV-infected and uninfected CEF indicates that infection does not significantly perturb the expression profile of microRNAs. Frequently sequenced microRNAs include miR-221/222, which are thought to play a role in growth and proliferation. A number of microRNAs (e.g., let-7, miR-199a-1, 26a are expressed at lower levels in MDV-induced tumors, highlighting the potential importance of this class of molecules in tumorigenesis. Conclusion Deep sequencing technology is highly suited for small RNA discovery. This approach is independent of comparative sequence analysis, which has been the primary method used to identify chicken microRNAs. Our results have confirmed the expression of many microRNAs identified by sequence similarity and identified a pool of candidate novel microRNAs.

  5. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameka, Amber M; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-10-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macrophages within the spleen and lungs of chickens up to 4 d post-treatment. This finding suggests that, in order to obtain depletion of macrophages in chickens for greater than 5 d, it is necessary to administer clodronate liposomes 4 d apart. The study also showed that 2 treatments of clodronate liposomes at 4-day intervals resulted in the depletion of macrophages for up to 10 d. The findings of the present study will encourage more precise studies to be done on the potential roles of macrophages in immune responses and in the pathogenesis of microbial infections in chickens. PMID:25355996

  6. Create a new vision for indigenous development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

  7. Effects of Hypoxia on Activities of GPx, GSR and GST in Tibet Chicken and Silky Chicken Hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J. Y.; Bao, H. G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether differences exist in activities of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione Reductase (GSR) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) in hearts between Tibet chicken and a lowland chicken breed (Silky chicken). At the end of 5 days of age, 24 chicklings of each breed were divided into 3 groups treated with three different oxygen concentrations, respectively for 20 h. Activities of the three enzymes in chicken hearts were determined spectrophotometric...

  8. Effects of Hypoxia on Activities of GPx, GSR and GST in Tibet Chicken and Silky Chicken Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y. Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate whether differences exist in activities of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Glutathione Reductase (GSR and Glutathione S-transferase (GST in hearts between Tibet chicken and a lowland chicken breed (Silky chicken. At the end of 5 days of age, 24 chicklings of each breed were divided into 3 groups treated with three different oxygen concentrations, respectively for 20 h. Activities of the three enzymes in chicken hearts were determined spectrophotometrically.

  9. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  10. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

  11. Methodological Metissage: An Interpretive Indigenous Approach to Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan-Trudeau, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…

  12. Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism--Theory, Research, Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Wyman, Leisy T.

    2009-01-01

    In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to…

  13. Uranium mining and indigenous social impact issues - Kakadu Region, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on indigenous social impact issues in the Kakadu/Alligators Rivers region of Australia. It briefly outlines the social history of the region, reflects on local, national and international attention being given to the impact of regional development on local indigenous (bininj) people, notes how social impact issues are being addressed and suggests some lessons learnt. (author)

  14. Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavino, Hayley Marama

    2013-01-01

    This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

  15. Pathways for Indigenous Education in the Australian Curriculum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on pathways for Indigenous education in the developing agenda of the Australian Curriculum, the cross-curriculum priorities, the general capability area of intercultural understanding, and the positioning of Indigenous learners within the diversity of learners with English as an additional language or dialect (EALD).

  16. Stories from the Sky: Astronomy in Indigenous Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australian practices, developed and honed over thousands of years, weave science with storytelling. In this Indigenous science series, we'll look at different aspects of First Australians' traditional life and uncover the knowledge behind them - starting today with astronomy.

  17. Closing the Gap: Using Graduate Attributes to Improve Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J.; Atkinson, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Peter J. Anderson and Bernadette Atkinson teach Indigenous and Traditionally Education in a Global World as a fourth year unit in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. This paper is a self reflective piece of work where they discuss the use of graduate attributes relating to Indigenous Education, put forward by the Australian…

  18. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

  19. Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha / Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro, López; Danielle dos Santos Tavares, Pereira.

    Full Text Available A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L.) predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1) as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por [...] isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill), em diferentes meios; 2) as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3) as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT) foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após), ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após), coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI. Abstract in english The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.) predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1) the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pec [...] tinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill), in different media; 2) the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3) the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT) were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours), or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours), staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

  20. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  1. Aetheroleum and fat oxidation of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tká?ová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 The quality of meat changges during storage. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens COBB 500. Chickens were fed by feed mixture with   aetheroleum. Premix of aetheroleum  contained  aetheroleum from Origanum vulgare L. (30 g, Thymus vulgaris L. (10 g and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (10 g. The carcass was stored at -18 °C in a freezer box. Acid number of fat in chicken meat was ranged from 4.74 to 14.57 mg KOH/g fat after 9 months and after 12 months was ranged from 5.75 to 9.11 mg KOH/g fat.doi:10.5219/267   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

  3. Minority aspirations and the revival of indigenous peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Varennes, Fernand

    1996-07-01

    The growing world-wide sensitivity to the aspirations of indigenous peoples is to be welcomed. However, there is still a tendency which should be avoided: to lump the claims of indigenous peoples with those of minorities. Indigenous peoples are the heirs of long-established political, social and cultural communities which have been oppressed for centuries or victimized by policies of genocide or forced assimilation into the approved language and religion of the dominating community. These forms of destruction can only be truly ended by returning to indigenous peoples a degree of autonomy which will ensure that they have real control over their future. Indigenous peoples should be able to create institutions, including schools, where their languages, religions and cultures are permitted to flourish without interference.

  4. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  5. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  6. Specificity of chicken and mammalian transferrins in myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken transferrins isolated from eggs, embryo extract, serum or ischiatic-peroneal nerves are able to stimulate incorporation of (3H)thymidine, and promote myogenesis by primary chicken muscles cells in vitro. Mammalian transferrins (bovine, rat, mouse, horse, rabbit, and human) do not promote (3H)thymidine incorporation or myotube development. Comparison of the peptide fragments obtained after chemical or limited proteolytic cleavage demonstrates that the four chicken transferrins are all indistinguishable, but they differ considerably from the mammalian transferrins. The structural differences between chicken and mammalian transferrins probably account for the inability of mammalian transferrins to act as mitogens for, and to support myogenesis of, primary chicken muscle cells. (author)

  7. Nuclear fuel fabrication - developing indigenous capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early 70's for production of fuel for PHWRs and BWRs in India, has made several improvements in different areas of fuel manufacturing. Starting with wire-wrap type of fuel bundles, NFC had switched over to split spacer type fuel bundle production in mid 80's. On the upstream side slurry extraction was introduced to prepare the pure uranyl nitrate solution directly from the MDU cake. Applying a thin layer of graphite to the inside of the tube was another modification. The Complex has developed cost effective and innovative techniques for these processes, especially for resistance welding of appendages on the fuel elements which has been a unique feature of the Indian PHWR fuel assemblies. Initially, the fuel fabrication plants were set-up with imported process equipment for most of the pelletisation and assembly operations. Gradually with design and development of indigenous equipment both for production and quality control, NFC has demonstrated total self reliance in fuel production by getting these special purpose machines manufactured indigenously. With the expertise gained in different areas of process development and equipment manufacturing, today NFC is in a position to offer know-how and process equipment at very attractive prices. The paper discusses some of the new processes that are developed/introduced in this field and describes different features of a few PLC based automatic equipment developed. Salient features of innovative techniques being adopted in the area Of UO2 powder production are also briefly indicated. (author)

  8. Indigenous Astronomies and Progress in Modern Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2010-01-01

    From an anthropological point of view, the whole concept of a "path of progress" in astronomical discovery is anathema, since it implicitly downgrades other cultural perspectives, such as the many "indigenous cosmologies" that still exist in the modern world. By doing so, one risks provoking those who hold them and-as is most obvious in places such as Hawaii where the two "world-views" come into direct contact-reating avoidable resistance to that very progress. The problem is complicated by the existence of "fringe" and "new-age" views that are increasingly confused with, and even passed off as, indigenous perceptions. In a modern world where widespread public perceptions include many that are unscientific in the broadest sense of the term, I shall argue that there are actually a range of positive benefits for progress in scientific astronomy to be derived from the mutual awareness and comprehension of "genuine" cultural world-views whose goals-in common with those of modern science-are to make sense of the c...

  9. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility. PMID:25241484

  10. Development of Database for Indigenous Indonesian Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyanti Oetari

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to create and develop a database of indigenous Indonesian microorganisms based at the University of Indonesia. Development of the database of indigenous Indonesian microorganisms was carried out in several stages, i.e. data identification, database design, programming, data entry, testing and debugging, and repairing and maintenance. Development of the database utilized the licensed software of General Public License (GPL, which include Linux RedHat 9.0 (operating system, Apache ver. 2.20 (web server, MySQL ver. 4.2 (database server, and PHP ver. 4.3 (web interface programming language. The result of this research is a database named UI Bioinfo which has the following facilities: online catalog search for UICC (University of Indonesia Culture Collection strains collection and sequence homology search utility through BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Integrated information on strains collection was first carried out on the yeast collection. At present, UI Bioinfo contains information for 297 strains that includes isolation data, morphological descriptions, physiology-biochemical characteristics, and images. Moreover it also contains sequence data from the large subunit (LSU ribosomal RNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions. UI Bioinfo can be accessed from the following site: http://152.118.162.250/bio/. Future development will be addition of data from the other collections in UICC.

  11. Manufacture and performance of indigenous nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the formulation of nuclear power programme, it was envisaged that nuclear fuel fabrication including design, development and production had to be arranged as governmental activity of Department of Atomic Energy (India). Fabrication of fuel has been initiated on a firm basis with initial commitment to supply half the core of fuel element for 40 MWt CIRUS reactor at Trombay. Based on the experience gained on the development of natural uranium oxide fuel, commitment was undertaken to fabricate half the initial core loading and standby fuel for RAPP-1. Later, to meet the fuel bundle requirements for continued operation of RAPP type reactors and enriched fuel bundle requirements for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the Nuclear Fuel Complex (Hyderabad)--an integrated nuclear fuel and related components fabrication facilities -- was set up. To date, a large number of natural uranium metal fuel rods for CIRUS, natural uranium oxide fuel bundles for RAPS and enriched uranium oxide fuel bundles for TAPS have been fabricated and delivered. Performance data on all these different types of fuels indigenously fabricated are considered to be satisfactory, proving thereby, the trust placed on the indigenous development/fabrication has been well deserved. Salient features for the various manufacturing and quality control steps and fuel behaviour are discussed. (auth.)

  12. Effects of irradiation on bacterial load and Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens

  13. Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...

  14. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the kinetic and extent of recovery process under darkness in both C. quitensis ecotypes. The greater recovery of PSII at low temperature in the Antarctic ecotype was related with its ability to maintain PsaA, Cyt b6/f and D1 protein after photoinhibitory conditions. This is probably due to either a higher stability of these polypeptides or to the maintenance of their turnover upon cold acclimation. In both cases, it is associated to the maintenance of electron drainage from the intersystem pool, which maintains QA more oxidized and may allow the synthesis of ATP and NADPH necessaries for the regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate in the Calvin Cycle. This could be a key factor for C. quitensis success under the harsh conditions and the short growing period in the Maritime Antarctic.

  15. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  16. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham Joan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys c...

  17. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  18. Success Stories from an Indigenous Immersion Primary Teaching Experience in New South Wales Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ingrid; Brasche, Inga

    2011-01-01

    A federal report released by the Department of Families and Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA, 2009), entitled "Closing the Gap on Indigenous Disadvantage: The Challenge for Australia", highlighted the inequality that exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students based on a restricted access to resources, issues…

  19. Cultural Dimensions of Indigenous Participation in Education and Training. NCVER Monograph Series 02/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred Michael

    2009-01-01

    The preservation of Indigenous cultures is a controversial issue in Australia. On the one hand, the maintenance of traditional Indigenous culture has been viewed as a barrier to integration with mainstream society and the achievement of socio-economic equality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. An alternative view sees maintenance…

  20. Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors among indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Adam A; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James A; Fryer, Simon; Tarrant, Michael A; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

  1. Chicken models of retroviral insertional mutagenesis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pe?enka, Vladimír; Karafiát, Vít; Dvo?ák, Michal

    New York : Springer, 2011 - (Dupuy, A.; Largaespada, D.), s. 77-112 ISBN 978-1-4419-7655-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA301/09/1727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : insertional mutagenesis * chicken model * MAV retroviruses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Chicken energia metabolism after single gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated changes in the concentration of cholesterol and glucose in the serum of poultry after single whole-body gamma irradiation with 4,5 Gy dose. In the experiment we used chickens of initial age 21 and 35 days at the beginning of the experiment. (authors)

  3. CHICKEN FEATHER FIBERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of Findings (Outputs/Outcomes): A Sievert’s apparatus for measuring the H2 storage capacities of adsorbents was built. The nitrogen adsorption and H2 storage test performed on the pyrolyzed chicken feather fibers (PCFF) prepared by a p...

  4. Renal biopsy findings among Indigenous Australians: a nationwide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Samuel, Terence; Mott, Susan A; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla S; Fogo, Agnes B; Dowling, John P; Hughson, Michael D; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Pugsley, David J; Kirubakaran, Meshach G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F

    2012-12-01

    Australia's Indigenous people have high rates of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. To define renal disease among these people, we reviewed 643 renal biopsies on Indigenous people across Australia, and compared them with 249 biopsies of non-Indigenous patients. The intent was to reach a consensus on pathological findings and terminology, quantify glomerular size, and establish and compare regional biopsy profiles. The relative population-adjusted biopsy frequencies were 16.9, 6.6, and 1, respectively, for Aboriginal people living remotely/very remotely, for Torres Strait Islander people, and for non-remote-living Aboriginal people. Indigenous people more often had heavy proteinuria and renal failure at biopsy. No single condition defined the Indigenous biopsies and, where biopsy rates were high, all common conditions were in absolute excess. Indigenous people were more often diabetic than non-Indigenous people, but diabetic changes were still present in fewer than half their biopsies. Their biopsies also had higher rates of segmental sclerosis, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and mixed morphologies. Among the great excess of biopsies in remote/very remote Aborigines, females predominated, with younger age at biopsy and larger mean glomerular volumes. Glomerulomegaly characterized biopsies with mesangiopathic changes only, with IgA deposition, or with diabetic change, and with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This review reveals great variations in biopsy rates and findings among Indigenous Australians, and findings refute the prevailing dogma that most indigenous renal disease is due to diabetes. Glomerulomegaly in remote/very remote Aboriginal people is probably due to nephron deficiency, in part related to low birth weight, and probably contributes to the increased susceptibility to kidney disease and the predisposition to FSGS. PMID:22932120

  5. Mobile Technologies for Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within the digitalization process under the limitations and capabilities of the tools. We believe that a continuation of local appropriation and co-design of tools will lead to an integrated, intuitive and non-intrusive indigenous knowledge preservation process within the local communities.

  6. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management : What and How

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue. Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research.

  7. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  8. Indigenizing mental health services: New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durie, Mason

    2011-04-01

    Mental health services in New Zealand have been significantly altered by M?ori cultural values. Since 1980, a monocultural approach has given way to the incorporation of M?ori language, M?ori health perspectives, and M?ori psychological frameworks in the assessment, treatment, and care of patients. M?ori provider organizations, an expanded M?ori health workforce, and M?ori leadership have been crucial catalysts for the transformation. The shifts have paralleled similar changes in other sectors, reflecting a broader societal movement within which indigeneity has received greater acknowledgement. The author's bicultural background, psychiatric training, and inclusion in M?ori networks were important for promoting the transformation. PMID:21511844

  9. Mapping Medievalism: An Indigenous Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dion Fletcher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Kathryn Brush (ed., Mapping Medievalism at the Canadian Frontier, London Ontario Canada: Museum London and the McIntosh Gallery, 2010. Mapping Medievalism, a collection of essays written by a professor and nine graduate students, is an examination of the role of settlers’ imagination of Europe’s middle ages in the development of Canadian culture. The project aims to be inclusive of Aboriginal histories, and some authors grapple with the colonial implications of the settlers’ imagining of the medieval. This review provides an indigenous political perspective on the book, and argues that some essays provide useful insight into colonial processes. However, some essays approach colonialism in a non-productive fashion and, ultimately, the publication falls short of its aim to be inclusive to Aboriginal histories.

  10. Characterization and Expression of Chicken Selenoprotein U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun-Yun; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Lin, Gao-Chao; Guo, Hui-Yuan; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Zhang, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Selenoprotein U (SelU) may regulate a myriad of biological processes through its redox function. In chicks, neither the nucleotide sequence nor the amino acid sequence is known. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken Selu gene and investigate Selu messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in chicken tissues. The coding sequence (CDS) of Selu contained 387 bases with a typical mammalian selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) located in the 3'-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of chicken SelU contains 224 amino acids with UAA as the stop codon. Like all SelU genes identified in different species, chicken SelU contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 85th position encoded by the UGA codon. The SECIS element was with the conserved denosine (--AAA--) rather than the motif cytidine (--CC--) motif. Moreover, the expression pattern of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, testis, and brain was analyzed with real-time quantitative PCR in young male chickens fed a Se-deficient corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.0 and 0.3 mg Se/kg in the form of sodium selenite. We found that the abundance of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and lung was downregulated (P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. However, it was not affected by dietary Se concentrations in testis and brain. Furthermore, protein abundance of SelU in these seven tissues was consistent with the mRNA abundance. Hence, we suggest that Selu might play an important role in the biochemical function of Se in birds. PMID:25876085

  11. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D10-values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  12. Survey of infectious coryza of chickens in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, M; Takahashi, T; Hirayama, N; Istiananingsi; Mariana, S; Zarkasie, K; Sumadi; Ogata, M; Ohta, S

    1991-08-01

    A survey of infectious coryza of chickens was performed in West Jawa of Indonesia between 1987 to 1988 by the detection of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody against Haemophilus paragallinarum (Hpg) in non-vaccinated healthy laying (12 farms, 196 chickens) and native (8 farms, 197 chickens) chickens. HI antibodies against Hpg were detected not only in the native chickens but also in the laying chickens, regardless of the district, and were observed in 70% (14/20) of farms and 19% (73/393) of chickens. HI antibodies against serotype A were detected from 11 farms (55%) and 11% (45/393) in chickens. Those against serotype C were detected from 5 farms (25%) and 8% (30/393) in chickens. Three Hpg strains were isolated from different chickens affected with infectious coryza. Two of them were identified as type A and the other as type C by the rapid plate agglutination test. These results demonstrated that the outbreaks of infectious coryza caused by serotype A and C strains had occurred in Indonesia. PMID:1834206

  13. Preliminary Results of Short-Term Egg Laying Performance of Pure and Crossbred Chicken Progeny in a Humid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Ozoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg laying performance of 120 pullets sired by four different strains- three Nigerian indigenous (Naked-neck, Frizzle feathered and Normal feathered and one exotic (White Leghorn was studied over an 18-week period. The traits considered were egg number and egg weight. Sire genotype significantly (p0.05. Frizzle feathered progeny laid more eggs (4.610.27- 6.250.35 comparable to the progeny of White Leghorn while Naked neck progeny laid heavier eggs (44.261.12-47.761.41 gm. Estimate of heritabilities (h2s was low for egg number (h2s = 0.07 and moderate ((h2s = 0.31 for egg weight (genotypes combined. Negatively low genetic and phenotypic correlations were recorded between egg number and egg weight. This study therefore revealed the existence of genetic variability and potentials for genetic improvement in egg traits amongst the Nigerian local chickens.

  14. Historical Social and Indigenous Ecology Approach to Social Movements in Mexico and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Herna?ndez, Jose? G.; Mohammad Reza Noruzi,

    2010-01-01

    The struggle for the recognition of indigenous rights is one of the most important social movements in Mexico. Before the 1970s, existing peasant organizations did not represent indigenous concerns. Since 1975 there has been a resurgence of indigenous movements and have raised new demands and defense of their cultural values. However, indigenous social mobilization had been laid in local and regional peasant struggles across the 1970s and 1980s. Also the indigenous movement is not homogeneous...

  15. “Looking back to my family”: Indigenous Australian patients’ experience of hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Kate; Cunningham Joan; Devitt Jeannie; Preece Cilla; Cass Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In common with Indigenous populations elsewhere, Indigenous Australians have higher incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), but lower transplantation rates than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Understanding how the demands of dialysis impact on, and are impacted by, the lives of Indigenous patients may provide important insight into treatment pathways and decision-making. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in 2005–06 with 146 Indigenous and 95 non-I...

  16. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...false Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146...COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants....

  17. Building Indigenous Social Capital in an Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bandias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nexus between social relations of mutual benefit, information communication technology (ICT access and social inclusion. More specifically, a case study methodology is used to examine the role of ICT in facilitating the social capital of Indigenous communities. A remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT is the focus of the paper. Whilst the potential of social capital to affect positive outcomes across a diverse range of areas is well researched, Indigenous disadvantage is well documented and the role of ICT in facilitating social and economic development is well established, although little is known about the ICT social capital nexus in an Indigenous context. The paper commences with a review of the social capital literature. A description of the methodology employed in the data collection phase of the project is followed by the case study. The paper concludes with a summary of the findings and recommendations for further research.

  18. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  19. Caracterização morfológica de ecótipos de arroz daninho (Oryza sativa) provenientes de áreas de arroz irrigado / Morphological characterization of red rice (Oryza Sativa) ecotypes derived from irrigated rice areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M.L., Schwanke; J.A., Noldin; A., Andres; S.O., Procópio; G., Concenço.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a caracterização fenotípica de 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, quando comparados aos cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em casa de vegetação. Foram semeados 16 ec [...] ótipos de arroz daninho e os quatro cultivares de arroz irrigado. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos com capacidade para 9 litros, contendo solo, utilizando-se cinco repetições por genótipo. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: coloração das folhas, pilosidade, afilhamento efetivo, graus-dia biológico para completar o florescimento, degrane, número de afilhos férteis, área foliar da folha-bandeira, altura de planta, número de sementes por panícula e produção por planta. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam grande variabilidade morfológica entre os ecótipos estudados. Abstract in english Aspects related to the phenotypical characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina were studied and compared to those of commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. The sixteen red rice ecotypes plus four ric [...] e cultivars were sown with five replications in plastic pails filled with 9 liters of soil. The genotypes were described according to the traits proposed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, 1980). The following plant and seed parameters were evaluated: leaf color and hairiness, effective tillering, biological day-degrees to complete the flowering period, seed shattering, number of fertile tillers, flag leaf area, plant height, number of seeds per panicle and seed production. The results showed a great morphological variability among the red rice ecotypes.

  20. Caracterização morfológica de ecótipos de arroz daninho (Oryza sativa provenientes de áreas de arroz irrigado Morphological characterization of red rice (Oryza Sativa ecotypes derived from irrigated rice areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.L. Schwanke

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a caracterização fenotípica de 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, quando comparados aos cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em casa de vegetação. Foram semeados 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho e os quatro cultivares de arroz irrigado. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos com capacidade para 9 litros, contendo solo, utilizando-se cinco repetições por genótipo. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: coloração das folhas, pilosidade, afilhamento efetivo, graus-dia biológico para completar o florescimento, degrane, número de afilhos férteis, área foliar da folha-bandeira, altura de planta, número de sementes por panícula e produção por planta. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam grande variabilidade morfológica entre os ecótipos estudados.Aspects related to the phenotypical characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina were studied and compared to those of commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. The sixteen red rice ecotypes plus four rice cultivars were sown with five replications in plastic pails filled with 9 liters of soil. The genotypes were described according to the traits proposed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, 1980. The following plant and seed parameters were evaluated: leaf color and hairiness, effective tillering, biological day-degrees to complete the flowering period, seed shattering, number of fertile tillers, flag leaf area, plant height, number of seeds per panicle and seed production. The results showed a great morphological variability among the red rice ecotypes.

  1. Root physiological adaptations involved in enhancing P assimilation in mining and non-mining ecotypes of Polygonum hydropiper grown under organic P media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Zheng, Zicheng; Zhang, Xizhou; Chen, Guangdeng; Yu, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    It is important to seek out plant species, high in phosphorus (P) uptake, for phytoremediation of P-enriched environments with a large amount of organic P (Po). P assimilation characteristics and the related mechanisms of Polygonum hydropiper were investigated in hydroponic media containing various concentrations of Po (1-8 mmol L(-1)) supplied as phytate. The mining ecotype (ME) showed significantly higher biomass in both shoots and roots compared to the non-mining ecotype (NME) at 4, 6, and 8 m mol L(-1). Shoot P content of both ecotypes increased up to 4 mmol L(-1) while root P content increased continually up to 8 mmol L(-1) for the ME and up to 6 mmol L(-1) for the NME. Root P content of the ME exceeded 1% dry weight under 6 and 8 mmol L(-1). The ME had significantly higher P accumulation in both shoots and roots compared to the NME supplied with 6 and 8 mmol L(-1). The ME showed higher total root length, specific root length, root surface area, root volume, and displayed significantly greater root length, root surface area, and root volume of lateral roots compared to the NME grown in all Po treatments. Average diameter of lateral roots was 0.17-19 mm for the ME and 0.18-0.21 mm for the NME. Greater acid phosphatase and phytase activities were observed in the ME grown under different levels of Po relative to the NME. This indicated fine root morphology, enhanced acid phosphatase and phytase activities might be adaptations to high Po media. Results from this study establish that the ME of P. hydropiper is capable of assimilating P from Po media and is a potential material for phytoremediation of polluted area with high Po. PMID:25699065

  2. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.

  3. Building Indigenous Social Capital in an Online World

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Bandias

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nexus between social relations of mutual benefit, information communication technology (ICT) access and social inclusion. More specifically, a case study methodology is used to examine the role of ICT in facilitating the social capital of Indigenous communities. A remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT) is the focus of the paper. Whilst the potential of social capital to affect positive outcomes across a diverse range of areas is well researched, Ind...

  4. Reanimating Storywork: Indigenous Elders’ Reflections on Leadership by Larry Grant

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Larry

    2011-01-01

    xwmuthkwey’um Musqueam Elder Larry Grant looks at leadership by exploring how colonialism has altered Indigenous ways of leading and being. Grant examines how culture, language, and values create Indigenous leadership. Themes: Oral tradition is leadership/stories/language. Preparation for learning, training, develop diplomatic skills. Respect with land/the land teaches us. Colonialism; Reconciliation; Religion; Racism; Word bundle/baskets responsibilities; Equi...

  5. Teletherapy sources with imported and indigenous 60Co activity

    OpenAIRE

    George, Jain Reji; Kushwah, Raksha; Sastry, K. V. S.

    2009-01-01

    Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, a unit of the Department of Atomic Energy, fabricates and supplies radioactive sources for medical, industrial, agriculture and research applications. High specific activity cobalt-60, required for teletherapy is normally imported. There was a proposal for manufacturing high specific activity sources indigenously. A study was carried out to observe the feasibility of mixing imported and indigenous cobalt-60 pellets to fabricate teletherapy source cap...

  6. REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Reed

    2011-01-01

    One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s r...

  7. ETHIC IDENTIFICATION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF THE SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Koptseva; Vladimir Kirko

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses some of the problems (population dynamics, knowledge of the native language) among indigenous peoples of the North, who live in the Krasnoyarsk region (Siberian Arctic, Russia). In their own territories began a new industrialization. Reduced opportunity for these peoples to preserve their unique culture. The necessity to take urgent regulations (laws), which should protect the rights of indigenous peoples who live in the Krasnoyarsk region, to preserve the unique cultur...

  8. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google ...

  9. Indigenously developed monoclonal antibody specific for human blood group B

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay vinayak Abhyankar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The quality blood grouping reagents is clearly an important factor for blood transfusion and diagnostics and many international standard Anti-B reagents are available for blood grouping in India and there is a need of indigenously developed, cost effective potent Anti-B secreting monoclonal antibody which can be used as a standard blood grouping reagent. To develop indigenous, cost effective standard Anti-B reagent which can be used in the scale up system to ensures constant supply...

  10. La tradizione giuridica indigena / The indigenous legal tradition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Humberto, Durand Alcántara.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this work is summarized in the attempt, first, to explain the nature of the legal relationships that develop in the Indigenous peoples reality, and if you can identify as a "legal system." Secondly, we will try to identify the social groups that have imposed a legal pluralist model [...] . The structure and methods of indigenous legal systems constitute an indivisible whole with the "world view" of these same people, and your culture, thus establishing their specific identities.

  11. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of ave high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  12. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-01-01

    One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine A...

  13. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    OpenAIRE

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aborigina...

  14. Quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods: approaching indigenous ecological knowledge heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Spoon

    2014-01-01

    I discuss the use of quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods to document and operationalize Indigenous ecological knowledge, using case studies from the Nepalese Himalaya and Great Basin. Both case studies applied results to natural and cultural resource management and interpretation for the public. These approaches attempt to reposition the interview subjects to serve as active contributors to the research and its outcomes. I argue that the study of any body of Indigenous knowle...

  15. CONTENT OF NUTRIENTS AND NUTRICINES - CARNOSINE IN DARK CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine content of nutrients and carnosine concentration in thighs (dark meatof chickens of the Ross 308 provenance with respect to chicken gender. Amount of carnosine is determinedby the HPLC device. Thigh muscle tissue of female and male chickens contains 339.28±68.17 ?g/g and319.29±65.47 ?g/g of carnosine (P>0.05, respectively. Live end weights of chickens are also shown, withaverage male chickens weights of 2377 g and female chickens 2104 g (P0.05are also shown. The obtained research results are explained in the context of other relevant studies on asimilar topic.

  16. Estimativa da divergência entre ecótipos de braquiária baseada em descritores quantitativos e qualitativos / Estimation of genetic divergence between braquiária ecotypes based on quantitative and qualitative descriptors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Eduardo, Torres; Cacilda Borges do, Valle; Beatriz, Lempp; Paulo Eduardo, Teodoro; João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz, Rigon; Larissa Pereira, Ribeiro; Caio Cézar Guedes, Corrêa; Roque Apolinário Alves da Luz, Júnior.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estimar a divergência genética entre ecótipos de Urochloa brizantha com base na análise de descritores quantitativos, qualitativos e sua análise conjunta a fim de selecionar os promissores para liberação como cultivares desta espécie. Oito ecótipos (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, [...] B6, B8) e a cultivar 'Marandu' de U. brizantha foram implantados em piquetes, com 1000m2 cada, em duas repetições. Foram avaliados cinco descritores quantitativos e dez qualitativos no período seco e das águas. Os descritores quantitativos foram: área foliar, comprimento e largura das lâminas foliares, massa seca (MS) e proporção de lâmina foliar na MS. Os descritores qualitativos mensurados foram: resistência ao cisalhamento, volume de gás acumulado na fração rápida e lenta, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, celulose, lignina em ácido sulfúrico, sílica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica. Houve divergência genética entre os ecótipos de U. brizantha, especialmente em relação aos descritores quantitativos. Com base nos agrupamentos dos descritores quantitativos, qualitativos e sua análise conjunta, o agrupamento contendo de B1, B3 e B5 com 'Marandu' podem resultar em ecótipos promissores de U. brizantha Abstract in english This study aimed to estimate the genetic divergence between Urochloa brizantha ecotypes based on quantitative, qualitative descriptors and their joint analysis to select the promising to release as cultivars of this species. Eight ecotypes (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B8) and cultivar 'Marandu' of U. br [...] izantha were implanted into pickets with 1000m2 each, with two repetitions. Five quantitative descriptors were evaluated [leaf area (ALF), length and width of leaf blades (CLF and LLF, respectively), dry mass (MS), mass of dry matter (MMS) and proportion of leaf blade in MS (PLF)] in two forage samples, being a representative of rainfall, in February 2000, and another in the dry period, in August 2000. It was measured the qualitative descriptors: shear strength (RC), volume of accumulated gas in fast and slow fraction (A and B, respectively), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF ), cellulose (CEL), lignin in sulfuric acid (LIG), silica (SIL) and in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVOMD). There was considerable genetic divergence in U. brizantha ecotypes, especially regarding to quantitative descriptors. Based on the groupings of quantitative, qualitative descriptors and their joint analysis, the grouping containing of B1, B3 and B5 with 'Marandu' can result in promising U. brizantha ecotypes

  17. Identifying Useful Approaches to the Governance of Indigenous Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Bruhn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Questions of data governance occur in all contexts. Arguably, they become especially pressing for data concerning Indigenous people. Long-standing colonial relationships, experiences of vulnerability to decision-makers, claims of jurisdiction, and concerns about collective privacy become significant in considering how and by whom data concerning Indigenous people should be governed. Also significant is the on going need on the part of governments to access and use such data to plan, monitor, and account for programs involving Indigenous people. This exploratory policy article seeks to inform efforts to improve the governance of data between governments and Indigenous organizations and communities – especially the federal government and First Nations in Canada. It describes a spectrum of models arising from the growing literature on data governance in the corporate and public sectors as well as overarching approaches articulated by Indigenous organizations. After outlining certain practical considerations in negotiating data sharing agreements, the article presents a selection of promising initiatives in indigenous data governance undertaken in Canada, the United States, and Australia.

  18. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking. PMID:25315647

  19. AGROBUSINESS PERSPECTIVES IN THE INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENT: CASE QUERETARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gómez González, Elvia Xitlaly Gómez Calderón y Yuriena Gerenarda Gómez Calderón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This document argueses about aspects of agribusiness in the indigenous development in the state of Queretaro, considers as an economic activity under taken in rural areas, principally related to the use of agricultural and forestry resources, with an efficient management of productive resources. The approaches outlined here are the result of a research, training and organization in which over half a year the representatives and indigenous leaders of the State Council of Indigenous People of the State of Querétaro, which has played an important role in management and represent more than 63 thousand indigenou’s ethnicities Ñäñhu (Otomi Xi'ui (Pame and Tenek (Huasteco, located mainly in the municipiums of Amealco, Toliman, Cadereyta, Eezequiel Montes, Columbus and Jalpan, with the support of the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People, Regional Delegation Queretaro - Guanajuato. Under the coordination and advice from the authors of this work. The information was collected by self - manegement participation approaches and with the participation of the leaders, communit’y leaders and municipal authorities. The agribusiness in the indigenous communities of the State of Queretaro, are an important option to fortify the economy family’s base and community, especially in the processes of integrating companies with their own identity and social responsability.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine NØrrelund; Bang, Dang Duong

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown to be invasive in orally challenged chickens as well as in three different human epithelial cell lines.

  1. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, B. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98%) of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80%) c...

  2. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    te Pas Marinus FW; Hulsegge Ina; Schokker Dirkjan; Smits Mari A; Fife Mark; Zoorob Rima; Endale Marie-Laure; Rebel Johanna MJ

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways...

  3. Xenotransplantation of Human Stem Cells into the Chicken Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Boulland, Jean-luc; Halasi, Gabor; Kasumacic, Nedim; Glover, Joel C.

    2010-01-01

    The chicken embryo is a classical animal model for studying normal embryonic and fetal development and for xenotransplantation experiments to study the behavior of cells in a standardized in vivo environment. The main advantages of the chicken embryo include low cost, high accessibility, ease of surgical manipulation and lack of a fully developed immune system. Xenotransplantation into chicken embryos can provide valuable information about cell proliferation, differentiation and behavior, the...

  4. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; LIU, XIAOLIN

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the g...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA D-loop analysis of South Western Nigerian chicken / Analisis de D-Loop ADN mitocondrial de pollos de SW Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.O., Adebambo.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un segmento D-loop de AND mitocondrial mtADN) fue secuenciado para un total de 98 pollos domésticos de SW Nigeria. Las poblaciones domésticas de pollos fueron: Anak titan (raza israelí, n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzlexOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (raza india, n= 3), Normal (n= [...] 55), Cuello Desnudo (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). Las secuencias de los primeros 397 nucleotidos fueron usadas para el análisis. Diecisiete haplotipos de 23 sitios polimórficos, fueron identificados en las muestras: 15 para las poblaciones indígenas nigerianas de pollos, 1 para Giriraja y 1 para Anak Titan. El análisis filogenético, muestra que los pollos indígenas nigerianos pueden agruparse todos dentro del clade IV, mientras que el Giriraja indio, se encuadró en el clade IIIc. El clade IV tiene 16 haplotipos mientras que el clade IIIc tiene sólo un haplotipo. El análisis AMOVA indica que el 97,32% de la variación total de la secuencia entre haplotipos estuvo presente dentro de la población y el 2,68% entre poblaciones. Los resultados sugieren un solo origen maternal múltiple para los pollos domésticos de SW Nigeria. Abstract in english Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), N [...] ormal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

  6. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98% of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80% chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

  7. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  8. Health service use in indigenous Sami and non-indigenous youth in North Norway :A population based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Skre Ingunn B; Bals Margrethe; Turi Anne; Kvernmo Siv

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the first population based study exploring health service use and ethno-cultural factors in indigenous Sami and non-Sami youth in North Norway. The first aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of health service use between Sami adolescents and their non-indigenous peers. The second aim was to explore the relationships between health service use and ethno-cultural factors, such as ethnic context, Sami self-identification, perceived discrimination and ...

  9. Diabetes Mellitus: Indigenous naming, indigenous diagnosis and self-management in an African setting: the example from Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Awah Paschal K; Unwin Nigel C; Phillimore Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective was to examine how the indigenous naming, indigenous self-diagnosis and management of diabetes evolved with awareness in order to develop a socially oriented theoretical model for its care. Methods The data was collected through a one-year extended participant observation in Bafut, a rural health district of Cameroon. The sample consisted of 72 participants in a rural health district of Cameroon (men and women) with type 2 diabetes. We used participant observ...

  10. Chicken Infectious Anemia Status in Commercial Broiler Chickens Flocks in Assiut-upper Egypt: Occurrence, Molecular Analysis Using PCR-RFLP and Apoptosis Effect on Affected Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Moemen A.

    2010-01-01

    Chicken infectious anemia virus is ubiquitous virus of chickens causing disease in young chickens and immunosuppression in all birds. In the present study, the presence of chicken anemia virus CAV infection using PCR, genetic variability of isolated strains based on restriction of VP1 gene by Mbo1 and apoptotic changes in the CAV positive broiler chickens in Assiut region, Upper of Egypt, were investigated. The history of problem showed that the clinical features were depression, increased su...

  11. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Mtui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (?2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.

  12. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, E S; Kessy, M J; Sanka, P N; Mtui, P F

    2011-03-01

    A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or 'Gumboro disease' seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90) of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (chi2 = 16.1, P < 0.001) between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75 % to 90 % between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania. PMID:21826835

  13. The Indigenous Curriculum and the Production of Indigenous Materials: Curriculum Reform in The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, Linda A.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, from which the data in this paper are drawn, examined the "intended" curriculum of the Bahamian primary schools and the processes of its translation into classroom practices. The methods of investigation included documentary analysis, participant observation, informal interviews, and a teacher questionnaire. The study identified several factors that can influence the success of the curriculum implementation process. This paper focuses on resources since the question of resource availability, specifically resources of an indigenous nature, was the most significant issue uncovered by the study. A case is made for strengthening the local resource base, not only in terms of personnel but also in terms of local materials.

  14. “Health divide” between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: Population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Slim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N?=?1660 men and women, 18–96?years. Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI?2, anaemia, goitre, suspected tuberculosis and hypertension was compared across forward castes, other backward classes and tribal populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Results Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%, anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5% and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6% compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4% and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%. Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7% and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7% than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18–30?y (27.1%. Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18–30?y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%. The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap between tribes and non-tribes for underweight and goitre, respectively. Conclusions Policies and programmes designed to benefit the Scheduled Tribes need to promote their well-being in general but also target the specific needs of the most vulnerable indigenous groups. There is a need to enhance the capacity of the disadvantaged to equally take advantage of health opportunities.

  15. Mapping Genes Affecting Phenotypic Traits in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Kerje, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of gene mapping is to understand the underlying genetics of simple and complex traits like plumage colour and growth. This thesis is based on a cross between the wild ancestor of the modern chicken, the red junglefowl, and a White Leghorn line selected for high egg mass. There are obvious phenotypic differences between these two breeds in several aspects such as growth, egg production and behaviour. These complex traits are often influenced by a number of genes or Quantitative Tra...

  16. Enteropathy related to fish, rice, and chicken.

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Vitoria; Camarero, C.; Sojo, A; Ruiz, A; Rodriguez-Soriano, J.

    1982-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms in relation to the ingestion of proteins are common but only in the case of sensitisation to cows' milk protein, soy, or gluten have alterations in the function and structure of the small-intestine been reported. We describe 3 children with cows' milk protein intolerance and associated enteropathy related to fish, rice, and chicken, respectively. Repeated intestinal biopsies before and after an acute challenge with the specific food showed changes in the histological...

  17. Diversity of Enterococcus cecorum from chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerlin, Patrick; Nicholson, Vivian; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Boyen, Filip; Sanei, Babak; Butaye, Patrick

    2012-06-15

    Enterococcus cecorum is a normal inhabitant of the intestine of birds and other vertebrates. It has recently emerged in Canada and other countries as an important cause of arthritis and osteomyelitis in chickens. The objectives of this study were to assess if this emergence was caused by a particular clone of E. cecorum and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of this organism. One hundred and thirteen E. cecorum isolates from infections in Canadian chickens (cases) and from the ceca of control chickens from Canada and Belgium were examined. Isolates were identified using biochemical tests and, for a number of them, identification was confirmed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Case and control isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the broth microdilution method. Cecal isolates from control birds were genetically very diverse but the vast majority of those from cases belonged to a single major clonal lineage. Reduced susceptibility was widespread for tetracycline, bacitracin, and erythromycin. Isolates from cases were generally less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than isolates from control birds. PMID:22266160

  18. Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daise Aparecida, Rossi; Belchiolina Beatriz, Fonseca; Roberta Torres de, Melo; Gutembergue da Silva, Felipe; Paulo Lourenço da, Silva; Eliane Pereira, Mendonça; Ana Luzia Lauria, Filgueiras; Marcelo Emilio, Beletti.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-e [...] sophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

  19. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Todd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  20. Occurrence of chicken anemia virus in backyard chickens of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PR, Barrios; SY, Marín; M, Resende; RL, Rios; JS, Resende; RS, Horta; MP, Costa; NRS, Martins.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of CAV in backyard chickens in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was evaluated. The spleen and thymus of chickens from different origins were collected for DNA extraction and nested-PCR. CAV genome was detected in 30% of the flocks (n=20) examined. CAV origin for backya [...] rd chickens is speculated, taking into consideration its widespread incidence in the chicken industry, the contamination of live vaccines with CAV prior to its eradication from SPF flocks, and the use of attenuated CAV vaccines.

  1. Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology of disease, are used to place the various seafood products in risk categories and to identify areas of concern. It is concluded that the presence of pathogens in molluscs and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products are hazards which are presently not under control. In order to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum when products are stored at abuse temperature, it is recommended that additional barriers to growth are included in lightly preserved (e.g. cold smoked salmon) and low-heat treated (e.g REPFEDS) products. It is finally pointed out that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is the preferred strategy in most quality assurance programmes and it is recommended that microbiological criteria are applied only as guidelines in the verification of the HACCP-system - and not for official control purposes. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  2. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  3. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS

  4. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  5. The challenges of maintaining indigenous ecological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe McCarter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK has led to concern that it is vulnerable amidst social and ecological change. In response, multiple authors have recommended the establishment of programs for the maintenance and revitalization of IEK systems. However, few studies have analyzed the methods, opportunities, and challenges of these programs. This is a critical gap, as IEK maintenance is challenging and will require layered and evidence-based solutions. We seek to build a foundation for future approaches to IEK maintenance. First, we present a systematic literature review of IEK maintenance programs (n = 39 and discuss the opportunities and challenges inherent in five broad groups of published approaches. Second, we use two case studies from the Republic of Vanuatu to illustrate these challenges in more depth. The first case study takes a community-based approach, which has inherent strengths (e.g., localized organization. It has, however, faced practical (e.g., funding and epistemological (changing modes of knowledge transmission challenges. The second case study seeks to facilitate IEK transmission within the formal school system. Although this model has potential, it has faced significant challenges (e.g., lack of institutional linkages. We conclude that supporting and strengthening IEK is important but that serious attention is needed to account for the social, situated, and dynamic nature of IEK. In closing, we use the review and case studies to propose four principles that may guide adaptive and flexible approaches for the future maintenance of IEK systems.

  6. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (570C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines

  7. Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to the reference Author(s; apart from the final evaluation (also based on some other features of the fragments, it is important to consider that the chicken bones could show lacunae of different shapes (spindle, elliptic and roundish, in accordance with the type and the breaking of the involved skeleton segments.

  8. Responses of three different ecotypes of reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) to their natural habitats: leaf surface micro-morphology, anatomy, chloroplast ultrastructure and physio-chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubing; Li, Xinrong; Liu, Meiling; Cao, Bo; Tan, Huijuan; Wang, Jin; Li, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    The adaptational characteristics due to long-term adaptation in the natural habitats of common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) contrasted considerably among three different ecotypes: dune reed (DR), Gobi salt reed (GSR) and swamp reed (SR). The micromorphologies of leaf adaxial surfaces showed tapered setae and a non-smooth surface in DR, compound papillose structures with wax and hairs in GSR, but only papillose structures for the smooth surface of SR. Anatomical analysis showed that DR and GSR had higher bundle-sheath cell areas and a lower xylem/phloem ratio than SR. There were many sclerenchyma cells in vascular bundle of DR and GSR and crystal idioblasts in all ecotypes. Chloroplasts had ellipsoid shape in SR, but they were attached to the cell wall with oblong shape and contained many starch grains in DR and GSR. Higher concentrations of NO, H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation, higher ratio of carotenoids/chlorophyll and higher activities in T-AOC and SOD were found in DR and GSR. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase activities were greatest in GSR. All these data suggested that the greater relative stress tolerance of DR and GSR was due to a combination of morpho-anatomical adaptational characteristics and physio-chemical responses, and indicated the different mechanisms in their respective natural habitats. PMID:22153253

  9. Transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants between lactobacilli isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Souza, F; Roque, R; Silva Moreira, J L; Resende de Souza, M; Nicoli, J R; Neumann, E; Cantini Nunes, Á

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential horizontal transfer of genetic traits for antibiotic resistance between lactobacilli isolated from the chicken gut, both in vitro and in vivo. Thirty-seven Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from the gizzard, small and large intestines and caeca of free-range broiler chickens showed multi-drug resistance as assessed by disc diffusion assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and chloramphenicol was determined in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth in a microplate assay. Almost all the lactobacilli isolates were resistant to vancomycin (except strains belonging to the Lactobacillus acidophilus group) and to tetracycline (MIC?128 ?g/ml). Only five strains were resistant to erythromycin, and six to chloramphenicol. The transfer rate in filter mating experiments performed using L. acidophilus strain 4M14E (EmR), Lactobacillus vaginalis strain 5M14E (CmR), Lactobacillus salivarius strain 5C14C (EmR), and the 4G14L and 3C14C strains of Lactobacillus reuteri (CmR) showed a frequency of approximately 1×104 cfu/ml of double-resistant transconjugants for the different combinations. The exception was the L. salivarius 5C14C (EmR) and L. vaginalis 5M14E (CmR) mating combination, which produced no transconjugants. In vivo experiments performed in gnotobiotic mice by mating L. acidophilus 4M14E (EmR) with L. reuteri 3C14C (CmR), L. reuteri 4G14L (CmR) or L. vaginalis 5M14E (CmR) resulted in transconjugants at 3.95±0.29, 3.16±0.33, and 4.55±1.52 log10 cfu/g of faeces, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that genetic exchange may occur between native bacterial strains within the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, which might maintain a dynamic gene pool conferring antibiotic resistance upon indigenous microbiota components, even in the absence of the pathogens. This possibility must be taken into account as a complementary criterion when lactobacilli are screened for probiotic use. PMID:22476322

  10. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Gastro-Intestinal Tract of Chicken: Potential Use as Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Harimurti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been suggested to have several beneficial effects on human and animals. These bacteria, indigenous to the gastro-intestinal tract, are important in regulating the balance among the desirable and undesirable intestinal microflora and in controlling enteric pathogenic infection in the host. Objectives of this research are to obtain lactic acid bacteria isolates from gastro-intestinal tract of chicken and to screen their ability as a probiotic agent i.e., their antagonistic against pathogenic bacteria, their survival at low pH and high concentration of bile salt. In this research, 74 samples used as sources of bacteria, and among them only 11 samples could be isolated as lactic acid bacteria with the total number of isolates of 61. Based on the preliminary screening i.e., their antagonistic factor against pathogenic bacteria, 20 isolates was further studied. Based on the identification scheme, these isolates belong to three species, i.e., Lactobacillus murinus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The result showed that most isolates grow well in the media with the initial pH of 5.5, but their growth were retarded when the initial pH 3.5. Only one isolate Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2 showed its growth at initial pH of 3.5. All isolates did not show any growth at initial pH 2.5, though their viability still high. The result based on the isolates resistance to bile salt showed that most isolates could grow at media with 0.20% of bile salt. Their growth was inhibited with the increasing bile salt concentration. However, few isolates could grow well at media with 1% of bile salt. Based on their characteristics three isolates i.e., Lactobacillus murinus Ar-3, Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2, and Pediococcus acidilactici Kd-6 were selected as probiotic agents for the continuing research. i.e. production of biomass and its application to chicken production. (Animal Production 9(2: 82-91 (2007 Key Words : Lactic acid bacteria, gastro- intestinal tract of chicken, probiotic agents

  11. Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A. Robbins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well. Perhaps most importantly, traditional knowledge and Indigenous spirituality hinges on the maintenance and renewal of relationships to the land.Indigenous land bases and the environment as a whole remain vitally important to the practice of traditional healing.A focus on Indigenous healing, when discussing Indigenous knowledge systems and spirituality, is paramount today due to the large scale suppression of Indigenous cultural expressions during the process of colonization. With respect to policy, there appears to be a historical progression of perception or attitude towards Indigenous traditional healing in Canada from one of disfavour to one favour. There are nevertheless continuing challenges for traditional healing. Mainstream perceptions and subsequent policy implementations sometimes still reflect attitudes that were formulated during the decline of traditional healing practice during colonization processes. As a consequence the ability for particular communities to maintain and use their specific understandings ofIndigenous knowledge continues encounter obstacles. Indigenous Knowledge systems are living entities and not relics of the past. Today, these knowledge systems are still greatly being applied to help Indigenous communities and Indigenous people recover fromintergenerational pain and suffering endured during the colonization process. Future policy development and implementation should aim to support Indigenous peoples and communities when they decide to learn about, maintain and build upon the knowledge amassed by their ancestors.

  12. Indigenous archaeology as complement to, not separate from, scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Watkins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining Indigenous Archaeology is as difficult as defining “Indigenous”. In some areas the term “Indigenous” is applied to people who existed in an area prior to colonization (“Geography”; in other areas it is applied to people who are to those people whose ancestors created the culture being (“Descendancy”; in others it is applied to the community of people who live in the area where the archaeology is being conducted (“Proximity”. This paper recognizes that Archaeology, however defined, has characteristics that add to the scientific study of the human past; that Indigenous Archaeology is not meant to supplant scientific archaeology but to add to archaeology’s powers. In this paper I will provide an overview of Indigenous Archaeology, examine some of the in trying to discuss its many facets as a single disciplinary approach to the of the past, and then close with an examination of the in the generalized approach to the study of the past by partnering with communities and organizations.

  13. Indigenous Territories and REDD in Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Dam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important proportion of Latin America’s forests are located in indigenous territories, and indigenous peoples are the beneficiaries of about 85% of the area for which local rights to land and forest have been recognized in Latin America since the 1980s. Nevertheless, many of these areas, whether or not rights have been recognized, are subject to threats from colonists, illegal loggers, mining and oil interests and others, whose practices endanger not only the forests but also indigenous people’s territory as a whole. In this context, REDD could constitute a new threat or intensify others, particularly in places where indigenous tenure rights have not been recognized, but REDD could also offer new opportunities. This article describes the limitations of thinking only in terms of communities, rather than territories, and examines the extent to which REDD has been conceived considering the characteristics of this new territorial configuration. It also identifies the challenges that REDD may face with this new ‘stakeholder’, such as numerous specific characteristics of territories, given their heterogeneity, in the context of past experiences regarding ‘forest options’. This paper analyses the situation in already-titled indigenous territories in particular, and also discusses problems facing territories in the titling process.

  14. Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos H. Alvarado Dzul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenous, resulting in full partnerships in which participants share expertise to meet mutual needs. With reference to literature and two illustrative examples of intercultural education initiatives in Mexico and Tanzania, we present an original conceptual framework for assessing indigenous participation in intercultural education. This incorporates a new ladder of participation depth (in relation to both curriculum content and decision making alongside separate considerations of breadth, i.e., stakeholder diversity, and scope, i.e., the number of key project stages in which certain stakeholder groups are participating. The framework can be used to compare intercultural education initiatives in differing contexts and might be adaptable to other intercultural work.

  15. The paradox of Indigenous resurgence at the end of empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Waziyatawin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the twenty-first century, we are facing the unprecedented convergence of human-created crises. Climate chaos, fossil-fuel resource depletion, overpopulation, and the ongoing destruction of ecosystems threaten the very foundation of colonial empire, both creating emancipatory potential for Indigenous societies struggling against colonial subjugation and wreaking devastating havoc on the lands, waters, and ecosystems upon which our people must survive.  While the vulnerability and unsustainability of empire is clearly exposed, Indigenous people must wrestle with the continued cooptation of our people into civilization’s fallacies and destructive habits as well as the increasing threats to our homelands that jeopardize our capacity for a land-based existence. Thus, just when liberation may be within our grasp, the ecological destruction may be so complete that Indigenous lifeways may be impossible to practice. In this context there is a simultaneous and urgent need for both the restoration of sustainable Indigenous practices and a serious defense of Indigenous homelands.

  16. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C.J. Vincent

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Community and resource user support has often been declared as essential to achieving globally agreed targets for marine protection. Given that indigenous people in Canada have resource use rights, we engaged two indigenous communities in British Columbia for their views on marine planning and protected areas. We developed a three-phased approach for executing our research: building research partnerships, carrying out individual interviews, and holding community discussion sessions. Participants expressed a common goal of recovering depleted species and ensuring the sustainability of indigenous fishing. We found strong support for spatial protection measures, and significant overlaps amongst participants in the areas suggested for protection. The most common type of protection recommended by participants was the exclusion of commercial and recreational fisheries while allowing for indigenous fishing; this stands in contrast to the emphasis on strict no-take MPAs advocated in the literature. Similarities in the goal, and level and areas of protection point to a gap in conservation approaches: the conservation of important areas and resources to indigenous people, allowing the continued practice and adaptation of their culture.

  17. Reproductive performance of indigenous cattle in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postpartum ovarian activity in indigenous Kedah-Kelantan cattle was monitored by progesterone radioimmunoassay to study the fertility of suckled cows exposed to natural mating. In the university herd, postpartum reproductive performance was monitored over two breeding periods. In one period, 34 suckled cows were bled weekly just before mating, with 70.6% showing detectable ovarian activity by 60 days postpartum. Cows bred at a mean (±SD) interval of 20.1±6.2 days (n=8) postpartum conceived at 51.1±23.7 days, with 87.5% conception, while cows bred at 49.1±7.1 days (n=17) conceived at 78.5±14.7 days, with 100% conception. In another breeding period when 37 suckled cows were bled twice weekly after calving, 21, 81.1 and 91.9% had resumed ovarian activity by 30, 60 and 90 days postpartum, respectively. The mean intervals to first oestrus and ovulation were 37.7±18.3 and 43.0±17.2 days, respectively. For animals bred at 25.8±3.7 days (n=12), the time to conception was 56.1±20.8 days, with 83.3% conception. When mated at 40.6±8.0 days (n=35), the mean interval to conception was 64.3±15.2 days postpartum, with 88% conception. In spite of calf suckling, high fertility to natural mating was observed by 90 days postpartum. Comparative studies were also conducted in a commercial herd (n=90) and smallholder cattle (n=73). Fertility after oestrus synchronization and AI was also investigated (n=70). Plasma progesterone profiles revealed that low conception to AI was associated with fertilization failure, although early embryonic mortality, anovulation and asynchrony between AI and oestrus were also detected

  18. Effect of Newcastle Disease Control and Improved Management on the Performance of Indigenous Poultry in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    indigenous poultry farming is an important enterprise for small-scale farmers in the mandate areas of the Regional Research Centre (RRC) Kakamega, A topical Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study involving 407 farmers identified the main constraints to rural poultry production in the area as Newcastle disease (NCD), predation, and inadequate feeding or supplementation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of vaccination against Newcastle disease (NCD), daytime housing for chicks and feed supplementation on indigenous poultry production. The trial was implemented in four RRC clusters, each representing a specific agro-ecological zone.The clusters included Sabatia (UM1), Butula (LM1) Malava (LM2), and Uranga (LM3). Each cluster comprised of 22 to 35 experimental farmers in four groups assigned to the various treatments thus: Group 1 vaccination, 2. vaccination and supplementation, 3. vaccination, supplementation and daytime housing of chicks and 4. control group or farmer's practice. Since farmers adopted treatments according to their preference, the composition of each group varied as the experiment progressed. Birds were vaccinated after every three months to prevent NCD attacks,' To' avoid predation, the chicks were housed in movable or permanent structures where supplements such as brewers waste, blood and rumen contents from slaughterhouses were provided. From January 1997, data was collected weeklyom January 1997, data was collected weekly from individual households by frontline extension staff. Monthly monitoring and data verification on flock composition and dynamics, eggs production and utilisation, feed use and growth rates, was done by researchers and agricultural extensionists. The results demonstrated that Newcastle disease could be controlled by routine vaccination; feed supplementation improved the performance of housed birds in three clusters, but not in Sabatia where scarcity of feed was pronounced. It was further concluded that predation continued to constrain chicken productivity in the four clusters, during famine, a time when birds are not usually housed

  19. Effects of single and combined genotypes of MC4R and POU1F1 genes on two production traits in Langshan chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin Jun; Fang, Xing Tang; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Chun Lei; Liu, Xuan Xuan; Zhao, Jing; Li, Jing Jing; Chen, Hong

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of single and combined genotypes of MC4R and POU1F1 genes in Chinese well-known indigenous chicken (Langshan chicken) population. Genetic variants within MC4R gene and POU1F1 gene were screened through PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. A C/T mutation at nt 944 in MC4R gene (NC_006089.2:g. 944C>T) and a G/A mutation at nt 3109 in POU1F1 gene (NC_006088.2:g. 3109 G>A) were identified. Associations between the mutations of the two genes with two production traits were analyzed. The results showed that, at MC4R locus, individuals with BB and AB genotypes had highly significantly higher body weight at 16 weeks (p < 0.01) than did those with the AA genotype. And, individuals within AA and AB genotypes had significantly higher egg numbers at 300 days (p < 0.05). At POU1F1 locus, individuals with CD genotype had higher body weight at 16 weeks and egg numbers at 300 days (p < 0.05). Furthermore, combined genotypes from these two loci were found to be associated with egg numbers at 300 days (p < 0.05). The individuals within combined genotype AB/CD had higher egg production. Therefore, variations identified within the MC4R and POU1F1genes are suitable for future use in identifying chickens with the genetic potential of higher body weight and reproductive traits, at least in the population of Langshan chickens. PMID:23644987

  20. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the microRNA miR-1596 locus with residual feed intake in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Sun, L; Ma, J; Wang, J; Qu, H; Shu, D

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Genetic variations in microRNA sequences may be associated with phenotype differences by influencing the expression of microRNAs and/or their targets. This study identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomic region of the microRNA miR-1596 locus of chicken. Of the two SNPs, one was 95 bp upstream of miR-1596 (g.5678784A>T) and the other was in the middle of the sequence producing the mature microRNA gga-miR-1596-3p (g.5678944A>G). Genotypic distribution of the two SNPs had large differences among 12 chicken breeds (lines), especially between the fast-growing commercial lines and the slow-growing Chinese indigenous breeds for the g.5678784A>T SNP. Only the g.5678784A>T SNP was significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in the F2 population derived from a fast-growing and a slow-growing broiler as well as in the pure Huiyang bearded chicken. The birds with the AA genotype of the g.5678784A>T SNP had lower RFI and higher expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 than did those with the other genotypes of the same SNP. We also found that the expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 was significantly associated with RFI. These findings suggest that miR-1596 can become a candidate gene related to RFI, and its genetic variation may contribute to changes in RFI by altering expression levels of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA in chicken. PMID:25818998

  1. The in vivo measurement of radiocaesium activity in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of certain areas of Europe with radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident led to a higher 137Cs accumulation (i.e. 300-600 Bq kg-1) in grain and to potential post-accident contamination of broiler chickens. In future, such contamination may require a simple determination of the 137Cs activity concentration in broiler chicken meat which would lead to measures for preventing the recommended limits of radionuclide contamination of the meat for human consumption from being exceeded. This paper describes the development of a rapid method for the in vivo monitoring of the broiler chicken using a lead-shielded sodium iodide detector. The method enables simply fixed live chicken to be monitored, the results showing a good correlation (R2=0.98) with measurements of meat from chicken previously monitored in vivo prior to slaughter

  2. Heterosis and combining ability for body weight in a diallel cross of three chicken genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwendu, Njedbo A; Norris, David; Ngambi, Jones W; Shimelis, Hussein A; Benyi, Kow

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate heterotic and combining ability effects for growth in nine chicken genotypes. A 3 × 3 complete diallel mating system involving two indigenous breeds named Venda (V) and Naked Neck (N) and one commercial broiler breed named Ross 308 (R) were used. The nine genetic groups of crosses were reared up from hatch to 13 weeks of age in deep litter open house. Body weights of 180 chicks (20 chicks per genetic group), recorded at 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 weeks of age, were used to estimate heterosis, general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA). Results showed that the Ross 308 had the heaviest body weight at all weeks of measurement except for hatch. With respect to crosses, the V × R and its reciprocal cross, R × V had the heaviest body weights at 13 weeks. Heterosis estimates for body weight were higher in the Venda male × Ross 308 female and Venda male and Naked Neck female crosses. GCA was significant (P ? 0.01) for body weight from hatch to 13 weeks of age while SCA and reciprocal effects were both significant (P ? 0.05) for body weight at all ages of measurement except for hatch. The Ross 308 gave the highest positive effect of GCA for body weight except for hatch. V × N gave the highest and positive effects of SCA for body weight. PMID:23151822

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological quality of japanese chicken meat and microflora change of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of gamma irradiation with doses between 0 and 8 kGy on microbiological quality of chicken meat produced in Japan and micro flora change of irradiated chicken meat were studied. Radiation at the dose 2 kGy resulted in 4 log cycles reduction of total aerobic bacteria, 5 - 6 log cycles reduction of lactic acid bacteria and 2 log cycles reduction of fungi and yeasts. For the coliforms, it could be eliminated below detectable level by irradiation dose of 1 kGy. For the chicken flora-analysis, it was found that chicken of each area had their own specific microbial community structure. Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were found to be dominant organisms in the microflora of Japanese chicken meat. Irradiation with dose 2 kGy resulted in disappearance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. The microorganisms which dominated in irradiated chickens with doses of 2 kGy and higher were Psychrobacter and yeast. These studies support the view that radiation improves the microbiological quality of chicken meat and substantiate that radiation does not present hazard resulting from a change in the microflora of irradiated chicken

  4. Benthic non-indigenous species among indigenous species and their habitat preferences in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Janas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date 11 non-indigenous benthic taxa have been reported in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea. Five of the 34 taxa forming the soft bottom communities are regarded as non-indigenous to this area. They are Marenzelleria spp., Mya arenaria, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus tigrinus and Amphibalanus improvisus. Non-indigenous species comprised up to 33% of the total number of identified macrofaunal taxa (mean 17%. The average proportion of aliens was 6% (max 46% in the total abundance of macrofauna, and 10% (max 65% in the biomass. A significant positive relationship was found between the numbers of native taxa and non-indigenous species. The number of native taxa was significantly higher on a sea bed covered with vascular plants than on an unvegetated one, but no such relationship was found for their abundance. No significant differences were found in the number and abundance of non-indigenous species between sea beds devoid of vegetation and those covered with vascular plants, Chara spp. or mats of filamentous algae. G. tigrinus preferred a sea bed with vegetation, whereas Marenzelleria spp. decidedly preferred one without vegetation.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens. PMID:20878234

  6. Entrepreneurial characteristics of indigenous housing developers: the case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura JAAFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the colonisation era, the immigrants from mainland China (and now their descendents dominate the Malaysian housing industry. Their high entrepreneurial ethics stimulated early venture in all economic sectors to become dominant in business. To increase the participation of indigenous entrepreneurs in economic activities, Malaysia has practiced its own version of the affirmative policy since the 1970s which is known as National Economic Policy (NEP. Unlike other economic sectors such as construction, manufacturing and agricultural, the government has not provided special assistance (other than those that are generic in nature for the indigenous populace to penetrate and thrive in housing development. As a consequence, their participation in this sector is conspicuous by their absence. A study was conducted to look into the involvement of indigenous housing developers in housing industry. Data was collected through postal questionnaires followed by face-to-face interviews. The discussion on the data analysis is presented together with interview findings.

  7. X-Integrationism for Chinese Indigenous Management Research : ?????????X????

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Regarding philosophical foundation of Chinese indigenous management research, Prof. Kwang?Kuo Hwang of Taiwan University and Prof. Peter P. Li of Copenhagen Business School have contradictory judgments. Their opinions represent two opposite poles. This paper tries to offer a middle route between these two poles. The author does not fully agree with Hwang’s argument that Chinese indigenous management research must adopt Western philosophies of science, nor does he agree with Li’s philosophy of wisdom interpretation of Chinese traditional philosophy. By integrating multiple philosophical elements rooted in China and the West, such as, Chinese Yin Yang thinking, Daoism, Confucianism, Bohr’s complementarity principle, and Hegel’s dialectic logic, this paper tries to construct the daoliology, epistemology and methodology of Chinese indigenous management research

  8. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same PE formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to PEs that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for PEs that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species in space and time.

  9. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Maple-Brown Louise; Cunningham Joan; Hodge Allison; Dunbar Terry; O'Dea Kerin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES). Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous ...

  10. Recent patterns in chronic disease mortality in remote living Indigenous Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasyan K; We, Hoy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the well-recognised Indigenous-non-Indigenous health disparity, some reports suggest improvements in Indigenous mortality. Our aim was to quantify Indigenous mortality in Outer Regional (OR), Remote (R), and Very Remote (VR) areas in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory and changes in mortality from 1998 to 2005. Methods We calculated rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and percentage change in annual r...

  11. Australia?s Indigenous ill?health and national social policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    März, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of health and socio-economic status of the Indigenous people of Australia and reports and discusses social policy measures that have been taken by the Commonwealth government to improve Indigenous health since the late 1980s. The health of Indigenous people is far worse than that of other Australians. Immediate causes of Indigenous ill?health are a poor environmental health infrastructure and housing conditions, inadequate access to health services and a...

  12. Dressing the Lumad Body: Indigenous Peoples and the Development Discourse in Mindanao

    OpenAIRE

    Quizon, Cherubim A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the passage of the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) in 1997, the term indigenous peoples or IPs has become codified in Philippine Law. However, legal usage of the term indigenous cultural communities/indigenous peoples (ICCs/IPs) contrasts starkly with the ways that members of these communities refer to themselves. In Southern Mindanao, members of government (GO) and non-government organizations (NGO) employ lumad to refer to the people that they are committed to assist; so do artis...

  13. Review of Bistandsnemda's (Norwegian Missions in Development) Work with Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Borchgrevink, Axel; McNeish, John-Andrew

    2007-01-01

    As part of Norway’s efforts to strengthen its cooperation with indigenous peoples a set of Guidelines were published by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2004. The Guidelines emphasise a rights-based approach and the requirement that there be ‘a clear connection between normative work on indigenous issues and practical cooperation with and on behalf of indigenous peoples’. Norwegian NGOs are the most important channel for Norwegian support for indigenous peoples. Among the No...

  14. Indigenous Past Climate Knowledge as Cultural Built-in Object and Its Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Leclerc; Caroline Mwongera; Pierre Camberlin; Joseph Boyard-Micheau

    2013-01-01

    In studying indigenous climate knowledge, two approaches can be envisioned. In the first, traditional knowledge is a cultural built-in object; conceived as a whole, its relevance can be assessed by referring to other cultural, economic, or technical components at work within an indigenous society. In the second, the accuracy of indigenous climate knowledge is assessed with western science knowledge used as an external reference. However, assessing the accuracy of indigenous climate knowledge ...

  15. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry since mold can develop when frozen foods are allowed to attain temperatures of -10ºC, or above. The growth of fungi on the food surface results in economic losses and represents a hazard to public health due to the possibility of mycotoxin production. The aim of this study was to identify the species of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers due to visible mold growth on their surface. The predominant species found were Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium polonicum, Penicillium manginii, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, and Penicillium solitum. Analysis of the profile of secondary metabolites was carried out in HPLC after growing the isolates in Czapek yeast autolysate agar (CYA) and yeast extract agar and sucrose (YESA) and extracting the extrolites with a solution of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, methanol, and formic acid. Some isolates of these species showed an ability to synthesize mycotoxins such as cyclopiazonic acid citreoviridin, roquefortine C, penitrem A, and verrucosidin under standard conditions. Considering the occurrence of fungal spoilage in frozen food and the potential hazard involved, more studies on psychrophilic fungi growth in foods stored at low temperatures are necessary. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of head and neck cancer treatment and survival among indigenous and non-indigenous people in Queensland, Australia, 1998 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvey Gail

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall, Indigenous Australians with cancer are diagnosed with more advanced disease, receive less cancer treatment and have poorer cancer survival than non-Indigenous Australians. The prognosis for Indigenous people with specific cancers varies however, and their prognosis for cancers of the head and neck is largely unknown. We therefore have compared clinical characteristics, treatment and survival between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people diagnosed with head and neck cancer in Queensland, Australia. Methods Rates were based on a cohort of Indigenous people (n = 67, treated in public hospitals between 1998 and 2004 and frequency-matched on age and location to non-Indigenous cases (n = 62 also treated in the public health system. Data were obtained from hospital records and the National Death Index. We used Pearson's Chi-squared analysis to compare categorical data (proportions and Cox proportional hazard models to assess survival differences. Results There were no significant differences in socioeconomic status, stage at diagnosis or number and severity of comorbidities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients, although Indigenous patients were more likely to have diabetes. Indigenous people were significantly less likely to receive any cancer treatment (75% vs. 95%, P = 0.005 and, when cancer stage, socioeconomic status, comorbidities and cancer treatment were taken into account, they experienced greater risk of death from head and neck cancer (HR 1.88, 1.10, 3.22 and from all other causes (HR 5.83, 95% CI 1.09, 31.04. Conclusion These findings show for the first time that Indigenous Australians with head and neck cancer receive less cancer treatment and suggest survival disparity could be reduced if treatment uptake was improved. There is a need for a greater understanding of the reasons for such treatment and survival disparities, including the impact of the poorer overall health on cancer outcomes for Indigenous Australians.

  17. ETHIC IDENTIFICATION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF THE SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Koptseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the problems (population dynamics, knowledge of the native language among indigenous peoples of the North, who live in the Krasnoyarsk region (Siberian Arctic, Russia. In their own territories began a new industrialization. Reduced opportunity for these peoples to preserve their unique culture. The necessity to take urgent regulations (laws, which should protect the rights of indigenous peoples who live in the Krasnoyarsk region, to preserve the unique culture, to use their native language in everyday communication."

  18. Global Marketing of Indigenous Culture: Discovering Native America with Lee Tiger and the Florida Miccosukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous scholars such as Seminole/Shawnee historian, Donald Fixico, drew attention to the lack of academic literature about the proactive, planned, and strategic actions of indigenous peoples. Most histories portray indigenous peoples as responding, accommodating, and assimilating to non-Indians and the US government. This article highlights…

  19. Student Science Achievement and the Integration of Indigenous Knowledge in the Classroom and on Standardized Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Juliann

    2012-01-01

    In science education, there has been little research focused on indigenous students' achievement on science standardized tests when indigenous knowledge is integrated into the test questions. However, there has been an increased amount of research investigating the impact of culturally relevant curriculum adaptations on indigenous

  20. Mental Disorders and Communication of Intent to Die in Indigenous Suicide Cases, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Sveticic, Jerneja

    2012-01-01

    In comparing Indigenous to non-Indigenous suicide in Australia, this study focussed on the frequency of the association between some psychiatric conditions, such as depression and alcohol abuse, and some aspect of suicidality, in particular communication of suicide intent. Logistic regression was implemented to analyze cases of Indigenous (n =…

  1. Improving the Representation of Indigenous Workers in the Mainstream Childcare Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the under-representation of Indigenous workers in mainstream childcare services and the associated problem of the under-representation of Indigenous children in such services. Specifically, it focuses on workforce issues that serve as barriers to both attracting and/or retaining Indigenous staff. The research methods…

  2. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  3. Using Mobile Phones as Placed Resources for Literacy Learning in a Remote Indigenous Community in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Glenn; Snyder, Ilana; Henderson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite massive funding from the Australian government, the literacy achievement of Australian Indigenous children remains significantly lower than for non-Indigenous. With the aim of identifying innovative ways to improve Indigenous children's literacy achievement, this study explored the social practices surrounding everyday mobile phone use by…

  4. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  5. Clinical comparison of indigenous /sup 99/Tc-m radiopharmaceuticals kits with Amersham diagnostic kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate appropriateness of the indigenous (Pinscan) cold kits was judged by performing clinical studies with them and comparing results with Amersham's diagnostic kits (Amerscan). The scans obtained by indigenous kits was as good as those of Amershams's. This proves that the indigenous kits are of acceptable quality and be used for routine clinical studies. (author)

  6. Embedding an Indigenous Graduate Attribute into University of Western Sydney's Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, Berice

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on embedding an Indigenous graduate attribute into courses at the University of Western Sydney (UWS), providing the background to the development and implementation of a holistic and individual Indigenous graduate attribute. It details the approach taken by the Badanami Centre for Indigenous Education in advising the UWS staff on…

  7. Connecting Indigenous Stories with Geology: Inquiry-Based Learning in a Middle Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Damian; King, Donna; Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    One way to integrate indigenous perspectives in junior science is through links between indigenous stories of the local area and science concepts. Using local indigenous stories about landforms, a teacher of Year 8 students designed a unit on geology that catered for the diverse student population in his class. This paper reports on the…

  8. Reflections on Teaching a First-Year Indigenous Australian Studies Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberg, Robyn; Gunstone, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Robyn Heckenberg and Andrew Gunstone team taught a first-year subject in Indigenous Australian Studies at Monash University for eight years. The significant majority of students undertaking this subject are non-Indigenous students who are studying the subject as an elective rather than as part of an Indigenous Studies course. In this paper, we…

  9. Closing the School Completion Gap for Indigenous Students. Resource Sheet No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, Sue; Lamb, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    School completion rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are well below the rates for non-Indigenous students. The target of halving the gap by 2020 in Year 12 (or equivalent) attainment rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students is a major national challenge. This paper discusses the causes of low completion rates for…

  10. Actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae) / Leishmanicidal activity of methanolic extract from four ecotypes of Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Libertad, Alzamora; Hilda, Solís; Marisol, Rojas; Marisela, Calderón; Narda, Fajardo; Jenny, Quispe; Evelyn, Alvarez; Erasmo, Colona; Dina, Torres.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento clásico de la leishmaniosis cutánea consiste en la inyección de 15-20 ampollas de Glucantine lo que ocasiona efectos secundarios, este hecho justifica la búsqueda de nuevos medicamentos motivando la presente investigación. El objetivo fue evaluar in vitro la actividad leishmanicida de [...] los extractos metanólicos (EM) de los ecotipos blanco, rojo, morado y negro de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (también conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp.), sobre el crecimiento de Leishmania braziliensis peruviana. Los promastigotes alcanzaron la fase de crecimiento exponencial al quinto día de cultivo a 27 ºC en el medio bifásico Columbia, suplementado con 15% de sangre desfibrinada de carnero, en ese momento se enfrentaron, por separado, con los EM a concentraciones de 50, 100, 200 y 400 ?g/ml. Los recuentos se hicieron diariamente con cámara Neubauer. La máxima disminución de promastigotes se produjo al segundo día de enfrentamiento para el ecotipo morado (17,41% de viabilidad) empleando 400 mg/ml. El efecto leishmanicida estaría relacionado con los alcaloides imidazólicos presentes en el EM. Se concluye que al segundo día de enfrentamiento con el EM, el ecotipo morado presenta la mayor actividad leishmanicida seguido del ecotipo blanco. Abstract in english The classic treatment of the cutaneous leishmaniosis consists on the injection of 15-20 ampoule of Glucantine what causes serious secondary effects. This fact justifies the search of new medications what motivated the present investigation. The objective was to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity o [...] f the methanolic extracts (ME) of the white, red, purple and black ecotypes of Lepidium peruvianum Chacón (at present Lepidium meyenii Walp.) about the growth of Leishmania braziliensis peruviana in vitro. The promastigotes reached the logarithmic phase to the fifth day of cultivation at 27 ºC in the two-phase Columbia medium with 15% of defibrinated sheep blood and they faced, for separate, with the ME to concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ?g/ml. The recounts were made daily with camera Neubauer. The maximum decrease of promastigotes (17.41% of viability) took place to the second day for the purple ecotype with the concentration of 400 mg/ml. The leishmanicidal effect would be related with the imidazolic alkaloids, glucosinolates, flavonoids, tannins and saponines present in the ME. The conclusion is that only ME of the white and purple ecotypes presents leishmanicidal activity, at second day of culture.

  11. The Impacts of Beef Prices and VAT on Chicken Meat Consumption: A Partial Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    F?DAN, Halil

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the impact of beef prices and taxes on chicken meat consumption in Turkey. The model presents a partial equilibrium approach for beef prices and chicken meat consumption in Turkey that can be used for simulation and forecasting. The structure of the model follows the vertical chain of the chicken meat sector, allowing equations for the supply, demand and net trade of chicken meat. The price, income, cross-price and tax elasticities of chicken meat were estimated to determi...

  12. Standardization and Evaluation of Physical, Textural and Organoleptic Properties of Chicken Biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Bukya; K.V.Sunooj; A.Surendra Babu

    2013-01-01

    Biscuits are convenient and inexpensive food products that are becoming very popular in India. The present study was conducted to standardize and evaluate the physical, textural and organoleptic properties of chicken biscuits by using defatted chicken, maida flour, spices, butter and baking agents. Control was prepared without adding chicken. Chicken biscuits were prepared by adding 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of defatted chicken into flour with other ingredients. The physical, textural and org...

  13. Evidence of the adaptive evolution of immune genes in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormican Paul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The basis for understanding the characteristics of gene functional categories in chicken has been enhanced by the ongoing sequencing of the zebra finch genome, the second bird species to be extensively sequenced. This sequence provides an avian context for examining how variation in chicken has evolved since its divergence from its common ancestor with zebra finch as well as well as a calibrating point for studying intraspecific diversity within chicken. Immune genes have been subject to many selective processes during their evolutionary history: this gene class was investigated here in a set of orthologous chicken and zebra finch genes with functions assigned from the human ortholog. Tests demonstrated that nonsynonymous sites at immune genes were highly conserved both in chicken and on the avian lineage. McDonald-Kreitman tests provided evidence of adaptive evolution and a higher rate of selection on fixation of nonsynonymous substitutions at immune genes compared to that at non-immune genes. Further analyses showed that GC content was much higher in chicken than in zebra finch genes, and was significantly elevated in both species' immune genes. Pathogen challenges are likely to have driven the selective forces that have shaped variation at chicken immune genes, and continue to restrict diversity in this functional class.

  14. Analysis of Local Chicken Entreprise in DAS Serayu Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeprapto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Objectives of this research was to know income and efficiency level of local chicken entreprise. Beside that, to know potency of local chicken enterprise developing in DAS Serayu, Banyumas and know factors can effect level of that income and efficiency. Methode that used at this research is survey method to farmer families. Take of research data by random sampling.The data is analysed by multiple regression analysis. The results of this research showed that income level of local chicken entreprise at DAS Serayu is Rp 277.375,00 / year and economi efficiency 2.80 , that means the farmers get return Rp 2.80 for every one unit cost addition. The age of farmers and total of chicken possession effect at efficiency of local chicken entreprise. Potency of local chicken developing very big if showed from power of area and human resources. Very important to increase entreprise capital and increase knowledge for farmer. Beside that more important present motivation and support for develop there enterprise (Animal Production 2(1: 13-17 (2000Key Words: local chicken, farmers income, economic efficiency

  15. Purification and characterization of chicken erythrocyte histone deacetylase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J M; Chen, H Y; Moniwa, M; Samuel, S; Davie, J R

    1999-05-01

    Histone acetylation is involved in nuclear processes requiring chromatin remodeling. In chicken erythrocytes, DNA replication has ceased, and active reversible histone acetylation is restricted to transcriptionally active/competent chromatin domains. In this study, we set out to identify and purify the erythroid histone deacetylase responsible for catalyzing dynamic acetylation of transcriptionally active chromatin. Histone deacetylase purified from chicken erythrocytes had a molecular mass of 66 kDa. Complementary DNA encoding the chicken histone deacetylase was cloned from erythrocytes, and analysis of the derived amino acid sequence showed the chicken histone deacetylase to be the chicken homologue of mammalian HDAC1. Purified chicken erythrocyte HDAC1 deacetylated the four core histones, with a preference for H3. We present evidence that chicken HDAC1 is a metalloenzyme, the activity of which is lost when incubated with zinc chelators. In Western blot analysis with anti-HDAC1 antibodies, we found that most erythrocyte HDAC1 is associated with the low-salt insoluble chromatin fraction and, to a lesser extent, with 150 mM NaCl-soluble oligo- and polynucleosomes. The distribution of HDAC1 in erythrocyte chromatin parallels that of dynamically acetylated class 1 histones. Further, we show that HDAC1 is associated with the erythroid nuclear matrix and that the enzyme is bound to nuclear DNA in situ. We propose that in addition to catalyzing dynamic acetylation of transcribed chromatin, the enzyme has a role in the organization of nuclear DNA. PMID:10231548

  16. Antibody synthesis stimulation by vitamin A in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutskaya, Z K; Fais, D

    1977-03-18

    The effect of vitamin A on the immune response of chickens on primary and secondary immunization has been studied. It is demonstrated that the antibody content in chickens depends on the dose of vitamin A in the diet. In chickens fed a high dose of vitamin A in the diet the antibody content in the serum is 2 to 5 times as high as in chickens which have not been given vitamin A. An additional dose of vitamin A administered perorally any day following reimmunization increases the content of antibodies; the effect is most pronounced when vitamin A is given on the third day after reimmunization. In the period of maximal synthesis of antibodies (during the fourth day after reimmunization) labelled retinol is incorporated into the spleen of reimmunized chickens 13 times as actively as in the spleen of control chickens. In the in vitro experiments with antibody synthesis by spleen cells it has been demonstrated that addition of retinyl palmitate to the incubation medium enhances antibody synthesis during incubation. Addition of retinyl palmitate to the spleen cells of vitamin A-deficient chickens restores the synthesis up to the level observed in the control cells. The suggestion is discussed that the effect of vitamin A on the immune process is realized at the level of immunoglobulin synthesis. PMID:843528

  17. Trace metals determination in chicken eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the adequacy for essential metals and to get an estimate of toxic metals variation in poultry farm and domestic chicken eggs, concentrations of those trace metals which are problematic with neutron activation analysis i. g., Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd were carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples were digested with HNO/sub 3/ -HClO/sub 4/ mixture. Median concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the yolk of poultry farm eggs were found to be 3.6, 101.2, 1.7 and 42.3 micro g g/sup -1/ respectively. As expected the concentrations of these elements were much lower in egg albumen. On the other hand the median concentrations of Pb (0.130 micro g g/sup -1/ and Cd (0.049 micro g g/sup -1/) were higher in egg albumen as compared to egg yolk. Almost similar pattern was observed from the analytical data of domestic chicken eggs. The results obtained were compared with the reported results from the literature. Using the average concentrations, daily intake values of these elements were calculated for poultry farm eggs and were found to be well below the WHO recommended/permissible values for essential and toxic metals. (author)

  18. [Multi-epitope DNA vaccines against avian influenza in chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Mei; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Yun-Feng; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2003-09-01

    Multiple epitopes from one or more viruses can be lined up and co-expressed in one vector to generate multi-epitopes DNA vaccines. In the study, four recombinant plasmids were constructed based on HA and NP gene of avian influenza virus (AIV) (H5N1): (1) pIRES/HA, carrying the complete HA gene; (2) pIRES/tHA, carrying a truncated HA gene fragment of major neutralizing antigenic epitopes; (3) pIRES/tHA-NPep, in which three CTL epitopes of NP gene of AIV were fused to the truncated HA from the C-terminal; and (4) pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, which was constructed by replacing neo gene in pIRES/ tHA-NPep with IFN-y of chicken. Fifty five SPF chickens were randomly divided into five groups and immunized with the above four constructs and control plasmid. Each chicken was intramuscally immunized with 200 microg plasmid DNA three times in a two-week interval. Two weeks after the third immunization, chickens were injected with H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus. Before the virus loading no detectable antibodies to HA were found in the chicken serum; but high levels of HI antibodies were detected in the serum of the survived chickens. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in peripheral blood of immunized chickens increased steadily after the vaccination. After virus loading all chickens in the control group died within three to eight days, and the survival rates of the four DNA vaccine groups were as follows: pIRES/HA, 54.5%; pIRES/tHA, 30%, pIRES/ tHA-NPep, 36.3%, pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, 50%. These results indicated that multi-epitopes DNA immunization can induce immune response and protect chickens from homologous virus loading. PMID:15969096

  19. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  20. Climatic change and indigenous and non-indigenous ravagers : a new reality?; Changements climatiques et les ravageurs indigenes et exotiques : une nouvelle realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniere, J.; Cooke, B.; Logan, J.A.; Carroll, A.; Safranyik, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Forest Service

    2005-07-01

    The impact that climate change may have on ecological diversity was discussed with particular reference to the movement of indigenous and non-indigenous insects that are harmful to trees. Insects in particular, are more likely to evolve rapidly and adapt to ecological change. Those with a high rate of reproduction and which can move long distances will colonize new habitats and survive a wide range of bio-physical conditions. This PowerPoint presentation included a series of graphs, tables and charts to illustrate the increased presence of various harmful insects in northern forests, including the balsam twig aphid, balsam gall midge, gypsy moth, hemlock looper, western spruce budworm, and forest tent caterpillar. It was shown that large changes in ecosystems are expected to occur at northern latitudes and higher altitudes. tabs., figs.

  1. Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example

    OpenAIRE

    Julian A. Robbins; Jonathan Dewar

    2011-01-01

    In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well....

  2. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimond Eric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  3. Experimental approaches for identification of indigenous lactococci isolated from traditional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Poga?i?

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous lactic acid bacteria contribute to the taste and flavour of traditional dairy products. Therefore, the traditional dairy products might be an interesting reservoir of indigenous lactococcal strains responsible for development of the specific flavour compounds. Consequently, characterized indigenous isolates might be used as a starter culture. The development of molecular techniques provides a new perspective for characterization of the “new lactococcal” strains. However, there is no unique approach suggested for molecular characterization of the indigenous strains associated with the traditional products. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into varieties of experimental approaches applied for molecular characterization of indigenous lactococci associated with traditional dairy products.

  4. Issues in English Language Assessment of Indigenous Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Although English is widely used by Indigenous Australians as the main means of communication, national testing has consistently raised questions as to the level of their English language and literacy achievement. This article examines contextual factors (historical, linguistic, cultural, socio-political and educational) which underlie this…

  5. Oil frontiers and indigenous resistance in the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orta-Martinez, Marti [ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court. NW, Washington DC 20003 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Peruvian Amazon is culturally and biologically one of the most diverse regions on Earth. Since the 1920s oil exploration and extraction in the region have threatened both biodiversity and indigenous peoples, particularly those living in voluntary isolation. We argue that the phenomenon of peak oil, combined with rising demand and consumption, is now pushing oil extraction into the most remote corners of the world. Modern patterns of production and consumption and high oil prices are forcing a new oil exploratory boom in the Peruvian Amazon. While conflicts spread on indigenous territories, new forms of resistance appear and indigenous political organizations are born and become more powerful. The impacts of oil exploration and exploitation and indigenous resistance throughout the oil history of the Peruvian Amazon are reviewed here, focusing on the Achuar people in Rio Corrientes. The driving forces, impacts, and responses to the current oil exploration boom are analyzed from an environmental justice perspective. We conclude that, in a context of peak oil and growing global demand for oil, such devastating effects for minor quantities of oil are likely to increase and impact other remote parts of the world. (author)

  6. Exploring Models for Indigenizing Social Work Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanghua, Wang; Liqun, Huang

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the theories of indigenization and examines the problems facing China's social work education. It shows that the quality of social work education and teaching staff is low. The curriculum emphasizes theory and overlooks practical training. "Using as is," not modifying Western theories, has remained strong. The…

  7. The Development of Indigenous Counseling in Contemporary Confucian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    In view of the limitations of mainstream Western psychology, the necessity of indigenous psychology for the development of global community psychology is discussed in the context of multiculturalism. In addition to this general introduction, four articles underlying a common theme were designed to discuss (a) various types of value conflicts…

  8. Impacts of Forest Changes on Indigenous People Livelihood in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosta Harun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest cover change in the region due to timber extraction and change of land use pattern in the region have brought certain impacts on the livelihood of indigenous people. These people who once highly depended on the forest resources are the most affected. This study was done with the purpose to reveal the importance of forest as a source of their basic need and income for indigenous people and their future generation through the lens of history and place. A qualitative study had been done on the indigenous people that live in three villages in Pekan District, Pahang. Qualitative approach using face-to-face interview was applied to gather the oral history on the impacts of forest change at their place. It shown that forest change has much more impacts on the forest depended communities in the fringe of forests. A small tabletop recorder was used to record the interview session. This study could provide valuable inputs to government and other stakeholders on managing issues related to indigenous people, environment and their culture.

  9. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  10. ’For the Love of Thy Mother Tongue’ : Indigenous Language Revitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Satta, Erika

    2005-01-01

    Presentation at the 6th annual Forum for Development Cooperation with Indigenous Peoples, which commenced in 2005. The Centre for Sámi Studies hosted the conference at the University of Tromsø, Norway. Full conference report available at http://hdl.handle.net/10037/2999

  11. ’For the Love of Thy Mother Tongue’ :Indigenous Language Revitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Satta, Erika

    2005-01-01

    Presentation at the 6th annual Forum for Development Cooperation with Indigenous Peoples, which commenced in 2005. The Centre for Sámi Studies hosted the conference at the University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Full conference report available at http://hdl.handle.net/10037/2999

  12. Citizens and indigenous peoples in the populist state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes how post-colonial elites in the Peruvian Andes were able to remove an indigenous presence from the towns. This was done through recourse to a discourse of hygiene and (Indian) disease and by transforming ideas of shared urban space (the commons) into a new excluding urban public space.

  13. ¿Exclusión o inclusión indígena? / Indigenous exclusion or inclusion?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha, Singer Sochet.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo la autora analiza la problemática de la desigualdad de oportunidades y exclusión de la población indígena mexicana, de cara a las demandas de reconocimiento de la diversidad cultural, la autonomía y autodeterminación indígena, a través de las cuales se busca la inclusión de este sect [...] or de la población en el proyecto de nación. En este sentido, el trabajo también revisa la conceptualización que el gobierno elabora sobre la marginación indígena, a partir de la cual define sus políticas. Finalmente, observa los retos que la inclusión indígena tiene para la construcción de la democracia en el país. Abstract in english In this paper the author analyzes the problems of inequality of opportunity and exclusion of Mexican indigenous population, in the face of demands for recognition of cultural diversity, indigenous autonomy and self-determination, through which it aims to include this sector of the population in the [...] national project. In this sense, the paper also reviews the conceptualization that the government draws on indigenous marginalization from which defines its policies. Finally, note the challenges that indigenous involvement is to build democracy in the country.

  14. Literacy Campaigns and the Indigenization of Modernity: Rearticulations of Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostok, Steve; Whitman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many current literacy campaigns intended for indigenous peoples in Third World countries are reconceptualizations of earlier colonial projects and conform to the needs of late-modern capitalism. Early anthropology may have influenced the discourses surrounding literacy, but current anthropologists have charted important cultural and linguistic…

  15. Installation and performance evaluation of an indigenous surface area analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indigenously available surface area analyser was installed inside glove box and checked for its performance by analyzing uranium oxide and thorium oxide powders at RMD. The unit has been made ready for analysis of Plutonium oxide powders after incorporating several important features. (author)

  16. Oral Language, Representations and Mathematical Understanding: Indigenous Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Elizabeth; Young, Janelle

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the role of oral language and representations in negotiating mathematical understanding. The data were gathered from two Indigenous Australian classrooms in Northern Queensland. The first classroom, a Year 6/7 consisted of 15 students whose ages range from 10 years to 12 years with eight being Aboriginal, six from Torres Strait…

  17. The Future in the Past of Native and Indigenous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrior, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about some of the issues of the beginnings of Native and Indigenous studies and suggests that one looks more precisely at what people mean when they talk about those beginnings. The author is not a big fan of Native people emerging vaguely from the mists of time, but he is always tracing a history of Native studies…

  18. The Stigmatization and Resilience of a Female Indigenous Mexican Immigrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Saskias

    2012-01-01

    This case study examines the autobiographical writing and interviews of Lupe, an Indigenous Mexican immigrant, at multiple times in her life. The case study is contextualized within social, historical, psychological, and institutional spaces both in the United States and in Mexico. Consequently, Lupe's journey is an example of how stigmatization…

  19. Variation in indigenous forest resource use in central Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Claire M P; Cabral, Christie; Shaw, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable forest conservation strategies should be based on local as well as landscape-scale forest resource use data. Using ecological and sociological techniques, we test the hypotheses that (1) forest resource use differs between ethnic and socioeconomic indigenous groups and (2) that this difference results in differing spatial patterns of resource use, with implications for forest diversity and for conservation planning. In the North Rupununi Guyana, three adjacent indigenous communities (differing in their indigenous/immigrant balance) were recorded using 73 animal and 164 plant species (plus several unidentified ethno-species). Farm sites formed important foci for most forest based activities and ex-farm sites supported similar floristic diversity to surrounding forest. Resource usage differences between communities could be attributed to socio-cultural drivers, e.g. mammal meat consumption and the use of the fruits from the palm tree A. maripa were higher in more traditional households. When extracting household construction timber, lower income groups created small scattered felling sites akin to tree fall gaps whereas higher income groups created larger gaps. Lower income (indigenous) households tended to clear larger but more contained sites for farming while mixed or non-Amerindian household tended to clear smaller but more widely dispersed farm sites. These variations resulted in different patterns of forest disturbance originating from agriculture and timber extraction. PMID:25068801

  20. [Foods native to indigenous and afro-descendents in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Abadía, Ximena; Carolina Pazos, Sonia; Castillo Castillo, Silvana Katerin; Pachón, Helena

    2010-09-01

    For social programs in Colombia, like those administered by the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), it's important to know what native foods minority groups consume. This research obtained information on native foods consumed by indigenous and afro-descendents living in 10 Colombian departments: Cauca, Nariño, Amazonas, Chocó, Guainia, Vichada, Magdalena, Guajira, Cesar y Vaupés. A questionnaire was applied to key informants (individually or in groups), addressing the following topics: personal information on the informant, name and type of food, if consumed by indigenous and/or afro-Colombians, climate where produced, time of year when harvested, if consumed raw or cooked, preparations, properties ascribed to the food, and current production, use and availability. Key informants included participants in ICBF's programs, indigenous authorities, teachers, traditional healers, and others, under the supervision of professionals from ICBF's mobile unit in each department. Bibliography (n = 123 documents) was compiled and reviewed. In the departments selected, 13 municipalities were visited, 139 individuals were interviewed and at least 92 new foods (i.e., not currently included in the Colombian Food Composition Table) were identified. Among the 92, the scientific name was obtained for 62 foods. Of these, 2 were classified as other, 18 as meats, 3 as insects, and 39 as plants. Among the plants, informants mentioned fruit (n=29), leaves (n=4), seed (n=3) and roots (n=3). Indigenous and afro-descendent communities in Colombia report consuming dozens of foods that are not currently in the Colombian Food Composition Table. PMID:21614816

  1. Diversifying Science: Recognizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems as Scientific Worldviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today.…

  2. Indigenous Storywork: Educating the Heart, Mind, Body, and Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Jo-ann

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous oral narratives are an important source for, and component of, Coast Salish knowledge systems. Stories are not only to be recounted and passed down; they are also intended as tools for teaching. Jo-ann Archibald worked closely with Elders and storytellers, who shared both traditional and personal life-experience stories, in order to…

  3. Indigenous VET Research and Statistics: Terms and Definitions. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document covers the data terms used in the "Indigenous Research and Statistics" resources. It covers information contained in the "Apprentices and Trainees June Quarter 2009 report," the "Students and Courses 2009" report and the "Student Outcomes 2009" report and their associated data tables. The primary purpose of this document is to assist…

  4. Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Non-indigenous species (NIS) are common in the United States landscape. While some are beneficial, others are harmful and can cause significant economic, environmental, and health damage. This study, requested by the U.S. House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, examined State and Federal policies related to these harmful NIS. The report is…

  5. Pearls, Not Problems: Exploring Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the shift in terminology that occurred in a 2-year Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded curriculum renewal project that set out to broadly explore current teaching and learning practice in Indigenous Australian studies (www.teaching4change.edu.au). While we started with the term "Problem-Based Learning", it…

  6. MEDICINA INDÍGENA Y SALUD MENTAL / INDIGENOUS MEDICINE AND MENTAL HEALTH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ÁLVARO ROBERTO, VALLEJO SAMUDIO.

    2006-12-15

    Full Text Available Las diferentes alternativas médicas con que hoy cuenta la humanidad enriquecen tanto la profilaxis, como los diagnósticos y los tratamientos mismos de las enfermedades, cuando éstas se abordan desde un marco multicausal. El siguiente artículo hace una reflexión alrededor de dos alternativas: la medi [...] cina occidental y la medicina indígena. Se focaliza en la concepción de salud que manejan estas dos formas de conocimiento, se hace hincapié en la necesidad de revalorar la medicina indígena, y se plantea a grosso modo cómo desde la medicina indígena se ven las alteraciones en la salud mental. El autor resalta que para comprender la concepción de salud mental que puedan tener los pueblos indígenas, se hace necesario entender la cosmogonía y cosmología propia de esos pueblos. Abstract in english The different medical alternatives used today by humanity enrich the prophylaxis as well as the diagnoses and the treatment of diseases when these are tackled within a multicausal framework. In this paper two of these alternatives are considered: Western medicine and indigenous medicine. It focuses [...] on the concept of health developed by these two approaches, emphasizes the need to reassess indigenous medicine, and examines in general how mental health disorders are regarded from the point of view of indigenous medicine. The author stresses that in order to understand this conception it is necessary to get acquainted with the cosmogony and cosmology characteristics of indigenous people.

  7. The Roles of Research Universities in Indigenous National Technological Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuolin; Zhao, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    The world is increasingly merged into a global market economy, and the government's intervention power in economy has rapidly given way to that of science and technology. For the world's major economic powers, indigenous technological innovation has become a national strategy for enhancing competitiveness. Investment in scientific and…

  8. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    The new science of genomics endeavors to chart the genomes of individuals around the world, with the dual goals of understanding the role genetic factors play in human health and solving problems of disease and disability. From the perspective of indigenous peoples and developing countries, the promises and perils of genomic science appear against a backdrop of global health disparity and political vulnerability. These conditions pose a dilemma for many communities when attempting to decide about participating in genomic research or any other biomedical research. Genomic research offers the possibility of improved technologies for managing the acute and chronic diseases that plague their members. Yet, the history of particularly biomedical research among people in indigenous and developing nations offers salient examples of unethical practice, misuse of data, and failed promises. This dilemma creates risks for communities who decide either to participate or not to participate in genomic science research. Some argue that the history of poor scientific practice justifies refusal to join genomic research projects. Others argue that disease poses such great threats to the well-being of people in indigenous communities and developing nations that not participating in genomic research risks irrevocable harm. Thus, some communities particularly among indigenous peoples have declined to participate as subjects in genomic research. At the same time, some communities have begun developing new guidelines, procedures, and practices for engaging with the scientific community that offer opportunities to bridge the gap between genomic science and indigenous and/or developing communities. Four new approaches warrant special attention and further support: consulting with local communities; negotiating the complexities of consent; training members of local communities in science and health care; and training scientists to work with indigenous communities. Implicit is a new definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. PMID:20880250

  9. Addressing the Pedagogical Purpose of Indigenous Displays: The Case of the National Museum of the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofanenko, Brenda; Segall, Avner

    2012-01-01

    In museums with Indigenous objects, the exhibits present a particular representation of the culture and history of Indigenous peoples. More recently, the move toward partnerships with Indigenous communities represents a radical departure from long-held attitudes about the relationship between Indigenous people and museums. This article both…

  10. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditt indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common feature in systems across the regions. Morphometric measurements identified the specific phenotypic characteristics resulted by geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though vary according to the regional preferences, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. The diversity analysis based on microsatellite genotyping indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka has a high genetic diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). The genetic distances (DA) between regions were low (ranged between 0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions despite the geographical isolation. However, two genetic clusters were visible though no relationship of those clusters with the geographical distribution of different regions could be observed. Introgression of taurine cattle was evidenced in one of the cattle populations (NC) as suggested by the Y-specific microsatellite analysis (author)

  11. Greek or Indigenous? From Potsherd to Identity in Early Colonial Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, SØren; Jacobsen, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous pottery plays a vital role in interpretations of the relationship between the indigenous population and the Greek settlers in south Italy. Indigenous pottery habitually turns up in otherwise Greek habitation, ritual and mortuary contexts. Whereas imported Greek or ‘colonial’ pottery from indigenous contexts has been dealt with in considerable detail, the finds of indigenous pottery in Greek colonial contexts have not been thoroughly investigated in the western Mediterranean. Much more scholarly attention focused on the Black Sea region has, however, concentrated on the presence of indigenous Scythian and Taurian pottery in the Greek apoikiai, especially in the north-western Black Sea region. Similarities in the archaeological record of the two areas are numerous. In this paper we compare the occurrence of indigenous pottery in Greek contexts in the two regions and discuss some of the different inferences that have been drawn about the identity of the people who used the pots.

  12. Reconstructing Indigenous ethnicities: the Arapium and Jaraqui peoples of the lower Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Omaira

    2010-01-01

    In Latin America, indigenous identity claims among people not previously recognized as such by the state have become a key topic of anthropological and sociological research. Scholars have analyzed the motivations and political implications of this trend and the impacts of indigenous population's growth on national demographic indicators. However, little is known about how people claiming indigenous status constructs the meaning of their indigenous ethnicity. Drawing from sixty-four indepth interviews, focus-group analyses, and participant observation, this article explores the double process of identity construction: the reconstruction of the Arapium indigenous identity and the creation of the Jaraqui indigenous identity in Brazil's Lower Amazon. The findings reveal six themes that contribute to the embodiment of a definition of indigenous identity and the establishment of a discursive basis to claim recognition: sense of rootedness, historical memory, historical transformation, consciousness, social exclusion, and identity politics. PMID:21188890

  13. Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was brown (31.18% followed by white (28.53%, fawn (15.29%, grey (13.53%, black (4.41% and mixed (7.06%. The prominent colour of tail switch was black (74.53%. Most of animals had black muzzle (86.47%, black hooves (84.71% and black horn (100%. Morphometric characteristics data obtained were classified according to location, age group and sex of the animal. The means for body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were 83.668±0.590, 91.942±0.55, 113.146±0.738, 121.181±0.761, 54.196±0.527, 26.098±0.186, 32.705±0.166, 18.131±0.111 and 35.035±0.195 cm respectively. Age and sex had significant effect on all the morphometric characters however, location effect was non significant. The indigenous cattle of Assam are comparatively smaller in size than most of the recognized breeds of cattle however coat colour showed sizeable variation. The data generated for indigenous cattle of Assam would be useful to characterize them.

  14. African indigenous land rights in a private ownership paradigm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WJ du, Plessis.

    Full Text Available It is often stated that indigenous law confers no property rights in land. Okoth-Ogenda reconceptualised indigenous land rights by debunking the myth that indigenous land rights systems are necessarily "communal" in nature, that "ownership" is collective and that the community as an entity makes col [...] lective decisions about the access and use of land.1 He offers a different understanding of indigenous land rights systems by looking at the social order of communities that create "reciprocal rights and obligations that this binds together, and vests power in the community members over land". To determine who will be granted access to or exercise control over land and the resources, one needs to look at these rights and obligations and the performances that arise from them. This will leave only two distinct questions: who may have access to the land (and what type of access)2 and who may control and manage the land resources on behalf of those who have access to it?3 There is a link with this reconceptualisation and the discourse of the commons. Os-trom's classification of goods leads to a definition of the commons (or common pool of resources) as "a class of resources for which exclusion is difficult and joint use involves subtractablity".4 The questions this article wishes to answer are: would it firstly be possible to classify the indigenous land rights system as a commons, and secondly would it provide a useful analytical framework in which to solve the problem of securing land tenure in South Africa?

  15. Population structure in Tunisian indigenous rabbit ascertained using molecular information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Ben Larbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication. This study attempts to offer an insight into the prevailing genetic status of Tunisian indigenous rabbit breeds using molecular markers. Thirty-six microsatellite loci were used to provide a comprehensive insight into the genetic status and relationship among 12 Tunisian indigenous rabbit populations. A total of 264 rabbits from villages of the Tozeur and Kebili regions were studied. Standard statistics parameters of genetic variability within and between populations were calculated. The observed heterozygosity, unbiased expected heterozygosity and the effective number of alleles were used to assess the genetic variation of each indigenous breed. Results show a high genetic diversity and observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.3 and 0.5, which implies that there is an abundant genetic variation stored in Tunisian indigenous rabbit breeds. Significant population differentiation was observed (Fst=0.11, which means that most of the genetic variation resides within breeds. The percentage of individuals correctly classified to their population was 85%. Breeds with more than one breeder origin were divided into subgroups, due to differences in gene frequencies between breeders, which in some cases creates a genetic differentiation even higher than that observed between distinct breeds. The current study is the first detailed analysis of the genetic diversity of Tunisian indigenous rabbit populations. The data generated here provides valuable information about the genetic structure of the 12 rabbit populations and this can be used to designate priorities for their conservation.

  16. T. GONDII IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM GHANA, INDONESIA, ITALY, POLAND, AND VIETNAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam was determin...

  17. Diabetes Mellitus: Indigenous naming, indigenous diagnosis and self-management in an African setting: the example from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awah Paschal K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to examine how the indigenous naming, indigenous self-diagnosis and management of diabetes evolved with awareness in order to develop a socially oriented theoretical model for its care. Methods The data was collected through a one-year extended participant observation in Bafut, a rural health district of Cameroon. The sample consisted of 72 participants in a rural health district of Cameroon (men and women with type 2 diabetes. We used participant observation to collect data through focus group discussions, in depth interviews and fieldwork conversations. The method of analysis entailed a thick description, thematic analysis entailing constant comparison within and across FGD and across individual participants and content analysis. Results The core concepts identified were the evolution of names for diabetes and the indigenous diagnostic and self-management procedures. Participants fell into one of two naming typologies: (a Naming excluding any signs and symptoms of diabetes; (b naming including signs and symptoms of diabetes. Participants fell into two typologies of diagnostic procedures: (a those that use indigenous diagnostic procedures for monitoring and controlling diabetes outcomes and b those that had initially used it only for diagnosis and continued to use them for self management. These typologies varied according to how participants' awareness evolved and the impact on self-diagnosis and management. Conclusion The evolution of names for diabetes was an important factor that influenced the subsequent self-diagnosis and management of diabetes in both traditional and modern biomedical settings.

  18. Principles and guidelines for good practice in Indigenous engagement in water planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Tan, Poh-Ling; Mooney, Carla; Hoverman, Suzanne; White, Ian

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous rights, values and interests relating to water have been identified by Australia's National Water Commission as a national priority area, requiring greater understanding, research attention and government action. Yet Indigenous water values are rarely addressed in water planning, despite objectives in national policy requiring Indigenous participation and the identification of Indigenous social, spiritual and customary values in water plans. Water planners are presently equipped with a very limited number of engagement tools tailored to the water resource management context to redress the historical neglect of Indigenous interests. In an Australian research project focused on water planning, seven participatory planning tools were employed in three Australian case studies with different social and hydrological characteristics to improve the way in which Indigenous values are elicited and incorporated and to enhance the status of Indigenous knowledge in water planning. The results from the two Murray Darling Basin (MDB) case studies reveal the many ways in which Indigenous values have been adversely affected by recent water resource developments and concomitant water scarcity. In the third case on the Tiwi Islands in the Northern Territory, where land title to the entire water planning area is vested in Indigenous traditional owners, methods were refined to ensure engagement and generate capacity to manage the development of a solely Indigenous-owned, first-generation Water Management Strategy, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders. This paper describes the needs and aspirations of Indigenous people, the engagement strategies employed to elicit Indigenous knowledge, assess Indigenous values, and incorporate the results into three developing water plans. In addition, it outlines a set of general principles to guide water planning in other regions and thereby to improve Indigenous access to water.

  19. Sensory evaluation of chicken breast treated with essential oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was sensory evaluation of samples of chicken breast meat treated with essential oil. The samples of chicken breast was divided into three groups and treated as follows: control group was packaging in air without treated, next group was with vacuum packaging without treated and last group was with vacuum packaging and treated oregano essential oil (0.2% v/w. Sensory properties of fresh chicken breast meat were monitored over a 15 days period. All fresh chickens’ breast meat samples were stored at 4 °C. From sensory properties were evaluated taste, smell, juiciness and tenderness by 5-point scale test. The results were statistically processed using program Statgraphics. Statistically differences (P?0.05 were found on smell between control group with air packaging and group vacuum packaging and group with oregano essential oil treatment. Silimilar results statistically differences were reported on taste, juiciness and tenterness.

  20. Dermal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Broiler Chickens In Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Riddell, C.; Shettigara, P T

    1980-01-01

    A low but widespread incidence of a dermal squamous cell carcinoma is reported in broiler chickens in Saskatchewan. The tumor appears as an irregular ulcer in the skin and is widely distributed over the body of affected birds.

  1. CUTANEOUS RECORDING OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAMS IN ELECTRICALLY STUNNED BROILER CHICKENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methodology was developed to record electroencephalograms (EEGs) from chickens using skin surface contact electrodes and telemetry transmitter and receiving units prior to and immediately after electrical stunning. Optimal location of the three electrodes was determined using scaleless ¿featherles...

  2. Radappertization of chicken and pork meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)

  3. The developmental toxicity of cottonseed extraction on chicken embryo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Parisa, Sadighara; Jamileh Salar, Amoli; Javad, Ashrafihelan; Tahereh, Aliesfahani; Tahereh, Farkhondeh.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cottonseed meal is widely used as one of the protein supplement in poultry diets. Its mechanism of toxic action on chicken embryo is poorly understood. In this study, direct effects and abnormalities of cottonseed on chicken embryo were studied. Oxidative stress, cholinergic stress, mineral analysis [...] and microscopic lesions were analyzed in chicken embryo which injected cottonseed extraction in 0.1, 1 and 10 mg concentration (with free gossypol 0.25 ppm, 2.5 ppm and 25 ppm respectively) at day 4 of incubation. Higher group had 100% mortality. Serum of alive chicken embryo at day 20 of incubation were measured for FRAP (ferric reducing ability of serum), total SH groups assay, cholinesterase assay and potassium concentration. The results expressed as mean±SD show to increase oxidative stress, cholinergic stress but significant difference (p

  4. Indigenous Knowledge Organization: A Study of Concepts, Terminology, Structure and (Mostly Indigenous Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of published information (especially in Canada on modified classification systems and thesauri for describing and organizing Aboriginal materials, I set out to conduct a survey on this topic. The surveys were distributed at five Indigenous-related conferences and gatherings in Canada and the United States between the Fall, 2009, and the Fall, 2010, and more than 50 completed surveys were collected. Research findings included preferred changes in terminology from Library of Congress subject headings (which were seen to be outdated and inappropriate but there was no resounding consensus on a “one-size fits all” terminology for thesauri terminology. However, this was not seen to be problematic given the diverse range of participants who took part in the survey. Respondents also commented on a survey question inquiring about the use of the “Medicine Wheel” concept as a way to organize Aboriginal-related materials, as well as other possible structures that might prove more culturally relevant for organizing these materials. There was both support for and strong opposition to the use of the Medicine Wheel for this purpose, for a variety of reasons. Participants indicated a preference for non-hierarchical and less linear structures than what current mainstream classification systems provide. There also seemed to be support for “landscape-based” structures. Although research findings were not conclusive, some valuable insights were gained from this study. The exploratory nature of this research project suggests more research (and more in-depth research in this area is required.

  5. Chicken antimicrobial peptides: biological functions and possible applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Farm animals often suffer from diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract. Modulation of natural defence mechanisms by dietary additives may be one way to improve intestinal health and food safety. In mammals, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the host defence of skin and mucosal surfaces. We sought for novel members of known antimicrobial peptide families using in silico analysis and discovered 7 unknown chicken beta-defensins (AvBDs) and one chicken cathelicidin (CMAP27)....

  6. Immunoregulation of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide in Vaccinated Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide (LBP on immune responses in vaccinated chickens. A total of 600 Hy-Line Brown chickens aged 15 days old were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates per group and fifty chickens per replicate and all the chickens were injected with Newcastle Disease (ND vaccine. Three experimental groups of chickens were injected with LBP 20, 10 and 5 mg kg-1 (LBPH, LBPM and LBPL and the control group were injected with equal dose normal saline (0.09% NaCl, respectively per day for 7 days. On the 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after vaccination, ten chickens were sampled randomly from each group and the serum was seperated for the determination of NDV-HI antibody titers by Micro Method. On day 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 after vaccination, blood samples from 5 chickens per group were collected to separate lymphocyte and determine the peripheral blood T lymphocyte proliferation with Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT Method. The content of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were tested by using flow cytometry with Double Color Staining Method. The IL-2 levels were determined by ELISA Method and the whole body, bursa of fabricius and thymus were weighted for calculation of immune organ index. The results showed that LBP (10 and 20 mg kg-1 could significantly raised the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+T lymphocyte (p<0.01 and the production of IL-2. It also significantly enhanced the ND antibody titers, promoted the proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocyte and increased immune organ indexes (p<0.01. These results indicated that LBP had significant immunoregulation functions of ND vaccine in chickens.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis of Human and Chicken Origin

    OpenAIRE

    GONCAGÜL, Gül?en; GÜNAYDIN, Elçin; ÇARLI, K. Tayfun

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between antibiotic resistance patterns among Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis isolates (Salmonella Enteritidis) of human and poultry origin. Antibiotic resistance of 97 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 25 chicken meat, 25 chicken intestine and 47 human fecal samples was examined using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 1997) disk diffusion method. Resistance patterns of the isolates ...

  8. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  9. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (co...

  10. Residue of ochratoxin a in chicken tissues-risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mili?evi? Dragan R.; Jovanovi? Milijan; Matekalo-Sverak Vesna F.; Radi?evi? Tatjana; Petrovi? Milan M.; Vukovi? Dubravka Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Toxicological investigations of tissues of normally slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide preliminary evaluation of the incidence of OTA in chicken tissues (n=90). Majority of tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA, while in general, the OTA levels found in the analyzed tissue were low. Methods: The presence of OTA in tissue samples was determined by HPLC-FL after liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Method validation was performed accor...

  11. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  12. Biochemical Evaluation of Millet Offal as Feeds for Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    E.V. Ezieshi; J.M. Olomu Olomu

    2008-01-01

    Studies were conducted to chemically characterize and biologically evaluate millet offal as a replacement for maize in the diets of broiler chickens. Two types of millet offal were chemically characterized: the one obtained as a by-product of brewing industry and the other a by-product of pap manufacture. Studies were further carried out to further determine the effects of varying levels of millet offal obtained from the brewing industry on the performance of broiler chickens. The results of ...

  13. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    OpenAIRE

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should facilitate the selection of feeding strategies (in terms of dietary protein and energy)that resultsin the desired body composition of broilers while minimizing costs.Two important theories that are gen...

  14. In Ovo Electroporations of HH Stage 10 Chicken Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Marissa C.; Chizhikov, Victor; Millen, Kathleen J.

    2007-01-01

    Large size and external development of the chicken embryo have long made it a valuable tool in the study of developmental biology. With the advent of molecular biological techniques, the chick has become a useful system in which to study gene regulation and function. By electroporating DNA or RNA constructs into the developing chicken embryo, genes can be expressed or knocked down in order to analyze in vivo gene function. Similarly, reporter constructs can be used for fate mapping or to e...

  15. Influencing factors on ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs is based on the additive dose or the calibration curve methods. In both cases the practical assumption is made that the behaviour of the chicken bone does not depend on factors such as temperature during irradiation, storage conditions and dose rate. So the aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent the above mentioned factors could influence the post-irradiation dose assessment using the ESR technique. (author)

  16. The Importance of the TSHR-gene in Domestic Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are known to be important in several processes in chicken, such as growth, metabolism and reproductive system. In previous studies the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)-gene has been identified as a target for a selective sweep in commercial breeds of chicken such as broiler and White Leghorn. The evolution of domesticated species can be split into three periods. The first is the natural selection in their natural habitat, the second the beginning of the domesticati...

  17. The Impact of Domestication on the Chicken Optical Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Lina; Lind, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Domestication processes tend to release animals from natural selection and favour traits desired by humans, such as food-production and co-operative behaviour. A side effect of such selective breeding is the alteration of unintended traits. In this paper, we investigate how active selection for egg production in chickens has affected the visual system, in particular the optical sensitivity that relates to the ability of chickens to see in dim light. We measured eye dimensions as well as the p...

  18. Image-based Analysis for Characterization of Chicken Nugget Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chumpol Yuangyai; Piyaphorn Matvises; Udom Janjarassuk

    2013-01-01

    Appearance, colors and adhesion characteristics of chicken nugget are important to customer satisfaction and buying decision. These characteristics are generally inspected by hu-man, thus, the inspectors might incorrectly judge. In addition, the results are not quantitatively recorded for further analysis and improvement. Therefore, this study focuses on constructing a measurement instrument for detecting the qualities of chicken nugget, then gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R) ...

  19. In vitro comparison of rat and chicken brain neurotoxic esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of 2.5-1000 microM. Mipafox titration of the paraoxon-resistant esterases at a fixed paraoxon concentration of 100 microM (mipafox concentration: 0-1000 microM) resulted in a mipafox I50 of 7.3 microM for chicken brain NTE and 11.6 microM for rat brain NTE. NTE (i.e., paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive esterase activity) comprised 80% of chicken and 60% of rat brain paraoxon-resistant activity with the specific activity of chicken brain NTE approximately twice that of rat brain NTE. The pH maxima for NTE from both species was similar showing broad, slightly alkaline optima from pH 7.9 to 8.6. [3H]Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-labeled NTE from the brains of both species had an apparent mol wt of 160,000 measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, NTE from both species was very similar, with the mipafox I50 for rat NTE within the range of reported values for chicken and human NTE, and the inhibitor parameters of the chicken NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay

  20. [Simultaneous differentiation of visual stimuli in chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivannaia, M F; Rytikova, L S

    1977-01-01

    Differentiation of colour stimuli and geometrical figures was studied in chickens by the food-procuring reflex method with simultaneous presentation of the stimuli. The percentage of correct selections of the positive conditioned stimulus was chosen as a measure of the degree of differentiation. Stable differentiation of colour stimuli appeared after 15.44 +/- 0.6 presentations of the conditioned stimuli reaching 97.66 +/- 0.69% of correct responses. Incomplete differentiation of geometrical figures appeared after 39.07 +/- 3.6 presentations, attaining 67.69 +/- 2.64%. Differentiation of geometrical figures became stable after training, its level rising up to 80.37 +/- 3.89%. PMID:868282