WorldWideScience
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Qualitative Traits Characterization of Yoruba and Fulani Ecotype Indigenous Chickens in Derived Savannah Zone of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Qualitative traits characteristics of indigenous Chickens in derived savannah Zone of Nigeria were studied. A total of two thousand and forty one (2,041) indigenous chickens comprising 1274 Yoruba Ecotype Chickens (YEC) and 767 Fulani Ecotype Chickens (FEC) were sampled for the study. Traits studied included Sex, Comb Size, Wattle Size, Comb Type, Ear lobe Colour, Feather Structure, Plumage and Comb Colour. The result indicated that female chickens dominated the two Ecotypes with 52.04%...

Adeyemi, S. A.; Yakubu, A.; Salako, A. E.; Ige, A. O.

2012-01-01

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Qualitative Traits Characterization of Yoruba and Fulani Ecotype Indigenous Chickens in Derived Savannah Zone of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qualitative traits characteristics of indigenous Chickens in derived savannah Zone of Nigeria were studied. A total of two thousand and forty one (2,041 indigenous chickens comprising 1274 Yoruba Ecotype Chickens (YEC and 767 Fulani Ecotype Chickens (FEC were sampled for the study. Traits studied included Sex, Comb Size, Wattle Size, Comb Type, Ear lobe Colour, Feather Structure, Plumage and Comb Colour. The result indicated that female chickens dominated the two Ecotypes with 52.04% in YEC and 52.28% in FEC. Highest percentage of Large Comb Size was observed for male chicken in both ecotypes: 67.57% in YEC and 71.32% in FEC. Three types of wattle size were observed in the two populations (Small, Medium and Large. Proportion of Large Wattle size favoured male chickens (YEC: 51.13%, FEC: 49.38% in both populations. Three different types of comb (Single, Rose and Pea with Single Comb type dominant over others (94.29% in YEC and 80.44% in FEC. Three colour patterns of ear lobe were observed in YEC with White Ear Lobe (69.07% dominated the population while five colour patterns were observed in FEC with Red Ear lobe (74.97% dominated. Three feather structure (Normal, Frizzled and Naked Neck pattern were observed in the two populations, Normal type had the highest percentage (YEC: 83.99%, FEC: 83.05%. Plumage colour varied widely, six different types were observed in YEC and mixed colour had the highest percentage (31.4% followed by dominant black (25.69% while Eight different types of plumage colour were observed in FEC in which black colour (31.55% had the highest percentage. The study revealed a wide variation in some of the traits, therefore future study can be concentrated on selection for qualitative traits of interest.

S.A. Adeyemi

2012-01-01

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Analysis of genetic variation in normal feathered, naked neck and fulani-ecotype nigerian indigenous chickens based on haemoglobin polymorphism  

OpenAIRE

Haemoglobin polymorphism was investigated in 50 normal feathered, 33 naked neck and 42 Fulani-ecotype Nigerian indigenous chickens. Haemoglobin typing was carried out using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Two co-dominant haemoglobin alleles (HbA and HbB) were found in the chickens. From the electrophoretic band patterns, three genotypes (HbAA, Hband HbBB) were observed. The frequencies of the A and B genes were 0.68 and 0.32; 0.71 and 0.29; 0.75 and 0.25...

Yakubu A.; Aya V.E.

2012-01-01

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Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE) and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE)} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52) weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE) of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks) compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks) obtained for FE. Significant difference (p<0.05) exist...

Sola-ojo, F. E.; Ayorinde, K. L.; Jatto, O. M.; Toye, A. A.

2013-01-01

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Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live we...

Olawunmi, O. O.; Salako, A. E.; Afuwape, A. A.

2008-01-01

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Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria / Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información bás [...] ica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P Abstract in english Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani an [...] d Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P

O. O, Olawunmi; A. E, Salako; A. A, Afuwape.

2008-12-01

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Different serum haemolytic complement levels in indigenous chickens from Benin, Bolivia, Cameroon, India and Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Titres of classical (CPW) and alternative (APW) complement pathways were measured in clinically healthy local chicken populations (ecotypes) from Africa (Benin, n = 78; Cameroon, n = 299; Tanzania, n = 101), Asia (India, n = 96) and South America (Bolivia, n = 64). A wide variation was found in haemolytic complement levels between the various ecotypes. Distributions of the classical and alternative complement titres were not normal but were skewed to the right. Differences in complement were found both within and between ecotypes. Furthermore, CPW titres of the indigenous chickens were lower than those determined in commercial layer chickens. This suggests that complement levels background and husbandry. The relationships between complement levels, the chicken MHC(B) complex, environmental antigenic pressure, and survival of the scavenging local chickens are discussed. PMID:15643809

Baelmans, R; Parmentier, H K; Udo, H M J; Dorny, P; Demey, F; Berkvens, D

2004-11-01

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Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información básica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P <0,01 que las del ecotipo Yoruba. Los machos también fueron mayores (P <0,01 a las hembras en la longitud de la cresta y ala, largo de la pata y ancho de pecho, mientras que el peso vivo, longitud del dedo del pie y el muslo también fueron diferentes (P <0,05 dentro de cada ecotipo. La cresta de los machos fue más prominente que las de hembras. Los coeficientes de variación fueron muy pequeños, lo que significa una condición monotípica y una similitud de oportunidades de selección para el tipo, basada en parámetros corporales. El ecotipo Fulani fue más grande que Yoruba. El significativo mayor cuerpo (P <0,05 del Fulani sugiere una salida en función entre los genotipos. El pollo Fulani parece más adecuado para la producción de huevos que el tipo Yoruba. Su potencial para el desarrollo de un stock comercial más adaptado y la mejora genética de los pollos de la región y otras implicancias del tipo función se discuten.

O. O Olawunmi

2008-12-01

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Evaluation of Reproductive Performance and Egg quality Traits in Progenies of Dominant Black Strain Crossed with Fulani Ecotype Chicken  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to contribute to the genetic improvement of the indigenous chicken by direct andreciprocal crossing with an exotic egg type strain Dominant Black (DB. Results indicated significant (P<0.05effect of genotype on fertility and hatchability of eggs. Percentage fertility across the genotypes was, 73.00,76.24, 59.88 and 54.12%, while hatchability was 73.90, 78.30, 70.45 and 70.10%, for DBxDB, DBxFE, FExDBand FExFE, respectively. There was no significant (P>0.05 difference in hatch weight of the chicks. The crossbred (DBxFE and FExDB had higher egg weight (51.45g and 51.35g vs. 47.19, total egg number for 100 days(51 and 53 vs. 40 and hen day production (50.87 and 52.47 vs. 46.05 than the pure bred Fulani Ecotype.FExDB had significantly higher body weight at first egg (1408g than DBxFE (1388g. Mortality wassignificantly (P<0.05 higher in DBxDB than other genotypes during the laying period. Significant and nonsignificant differences existed in internal and external egg quality traits across the genotypes.

F.E. Sola-Ojo

2011-03-01

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Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Heterophil/Lymphocyte Ratio  

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Full Text Available The effects of high environmental temperature on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined for a comparison of the ability to tolerate heat between Thai indigenous chickens, crossbred Thai indigenous chickens and broilers. One kilogram of the representative males and females of each of the three breeds were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2°C. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was investigated on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The results revealed the following information: For those chickens maintained in an environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C. With the environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the broilers was significantly higher than that of the Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds and Thai indigenous chickens (p<0.05, respectively. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the chickens for the environmental temperature of 38±2°C was significantly increased on day 7 and then significantly decreased to day 14 and 21 of experimental period (p<0.05. This finding indicated that when chickens were maintained in high environmental temperatures, they were under heat stress. Chickens could adapt to high environmental temperatures. Finally, Thai indigenous chickens and Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds tolerated higher environmental temperatures than the broilers.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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Different serum haemolytic complement levels in indigenous chickens from Benin, Bolivia, Cameroon, India and Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Titres of classical (CPW) and alternative (APW) complement pathways were measured in clinically healthy local chicken populations (ecotypes) from Africa (Benin, n = 78; Cameroon, n = 299; Tanzania, n = 101), Asia (India, n = 96) and South America (Bolivia, n = 64). A wide variation was found in haemolytic complement levels between the various ecotypes. Distributions of the classical and alternative complement titres were not normal but were skewed to the right. Differences in complement were ...

Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H. K.; Udo, H. M. J.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

2004-01-01

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Measurement of Antibodies to Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Indigenous Chicken Flocks Around Maharlou Lake in Iran  

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Full Text Available To evaluate the seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV in indigenous chicken flocks, serum samples from 200 mature indigenous chickens in villages around Maharlou Lake in Southwest of Iran were tested for IBV antibodies using commercial IBV Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The studied indigenous chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall ELISA titer and seroprevalence of IBV antibodies revealed in this study were 1427 and 68%, respectively. The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of IBV in indigenous chicken flocks in Southwest of Iran and necessitate the regular vaccination programme against IB in native flocks.

M.M. Hadipour

2011-06-01

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Growth Characteristics of Six Reciprocal Crosses of Kenyan Indigenous Chicken  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out at the poultry research unit of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Animal Husbandry Research Centre, Naivasha in 1993 and 1994, to investigate growth performance of six reciprocal crosses of indigenous chicken originating from the Taita, Nyeri and Kericho districts in Kenya. Six hundred mixed sex day old chicks were used. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and the birds weighed individually on weekly basis up to the age of 30 weeks. Non-linear regression model procedures of the statistical analysis system (SAS were used in data analysis. The gompertz growth model was used in fitting the body weight data with three parameter estimates, A, B and K. A statistical analysis of residual variations was used to determine differences between fitted curves. There were significant differences in growth pattern among the reciprocal crosses of indigenous chicken and between male and female birds. There was a possible effect of the choice of dam or sire in a given combination. The Nyeri line seemed to perform potentially better as a dam for both male and female offspring. The Taita line on the other hand, seemed to potentially perform better as a sire and so was the Kericho line. Use of growth data beyond 20 weeks resulted in better expression of asymptotic nature of fitted curves. There is some potential for improvement of the performance among indigenous flocks by judicious cross breeding strategies.

J. M. Ndegwa

2012-04-01

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Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana  

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Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

K. Itebeng

2012-06-01

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Blood Cell Characteristics, Hematological Values and Average Daily Gained Weight of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried at the Experimental Laboratory Unit, Division of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand in August to December 2004. Three different breeds of poultry were used, i.e., Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with three replications. The three poultry breeds were used as main plots, whilst gender (male and female and sampling periods were used as subplots. An assay on blood characteristics and blood counts of red and white blood cells were carried out. Feed intake and average daily gained weight (ADG/week were determined. The results showed that the appearances on blood cells characteristics of erythrocyte of red blood cells and white blood cells of heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, basophil and thrombocyte of the three poultry breeds were not different from one another. Hematological values of the three different breeds possessed normal blood values for normal growth and they fitted within a normal range of blood of normal chickens. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb of Thai indigenous chickens was higher than both Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. White blood cells of heterophil of Thai indigenous crossbred chickens were higher than broiler chickens, whilst white blood of lymphocyte of female was higher than female. However, the differences found on hematological values of both male and female were not statistically significant. Daily feed intake/week and average daily gained weight increased/week of broiler chickens ranked the highest followed by Thai indigenous crossbred and the lowest was with Thai indigenous chickens.

Chinrasri Orawan

2007-01-01

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Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using six marker combinations were applied to detect genetic variation and phylo genetic relationships among 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds and a Recessive White chicken breed introduced from France. The DNA was pooled for each group. Polymorphic b [...] ands, breed-specific bands and genetic similarity coefficients of 13 chicken breeds were derived from the AFLP data. A total of 280 polymorphic bands was generated from which nine specific bands were observed for the Shouguang and the Dongxiang Dark chicken. One specific band was observed in the pooled DNA of the Jiuyuan Dark chicken, the Xingyi Bantam chicken and the Recessive White chicken. The genetic similarity coefficients among the 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds varied between 0.635 - 0.860, and 0.188 - 0.360 between the Recessive White and the indigenous Chinese chicken breeds. The UPGMA based tree yielded two clusters for the 13 chicken breeds, with the Recessive White chickens forming a distinct cluster. In summary, the genetic similarity coefficients and the UPGMA tree of the 13 chicken breeds were consistent with their breeding history and geographical distribution. These results provide useful data with regard to the genetic diversity, genetic relationships and identification of chicken breeds in China.

Yushi, Gao; Yunjie, Tu; Haibin, Tong; Kehua, Wang; Xiujun, Tang; Kuanwei, Chen.

2008-03-01

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A Comparative Study of Growth Performance and Feed Efficiency in Dominant Black Strain, Fulani Ecotype Chicken and Progeny from their Reciprocal Crosses  

OpenAIRE

A study of the relative performance of a local chicken (Fulani Ecotype or FExFE), an exotic chicken (Dominant Black or DBxDB), and their reciprocal crosses (DBxFE and FExDB) was undertaken. A total of three hundred and thirty (330) chickens comprising 100 DBxDB, 80 DBxFE, 80 FExDB and 70 FExFE were studied. All animals were raised from day old to 21 weeks age contemporaneously under identical housing, feeding and management procedures during which growth parameters were measured. Significant ...

Sola-ojo, F. E.; Ayorinde, K. L.; Toye, A. A.

2012-01-01

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Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya  

OpenAIRE

The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gai...

Ochieng Justus; George Owuor; Bockline Omedo Bebe

2013-01-01

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A Comparative Study of Growth Performance and Feed Efficiency in Dominant Black Strain, Fulani Ecotype Chicken and Progeny from their Reciprocal Crosses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the relative performance of a local chicken (Fulani Ecotype or FExFE, an exotic chicken (Dominant Black or DBxDB, and their reciprocal crosses (DBxFE and FExDB was undertaken. A total of three hundred and thirty (330 chickens comprising 100 DBxDB, 80 DBxFE, 80 FExDB and 70 FExFE were studied. All animals were raised from day old to 21 weeks age contemporaneously under identical housing, feeding and management procedures during which growth parameters were measured. Significant (p DBxFE 1346.80±3.05 > DBxDB 1314.40±3.61 over the 21 week experimental period. FExFE had significantly (p FExFE 67.50±0.02 over the same period. Low mortality (? 2% occurred across genotypes with FExFE having the least mortality. The results indicated that reciprocal crossing of pure local Fulani Ecotype with exotic Dominant Black strain produces chickens with indistinguishable Feed Efficiency from the highly improved Dominant Black, and superior to the pure Fulani. Cross breeding of the type reported here may therefore serve as a tool for improving efficiency of Fulani Ecotype local poultry whilst retaining elements of their valued characteristics which include meat value. Further studies will evaluate the hybrids (F1 of FE and DB for retention of desirable characteristics of local breeds.

Sola-Ojo, F. E.

2012-06-01

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Evaluation of Reproductive Performance and Egg quality Traits in Progenies of Dominant Black Strain Crossed with Fulani Ecotype Chicken  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to contribute to the genetic improvement of the indigenous chicken by direct andreciprocal crossing with an exotic egg type strain Dominant Black (DB). Results indicated significant (P<0.05)effect of genotype on fertility and hatchability of eggs. Percentage fertility across the genotypes was, 73.00,76.24, 59.88 and 54.12%, while hatchability was 73.90, 78.30, 70.45 and 70.10%, for DBxDB, DBxFE, FExDBand FExFE, respectively. There was no si...

Sola-ojo, F. E.; Ayorinde, K. L.

2011-01-01

21

Effects of High Environmental Temperature on the Productive Performance of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of high environmental temperatures and breed on live productive performances of Thai Indigenous (TIC, Thai Indigenous Crossbred (TICC and Broilers (BC Chickens. Twenty four TIC, TICC and BC, one kilogram of weight were used in this study. Chickens were housed in two conditions, i.e., 26±2°C and 38±2°C. At weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of experimental period, feed intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate were investigated. The results revealed the following information: At thermoneutral, the productive performances of BC were higher than TICC and TIC (p<0.05, respectively. Under heat stress temperatures, the productive performance of the BC was higher than that of the TICC and TICC (p<0.05. The productive performance of chickens at thermoneutral was higher than that of chickens under heat stress (p<0.05. However, at week 4 the feed conversion rate of the BC was higher than that of the TICC and TIC (p<0.05 and high environmental temperatures did not affect the feed conversion rate of TICC (p>0.05. The result of the current trials indicates environment temperature and breed influence the productive performance of chickens.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya  

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Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

Ochieng Justus

2013-08-01

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Influence of Energy Intake on Egg Production and Weight in Indigenous Chickens of Kenya  

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Full Text Available Indigenous chickens are widespread within the rural areas of Kenya where they contribute more than 50% of the domestic egg requirement. Although they contribute a significant proportion of egg requirements, the productivity is low. Poor nutrition is one of the reasons for the low productivity of indigenous chickens. They depend primarily on the scavenging feed resource base for nutrients. Scavenging is an uncertain method of feeding because the scavenged rations may be inadequate in nutrient supply. Productivity of indigenous chickens can be achieved through improved nutrition by supplementation to supply the deficient nutrients. The energy requirements of growing indigenous chickens have been determined and the energy intakes of the free-ranging chickens have been estimated. However, the energy requirements of indigenous chicken hens in Kenya have not been determined, hence the need to determine the requirements. An on-station feeding trial was conducted to determine the influence of energy intake on egg production, egg and hen weight. Two summit diets were formulated containing 18 and 24% Crude Protein (CP. They were blended in various ratios (diet 2 = 67% of diet 1 and 33% of diet 4; diet 3 = 33% of diet 1 and 67% of diet 4 to obtain two other diets containing 17 and 22% CP. The diets were randomly allocated to 48 indigenous chicken hens 42 weeks of age. Each diet was replicated 4 times and 3 hens were housed per cage. The diets were offered to the hens such that they had similar CP, vitamin and mineral intake but varying energy intake. Egg production, egg and hen weights were measured over an eight-week period. Egg production increased (p 0.05 for energy intake between 813-1185 kJ. Final hen weight was similar (p>0.05 for energy intake between 813-874 kJ and increased from an intake of 1034 kJ. From the results, it is concluded that the daily metabolizable energy requirement for a laying indigenous chicken hen given adequate proteins and other nutrients is 1185 kJ.

A.M. Kingori

2014-01-01

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Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

2012-10-01

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Part-period Egg Production and Egg Quality Characteristics of Two Ecotypes of Nigerian Local Chickens and Their F1 Crosses  

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Full Text Available Adaptation of the local chickens in Nigeria to the different agro-ecological zones has produced ecotypes that can be conveniently classified on the basis of body weight and size into two viz; Heavy Ecotype (HE and Light Ecotype (LE. These distinct types may differ in their egg production characteristics. Short-term egg production and egg quality characteristics of HE and LE and their F1 crosses (HExLE and LExHE were studied. The objective of the study was to evaluate the short-term egg production and quality traits of the HE, LE and their F1 reciprocal crosses. Data on percent hen-day production, egg number per hen, egg weight and egg mass of 50 pullets each of HE, LE, HEXLE and LEXHE were collected. Also, external and internal egg quality traits were assessed on a total of 640 eggs. Data were subjected to ANOVA technique. Result showed that there was no significant (p>0.05 genetic group effect on short-term percent hen-day production, egg number and egg mass. However, genetic group significantly affected egg weight (p<0.05. Genetic group effect was significant (p<0.01 in all the egg quality traits studied except shell weight. The crossbred groups demonstrated heterotic effects in egg width and egg shape index but their performances in the other egg quality traits remained intermediate between the two parents. On the basis of short-term egg production the HE and LE may not be considered as distinct strains. Egg quality traits obtained are comparable with most exotic breeds thus demonstrating high egg quality traits of the local chickens of Nigeria.

L.C. Ugwuowo

2010-01-01

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The Growth of Muscle Cell of Inbred Chicken and Indigeneous Chicken Embryo in The Medium of Rabbit Serum and Sheep Serum  

OpenAIRE

An experiment on the growth embryonic muscle cell in the rabbit and sheep serum media was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The aim of this experiment was to observe the potency of the growth of embryonic muscle cell of the inbred chicken and indigeneous chicken in the medium of rabbit and sheep serum. Two kinds of embryo, the inbred and indigeneous chicken of eleven days old were used in the experiment. The rabbit and the sheep serum were prepar...

Ja, Soeroso

2000-01-01

27

Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease in non-vaccinated indigenous and exotic chickens on selected farms around Gaborone, Botswana  

OpenAIRE

Sera from nine out of 30 (30,0 %) apparently healthy unvaccinated indigenous (Tswana) chickens had precipitating antibodies to infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus using the agar gel precipitation test. Similarly, sera from 11 out of 49 (22,4 %) chickens of exotic breeds with no history of vaccination against IBD were positive for antibodies against the virus.

Mushi, E. Z.; Binta, M. G.; Chabo, R. G.; Ndebele, R. T.

1999-01-01

28

Protein Intake of Growing Indigenous Chickens on Free-Range and Their Response to Supplementation  

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Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine protein intake and the response of growing indigenous chickens to protein supplementation under free-ranging conditions. In the first experiment, data were collected from which a model was designed to estimate daily feed intake of free-ranging indigenous chicken from the Crop Contents (CC. The second experiment applied the model under on-farm conditions to estimate feed intake of free-ranging growers. Crude Protein (CP intake was calculated as the product of crude protein concentration and total intake of feed. Results indicated that the mean protein level of CC was 11.2%, Dry Matter Intake (DMI of free-ranging growers was 78.3g/grower/day and the mean Crude Protein Intake (CPI was about 8.5 g. In order to establish the response of the growers to protein supplementation in an on-farm set-up, the third experiment provided protein supplements at 0, 1.6, 3.2 and 4.8 g CP/bird/day. Daily CPI for each of the four supplementary groups was calculated to be 8.5, 10.1, 11.7 and 13.3 g/bird. Growth rate and body weight increased with increasing protein supplementation up to 3.2 g CP/bird/day. Higher levels of protein supplementation did not significantly increase growth rate or body weight. Therefore, the CP requirement for growing indigenous chickens on free-range was estimated at 11.7 g/day. Protein supplementation of 3.2 g/bird/day to a growing indigenous chicken on free-range is therefore mandatory for optimum growth.

A.M. Kingori

2007-01-01

29

Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication  

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Full Text Available Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.

E.Z. Mushi

2012-07-01

30

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

Hove, T.; Mukaratirwa, S.

2012-01-01

31

Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication  

OpenAIRE

Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Rail...

Mushi, E. Z.; Binta, M. G.; Chabo, R. G.; Ndebele, R.; Thibanyane, T.

2012-01-01

32

Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in China using microsatellite markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds was evaluated with 25 microsatellite markers. Polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity with the estimator of genetic differentiation F ST and Nei's genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these four prot [...] ected local chicken populations showed high levels of diversity. The proportion of inter-population subdivision among the four protected local chicken populations was 16.0%. The average heterozygosity was 0.514, 0.581, 0.567 and 0.589 in Dongan, Xuefeng black-bone, Xianghuang and Taoyuan chickens, respectively, while the average PIC estimates were 0.455, 0.581, 0.557 and 0.576. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using genetic distance and the neighbour-joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local breeds estimated by microsatellite analysis may be useful as an initial guide for the effective conservation of chicken genetic diversity and developing conservation strategies.

Lin, Wei; Bin, Chen; Xiao-ying, Li; Sheng-gui, Liu; Jing-jing, Wang.

33

Helminth Parasites in the Intestinal Tract of Indigenous Chickens in Jordanian Villages  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out on sixty female adult indigenous chickens from local markets in four different villages (Omabhara, Iraqalamir, Albusah and Wadisheta zones around Amman, Jordan to determine occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Their ages ranged between 4-6 months. All specimens of chickens were examined for helminth parasites. It was found that nematodes and cestode were recovered. Nematodes were the most commonly seen parasites. Only five chickens of 60 hens were free from parasites which are infected of rate 91.6% prevalence. The main helminths found in the intestines were Nematodes and Cestode. Nematodes were higher than Cestode by about 20 percent in duodenum, ileum and colon respectively. In conclusion, Parasitism could be big constraint to production in the study area and we recommend a sustainable control strategy. This study found high prevalence of end parasites among village chickens within the survey period and ecological zone. Based on the known of pathological effects of these parasites, the results of this study highlight both the eminent and potential constraints of these parasites to the overall village chicken production. We therefore recommend the institution of a programmed control measure for improved harnessing of the potentials of village chicken production in the region.

Hamad H. Al-Jamaien

2013-01-01

34

Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand  

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Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/?l, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/?l, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous chickens (P<0.05, lymphocyte counts of the females were significantly higher than the males (P<0.05. From serum biochemical values, potassium, sodium, total protein and uric acid of female indigenous birds were significantly higher than males (P<0.05.

Suchint Simaraks

2005-05-01

35

Seroprofile of Antibodies to Fowl Poxvirus in Commercial and Indigenous Chickens in Southwestern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of Fowl Poxvirus (FPV) antibodies in both local and exotic poultry in some states of south western, Nigeria using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. A total of 552 serum samples from farms in 4 states of southwestern Nigeria, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo and Lagos states as well as 184 sera of indigenous chicken from various households were obtained for the study. Of this, 248 samples from 3 farms were from vaccinated flocks...

Adeyemi, R. O.; Oluwayelu, D. O.; Emikpe, B. O.; Ohore, O. G.; Ockiya, M. A.

2007-01-01

36

Relationships between cock semen viability and the fertility of artificially inseminated South African indigenous chicken breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One hundred and sixty hens and 32 cocks of four different South African indigenous chicken breeds (Naked Neck (NN), Ovambo (OVB), Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) and Venda (VD) were used in this study. Reproductive performance tests as determined by the number of ejaculations per five minutes of abdomina [...] l sexual massage (5ASM) were used to select 16 high performing (HP) and 16 low performing (LP) cocks from a population of 80 cocks. Cocks with >2 ejaculates/60 min or

J.T., Molekwa; D.O., Umesiobi.

37

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

T. Hove

2012-05-01

38

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (f [...] leas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %), followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

S, Mukaratirwa; T, Hove.

39

Seroprofile of Antibodies to Fowl Poxvirus in Commercial and Indigenous Chickens in Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of Fowl Poxvirus (FPV antibodies in both local and exotic poultry in some states of south western, Nigeria using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique. A total of 552 serum samples from farms in 4 states of southwestern Nigeria, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo and Lagos states as well as 184 sera of indigenous chicken from various households were obtained for the study. Of this, 248 samples from 3 farms were from vaccinated flocks while 304 samples from 3 other farms were from non-vaccinated flocks against Fowl Pox (FP. An overall prevalence of 80% was obtained for the non-vaccinated chickens. Of this, the local chicken showed 89% prevalence, growers, 10% layers, 75 and 80% in breeders, a prevalence of 95 -97% in layers and 100% was observed in layers and breeders, respectively in the vaccinated flocks. Within the states where samples were collected, 80% prevalence was observed in Lagos state and 75% in Oyo state. There were no significant differences between the prevalences in the groups except for the grower type that was significantly lower than the others. The mean standard deviation of the positive sera was higher in local chicken (1.350+134 when compared to all the other groups including the vaccinated birds (p< 0.001. There was no significant difference (p< 0.05 between the titres obtained in the vaccinated layers and breeders and between the non vaccinated layers and breeders. The vaccinated breeders, however, had significantly higher mean titres (p< 0.005 than the non-vaccinated breeders. The result showed that fowl pox is endemic in both exotic and indigenous poultry in southwestern Nigeria. The results also showed that there was a significantly higher response in the local breeds to FPV infection than in the exotic breeds, as has been observed with other disease agent.

R.O. Adeyemi

2007-01-01

40

Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous) chicken egg  

OpenAIRE

Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous) chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 %) egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For b...

N. Kalita,; N. Pathak,; Ahmed, M.; Saikia, G. K.

2013-01-01

41

Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Egg Production, Hatchability and Post-Hatch Offspring Performance of Indigenous Chickens  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous chickens in Kenya are estimated to be 21.5 million and are found in all the ecological zones in the country. They are 75% of the poultry population and produce 46 and 58% of the egg and meat, respectively. These levels of production are comparatively low compared to their numbers. The low productivity of indigenous chickens in Kenya and other parts of the world is partly attributed to poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper healthcare, poor nutrition and housing...

Muiruri, H. K.; Tuitoek, J. K.; Kingori, A. M.; Wachira, A. M.

2010-01-01

42

Effect of transient prepubertal hypothyroidism on serum testosterone level and seminal characteristics of Iranian indigenous chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Forty 6-week-old male Iranian indigenous chickens were randomly assigned into two equal groups, designated as control or propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated group. The goitrogen, PTU, was administered at a level of 0.1% (w:w) to the diet of PTU-treated group between the weeks 7 and 13 of age. From the week 13 to 26, both groups were fed with a PTU-free diet. The lighting schedule was 14 h-light:10 h-darkness. Blood sampling started at week 7 of age, and repeated every other week until the week 19 as well as body weighing simultaneously. Chicks were trained by the abdominal massage method and semen samples were collected from the week 21 and repeated once a week for seven weeks. Proc Mixed of SAS (6.03 edn.) was used to data analysis and body weight was considered as covariate in statistical model. The effect of PTU treatment on serum thyroxine (T4) levels (P 0.05). The effect of age on all parameters, including body weight (P 0.05); but the interaction was significant for body weight (P 0.05). No significant correlation observed between testosterone and T4 levels in both groups. (author)

43

Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and tw...

Songsang, A.; Wattanachant, S.; Wattanachant, C.; Wattanasit, S.

2007-01-01

44

Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks in [...] dicated as EVS1, EVS2, EVS3 and EVS4 (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM, respectively) and each treatment was replicated five times. In the second phase (8 - 13 weeks), 160 indigenous Venda female chickens, aged eight weeks, were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments and each treatment was replicated five times in a completely randomized design. The diets used in both trials were isonitrogenous but with different energy levels. A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake, respectively, for the starter phase. At the grower phase, dietary energy levels of 12.56, 12.66, 12.62 and 12.71 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake, respectively. Carcass, drumstick, thigh and wing had optimum weights at dietary energy levels of 13.81, 13.23, 13.43 and 13.18 MJ ME/ kg DM, respectively. Thus, dietary energy level for optimization depended on the particular production parameter in question.

O.J, Alabi; J.W, Ng' ambi; D, Norris.

2013-07-01

45

ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV) IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS  

OpenAIRE

Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage...

A N Ahmad, I. Hussain

2005-01-01

46

Productivity and Egg Quality Characteristics of Free Range Naked Neck and Normal Feathered Nigerian Indigenous Chickens  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to determine the productivity and egg quality traits of free range naked neck and full-feathered chickens. A total of one hundred and two smallholder farmers were randomly selected. Information was obtained on average eggs per clutch, hatchability and mortality, while hen`s body weight was measured directly on the day of egg collection. One hundred and two freshly laid eggs (51 eggs from each genotype) were used to evaluate extern...

Yakubu, A.; Ogah, D. M.; Barde, R. E.

2008-01-01

47

An evaluation of ratios as a measure of carcass traits using mature indigenous chickens in Limpopo Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Live weight and weight of body parts of 60 mature indigenous chickens were collected to investigate whether the use of ratios in poultry science may cause misinterpretation of data and misleading conclusions. Three villages from Mukula Tribal land in Thulamela municipality from Vhembe District in Li [...] mpopo Province of South Africa were identified for the purpose of this study. Five mature chickens were bought from each village, weighed, killed, dressed and cut to get the body parts using the standard procedures. This was done across the four distinct seasons from March 2005 to March 2006. The data was collected using a weighing scale with variables of interest being the sex, season and village. Summary statistics were computed and data was analyzed in two separate ways using the Statistical Analysis Software Packages as follows: Firstly each individual body part was expressed as ratio of body weight and data analyzed using a simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Secondly, live body weight was used a covariate in the analysis of other body parts using the ANCOVA procedures. Ratios suggested differences gizzard, liver, head and feet and body length due to sex and in gizzard, liver and body length due to village which were not apparent with ANCOVA. The results from this study suggested that ratios did not remove the variation due to differences in sex and village and may lead us to wrong conclusions. From this study, one can draw conclusions that use of ANCOVA gives us the exceptional method for interpreting the data correctly.

N.J., Tshovhote; A.E., Nesamvuni; K.A., Nephawe; I., Groenewald.

48

ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS  

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Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

2005-04-01

49

Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Naked Neck and Normally Feathered Nigerian Indigenous Chickens in a Sub Humid Tropical Environment  

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Full Text Available Haematological and serum biochemical indices of Nigerian indigenous chickens of two genetic groups were evaluated. One hundred and twenty (120 cocks with average weight of 1.10kg, corresponding to sixty (60 naked neck (NaNa and sixty (60 normally feathered (nana were utilized in the study. On the basis of feather colour, the normal plumage cocks were subdivided into two equal phenotypic groups. Each genetic group was divided into four replicates of fifteen birds each in a completely randomized design. There were no significant (P>0.05 differences between the genotypes in the mean values of white blood cells(WBC, mean corpuscular volume(MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration(MCHC. However, naked neck cocks were significantly superior in packed cell volume (PCV haemoglobin (Hb and red blood cells(RBC compared with their normally feathered counterparts(41.00 vs 35.90%; 13.68 vs 11.60 g/dl; 4.84 vs 4.21x106/ml; p>0.05. With the exception of PCV which was significantly (p>0.05 higher in brown cocks than white coloured cocks (38.30 vs 33.50%, plumage colour had no significant effect on the variables estimated. No significant differences were observed in total protein, albumin, urea, glucose, cholesterol, serum alanine amino transaminase (SALT and serum aspartate amino transferase (SAST of the genetic groups. The normally feathered cocks, however had significantly (P<0.05 higher globulin content (1.53 vs 1.15 g/dl and lower creatinine value (0.88 vs 0.95 mg/dl compared to the naked neck cocks. Plumage colour did not significantly (P>0.05 affect serum biochemical parameters suggesting that the two colour variants might not be true representation of genetically distinct subpopulations. The present result on blood parameters of both naked neck and normally feathered cocks could serve as a baseline data, which could be exploited in the improvement of local stock.

A.O. Ladokun

2008-01-01

50

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10 unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata, cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea to 94.9% (C. vulgaris. The Crude Protein (CP content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea to 61.9% (cockroaches meal, with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%. Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9% Ether Extract (EE values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%, Moringa (9.8%, Leuceana (6.4% and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%, while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera to 16.8% (C. tora while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea to 19% (Citrullus seeds. A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%, followed by Cassia (15.2%, Moringa (13.6%, Leuceana (11.4% and Sesbania leaves (7.1%, while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera. Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%, followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%, Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%, whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

J.L. Hornick

2011-01-01

51

Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage  

OpenAIRE

The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt) were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1) and marinated only ingredients (control 2) were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were ...

Wongwiwat, P.; Yanpakdee, S.; Wattanachant, S.

2007-01-01

52

Serological Status for Newcastle Disease Virus in Unvaccinated Indigenous Chickens in Yewa Division of Ogun State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

A sero-epidemiological survey of antibody to Newcastle disease (ND) virus was conducted in the unvaccinated local chickens in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. All the 180 sera samples collected tested positive for ND antibody. The range of HI antibody titre was 23 to 27. Out of the 180 chicks tested, 44 (24.4%) had HI antibody titre of 23; the remaining birds (75.6%) had higher titres of up to 27

Oyekunle, M. A.; Talabi, A. O.; Okeowo, A. O.

2006-01-01

53

MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida orAscaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance Udgivelsesdato: 15. May

Schou, T W; Labouriau, R

2010-01-01

54

Environmental descriptors influencing performance of the Nguni ecotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nguni is an indigenous breed of cattle in Southern Africa, specifically found in Swaziland, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Due to the ten years of civil war, cattle numbers in Mozambique was reduced from 1.6 million head in 1976 to approximately 200,000 in 1992. After 1996, large numbers of Nguni cattle were imported from South Africa into Mozambique as part of the livestock restocking program. A nucleus herd of Nguni cattle was established at the breeding station, Posto de Fomento do Impaputo (PFI), near Maputo and next to the Swaziland border. PFI has also a separate breeding nucleus of the Landim cattle. Both these ecotypes are registered at the Nguni Breed's Society of South Africa. This study whose results are reported here aims to determine the environmental descriptors that influence the performance of the Nguni and the Landim cattle ecotypes in Mozambique. Results from the analysed data will help to provide information for sustainable country level utilization and conservation programs in the region. Reproductive and productive data, between 1997 and 2008, were analysed for the two ecotypes using PROC GLM from SAS (1999). Variation sources such as type of breed, place of origin of foundation herd, parity, season and year of calving were taken into consideration in preliminary runs. Results of the preliminary runs on PFI herds indicate that the age at first calving (AFC) was 1089.2 ± 193 d and the calving interval (CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for b(CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for both ecotypes. For AFC there were interactions between the year and season of calving (Nguni or Landim; P < 0.05) and place of birth (Chobela, RSA or Impaputo; P < 0.01) for both ecotypes. CI decreased as the number of parities increased. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) was found on CI for the place of herd's birth, parity and interaction between the year and season of calving (dry and rainy seasons). It is concluded that there is sufficient data to demonstrate within and between population variations in the different ecotypes in terms of reproductive performance. A more complete analysis, which includes information from both ecotypes and data from South Africa as well as other similar environments, should be done. These results can thus be used for the design and implementation of breeding and sustainable conservation programs for the Nguni and the Landim ecotypes under Mozambique and South Africa as well as similar environments. (author)

55

Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

Wongwiwat, P.

2007-11-01

56

Growth Performances, Carcass and Organs Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Leuceana leucocephala (Lam. Leaves Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study carried out from September to December 2010 was to evaluate the effects of Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal inclusion in the diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. One hundred and four (104 indigenous Senegal chicks of 4 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 26 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 13 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4 dietary treatments LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21 containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (5-17th week old, zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 13 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW were 864 g, 1166.48 g, 905 g and 887.16 g/bird, the Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG were 7.77 g, 10.88 g, 8.15 g and 8.10 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI of 39.86 g, 51 g, 40.39 g and 44.75 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR of 7.04, 5.54, 6.27 and 6.80 respectively for birds fed LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21 diets. The Leuceana leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 21% had not caused any adverse effect on LBW, ADWG, DFI, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Apart from the dark yellowing of abdominal fat of carcasses from birds fed LL21 diet, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed LL7 and LL14 diets. Thus, these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 214 and 48 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit compared to the control.

Y. Akpo

2011-01-01

57

Effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam. Leaves Meal Incorporation in Diets on Growth Performances, Carcass Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Ninety six (96 indigenous Senegal chicks of 5 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 24 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 12 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4 dietary treatments MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 containing respectively 0, 8, 16 and 24% of Moringa leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (6-17th week old, zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 12 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW were 721.60 g, 911.70 g, 812.85 g and 720.05 g/bird, the average daily weight gain (ADWG were 6.49 g, 8.77 g, 7.61 g and 6.50 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI of 39.10 g, 39.76 g, 36.28 g and 34.24 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR of 7.58, 5.75, 6.11 et 7.24 respectively for birds fed MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 diets. The Moringa leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 24% had not caused any adverse impact on LBW, ADWG, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Except the significantly decrease of DFI obtained in birds of MO16 and MO24 treatments, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed MO8 and MO16 diets. Thus these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 357 and 206 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit compared to the control.

M. Dahouda

2011-01-01

58

Genetic Improvement of Local Chickens by Crossing with the Label Rouge (T55XSA51: Growth Performances and Heterosis Effects  

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Full Text Available The study of Genetic improvement of local chickens by crossing with the Label Rouge was carried out on the Experimentation Farm of the Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, from August 2007 to may 2008. At the hatching, 6 lots of chicks were made up: the lot MnFl, composed of 47 chicks resulting from the crossing between females Label Rouge and males of North ecotype; the lot MlFn, composed of 58 chicks resulting from the crossing between North females and males Label Rouge; the lot MsFl, composed of 36 chicks resulting from the crossing between Label Rouge females and males of the South ecotype; the lot of north local chickens composed of 112 chicks; the lot of South local chickens composed of 128 chicks and the lot of Label Rouge composed of 204 chicks. Label Rouge have an age-type weight significantly higher than the cross ones (p<0.05 and those have also an age-type weight more significant than the local chickens (p<0.01. The Label Rouge had more important feed intake than the local chickens and the crossbreeds had a feed intake intermediate between the ones of the Label Rouge and the local chickens. Among the chickens resulting from a parent of North ecotype, the hens resulting from a cock of North ecotype had a weak feed efficiency compared to the one resulting from females of North ecotype. The weight average heterosis was 21.95, 14.47 and 27.69%, respectively for the cross MnFl, MlFn and MsFl. Those of the female were 1.17; 23.2 and 4.62%, respectively for the cross MnFl, MlFn and MsFl. A negative heterosis effect was obtained for the feed intake and the feed efficiency of the various crossbreeds.

I.A.K. Youssao

2009-01-01

59

Indigenous Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.

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Spatial Distribution of Rhodopseudomonas palustris Ecotypes on a Local Scale  

OpenAIRE

The number, spatial distribution, and significance of genetically distinguishable ecotypes of prokaryotes in the environment are poorly understood. Oda et al. (Y. Oda, B. Star, L. A. Huisman, J. C. Gottschal, and L. J. Forney, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:xxx-xxx, 2003) have shown that Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes were lognormally distributed along a 10-m transect and that multiple strains of the species could coexist in 0.5-g sediment samples. To extend these observations, we investig...

Bent, S. J.; Gucker, C. L.; Oda, Y.; Forney, L. J.

2003-01-01

61

LEI0258 microsatellite variability in Khorasan, Marandi, and Arian chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsatellite LEI0258 is a genetic marker for chicken MHC haplotypes and can be used as an indicator of the influence of population genetics on immune responses. LEI0258 microsatellite variability in three Iranian indigenous chicken populations (Khorasan, Marandi, and Arian) was investigated. In total, 142 Khorasan, 42 Marandi, and 58 Arian chickens were examined. Collectively, 25 different alleles and 79 genotypes could be found. The observed levels of heterozygosity were 81% in Khorasan and Marandi and 34% in Arian chickens. Our results indicate that LEI0258 diversity in Marandi chickens is higher than in the other populations. Allelic diversity in Iranian chickens is relatively higher than in the local chicken breeds reported for Brazil and Vietnam. PMID:23340766

Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Esmailnejad, Atefeh; Barjesteh, Neda

2013-06-01

62

PHOTOSYNTHESIS, CARBON ALLOCATION, AND GROWTH OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ECOTYPES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation in Geranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and ...

63

Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia  

OpenAIRE

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds) and mountain (Parsnip herd) ecotypes in central British Colum...

Jones, Elena S.; Gillingham, Michael P.; Seip, Dale R.; Heard, Douglas C.

2007-01-01

64

Switchgrass cultivar/ecotype selection and management for biofuels in the upper southeast USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer and November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended. PMID:25105170

Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J; Wolf, Dale D

2014-01-01

65

Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens  

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Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

Zemanová V.

2013-04-01

66

Australian Indigenous Philosophy  

OpenAIRE

In his article "Australian Indigenous Philosophy" Stephen Muecke discusses the fact that neither Australian philosophy nor Indigenous Australian philosophy exists as a field of study. Settler Australians have imported their philosophical traditions and have left it up to other disciplines to undertake the translation work of knowledge in the long-lived Indigenous traditions. Here, anthropology, history, and cultural studies have taken up the challenge. Muecke revisits his 2004 book Ancient an...

Muecke, Stephen

2011-01-01

67

Effect of Water Deficit on Physiological Behavior of Some Collected Tunisian Barley Ecotypes  

OpenAIRE

In Tunisia, the post-anthesis water deficit for cereals takes place almost every year. The identification of tolerant barley ecotypes to this stress is of great importance for crop improvement and yield stability. To fulfill this objective, we evaluated the response of 6 barley ecotypes to moderate and severe stress (one week and three weeks of withholding irrigation). After 7 days of water stress, Souihli, Sidi Bouzid and Tozeur 1 ecotypes maintained higher leaf water potential allowing them...

Abdellaoui Raoudha; Barek, Ben Naceur M.; Ben Salah Hmidi; Mellouli Hafedh-Jamil; Ben Hmida

2007-01-01

68

Phosphate acquisition genes in Prochlorococcus ecotypes: Evidence for genome-wide adaptation  

OpenAIRE

The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the numerically dominant phototroph in the oligotrophic oceans. This group consists of multiple ecotypes that are physiologically and phylogenetically distinct and occur in different abundances along environmental gradients. Here we examine adaptations to phosphate (P) limitation among ecotypes. First, we used DNA microarrays to identify genes involved in the P-starvation response in two strains belonging to different ecotypes, MED4 (high-light-adapted) a...

Martiny, Adam C.; Coleman, Maureen L.; Chisholm, Sallie W.

2006-01-01

69

The growth, flowering and chemical composition of leaves of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L.  

OpenAIRE

The experiment was conducted in the Botanical Garden of UMCS in Lublin. A collection of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L. from Dukla, Roztocze Region and Bieszczady mountain range, were the subject of our study. The aim of the study was to compare the biometrical features and chemical composition of garlic leaves. There were substantial differences both in growth characteristics and flowering characteristics of the ecotypes of Allium ursinum. The Dukla ecotype formed the longe...

Marzena B?a?ewicz-Wo?niak; Anna Michowska

2011-01-01

70

Oceanographic basis of the global surface distribution of Prochlorococcus ecotypes.  

OpenAIRE

By using data collected during a continuous circumnavigation of the Southern Hemisphere, we observed clear patterns in the population-genetic structure of Prochlorococcus, the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth, between and within the three Southern Subtropical Gyres. The same mechanisms that were previously invoked to account for the vertical distribution of ecotypes at local scales accounted for the global (horizontal) patterns we observed. Basin-scale and seasonal variations in...

Bouman, Ha; Ulloa, O.; Scanlan, Dj; Zwirglmaier, K.; Li, Wk; Platt, T.; Stuart, V.; Barlow, R.; Leth, O.; Clementson, L.; Lutz, V.; Fukasawa, M.; Watanabe, S.; Sathyendranath, S.

2006-01-01

71

Indigenous Healing Legacies.  

Science.gov (United States)

On a tour of Cuba, Native scholars from North and South America reconnected with the "extinct" Taino people and shared their knowledge of traditional healing herbs. Western science is just beginning to validate the tremendous knowledge base that indigenous healers have developed--most indigenous medicinal knowledge is useful for finding new…

Taliman, Valerie

2001-01-01

72

A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome?wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced. Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate genomic patterns of diversity and population differentiation in a natural system characterized by high gene flow and large effective population sizes, properties which theoretically could restrict divergence in local genomic regions. We identify a genomic region of strong population differentiation, extending over approximately 20 cM, between pairs of migratory and stationary ecotypes examined at two different localities. Furthermore, the region is characterized by markedly reduced levels of genetic diversity in migratory ecotype samples. The results highlight the genomic region, or ‘genomic island’, as potentially associated with ecological divergence and suggest the involvement of a selective sweep. Finally, we also confirm earlier findings of localized genomic differentiation in three other linkage groups associated with divergence among eastern Atlantic populations. Thus, although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, the results suggest that ‘genomic mosaics’ of differentiation may even be found under high levels of gene flow and that marine fishes may provide insightful model systems for studying and identifying initial targets of selection during ecological divergence.

Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Nielsen, Mads Einar

2013-01-01

73

Distribution and diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Red Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photosynthetic prokaryotes of the genus Prochlorococcus play a major role in global primary production in the world's oligotrophic oceans. A recent study on pelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern and central Red Sea indicated that the predominant cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence types were from Prochlorococcus cells belonging to a high-light-adapted ecotype (HL II). In this study, we analyzed microdiversity of Prochlorococcus sp. at multiple depths within and below the euphotic zone in the northern, central, and southern regions of the Red Sea, as well as in surface waters in the same locations, but in a different season. Prochlorococcus dominated the communities in clone libraries of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Almost no differences were found between samples from coastal or open-water sites, but a high diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes was detected at 100-meter depth in the water column. In addition, an unusual dominance of HL II-related sequences was observed in deeper waters. Our results indicate that the Red Sea harbors diverse Prochlorococcus lineages, but no novel ecotypes, despite its unusual physicochemical properties. PMID:24888561

Shibl, Ahmed A; Thompson, Luke R; Ngugi, David K; Stingl, Ulrich

2014-07-01

74

Indigenous Existentialism and the Body  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive, detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined only in relation to an imagined authentic past, indigenous existentialism is inhibited because indigenous people lack a conscious awareness of cultural immediacy. There is nothing more immediate than the body and, thus, I began to theorise indigenous existentialism through an analyses of the indigenous body, its genealogy, and its immediacy. To help me process this theorisation I engage with current Cultural Studies debates surrounding the analyses of the body. I conclude that an indigenous existentialism will recognise that the power of the body is still unknown.

Brendan Hokowhitu

2011-04-01

75

Molecular characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six Ethiopian indigenous goat populations viz. Gumuz, Agew, Begia-Medir, Bati, Abergelle, and Central Abergelle were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics. A total of 158 individual goats were tested to assess genetic variations within and between the goat populations in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. The markers revealed 100% polymorphism across six goat populations indicating the presence of genetic diversity, which is an important variable to measure genetic variability within and between populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.56 (Central Abergelle) to 0.68 (Bati) and 0.59 (Abergelle) to 0.69 (Agew goat), respectively. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Begia-Medir and Central Abergelle (0.039), and the largest distances between Agew and Abergelle (0.140) and Gumuz and Abergelle (0.169). Neighbor-joining and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods with bootstrap value of 1,000 was used which grouped the six goat populations into two major groups viz. the Abergelle goat cluster as one group and the Agew, Gumuz, Bati, Begia-Medir, and Central Abergelle goats as the second group. In our study, the obtained higher total variation within the goat populations (95%) confirms a close relatedness of the studied goat ecotypes, which might have happened due to the existence of uncontrolled animal breeding strategies resulting from uncontrolled movement of animals through various market routes and agricultural extension systems. The study contributed to the genetic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations and demonstrated the usefulness of the 15 microsatellite makers for biodiversity studies in goats. PMID:22237413

Hassen, Halima; Lababidi, Samer; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Baum, Michael; Tibbo, Markos

2012-08-01

76

Estradiol-17? hormone concentration and follicles number in exotic Burgo chicken supplemented by Sauropus androgynus leaves extract  

OpenAIRE

Putranto HD, Setianto J, Santoso U, Warnoto, Nurmeliasari, Zueni A. 2012. Estradiol-17? hormone concentration and follicles number in exotic Burgo chicken supplemented by Sauropus androgynus leaves extract. Biodiversitas 13: 1-6. Bengkulu Province of Indonesia has an indigenous crossbreed chicken named burgo or Rejang chicken. A conservation effort in this study was represented by supplementing 4 different levels of leaves extract of Sauropus androgynus (or katuk) (LESA) to improve number of...

NURMELIASARI; AHMAD ZUENI; WARNOTO; URIP SANTOSO; JOHAN SETIANTO; HERI DWI PUTRANTO

2012-01-01

77

The ecotype concept to measure bovine adaptability under tropical climatic conditions: reproductive performance in dairy cattle breed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data was collected from 2663 registers from 657 cows of the breed Lucerna. The ecotypes were selected on basis of color and uniformity of coat, length of hair besides skin and mucous color. Tests analysis shown statistical difference among ecotypes in reference to the mean of the days open (p < 0.05) and Calving periods (p<0.01). No statistical difference between ecotypes in dry period. Lucerna ecotypes show good reproductive performance and adaptability under tropical climatic conditions

78

The adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in two ecotypes of a marine gastropod  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few surveys have concentrated on studying the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity within genetically-distinct conspecific ecotypes. Here, we conduct a test to assess the adaptive value that partial phenotypic plasticity may have for survival in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis. This species has evolved canalized ecotypes but, nevertheless, the ecotypes show some phenotypic plasticity for the traits under divergent selection between wave-exposed and high-predation habitats. Results We exposed juveniles of each ecotype to several environmental treatments under laboratory conditions in order to produce shape variation associated with plasticity. The two ecotypes from different treatments were then transplanted to the wave-exposed habitat and the survival rate was monitored. Ecotype explained the largest distinction in survival rate while treatment caused variation in survival rate within the ecotype released into its parental habitat which was correlated with plastic changes in shell shape. Snails that had experienced a treatment mimicking the environment of the transplantation location survived with the highest rate, while individuals from the contrary experimental treatment had lower survivorship. Conclusions We conclude that the partial plastic response shown in Littorina saxatilis has a significant impact on fitness, although this remains small compared to the overall adaptive difference between ecotypes.

Butlin Roger K

2010-10-01

79

Uses and flock management practices of scavenging chickens in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the scavenging chickens. PMID:21800214

Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

2012-03-01

80

Spatial distribution of Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes on a local scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number, spatial distribution, and significance of genetically distinguishable ecotypes of prokaryotes in the environment are poorly understood. Oda et al. (Y. Oda, B. Star, L. A. Huisman, J. C. Gottschal, and L. J. Forney, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:xxx-xxx, 2003) have shown that Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes were lognormally distributed along a 10-m transect and that multiple strains of the species could coexist in 0.5-g sediment samples. To extend these observations, we investigated the clonal diversity of R. palustris in 0.5-g samples taken from the corners and center of a 1-m square. A total of 35 or 36 clones were recovered by direct plating from each sample and were characterized by BOX A1R repetitive element-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting. Isolates with fingerprint images that were >/=80% similar to each other were defined as the same genotype. Among the 178 isolates studied, 32 genotypes were identified, and each genotype contained between 1 and 40 isolates. These clusters were consistent with minor variations found in 16S rRNA gene sequences. The Shannon indices of the genotypic diversity within each location ranged from 1.08 (5 genotypes) to 2.18 (13 genotypes). Comparison of the rank abundance of genotypes found in pairs of locations showed that strains from three locations were similar to each other, with Morisita-Horn similarity coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.71. All comparisons involving the remaining two locations resulted in coefficients between 0 and 0.12. From these results we inferred that the patterns of ecotype diversity at the sampling site are patchy at a 1-m scale and postulated that factors such as mixing, competitive interactions, and microhabitat variability are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the similarities between some locations and the differences between others. PMID:12957901

Bent, S J; Gucker, C L; Oda, Y; Forney, L J

2003-09-01

81

Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions and southern (9 accessions regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differences for most of the traits in the northern ecotypes (first collection while for southern ecotypes no significant differences were obtained for the studied traits except seed yield. Among and within ecotypes genotypic coefficient of variation indicated higher level of variation among ecotypes than within ecotypes. In both of the experiments, there was a large genetic variation for silybin and silymarin quality and quantity. Cluster analysis of 34 accessions was performed for morphological traits and silymarin and silybin characteristics, separately. The resulting dendrogram based on silybin and silymarin characteristics revealed that the native accessions such as Dezfoul, Fereydounkenar and Nour, had highest flavonolignans and they were better than the foreign varieties. Also, there was no clear relationship between clustering based on morphological traits and flavonolignan compounds.

Majid Shokrpour

2007-01-01

82

Effect of Water Deficit on Physiological Behavior of Some Collected Tunisian Barley Ecotypes  

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Full Text Available In Tunisia, the post-anthesis water deficit for cereals takes place almost every year. The identification of tolerant barley ecotypes to this stress is of great importance for crop improvement and yield stability. To fulfill this objective, we evaluated the response of 6 barley ecotypes to moderate and severe stress (one week and three weeks of withholding irrigation. After 7 days of water stress, Souihli, Sidi Bouzid and Tozeur 1 ecotypes maintained higher leaf water potential allowing them to keep hydrated tissue cells, a significant accumulation of proline and a high peroxidases activity which allowed them to withstand the effect of oxidative stress and preserve their chlorophyll content. However, the other ecotypes showed lower water potentials. Although the peroxidases activity decreased for Sidi Bouzid and Souihli ecotypes and remained moderate for Tozeur 1 under severe stress compared to what was registered after moderate stress, it remained important compared to their control. This must be due to an acclimatation of these ecotypes to water stress. However, for Northern ecotypes, we recorded a high reduction of leaf water potential and chlorophyll content which was associated with lower accumulation of proline content and moderate or significant peroxidases activity related to stress intensity showing their lack of tolerance to water stress.

Abdellaoui Raoudha

2007-01-01

83

Genetic properties of milk thistle ecotypes from Iran for morphological and flavonolignans characters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions) and southern (9 accessions) regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differences for most of the traits in the northern ecotypes (first collection) while for southern ecotypes no significant differences were obtained for the studied traits except seed yield. Among and within ecotypes genotypic coefficient of variation indicated higher level of variation among ecotypes than within ecotypes. In both of the experiments, there was a large genetic variation for silybin and silymarin quality and quantity. Cluster analysis of 34 accessions was performed for morphological traits and silymarin and silybin characteristics, separately. The resulting dendrogram based on silybin and silymarin characteristics revealed that the native accessions such as Dezfoul, Fereydounkenar and Nour, had highest flavonolignans and they were better than the foreign varieties. Also, there was no clear relationship between clustering based on morphological traits and flavonolignan compounds. PMID:19090141

Shokrpour, Majid; Moghaddam, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Javanshir, Aziz

2007-10-01

84

Reproductive Activity of Tsigaie Sheep Belonging to the Hill and Mountain Ecotypes  

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Full Text Available The reproductive value of sheep belonging to the hill and mountain ecotypes of the Tsigaie breed was characterized based on the analysis of specific indexes. This operation was deemed necessary given our interest in the ex situ conservation of these ecotypes. Our research resulted in establishing that the hill ecotype is superior to the mountain ecotype, as is apparent by comparing indices for the two. The number of sheep in oestrus is higher by 9.56%, the pregnancy rate by 9.14%, the insemination index by 37.11%, the index of abortions by 6.96%, the fertility index by 19.76%, the sterility index by 14.18% and the number of lambed sheep by 15.06%. Only the prolificacy index is higher in the mountain ecotype by 5.96%. This situation stems from the particular biology of each ecotype and warrants optimal keeping and feeding for the mountain ecotype so that future research will not negatively influenced.

Vasile Miclea

2010-05-01

85

Comparative Analyses of Stomatal Size and Density among Ecotypes of Aster hispidus (Asteraceae  

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Full Text Available To determine the size and the density of stomata among different environments, we conducted anatomical analyses using Aster hispidus var. hispidus (open field, As. hispidus var. leptocladus (serpentine soil, and As. hispidus var. insularis (coastal. The stomatal size was not significantly different among these ecotypes but the density of stomata in the serpentine and coastal ecotypes was significantly lower than that of As. hispidus var. hispidus, which suggests that these ecotypes have experienced selection that reduced the density of stomata for adaptation to the dry conditions of serpentine and coastal areas.

Tatsuya Fukuda

2013-03-01

86

Indigenous education and heritage revitalization  

OpenAIRE

The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and implement adequate and desired forms of bilingual and intercultural education in indigenous communities (as recommended by UNESCO and reaffirmed in the U.N. Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous...

Ke, Wen-li

2011-01-01

87

Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The natural diversity of honey bees in Europe is eroding fast. A multitude of reasons lead to a loss of both genetic diversity and specific adaptations to local conditions. To preserve locally adapted bees through breeding efforts and to maintain regional strains in conservation areas, these valuable populations need to be identified. In this paper, we give an overview of methods that are currently available and used for recognition of honey bee subspecies and ecotypes, or that can be utilised to verify the genetic origin of colonies for breeding purposes. Beyond summarising details of morphometric, allozyme and DNA methods currently in use, we report recommendations with regard to strategies for sampling, and suggest methods for statistical data analysis. In particular, we emphasise the importance of reference data and consistency of methods between laboratories to yield comparable results.

Meixner, Marina D.; Pinto, Maria Alice

2013-01-01

88

Phylogenomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype divergence in sympatry.  

Science.gov (United States)

For many highly mobile species, the marine environment presents few obvious barriers to gene flow. Even so, there is considerable diversity within and among species, referred to by some as the 'marine speciation paradox'. The recent and diverse radiation of delphinid cetaceans (dolphins) represents a good example of this. Delphinids are capable of extensive dispersion and yet many show fine-scale genetic differentiation among populations. Proposed mechanisms include the division and isolation of populations based on habitat dependence and resource specializations, and habitat release or changing dispersal corridors during glacial cycles. Here we use a phylogenomic approach to investigate the origin of differentiated sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Killer whales show strong specialization on prey choice in populations of stable matrifocal social groups (ecotypes), associated with genetic and phenotypic differentiation. Our data suggest evolution in sympatry among populations of resource specialists. PMID:25052415

Moura, A E; Kenny, J G; Chaudhuri, R R; Hughes, M A; Reisinger, R R; de Bruyn, P J N; Dahlheim, M E; Hall, N; Hoelzel, A R

2015-01-01

89

Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits  

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Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, ?Seyah-Roud?, ?Ahar-Hourand?, ?Oskou?, ?Malekan? and ?Sefida-Khan? were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and ?Sefida-Khan? had comparatively less sodium contents than ?Oskou?, ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes ?Malekan?, Ahar- Hourand and ?Oskou? were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes ?Malekan? and ?Ahar-Hourand? were better.

Hassan MONIRIFAR

2009-12-01

90

Karyotype Analysis of several Ecotypes of Capsicum annuum L. in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Capsicum (pepper) is a member of the Solanaceae family and this genus has a great economic importance in food, drug, spices and industry. In this study, seeds of ten ecotypes of Capsicum spp. were obtained from the plant gene bank of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. The standard karyotype was prepared for the ecotypes and the characteristics of the chromosomes including long arm, short arm, total length (TL), arm ratio and centromeric index were calculated and chromosome t...

Darandeh, Nafiseh; Ahmadi, Hami; Khosroshahli, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Rohami, Mahyar

2010-01-01

91

Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  

OpenAIRE

The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions) and southern (9 accessions) regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differ...

Majid Shokrpour; Mohammad Moghaddam; Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Ziai; Aziz Javanshir

2007-01-01

92

Assessment of Milk Thistle Ecotypes for Drought Resistance in a Hydroponic System  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to evaluate drought resistance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) at seedling stage. The experiment was designed as a split plot in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were combination of drought stress levels as main plots and different milk thistle ecotypes as subplot layouts replicated 3 times and run in a hydroponic system. Root length, root volume, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and dry weight of root were measured for assessing the ecotyp...

Deliri, R.; Shokrpour, M.; Asghari, A.; Esfandiari, E.; Seyed Sharifi, R.

2010-01-01

93

Prochlorococcus Ecotype Abundances in the North Atlantic Ocean As Revealed by an Improved Quantitative PCR Method†  

OpenAIRE

The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus numerically dominates the photosynthetic community in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world's oceans. Six evolutionary lineages of Prochlorococcus have been described, and their distinctive physiologies and genomes indicate that these lineages are “ecotypes” and should have different oceanic distributions. Two methods recently developed to quantify these ecotypes in the field, probe hybridization and quantitative PCR (QPCR), have shown that t...

Zinser, Erik R.; Coe, Allison; Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.; Fuller, Nicholas J.; Scanlan, David J.; Chisholm, Sallie W.

2006-01-01

94

Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans  

OpenAIRE

To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of Prochlorococcus populations, and how these populations co-vary with the physical environment, we followed monthly changes in the abundance of five ecotypes—two high-light adapted and three low-light adapted—over a 5-year period in coordination with the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programs. Ecotype abundance displayed weak seasonal fluctuations at HOT and strong seasonal fluctuations at BAT...

Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coe, Allison; Kettler, Gregory Carl; Martiny, Adam C.; Frias-lopez, Jorge; Zinser, Erik R.; Chisholm, Sallie

2010-01-01

95

Transcriptomic and Physiological Variations of Three Arabidopsis Ecotypes in Response to Salt Stress  

OpenAIRE

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. Analysis of natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis is an effective approach to characterize candidate salt responsive genes. Differences in salt tolerance of three Arabidopsis ecotypes were compared in this study based on their responses to salt treatments at two developmental stages: seed germination and later growth. The Sha ecotype had higher germination rates, longer roots and less accumulation of superoxide radi...

Zhu, Jian-kang

2013-01-01

96

Transcriptomic and Physiological Variations of Three Arabidopsis Ecotypes in Response to Salt Stress.  

OpenAIRE

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. Analysis of natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis is an effective approach to characterize candidate salt responsive genes. Differences in salt tolerance of three Arabidopsis ecotypes were compared in this study based on their responses to salt treatments at two developmental stages: seed germination and later growth. The Sha ecotype had higher germination rates, longer roots and less accumulation of superoxide radi...

Zhu, Jian-kang

2013-01-01

97

Demographic characteristics of circumpolar caribou populations: ecotypes, ecological constraints, releases, and population dynamics  

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Full Text Available Data on the status of caribou {Rangifer tarandus herds throughout the circumpolar region during the last 20 years were obtained from the literature and personal communication with researchers. Information was analysed in relation to ecotype (insular, montane, barren-ground, and woodland/forest, population status (increasing, stable, decreasing, herd size, human impact, and temporal change in number. The data support the conclusions (1 that each ecotype is exposed to different ecological constraints and releases, which influence the demographic characteristics of their populations, (2 that subspecific (genotypic classification does not explain the demographic characteristics of caribou populations, (3 that insular and montane ecotype populations are relatively stable, (4 that barren-ground ecotype herds are currently experiencing synchronous population growth throughout the circumpolar region and may undergo population cycles, (5 that in North America, the woodland caribou subspecies (genotype forms the largest barren-ground ecotype herd in the world and is not endangered nor at risk, (6 that populations of woodland/forest ecotypes are declining and threatened throughout the circumpolar region, possibly due to the interaction of human disturbance and predation, and (7 that no relationship exists between herd size and risk of being classified as threatened by researchers.

F.F. Mallory

1998-03-01

98

Influence of light and temperature on Prochlorococcus ecotype distributions in the Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

In a focused analysis of Prochlorococcus population structure in the western North Atlantic, we found that the relative abundances of ecotypes varied significantly with depth and, at seasonally stratified locations, with degree of vertical mixing. More limited regional variation was observed (e.g., Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, continental slope, and equatorial current), and local patchiness was minimal. Modeling of a combined North and South Atlantic data set revealed significant, independent effects of light and temperature on ecotype abundances, suggesting that they are key ecological determinants that establish the different habitat ranges of the physiologically and genetically distinct ecotypes. This was in sharp contrast with the genus Synechococcus, whose total abundance was related to light but did not vary in a predictable way with temperature. Comparisons of field abundances with growth characteristics of cultured isolates of Prochlorococcus suggested the presence of ecotype-specific thermal and light adaptations that could be responsible for the distinct distribution patterns of the four dominant ecotypes. Significantly, we discovered that one "low-light-adapted" ecotype, eNATL2A, can thrive in deeply mixed surface layers, whereas another, eMIT9313, cannot, even though they have the same growth optimum for (low) light. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Zinser, E.R.; Johnson, Z.I.; Coe, A.; Karaca, E.; Veneziano, D.; Chisholm, S.W.

2007-01-01

99

Indigenization of Urban Mobility  

CERN Document Server

Uncovering urban mobility patterns is crucial for further predicting and controlling spatially embedded events. In this article, we analyze millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a Chinese leading location-based social networking service, Jiepang.com, which contains demographical information and thus allows the group-specific studies. We found distinguishable mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities under consideration, and by assigning different algorithms onto natives and non-natives, the accuracy of location prediction can be largely improved compared with pure algorithms. We further propose the so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify to which extent an individual behaves like a native, which depend only on check-in behaviors, instead of any demographical information. To our surprise, a hybrid algorithm weighted by the indigenization coefficients outperforms the mixed algorithm accounting for additional demographical information.

Yang, Zimo; Xie, Xing; Lian, Defu; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

2014-01-01

100

The influence of genetic background versus commercial breeding programs on chicken immunocompetence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunocompetence of livestock plays an important role in farm profitability because it directly affects health maintenance. Genetics significantly influences the immune system, and the genotypic structure of modern fast-growing chickens has been changed, particularly after decades of breeding for higher production. Therefore, this study was designed to help determine if intensive breeding programs have adversely affected immunocompetence or whether the immune response profiles are controlled to greater extent by genetic background. Thus, 3 indigenous chicken populations from different genetic backgrounds and 2 globally available modern broiler strains, Ross 308 and Cobb 500, were evaluated for various aspects of immune response. These included antibody responses against sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus antigen, as well as some aspects of cell-mediated immunocompetence by toe web swelling test and in vitro blood mononuclear cell proliferation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in antibody responses to both antigens and cellular proliferation were observed among populations but not consistently between modern commercial strains versus the indigenous populations. In fact, the immune response profiles of Cobb 500 were similar to the indigenous populations, but varied compared with the other commercial strain. In addition, considerable variation was recorded between indigenous populations for all responses measured in this study. The results of this study suggest that the variation observed in immune responses between these strains of chickens is most likely due to differences in the genetic background between each strain of chicken rather than by commercial selection programs for high production. PMID:24570426

Emam, Mehdi; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Barjesteh, Neda; Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Charkhkar, Saeid; Mallard, Bonnie

2014-01-01

101

Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

Brady, Wendy

1997-09-01

102

Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

Elena S. Jones

2007-04-01

103

Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?TFR), water release (WR) and fat release (FR) was lowest in BC. Significantly (P?indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

2014-03-01

104

INDIGENOUS MEDICINE AND MENTAL HEALTH  

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Full Text Available The different medical alternatives used today by humanity enrich the prophylaxis as well as the diagnoses and the treatment of diseases when these are tackled within a multicausal framework. In this paper two of these alternatives are considered: Western medicine and indigenous medicine. It focuses on the concept of health developed by these two approaches, emphasizes the need to reassess indigenous medicine, and examines in general how mental health disorders are regarded from the point of view of indigenous medicine. The author stresses that in order to understand this conception it is necessary to get acquainted with the cosmogony and cosmology characteristics of indigenous people

Vallejo Samudio, Álvaro Roberto

2006-12-01

105

Rapid divergence of ecotypes of an invasive plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive species demonstrate rapid evolution within a very short period of time allowing one to understand the underlying mechanism(s). Lantana camara, a highly invasive plant of the tropics and subtropics, has expanded its range and successfully established itself almost throughout India. In order to uncover the processes governing the invasion dynamics, 218 individuals from various locations across India were characterized with six microsatellites. By integrating genetic data with niche modelling, we examined the effect of drift and environmental selection on genetic divergence. We found multiple genetic clusters that were non-randomly distributed across space. Spatial autocorrelation revealed a strong fine-scale structure, i.e. isolation by distance. In addition, we obtained evidence of inhibitory effects of selection on gene flow, i.e. isolation by environmental distance. Perhaps, local adaptation in response to selection is offsetting gene flow and causing the populations to diverge. Niche models suggested that temperature and precipitation play a major role in the observed spatial distribution of this plant. Based on a non-random distribution of clusters, unequal gene flow among them and different bioclimatic niche requirements, we concluded that the emergence of ecotypes represented by two genetic clusters is underway. They may be locally adapted to specific climatic conditions, and perhaps at the very early stages of ecological divergence. PMID:25165061

Ray, Avik; Ray, Rajasri

2014-01-01

106

Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

Reyhner, Jon

2010-01-01

107

Divergence is focused on few genomic regions early in speciation: incipient speciation of sunflower ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early in speciation, as populations undergo the transition from local adaptation to incipient species, is when a number of transient, but potentially important, processes appear to be most easily detected. These include signatures of selective sweeps that can point to asymmetry in selection between habitats, divergence hitchhiking, and associations of adaptive genes with environments. In a genomic comparison of ecotypes of the prairie sunflower, Helianthus petiolaris, occurring at Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (Colorado), we found that selective sweeps were mainly restricted to the dune ecotype and that there was variation across the genome in whether proximity to the nondune population constrained or promoted divergence. The major regions of divergence were few and large between ecotypes, in contrast with an interspecific comparison between H. petiolaris and a sympatric congener, Helianthus annuus. In general, the large regions of divergence observed in the ecotypic comparison swamped locus-specific associations with environmental variables. In both comparisons, regions of high divergence occurred in portions of the genetic map with high marker density, probably reflecting regions of low recombination. The difference in genomic distributions of highly divergent regions between ecotypic and interspecific comparisons highlights the value of studies spanning the spectrum of speciation in related taxa. PMID:24033161

Andrew, Rose L; Rieseberg, Loren H

2013-09-01

108

A Study of Genetic Diversity in Sardari Wheat Ecotypes Using AFLP Markers and Agronomic Traits  

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Full Text Available Studying genetic diversity is important because a decrease in genetic variability might result in a reduction of the plasticity of the crops to respond to changes in climate, pathogen populations, or agricultural practices. In this study, 72 Sardari wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ecotypes were analyzed by AFLP markers and 17 phenotypic characters. Three pairs of EcoRI/MseI primer combinations produced 1582 polymorphic bands (with mean percentage of polymorphic 73.92%. Cluster analysis using Jaccard coefficient and the entire AFLP data divided all ecotypes into eight major groups. Mean, coefficient of variation, phenotypic, genotypic and environment variance were calculated in each quantitative character. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance through the quantitative characters divided all ecotypes into six major groups. Comparison of genetic distances obtained from AFLP and agronomic data showed low correlation between the two diversity measurements (0.02. The results showed a high degree of genetic diversity between the Sardari ecotypes, suggesting that Sardari is not a single cultivar, but it is the mass of ecotypes and could be introduced in the gene bank.

A Siosemardeh

2009-04-01

109

Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can be related to fish ecotypes. Broadly speaking, there were steady increases in abundance of species that were either Lusitanian, small-bodied, or low-/mid-trophic-level ecotypes, and generally declining or only marginally increasing trends of most Boreal, large-bodied, or high-trophic-level ecotypes or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure.

Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.

2011-01-01

110

Chicken Wing Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore cooked chicken wings and identify the various parts including: bones (radius, ulna, humerus, shoulder joint, elbow joint), tendons, and cartilage. Learners observe the relationships between bones, tendons, and cartilage and identify how a chicken wing is similar to a human arm.

Center, Arizona S.

2012-01-01

111

Haematological and serum biochemical responses of chickens to hydric stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dehydration can be extremely damaging to the performance and welfare of indigenous chickens. The effect of water restriction on haematological and biochemical parameters was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens. A total of 54 8-week-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641 ± 10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments with three replications, each having six birds. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m2 per strain were used. Feed was provided ad libitum. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total leucocyte count (WBC), and biochemical parameters (uric acid (UA)), creatinine (CREAT), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), triglyceride (TGA), total cholesterol (TC), high- (HDLC) and low- (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined from blood collected after 60 days of water restriction. PCV was higher (P CREAT, TGA, TC, LDLC, TP and GLOB increased (P CREAT and TC was more pronounced in OVB than NNK chickens. The opposite was observed for UA. ALT activity indicated that liver function was not affected by water restriction. It was concluded that the two strains can withstand up to 40% of ad libitum water restriction, but NNK tolerated water stress better than OVB chickens. PMID:23764254

Chikumba, N; Swatson, H; Chimonyo, M

2013-09-01

112

Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to co [...] llect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998) management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers.

Zandra, Balbinot; Luciano, Minghini; Rafael, Borim-de-Souza.

2012-12-01

113

Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

Barnhardt, R.

2010-12-01

114

Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but ?s1-CN and ?s2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of ?-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

Samir Kalit

2002-06-01

115

[PCR based identification of strains of endophytic ecotype of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens].  

Science.gov (United States)

A search for genetic markers of an endophytic ecotype of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was performed by the subtractive hybridization technique. The isolated fragments specificity was checked by DNA-DNA hybridization. The sequence of a DNA locus exhibiting the highest taxon specificity has manifested a 76% identity to the gene mtlA from Bacillus subtilis 168 genome. A set of discriminative primers has been derived from this sequence which could be used for the fast and reliable identification of isolates of the endophytic ecotype of B. amyloliquefaciens placing them separate against their close relatives including the type cultures of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. Identification of strains of this ecotype is quite important as far as their characteristic ability to colonize the roots and internal tissues of plants in association with high antagonistic activity in respect of many phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria makes them valuable agents for plant protection. PMID:16250231

Reva, O N; Poltavski?, A N

2005-01-01

116

Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of alfas1-casein, beta-casein and k-casein genes in Charnequeira Portuguese indigenous goat breed  

OpenAIRE

The DNA from eighty goats belonging to the indigenous portuguese caprine breed Charnequeira, ecotype from Beira Baixa (Beiroa), was analysed. Single-strand conformation polymorphisms were identified at exon 9 and at exons 10-11 of the as1-casein gene and at exon 4 of the kcasein. The b-casein gene was found monomorphic at exon 7 in this population sample. The establishment of an association of some of these SSCP polymorphisms with milk production and protein and fat content was at...

Bonifa?cio, C.; Santos, Ingrid; Belo, Carmona; Cravador, A.

2001-01-01

117

Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

Catherine E. Gordon

2014-06-01

118

Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

Lumby, Bronwyn

2010-01-01

119

Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal adaptations to daylength often limit the effective range of insects used in biological control of weeds. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44° N) to control saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish south of 38° N latitude because of a mismatched critical daylength response for diapause induction. The daylength response caused beetles to enter diapause too early in the season to survive the duration of winter at southern latitudes. Using climate chambers, we characterized the critical daylength response for diapause induction (CDL) in three ecotypes of Diorhabda beetles originating from 36, 38, and 43° N latitudes in Eurasia. In a field experiment, the timing of reproductive diapause and voltinism were compared among ecotypes by rearing the insects on plants in the field. CDL declined with latitude of origin among Diorhabda ecotypes. Moreover, CDL in southern (42° N latitude) ecotypes, however, CDL was relatively insensitive to temperature. The southern ecotypes produced up to four generations when reared on plants in the field at sites south of 38° N, whereas northern ecotypes produced only one or two generations. The study reveals latitudinal variation in how Diorhabda ecotypes respond to daylength for diapause induction and how these responses affect insect voltinism across the introduced range. PMID:22546466

Dalin, Peter; Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Carney, Vanessa A; Eberts, Debra; Gardner, Kevin T; Hebertson, Elizabeth; Jones, Erin N; Kazmer, David J; Michels, G J; O'Meara, Scott A; Thompson, David C

2010-10-01

120

Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

121

Growth responses of Betula pendula ecotypes to red and far-red light  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of Red light (R), Far-red light (FR) and R/FR combinations on shoot growth of latitudinal ecotypes of B. pendula was studied using special diodes that emit monochromatic lights. When a 12 hrs PAR (110 µmol m-2 s-1) was extended with R, FR or R/FR ratios, lower intensities of monochromatic [...] lights could not prevent growth cessation. At 25 µmol m-2 s-1, FR compared to R enhanced stem elongation in all ecotypes. This was due to the inhibitive effect of R on internode elongation. When day-length was extended by R/FR at various ratios, there was continuous shoot elongation, but was found to be declining with increasing ratios. The more the R, the shorter were the internodes of each plant. B. pendula ecotypes produced branches when PAR light during the day was extended by incandescent light, but did not do so when the light extensions were made by monochromatic R or FR or their combination. Branching increased with decreasing latitude of the ecotype

Berhanu A., Tsegay; Leidulf, Lund; Jarle, Nilsen; Jorunn E., Olsen; Jorgen M., Molmann; Arild, Ernsten; Olavi, Juntttila.

2005-04-15

122

Mitogenome sequence variation in migratory and stationary ecotypes of North-east Atlantic cod.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequencing of mitochondrial gene fragments from specimens representing a wide range of geographical locations has indicated limited population structuring in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). We recently performed whole genome analysis based on next-generation sequencing of two pooled ecotype samples representing offshore migratory and inshore stationary cod from the North-east Atlantic Ocean. Here we report molecular features and variability of the 16.7kb mitogenome component that was collected from the datasets. These sequences represented more than 25 times coverage of each individual and more than 1100 times coverage of each ecotype sample. We estimated the mitogenome to have evolved 14 times more rapidly than the nuclear genome. Among the 365 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites identified, 121 were shared between ecotypes, and 151 and 93 were private within the migratory and stationary cod, respectively. We found 323 SNPs to be located in protein coding genes, of which 29 were non-synonymous. One synonymous site in ND2 was likely to be under positive selection. FST measurements indicated weak differentiation in ND1 and ND2 between ecotypes. We conclude that the Atlantic cod mitogenome and the nuclear genome apparently evolved by distinct evolutionary constraints, and that the reproductive isolation observed from whole genome analysis was not visible in the mtDNA sequences. PMID:24456931

Karlsen, Bård O; Emblem, Åse; Jørgensen, Tor E; Klingan, Kevin A; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar D

2014-06-01

123

DELLA activity is required for successful pollen development in the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive gibberellin (GA) signalling, mediated through the DELLA proteins, has a negative impact on plant fertility. Loss of DELLA activity in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa) causes complete male sterility, but not in the dicot model Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler), in which DELLA function has been studied most extensively, leading to the assumption that DELLA activity is not essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. A novel DELLA fertility phenotype was identified in the Columbia (Col-0) ecotype that necessitates re-evaluation of the general conclusions drawn from Ler. Fertility phenotypes were compared between the Col-0 and Ler ecotypes under conditions of chemical and genetic GA overdose, including mutants in both ecotypes lacking the DELLA paralogues REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI). Ler displays a less severe fertility phenotype than Col-0 under GA treatment. Col-0 rga gai mutants, in contrast with the equivalent Ler phenotype, were entirely male sterile, caused by post-meiotic defects in pollen development, which were rescued by the reintroduction of DELLA into either the tapetum or developing pollen. We conclude that DELLA activity is essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. Differences between the fertility responses of Col-0 and Ler might be caused by differences in downstream signalling pathways or altered DELLA expression. PMID:24400898

Plackett, Andrew R G; Ferguson, Alison C; Powers, Stephen J; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Phillips, Andrew L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

2014-02-01

124

Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species together with strong resource specializations, understanding the process of differentiation will require an understanding of the relative importance of both genetic drift and local adaptation. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis based on nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphic markers and inference about differentiation at both neutral loci and those potentially under selection. We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry. Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion). The pattern of differentiation for one ecotype in the North Pacific suggests local adaptation and shows some fixed differences among sympatric ecotypes. We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift. PMID:25244680

Moura, Andre E; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy; Hughes, Margaret A; J Welch, Andreanna; Reisinger, Ryan R; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hall, Neil; Hoelzel, A Rus

2014-11-01

125

Arabidopsis Transcript and Metabolite Profiles: Ecotype-specific Acclimation to Open-air Elevated [CO2  

Science.gov (United States)

A FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) experiment compared physiological parameters, and transcript and metabolite profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Cvi-0 at ambient (~375ppm) and elevated (~550ppm) CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Photosynthesis and photoassimilate pool sizes were enhanced in...

126

Sensitivity of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis Thaliana (Cvi and Te) towards UV-B irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana towards the detrimental effect of UV-B irradiation was investigated using two ecotypes, Cvi and Te. The effect of UV-B treatment on primary photosynthetic reactions - energy interaction between the main pigment-protein complexes and oxygen evolution, was evaluated at low (40C) and at room (220C) temperature. UV-B-induced alterations of investigated photosynthetic reactions are better expressed at 220C than at 40C for Cvi. For Te ecotype the energy interaction was suppressed to higher extent at 220C, while oxygen evolving activity was affected similarly at both temperatures. At low and room temperature, the energy interaction in the complex PSII-core antenna is affected stronger by UV-B treatment than the energy distribution between both photosystems, as revealed by fluorescence ratios of 77 K spectra. The results presented indicate that the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi (Cape Verde Islands) is less affected by UV-B irradiation in respect to the investigated primary photosynthetic reactions than the ecotype Te (Finland)

127

Characterisation of chicken viperin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of immune pathways that protect against pathogens may lead to novel molecular therapies for both livestock and human health. Interferon (IFN) is a major response pathway that stimulates multiple genes targeted towards reducing virus. Viperin is one such interferon stimulated gene (ISG) that helps protect mammals from virus and may be critical to protecting chickens in the same way. In chickens, ISGs are not generally well characterised and viperin, in concert with other ISGs, may be important in protecting against virus. Here we identify chicken viperin (ch-viperin) and show that ch-viperin is upregulated in response to viral signature molecules. We further show that viperin is upregulated in response to virus infection in vivo. This data will benefit investigators targeting the antiviral pathways in the chicken. PMID:25311379

Goossens, Kate E; Karpala, Adam J; Rohringer, Andreas; Ward, Alistair; Bean, Andrew G D

2015-02-01

128

Seasonal dynamics of active SAR11 ecotypes in the oligotrophic Northwest Mediterranean Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

A seven-year oceanographic time series in NW Mediterranean surface waters was combined with pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and ribosomal RNA gene copies (16S rDNA) to examine the environmental controls on SAR11 ecotype dynamics and potential activity. SAR11 diversity exhibited pronounced seasonal cycles remarkably similar to total bacterial diversity. The timing of diversity maxima was similar across narrow and broad phylogenetic clades and strongly associated with deep winter mixing. Diversity minima were associated with periods of stratification that were low in nutrients and phytoplankton biomass and characterised by intense phosphate limitation (turnover timewater column periodically resets SAR11 communities to a high diversity state and the seasonal evolution of phosphate limitation competitively excludes deeper-dwelling ecotypes to promote low diversity states dominated (>80%) by SAR11 Ia. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed that could reliably predict sequence abundances of SAR11 ecotypes (Q(2)=0.70) from measured environmental variables, of which mixed layer depth was quantitatively the most important. Comparison of clade-level SAR11 rRNA:rDNA signals with leucine incorporation enabled us to partially validate the use of these ratios as an in-situ activity measure. However, temporal trends in the activity of SAR11 ecotypes and their relationship to environmental variables were unclear. The strong and predictable temporal patterns observed in SAR11 sequence abundance was not linked to metabolic activity of different ecotypes at the phylogenetic and temporal resolution of our study. PMID:25238399

Salter, Ian; Galand, Pierre E; Fagervold, Sonja K; Lebaron, Philippe; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Oliver, Matthew J; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Tricoire, Cyrielle

2015-02-01

129

Investigating the Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Weed Management on Forage and Seed Yield of Alfalfa Ecotypes (Medicago sativa L.)  

OpenAIRE

In order to investigate fertilizing and weed management effects on forage and seed yield of alfalfa ecotypes, a field trial was conducted during 2008-2009 growing season at Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Alfalfa ecotypes including (Ghareghozlo, Hoakmabad, Malekkandi, Kozre, Faminin, Galebani, Rahnani, Shorkat, Chaleshtar, Ghareaghaj, Gharoghlogh, Ordobad, Sedighan, Silvana, Sahandava, Ghahavand, Mohajerankaraj and Mashhad) were allocated to main plot...

Ali Reza Heidarian; Ali Reza Beheshti; Farzad Mokhberdoran

2012-01-01

130

Morphological Traits of Lotus japonicus (Regal Ecotypes Collected in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty-seven wild accessions of Lotus japonicus Regal (Japanese trefoil indigenous to Japan were investigated for nine morphological characters. Average temperature and annual precipitation were negatively correlated with stem color and seed weight. On the other hand, latitude was positively correlated with these traits. Consequently, accessions from sites at higher latitudes with low temperatures and precipitation tend to have dark red stems and heavy seeds. Cluster analysis based on nine morphological characters classified 47 wild accessions into six major groups. Cluster I included four accessions of tall and erect plants. These plants are phenotypically similar to commercial variety ‘Empire’. Cluster II consisted of three accessions of creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster III contained 24 accessions that had average values for all morphological characters evaluated. Cluster IV included two accessions of erect plants with rounded leaflets and dark red stems. Cluster V included four accessions of small, creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster VI included seven accessions of small and erect plants, a phenotype that also applies to ‘Gifu B-129’, which is used as experimental strain worldwide. These data were deposited into LegumeBase, an online database (http://www.legumebase.brc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp/ supported by the National BioResource Project (NBRP in Japan.

Ryo Akashi

2011-02-01

131

Indigenous health and climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-07-01

132

Conversations, collaborations and contestations: Building a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the ways collaborative research offers ethnomusicologists a “dialogic alternative: speaking with rather than for” Indigenous people (Fielding 305. Drawing on my research experiences collaborating with Indigenous Australian women, I consider the difficulties, dilemmas, ethics and the benefits of cross-cultural collaborative research. I focus on two collaborative projects and incorporate interviews with my co-researchers and theoretical perspectives on collaborative research, to examine the complexities of including Indigenous people as “co-researchers”, the implication of knowledge production with and for Indigenous people, and the importance of a dialogic approach to collaborative research. I discuss my perspective as a non-Indigenous ethnomusicologist and my shared lived experiences with Indigenous researchers. Ultimately, I consider how collaborative research can allow Indigenous and non-Indigenous ethnomusicologists to engage in dialogue, have equal voices in projects, and facilitate relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Katelyn Barney

2012-11-01

133

Possibilities of chicken radicidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study on the redicidation of chickens is described. The data on the radiosensitivity of two Salmonella species used to contaminate chicken meat showed that the bacteriostatic effect of gamma radiation is species-dependent. After irradiation with the dose of 400 krad, the numbers of S.galinarum fell sharply to remain at a hygienically safe level for 15 days at 00C. S.anatum was much more resistant, and much larger doses were required to keep its numbers at a safe level. It is concluded that radicidation is a promising method of treating poultry meat. (E.T.)

134

Welfare of broiler chickens  

OpenAIRE

Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for ...

Federico Sirri; Adele Meluzzi

2010-01-01

135

IDENTIFICATION OF CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. ECOTYPES THROUGH MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SELECTED REGIONS OF THE WESTERN GHATS OF KARNATAKA, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Castor (Ricinus communis L. being a perennial crop widely grown for oil seed production in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.  Nevertheless, the leaf of castor serves as a primary food for the eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Boisduval. Eri silkworm being a polyvoltine requires leaf throughout the year for its survival and cocoon production. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to identify (through molecular characterization the best castor ecotype(s found in different regions of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India for leaf production. The ecotypes were processed through DNA sequencing using ITS4 and ITS5 primers. The sequence results were authenticated through National Centre for Biotechnology Information by way of obtaining accession numbers (phylogenetic tree. Further, leaf samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE to know the variations existed among the ecotypes in protein profile. The results revealed that, ecotypes of different regions exhibits close relation among them and some marginal variations were evident in phylogenetic tree as well as in dendrogram. However, phylogenetic relationship of ecotypes in the major clade II and cluster III showed similar in both phylogeny and dendrogram for eight among 12 ecotypes representing different agro-ecological regions of Western Ghats of Karnataka.  Further, five ecotypes showed close relationship in both phylogenetic as well as in cluster dendrogram, but in clades I and III, bootstrap values showed minor variation among the ecotypes representing different regions of the Western Ghats. Whereas, in protein profile clusters I and II showed similarities between the ecotypes having genetic distance of 0.57. The maximum of 18 protein bands were found in KJ130046 ecotype, accordingly, minimum bands (10 were noticed in both KJ000404 and KJ000405 ecotypes.

KG Manjunath and B Sannappa*

2014-10-01

136

Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: patterns of plasticity and the emergence of ecotypes  

OpenAIRE

Phenotypic plasticity itself evolves, as does any other quantitative trait. A very different question is whether phenotypic plasticity causes evolution or is a major evolutionary mechanism. Existing models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity cover many of the proposals in the literature about the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution. I will extend existing models to cover adaptation to a novel environment, the appearance of ecotypes and possible covariation between ...

Jong, G.

2005-01-01

137

Ecotypes of wild rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm. F) Dahlg., Fabaceae) are ecologically distinct  

OpenAIRE

Aspalathus linearis (Burm. F) Dahlg., Fabaceae is cultivated by small- and large-scale commercial farmers of the Cederberg and Bokkeveld Plateau in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, for the production of an herbal beverage called ‘rooibos’ or ‘rooibos tea’. Small-scale farmers also harvest A. linearis from the wild and market the tea as an organic and fair-trade certified product. However, little is known about the apparent ecotypes of wild A. linearis. We hypothesiz...

Hawkins, H. J.; Malgas, R.; Bienabe, E.

2011-01-01

138

Global gene expression of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in response to changes in nitrogen availability  

OpenAIRE

Nitrogen (N) often limits biological productivity in the oceanic gyres where Prochlorococcus is the most abundant photosynthetic organism. The Prochlorococcus community is composed of strains, such as MED4 and MIT9313, that have different N utilization capabilities and that belong to ecotypes with different depth distributions. An interstrain comparison of how Prochlorococcus responds to changes in ambient nitrogen is thus central to understanding its ecology. We quantified changes in MED4 an...

Lindell, Debbie; Johnson, Zackary I.; Rector, Trent; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Tolonen, Andrew; Aach, John Dennis; Steen, Robert G.

2006-01-01

139

Distinct, ecotype-specific genome and proteome signatures in the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus, having multiple ecotypes of distinct genotypic/phenotypic traits and being the first documented example of genome shrinkage in free-living organisms, offers an ideal system for studying niche-driven molecular micro-diversity in closely related microbes. The present study, through an extensive comparative analysis of various genomic/proteomic features of 6 high light (HL) and 6 low light (LL) adapt...

Bag Sumit K; Dutta Anirban; Paul Sandip; Das Sabyasachi; Dutta Chitra

2010-01-01

140

Genomic Diversity of “Deep Ecotype” Alteromonas macleodii Isolates: Evidence for Pan-Mediterranean Clonal Frames  

OpenAIRE

We have compared genomes of Alteromonas macleodii “deep ecotype” isolates from two deep Mediterranean sites and two surface samples from the Aegean and the English Channel. A total of nine different genomes were analyzed. They belong to five clonal frames (CFs) that differ among them by approximately 30,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over their core genomes. Two of the CFs contain three strains each with nearly identical genomes (?100 SNPs over the core genome). One of the C...

Lo?pez-pe?rez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Rodriguez-valera, Francisco

2013-01-01

141

A Study of Genetic Diversity in Sardari Wheat Ecotypes Using AFLP Markers and Agronomic Traits  

OpenAIRE

Studying genetic diversity is important because a decrease in genetic variability might result in a reduction of the plasticity of the crops to respond to changes in climate, pathogen populations, or agricultural practices. In this study, 72 Sardari wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ecotypes were analyzed by AFLP markers and 17 phenotypic characters. Three pairs of EcoRI/MseI primer combinations produced 1582 polymorphic bands (with mean percentage of polymorphic 73.92%). Cluster analysis using Ja...

Siosemardeh, A.; Zh, Osamny

2009-01-01

142

Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamyc...

Ahmed, Bulbul; Khatun, Mansura; Hossain, Monzur; Islam, Rafiul; Biswas, Manosh; Mandal, Abdul

2011-01-01

143

A test of the chromosomal theory of ecotypic speciation in Anopheles gambiae  

OpenAIRE

The role of chromosomal inversions in speciation has long been of interest to evolutionists. Recent quantitative modeling has stimulated reconsideration of previous conceptual models for chromosomal speciation. Anopheles gambiae, the most important vector of human malaria, carries abundant chromosomal inversion polymorphism nonrandomly associated with ecotypes that mate assortatively. Here, we consider the potential role of paracentric inversions in promoting speciation in A. gambiae via “e...

Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Powell, Jeffrey R.; Toure?, Mahamoudou B.; Sacko, Adama; Edillo, Frances E.; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traore?, Sekou F.; Taylor, Charles E.; Besansky, Nora J.

2008-01-01

144

Plant response to climate change varies with topography, interactions with neighbors, and ecotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the future of any given species represents an unprecedented challenge in light of the many environmental and biological factors that affect organismal performance and that also interact with drivers of global change. In a three-year experiment set in the Mongolian steppe, we examined the response of the common grass Festuca lenensis to manipulated temperature and water while controlling for topographic variation, plant-plant interactions, and ecotypic differentiation. Plant survival and growth responses to a warmer, drier climate varied within the landscape. Response to simulated increased precipitation occurred only in the absence of neighbors, demonstrating that plant-plant interactions can supersede the effects of climate change. F. lenensis also showed evidence of local adaptation in populations that were only 300 m apart. Individuals from the steep and dry upper slope showed a higher stress/drought tolerance, whereas those from the more productive lower slope showed a higher biomass production and a greater ability to cope with competition. Moreover, the response of this species to increased precipitation was ecotype specific, with water addition benefiting only the least stress-tolerant ecotype from the lower slope origin. This multifaceted approach illustrates the importance of placing climate change experiments within a realistic ecological and evolutionary framework. Existing sources of variation impacting plant performance may buffer or obscure climate change effects. PMID:23691663

Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Song, Daniel S; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

2013-02-01

145

Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".  

Science.gov (United States)

Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region. PMID:24283538

Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

2014-06-01

146

Age standardisation – an indigenous standard?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous M?ori population has a substantially younger age structure than the non-indigenous population making it necessary to account for age differences when comparing population health outcomes. An age-standardised rate is a summary measure of a rate that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Changing age standards have stimulated interest in the potential impact of population standards on disparities data and consequently on health policy. This paper compares the age structure of the M?ori and non-M?ori populations with two standard populations commonly used in New Zealand: Segi's world and WHO world populations. The performance of these standards in M?ori and non-M?ori mortality data was then measured against the use of the M?ori population as a standard. It was found that the choice of population standard affects the magnitude of mortality rates, rate ratios and rate differences, the relative ranking of causes of death, and the relative width of confidence intervals. This in turn will affect the monitoring of trends in health outcomes and health policy decision-making. It is concluded that the choice of age standard has political implications and the development and utilisation of an international indigenous population standard should be considered.

Simmonds Shirley

2007-05-01

147

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-01-01

148

Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice. PMID:21333035

Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

2011-02-01

149

Welfare of broiler chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

Federico Sirri

2010-01-01

150

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has...

2010-01-01

151

Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

2013-11-01

152

Perspectives on Reconciliation & Indigenous Rights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of discourses of the movement for national reconciliation prevailing within the Australian socio-political context since the inception of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in 1991, to the national apology delivered by the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd on 13th February 2008. It provides an framework for the various discourses of reconciliation, by exploring and analysing the accrued meanings to such terms such as ‘genuine’, substantive or ‘true’ reconciliation; the Howard’s Government’s ‘practical reconciliation’ and the Rudd government’s great attempt at ‘symbolic’ reconciliation in the national apology to Indigenous Australians. In the changing political context in Australia today this paper revisits the debates on reconciliation, and endeavours to locate the movement solidly within a human rights framework that includes first nation rights. This requires an examination of the roots of the reconciliation movement including community attitudes to reconciliation and the nature of the peoples’ movement as well as the differing perspectives of policy makers, politicians and of course, Indigenous peoples. It asks crucial questions about the progress of reconciliation and the type of reconciliation mainstream Australians will accept. In truth therefore, was the ‘National Apology’ a grand symbolic gesture by mainstream Australia to maintain the status quo and divert our eyes from the more searching questions of the ‘unfinished business’ of ‘substantive’ reconciliation which encompasses first nations rights for Indigenous peoples.

Nina Burridge

2009-09-01

153

Toward health and wellbeing for indigenous Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of indigenous Australians remains well below that of non-indigenous Australians and indigenous peoples in Canada and New Zealand. Although recent planning has initiated many outstanding, culturally appropriate programmes with indigenous involvement, health statistics only reflect marginal improvement in recent years. It is crucial that positive programmes are sustained with appropriately directed funding. An approach that includes respect for the emotional and spiritual wellbeing of Australia's indigenous peoples will assist to redress some of the disadvantage caused by dispossession of country, language, and identity. It is clear from many programmes that are in place, that primary health care delivered locally through community controlled organisations, will minimise the impact of serious illnesses that currently threaten whole families and communities. Westernized health care systems are slow to learn from indigenous peoples in Australia and other places, that maintenance of wellness, not management of illness should be the goal. PMID:16210456

van Holst Pellekaan, S M; Clague, L

2005-10-01

154

Indigenous peoples, gender, and natural resource management  

OpenAIRE

It is generally assumed that both gender and ethnicity are decisive factors in natural resource management and that changes in access to natural resources have differing effects on men and women and on indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. The issues of ethnicity and gender are, however, rarely explored together in relation to natural resource management. The present paper seeks to provide an overview of the present state of research dealing with indigenous peoples, gender and natural resour...

Mikkelsen, Cæcilie

2005-01-01

155

Vindicating indigenous peoples' land rights in Kenya  

OpenAIRE

This thesis examines the extent to which Kenyas domestic legal framework vindicates indigenous peoples land rights. The question of who is an indigenous person in Kenya is, of course, controversial. In order to avoid becoming enmeshed in this debate, this thesis adopts the approach of the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, which is based on identifying the key concerns faced by marginalised communities who self-identify as indigenous peoples. Such an approach assumes that it r...

Wachira, George Mukundi

2008-01-01

156

DNA methylation and methylation polymorphism in ecotypes of Jatropha curcas L. using methylation-sensitive AFLP markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated DNA methylation and polymorphism in the methylated DNA using AFLP based methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MS-AFLP) markers in ecotypes of Jatropha curcas L. growing in similar and different geo-ecological conditions. Three ecotypes growing in different geo-ecological conditions with environmental heterogeneity (Group-1) and five ecotypes growing in similar environmental conditions (Group-2) were assessed. In ecotypes growing in group-1, 44.32 % DNA was methylated and of which 93.59 % DNA was polymorphic. While in group-2, 32.27 % DNA was methylated, of which 51.64 % DNA was polymorphic. In site 1 and site 2 of group-1, overall methylation was 18.94 and 22.44 % respectively with difference of 3.5 %, while overall polymorphism was 41.14 and 39.23 % with a difference of 1.91 %. In site 1 and site 2 of group-2, overall methylation was 24.68 and 24.18 % respectively with difference of 0.5 %, while overall polymorphism was 12.19 and 12.65 % with a difference of 0.46 %. The difference of methylation percentage and percentage of methylation polymorphism throughout the genome of J. curcas at site 1 and 2 of group-1 is higher than that of J. curcas at site 1 and 2 of group-2. These results correlated the physico-chemical properties of soil at these sites. The variations of physico-chemical properties of soil at Chorwadla (site 1 in group-1 and site 2 in group-2) compared to the soil at Brahmapur (site 2 in group-1) is higher than that of soil at Neswad (site 1 in group-2). The study suggests that these homologous nucleotide sequences probably play important role in ecotype adaptation to environmental heterogeneity by creating epiallelic variations hence in evolution of ecotypes/clines or forms of species showing phenotypic/genotypic differences in different geographical areas. PMID:25227523

Mastan, Shaik G; Rathore, Mangal S; Bhatt, Vacha D; Chikara, J; Ghosh, A

2014-09-17

157

Rapid adaptive divergence between ecotypes of an aquatic isopod inferred from F-Q analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Divergent natural selection is often thought to be the principal factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. We studied two ecotypes of the aquatic isopod Asellus aquaticus which have diverged in parallel in several Swedish lakes. In these lakes, isopods from reed belts along the shores colonized new stonewort stands in the centre of the lakes and rapid phenotypic changes in size and pigmentation followed after colonization. We investigated if selection was likely to be responsible for these observed phenotypic changes using indirect inferences of selection (F(ST)-Q(ST) analysis). Average Q(ST) for seven quantitative traits were higher than the average F(ST) between ecotypes for putatively neutral markers (AFLPs). This suggests that divergent natural selection has played an important role during this rapid diversification. In contrast, the average Q(ST) between the different reed ecotype populations was not significantly different from the mean F(ST). Genetic drift could therefore not be excluded as an explanation for the minor differences between allopatric populations inhabiting the same source habitat. We complemented this traditional F(ST)-Q(ST) approach by comparing the F(ST) distributions across all loci (n = 67-71) with the Q(ST) for each of the seven traits. This analysis revealed that pigmentation traits had diverged to a greater extent and at higher evolutionary rates than size-related morphological traits. In conclusion, this extended and detailed type of F(ST)-Q(ST) analysis provides a powerful method to infer adaptive phenotypic divergence between populations. However, indirect inferences about the operation of divergent selection should be analyzed on a per-trait basis and complemented with detailed ecological information. PMID:19878452

Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice; Hargeby, Anders; Svensson, Erik I

2009-12-01

158

Digital Library for Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR)  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous Science Resources is a collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science that includes knowledge about the natural world and ways of teaching and learning about it. All resources are authored and/or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations or approved for inclusion in the collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource. It is intended for users of all cultures, but can be a particularly important resource for teachers and students in Native Studies programs and in tribal schools and colleges. The current sets of resources are primarily from SnowChange, Tribal College Journal and Winds of Change.

159

The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…

Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

2012-01-01

160

Variability of the physico-mechanical properties of the ecotypes of nut fruits (Juglans regia L. in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present time among the endangered species of plants, there exists elements of flora which can be found in Slovakia. Within the framework of the program "Protection of Endangered Genebank Plants in Slovakia" is the processing, existence and description of individual king nut ecotypes (Juglans Regia L.. Several agrophysical methods were applied for evaluating and grouping advantageous ecotypes in genebanks. This work presents the results obtained of the dimension and weight characteristics of fruits and shells, together with the determined necessary force for cracking nutfruits. The research was done on 16 selected samples obtained from 11 localities of southern Slovakia.

Brindza J.

1999-09-01

161

Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.  

Science.gov (United States)

The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken

Dwyer, Edward J.

162

Karyotype Analysis of several Ecotypes of Capsicum annuum L. in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capsicum (pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and this genus has a great economic importance in food, drug, spices and industry. In this study, seeds of ten ecotypes of Capsicum spp. were obtained from the plant gene bank of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. The standard karyotype was prepared for the ecotypes and the characteristics of the chromosomes including long arm, short arm, total length (TL, arm ratio and centromeric index were calculated and chromosome types were determined. The number of chromosomes in somatic cells of all genotypes was 24 (2n=2x=24. All genotypes had a pair of satellite chromosome. The first 2 principal component analysis (PCA justified over 99% of the total variations determined for cytological parameters. The highest total haploid length (51.65 ?m was detected in G7 while G8 demonstrated the least (43.46 ?m. Cluster analysis was carried out for chromosomal parameters, classifying genotypes in three classes.

Nafiseh DARANDEH

2010-12-01

163

Freezing of Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to The Hill Ecotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our purpose was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the hill ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (-120°C and then plunged into nitrogen (-196,8oC. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing the Hancock, endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and hypoosmotic tests were performed. Abnormalities of the head, midpiece and tail were also investigated using the Hancock method. After thawing motility sperm decreased to 0.32-0.42, while only 25% of the spermatozoa were HOST positive. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was as high as 50%, the acrosome being flawed in most cases (34.20%. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the hill ecotype.

Vasile Miclea

2011-05-01

164

Effect of Freezing on Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to the Mountain Ecotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the mountain ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in 0.25 ml straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (- 120°C and then plunged into nitrogen. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing sperm morphology was assessed using Hancock’s method and at the same time the endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and HOST tests were performed. The highest motility (0.40 was graded at 30 minutes. It could be correlated with the increased percentage of HOST positive spermatozoa, 27.78%. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was also high (47.89%, 38.44% of them having acrosome flaws. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on the characteristics of sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the mountain ecotype.

Vasile Miclea

2011-05-01

165

Comparative quantitative proteomics of prochlorococcus ecotypes to a decrease in environmental phosphate concentrations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The well-lit surface waters of oligotrophic gyres significantly contribute to global primary production. Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus are a major fraction of photosynthetic organisms within these areas. Labile phosphate is considered a limiting nutrient in some oligotrophic regions such as the Caribbean Sea, and as such it is crucial to understand the physiological response of primary producers such as Prochlorococcus to fluctuations in the availability of this critical nutrient. Results Prochlorococcus strains representing both high light (HL (MIT9312 and low light (LL (NATL2A and SS120 ecotypes were grown identically in phosphate depleted media (10 ?M Pi. The three strains displayed marked differences in cellular protein expression, as determined by high throughput large scale quantitative proteomic analysis. The only strain to demonstrate a significantly different growth rate under reduced phosphate conditions was MIT9312. Additionally, there was a significant increase in phosphate-related proteins such as PhoE (> 15 fold increase and a depression of the Rubisco protein RbcL abundance in this strain, whereas there appeared to be no significant change within the LL strain SS120. Conclusions This differential response between ecotypes highlights the relative importance of phosphate availability to each strain and from these results we draw the conclusion that the expression of phosphate acquisition mechanisms are activated at strain specific phosphate concentrations.

Fuszard Matthew A

2012-03-01

166

Genomic diversity of "deep ecotype" Alteromonas macleodii isolates: evidence for Pan-Mediterranean clonal frames.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have compared genomes of Alteromonas macleodii "deep ecotype" isolates from two deep Mediterranean sites and two surface samples from the Aegean and the English Channel. A total of nine different genomes were analyzed. They belong to five clonal frames (CFs) that differ among them by approximately 30,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over their core genomes. Two of the CFs contain three strains each with nearly identical genomes (~100 SNPs over the core genome). One of the CFs had representatives that were isolated from samples taken more than 1,000 km away, 2,500 m deeper, and 5 years apart. These data mark the longest proven persistence of a CF in nature (outside of clinical settings). We have found evidence for frequent recombination events between or within CFs and even with the distantly related A. macleodii surface ecotype. The different CFs had different flexible genomic islands. They can be classified into two groups; one type is additive, that is, containing different numbers of gene cassettes, and is very variable in short time periods (they often varied even within a single CF). The other type was more stable and produced the complete replacement of a genomic fragment by another with different genes. Although this type was more conserved within each CF, we found examples of recombination among distantly related CFs including English Channel and Mediterranean isolates. PMID:23729633

López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2013-01-01

167

Out of the Pacific and back again: the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous.

Foote, Andrew David; Morin, PA

2011-01-01

168

Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments. PMID:14969972

Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

1992-06-01

169

Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

2013-01-01

170

Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

Dyall, Lorna

2010-01-01

171

Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

Bevan-Brown, Jill

2013-01-01

172

Personal Thoughts on Indigenous Language Stabilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents personal reflections on factors in the preservation and stabilization of North American indigenous languages. All indigenous languages in North America are in danger of being lost. Linguistic and cultural minority communities must control the institutions that affect their lives if there is to be significant and sustainable…

Burnaby, Barbara

173

Indigenous child health: Are we making progress?  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years. PMID:25534334

Brewster, David R; Morris, Peter S

2015-01-01

174

Indigenous Mortality (Revealed): The Invisible Illuminated.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inaccuracies in the identification of Indigenous status and the collection of and access to vital statistics data impede the strategic implementation of evidence-based public health initiatives to reduce avoidable deaths. The impact of colonization and subsequent government initiatives has been commonly observed among the Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The quality of Indigenous data that informs mortality statistics are similarly connected to these distal processes, which began with colonization. We discuss the methodological and technical challenges in measuring mortality for Indigenous populations within a historical and political context, and identify strategies for the accurate ascertainment and inclusion of Indigenous people in mortality statistics. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 11, 2014: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301994). PMID:25211754

Freemantle, Jane; Ring, Ian; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G; Gachupin, Francine C; Smylie, Janet; Cutler, Tessa Louise; Waldon, John A

2014-09-11

175

The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

2014-11-01

176

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

177

Indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous embedded microbial filaments, bacterial cells and other microfossils were found in the Orgueil, Ivuna (CI1), Murchison, and Bells (CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. Biominerals, biofilms, framboids, magnetite platelets, and curious elemental iron ovoids covered with minute fibrils and carbon sheaths were also found. The S-4100 Hitachi Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) were used for in situ investigations of freshly fractured interior meteorite surfaces. EDAX x-ray spectra shows the microfossils bear signatures of the meteorite matrix and possess elemental ratios indicating they are indigenous and not recent microbial contaminants. Many of the well-preserved biogenic remains in the meteorites are encased within carbon-rich, sometimes electron transparent, sheaths. Their size, morphology and ultra microstructure are comparable to microfossils known from the phosphorites of Khubsughul, Mongolia and to some of the living cyanobacteria and other sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria known from the halophilic Microcoleus mats of Sivash Lagoon, Crimea and from Mono Lake in California.

Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Sipiera, Paul P.

2004-11-01

178

Genetic analysis of sympatric migratory ecotypes of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus: alternative mating tactics or reproductively isolated strategies?  

Science.gov (United States)

Three populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from southern Baffin Island were previously identified to display variable migratory phenotypes, with an anadromous component of the population and another remaining resident in fresh water. In this study, 14 microsatellite markers were used to help distinguish between two alternative hypotheses to explain the co-existence of the two ecotypes: that the two ecotypes originate from a single population and are the result of a conditional mating tactic or that the migratory ecotypes are reproductively isolated populations utilizing alternative migratory strategies. In two of the three replicate systems, F(ST) values between the resident and anadromous individuals were non-significant, while they were significant in a third sampling location. Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in structure, however, failed to identify any within-location clustering in all three sampling locations. It is concluded from these analyses that the life-history ecotypes are most likely conditional mating tactics, rather than reproductively isolated populations. Other evidence in favour of the alternative mating tactic hypothesis is briefly reviewed, and implications for management of those populations are discussed. PMID:24383802

Moore, J-S; Loewen, T N; Harris, L N; Tallman, R F

2014-01-01

179

Destruction of Salmonella typhimurium on chicken wings by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

No viable CFU of a streptomycin-resistant S. typhimurium were detected on chicken wings inoculated with 100 CFU and treated with 1.8 kGy or greater doses of gamma radiation at 5 degrees C in air. The inoculated S. typhbnurium did not recover from radiation injury during 3 days of refrigerated storage. Viable CFU were detected on wings inoculated with 1,000 or 10,000 CFU and irradiated with 1.8 kGy but not on those irradiated with 2.7 or greater kGy. The indigenous aerobic mesophilic population on the wings was reduced from 10(4) to 44 CFU/cm2 by 1.4 kGy

180

Geographic and Breed Distribution Patterns of an A/G Polymorphism resent in the Mx Gene Suggests Balanced Selection in Village Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An A/G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP at position 1,892 of the Mx gene coding sequence has been linked to susceptibility/resistance to avian viral infection in vitro. Using PCR-RFLP and sequencing methods, 1,946 samples from 109 populations from Asia, Africa and Europe; grouped as indigenous village, commercial, fancy chicken as well as wild junglefowl were genotyped for the polymorphism. Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated. Only the G allele was present in Ceylon junglefowl Gallus lafayetti. Using the wild red junglefowl G. gallus population as reference, we assessed if the A/G alleles and genotypes frequencies have been affected by the breeding history and the geographic dispersion of domestic chicken. Within group variation was high but overall there were no significant variation in distribution of alleles and genotypes frequencies between the red junglefowl and indigenous village chickens (p>0.1946, with the exception of the East Asian group (p<0.0001. However, allele and genotype frequencies were significantly different between the red junglefowl and the commercial or fancy groups (p<0.0001. A small but significant negative correlation (r = - 0.166, p<0.0003 was observed between allelic and geographic distance matrices amongst indigenous village chicken populations. Human selection and genetic drift are likely the main factors having shaped today’s observed allele and genotype frequencies in commercial and fancy breeds. In indigenous village chicken and red junglefowl, we propose that both A and G alleles have been maintained by natural selection for disease resistance through a balancing selection mechanism.

S.J. Oh

2010-01-01

181

Investigating the Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Weed Management on Forage and Seed Yield of Alfalfa Ecotypes (Medicago sativa L.  

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Full Text Available In order to investigate fertilizing and weed management effects on forage and seed yield of alfalfa ecotypes, a field trial was conducted during 2008-2009 growing season at Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Alfalfa ecotypes including (Ghareghozlo, Hoakmabad, Malekkandi, Kozre, Faminin, Galebani, Rahnani, Shorkat, Chaleshtar, Ghareaghaj, Gharoghlogh, Ordobad, Sedighan, Silvana, Sahandava, Ghahavand, Mohajerankaraj and Mashhad were allocated to main plots; sub plots consisted of two levels of none fertilizing and fertilization treatments using simultaneous application of potassium sulphate and phosphate triple at rates of 150 and 350 K/ha, respectively and sub-sub plots were allocated to weeding and none weeding treatments based on a complete randomized block design in a splitsplit- plot scheme with three replicates. Results showed that the effect of ecotype on forage yield was not significant. Gharoghlogh and Silvana produced the highest (18270 kg/ha and the lowest (14630 kg/ha green forage yield, respectively at both cuttings (first and second cuts. The interaction of fertilization and weeding on forage yield was significant (p<0.01. On the other hand, with application of fertilizer, forage yield 11.74% was increased and it was enhanced 26.93% by manual weeding. Furthermore, results revealed that ecotype fertilizer interaction was significant (p<0.05 for weed dry weight. Ecotype weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per pod and seed weight (p<0.01. In addition, fertilizer weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per plant. Among the treatments, highest number of seed per plant was produced by fertilizer and weeding treatment (2734 and the lowest one was obtained by non-fertilizer and non-weeding treatment (559.5.

Ali Reza Heidarian

2012-09-01

182

Neuroendocrine Responses to Cold Stress in Chinese Indigenous Breeds from Different Latitude  

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Full Text Available It is well established that stress is related to neurochemical and hormonal changes including alterations in adrenal and thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, thyroid axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis related hormomal, Triiodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH, Adreno-Cortico-Tropic-Hormone (ACTH and Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH mRNA, ACTH mRNA changes during cold stress with different intensities were recorded in two Chinese indigenous breeds from different latitude. The results showed that Huainan partridge chicken from central China, showed obvious conversion in T3 and T4 under severe cold stress. Plasma TSH and pituitary TRH mRNA highly expressed over 12-24 h long time severe cold exposure. However, mild cold did not obviously affect those hormones mentioned above. In the Wenchang chicken which from south of China, severe and mild cold stress showed the same affection on the thyroid axis but not obvious on the adrenal axis. The results would further help the revealing of the mechanism of injury caused by cold stress and provide better controls for chicken from loss of cold stress in different areas.

H.C. Bai

2011-01-01

183

Beyond Justice: What Makes an Indigenous Justice Organization?  

Science.gov (United States)

The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous

Nielsen, Marianne O.; Brown, Samantha

2012-01-01

184

Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

2012-01-01

185

The wisdom of indigenous healers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The wisdom of indigenous peoples is manifest in ways of knowing, seeing, and thinking that are passed down orally from generation to generation. This article takes the reader on a journey through three distinct ways of knowing, specifically as they relate to healing and health. The authors are a Midewanniquay, or Water Woman, of the Ojibway-Anishinabe people of the upper Midwest in the United States and Canada; a Iomilomi healer from Hawaii; and an initiated Priest in the Yoruba tradition of West Africa. The philosophies of all three cultures emphasize the importance of spirituality to health and wellbeing (or healing process), but each has unique ways in which it nurtures relationship with the Creator, the earth, and humankind through sacred rituals and healing practices. PMID:24730191

Day, Dorene; Silva, Dane Kaohelani; Monroe, Amshatar Ololodi

2014-01-01

186

An Indigenously Developed Insecticidal Aerosol  

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Full Text Available A total of 6 "Test" insecticidal aerosols (TA-I to VI indigenously produced were tested during the years 1966-67 as suitable replacements for imported aerosols.TA-I produced deep yellow staining and a yellowish spray mist. Its capacity was only 120 ml fluid. TA-III types II and III containing modified aerosol formulation with "Esso solvent 3245" and mineral turpentine oil (Burmah Shelland Freon 12 11 (all indigenouswere comparable to he "SRA" in insecticidial efficacy. The container was also manufactured in the country and it compared well with the "SRA" in construction, resistance against rough usage and mechanical function. They were both finally approved for introduction in the services as replacement for imported aerosols. TA-IV performed well in inscticidial assessment, but the aerosols formulation. TA-V and VI were similar to TA-III types II and III respectively.

R. N. Varma

2014-05-01

187

Estradiol-17? hormone concentration and follicles number in exotic Burgo chicken supplemented by Sauropus androgynus leaves extract  

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Full Text Available Putranto HD, Setianto J, Santoso U, Warnoto, Nurmeliasari, Zueni A. 2012. Estradiol-17? hormone concentration and follicles number in exotic Burgo chicken supplemented by Sauropus androgynus leaves extract. Biodiversitas 13: 1-6. Bengkulu Province of Indonesia has an indigenous crossbreed chicken named burgo or Rejang chicken. A conservation effort in this study was represented by supplementing 4 different levels of leaves extract of Sauropus androgynus (or katuk (LESA to improve number of fertile eggs. The purpose of study was to identify the effects of LESA supplementation on female burgo chicken’s serum estradiol-17? (E2 hormone concentration profile and number of follicles. LESA was added into drinking water (0, 9, 18 and 27 g/chicken/day during 8 weeks of threatment. The results showed that supplementation of LESA dosed 9 to 27 g/chickens/day had significantly affected E2 concentrations and number of follicles (P < 0.05. In contrast, the average of female burgo E2 concentration with supplemented LESA was higher than control group. The total number of small follicle yield was highest (86.5% compared to medium follicle (7.8% and large follicle (5.3%. Many primary follicles (primordial and post ovulatory follicles were probably in micro size and unseen by an usual visual counting. It seems that serum E2 hormone concentration correlated to total number of preheararchal follicles. Supplemented LESA was able to improve the serum estrogen steroid hormone concentration and number of preheararchal follicle (small and medium follicles in female burgo chicken.

NURMELIASARI

2012-01-01

188

Consumption and Cooking Patterns of Chicken Meat in Hyderabad District  

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Full Text Available In order to ascertain the consumption and cooking patterns of chicken meat in Hyderabad district, a survey based study was carried out during, 2006-2007. The sample size of 200 was comprised of 180 male and 20 female respondents having education from primary level to graduation, mostly married and all the respondents employed in public (40% or private sector (60% along with low monthly income in the range of 1000-10000 rupees (68%. The 85% respondents liked to purchase broiler meat, while only 15% respondents showed their liking in meat of desi hen (indigenous poultry breed. 38% respondents consumed once a week, while 36% consumed monthly. 73% respondents purchased upto 1 kilogram, while 15% purchased 1-1.5kg. 68% respondents were having current knowledge of nutritive value and 32% respondents did not showed their knowledge over the nutritive value of commercial poultry meat. It was noted that at 74% told that their wives were responsible for cooking, 11% their daughters and 8% their mother/sister. 47% liked to cooked and consumed fried chicken, while 33.00% preferred to cook chicken curry, 20.% liked to prepare broast, 72% liked whole chicken, 18% showed their liking for breast meat and only 10% respondents expressed their liking towards leg meat. While enquiring the respondents whether they consumed meat during out break of diseases especially in bird flu disease, 58% respondents responded positively and told that they feel no hesitation in consuming meat during outbreak of diseases. 72% respondents enhanced their consumption in winter season and remaining 36% respondents commented that they did not enhance their consumption. 86% respondents responded optimistically and perceived that the meat is consumed normally at their homes in summer season. The respondents were asked to express consumption of meat in case of increased prices and 61% respondents had positive response and 37% showed negative response to this aspect. 70% respondents preferred first to eat chicken meat, 15% had choice of fish and 10% showed preference for beef/mutton, while only 5% expressed their preference for vegetables.

A. Memon

2009-01-01

189

Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter  

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Full Text Available Indigenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

Zhao Y. Geng

2011-01-01

190

Considerations on the relationship between chromosome constitution and biochemical phenotype in five ecotypes of seabuckthorn  

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Full Text Available Seabuckthorn is a small tree showing pronounced morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic variability, high ecological plasticity and large limits of resistance to unfavourable factors and to phytopathogens. It is largely exploited in biotechnological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical purposes, cosmetics domain and in environmental protective field. The possibility that some karyotype traits of five seabuckthorn ecotypes to be used as markers in relation with some specific biochemical features was discussed in this paper. There is intraspecific chromosome variability; the formula of haploid complement is different concerning the preponderance of chromosome morphotypes. Also a marked chemical heterogeneity was evidenced. At this research stage, the results not allow us to establish a direct relationship between some chromosome characteristics and certain morphological and biochemical parameters.

Gabriela Vochita

2011-06-01

191

Not all semantics: Similarities and differences in reminiscing function and content between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember. PMID:24999815

Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny

2015-01-01

192

The Mapuche People's Battle for Indigenous Land. Litigation as a Strategy to Defend Indigenous Land Rights  

OpenAIRE

Land is the foundation for the economic sustenance of indigenous peoples and for the continued survival of their cultures. One of the major problems faced by indigenous peoples is the dispossession of their traditional lands and territories. The activities of business interests and economic development projects in indigenous territories – such as forest logging and infrastructure projects - and the environmental implications of such activities, often constitute a great threat to the livelih...

Skjævestad, Anne

2008-01-01

193

The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC) in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in t...

Doolittle Amity

2010-01-01

194

Differential contributions of archaeal ammonia oxidizer ecotypes to nitrification in coastal surface waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of nitrification in the oceanic water column has implications extending from local effects on the structure and activity of phytoplankton communities to broader impacts on the speciation of nitrogenous nutrients and production of nitrous oxide. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea, responsible for carrying out the majority of nitrification in the sea, are present in the marine water column as two taxonomically distinct groups. Water column group A (WCA) organisms are detected at all depths, whereas Water column group B (WCB) are present primarily below the photic zone. An open question in marine biogeochemistry is whether the taxonomic definition of WCA and WCB organisms and their observed distributions correspond to distinct ecological and biogeochemical niches. We used the natural gradients in physicochemical and biological properties that upwelling establishes in surface waters to study their roles in nitrification, and how their activity--ascertained from quantification of ecotype-specific ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and transcripts--varies in response to environmental fluctuations. Our results indicate a role for both ecotypes in nitrification in Monterey Bay surface waters. However, their respective contributions vary, due to their different sensitivities to surface water conditions. WCA organisms exhibited a remarkably consistent level of activity and their contribution to nitrification appears to be related to community size. WCB activity was less consistent and primarily constrained to colder, high nutrient and low chlorophyll waters. Overall, the results of our characterization yielded a strong, potentially predictive, relationship between archaeal amoA gene abundance and the rate of nitrification. PMID:24553472

Smith, Jason M; Casciotti, Karen L; Chavez, Francisco P; Francis, Christopher A

2014-08-01

195

Analysis of natural allelic variation at flowering time loci in the Landsberg erecta and Cape Verde Islands ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

OpenAIRE

We have analyzed the flowering behavior of two Arabidopsis ecotypes: the laboratory strain Landsberg erecta (Ler) and an ecotype from the tropical Cape Verde Islands (Cvi). They differ little in their flowering phenotypes and in their responses to photoperiod length changes and to vernalization treatment. However, segregating populations derived from crosses between them showed a much larger variation. An approach of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) gr...

Alonso-blanco, C.; El-assal, S. E.; Coupland, G.; Koornneef, M.

1998-01-01

196

Survey-Sami and Indigenous Research  

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Full Text Available Centre for Sami Studies at The University of Tromsø has by The Research Council of Norway been assigned to make a survey of Sami and Indigenous research going on in the Nordic countries.

SESAM SESAM

2005-04-01

197

Fermented Cereal from Indigenous Raw Materials  

OpenAIRE

Fermented cereal was prepared from indigenous raw material like parboiled rice and Bengal gram. The approximate analysis, microbiology, edibility of cereal product has been done. It was found to be a high nutritive value and acceptable as a food.

Sahana Parveen; Fauzia Hafiz

2003-01-01

198

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE ECOTYPES OF Echinochloa crus-galli var crus-galli (L. Beauv (Barnyard grass: Poaceae IN MALAYSIA and INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the morphological traits of barnyard grass ecotypes from diverse geographic origin. Seeds (caryops is were collected from 17 locations of rice fields throughout Malaysia (11 states and Indonesia (six provinces and were grown in pots each containing 10 kg of paddy field soil. The experiments were arranged using completely randomized design (CRD with five replicates. Mean separation was calculated using Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA was performed to determine the individual relationship within ecotype s of barnyard grass. Twelve morphological traits such as culm, panicle, leaf, and spikelet traits were measured. The growth characters such as emer gence date, heading time, and growth duration were also evaluated. The average of emergence date, heading time, and growth duration of barnyard grass collected from Perils, Kedah, Penang, and Johor were relatively earlier th an other ecotypes. Six groups were classi fied based on the cluster analysis of Malaysian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Principal component indicated that group six was found to be highly variable compared to others. While three groups were identified in Indonesian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Group one was observed to be highly variable. Results demonstr ated that morphological variation among ecotypes of barnyard grass showing differences between the two regions illustrate the role of geographic variation.

SUHAIMI NAPIS

2004-01-01

199

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground...

2010-01-01

200

Computerised tomography of chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. The use of computerised tomography (CT) to predict body composition of chickens has been evaluated. Prediction equations were constructed by regression analyses with CT-observations as independent variables. The accuracy of prediction was evaluated on separate sets of birds, not included in the regression analyses. 2. Different methods of generating CT-observations were evaluated. The most robust CT-variables for prediction purposes were obtained from a principal component analysis of the distribution of CT-values. The accuracy of prediction depended on the traits and the material analysed. 3. The correlation between observed and predicted values for the amount of abdominal fat or breast cut in grams were in the range of 0.70 and 0.90 where the principal component method was applied. The bias was 1 to 2% of the standard deviation for the trait. 4. The amount of abdominal fat relative to carcase weight was predicted with similar accuracy, whereas the relative amount of breast cut seemed to be more difficult to predict. The increase in accuracy of prediction for amount of abdominal fat was considerable when compared to an equation including only body weight and sex. 5. The results from a small scale experiment, where a wide range of compositional traits were determined by more laborious and precise methods, indicated that the accuracy of prediction may be increased further and that CT-observations may in addition provide important information about the chemical composition of the tissues analysed

201

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics  

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Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

2012-03-01

202

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project 'Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics' that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies. PMID:23990811

Shenderov, Boris Arkadievich

2012-01-01

203

From Prediction to Function Using Evolutionary Genomics: Human-Specific Ecotypes of Lactobacillus reuteri Have Diverse Probiotic Functions  

OpenAIRE

The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host–microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-deriv...

Spinler, Jennifer K.; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B.; Venable, Susan F.; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A.; Saulnier, Delphine M. A.; Mistretta, Toni-ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K.

2014-01-01

204

Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)  

OpenAIRE

Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 ? mol mol?1) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harve...

Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Price, Andrew J.; Mcelroy, J. Scott; Torbert, H. Allen

2014-01-01

205

Variability of Carcass Traits of Local Poultry Populations of Gallus gallus Species of Benin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The local poultry population of Benin is composed of various ecotypes including chickens Holli, Sahoue, Fulani, North and South. To better characterize them, our study aims to assess their carcass traits according to genetic type, breeding system and slaughter age. Thus, 260 chickens of which 52 chickens of each ecotype were divided in two lots and reared respectively under traditional and improved breeding system. For each breeding system, 26 cockerels of each ecotype were slaughtered at 20, 24 and 28 weeks old for carcass traits study. The results show that the live weight, the carcass weight, the weight of the cuts of thigh-drumsticks and wings of Holli chickens were the highest (p0.05. The breast weight of Holli and Fulani were similar (p>0.05 but heavier (p<0.001 than the one of Sahoue, North and South ecotypes. The live weight and the carcass weight of chickens reared under improved breeding system were higher than those of traditional system (p<0.01. The carcass drip loss was more important in chickens bred under traditional system (p<0.001. The live weight and the carcass cuts value were significantly affected by slaughter age (p<0.001. The best carcass yields were recorded at 24 weeks (p<0.001 for both rearing systems. Therefore, the ideal slaughter age of indigenous chickens of Benin is 24 weeks.

U.P. Tougan

2013-01-01

206

Accumulation of zinc and Organic Acids in Roots of Zinc Tolerant and Non-tolerant Ecotypes of Deschampsia caespitosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A much higher zinc level was necessary to inhibit root elongation in the zinc tolerant ecotype as compared to the non-tolerant ecotype of Deschampsia caespitosa. In the presence of a range of high levels of zinc, zinc accumulated to a much higher concentration in the roots of the tolerant ecotype, especially in the root sap. Accumulation of citrate in the root sap was highly correlated to the accumulation of zinc. Gel filtration chromatography of the root sap showed zinc to be mainly present as zinc-citrate. This was the only zinc complex found. The malate concentration of the root sap was much lower than the concentration of citrate. However the malate content of aqueous root homogenates was comparable or even greater than the content of citrate, suggesting that malate and citrate are located in different compartments within the cell. The results are consistent with a model of zinc tolerance in which zinc is complexed with citrate in the vacuole. PMID:23194878

Godbold, D L; Horst, W J; Collins, J C; Thurman, D A; Marschner, H

1984-08-01

207

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O2·-) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

208

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.

Jin Xiaofen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn; Islam, Ejazul [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam 48800, Hyderabad (Pakistan); Liu Dan [School of Tourism and Health, Zhejiang Forestry College, 311300 Lin' an (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2008-08-15

209

A comparison of the functional traits of common reed (Phragmites australis) in northern China: aquatic vs. terrestrial ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions). PMID:24586505

Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

2014-01-01

210

The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

Doolittle Amity

2010-01-01

211

Behavioural defenses of the honey bee ecotype from Sjenica–Pešter against Varroa destructor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two behaviours of honey bees, hygienic and grooming, are mechanisms of defense against brood diseases and parasitic mites, including Varroa destructor. Apis mellifera colonies remove the worker brood infested with Varroa destructor mites from the nest (hygienic behaviour, and groom the mites off other adult bees (grooming behaviour. In this study hygienic and grooming behaviours of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype were analysed in 440 honey bee colonies from 11 localities in the region of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski plateau, Podpešterje, Golija Mt. and Rogozna ML At each locality 40 honey bee colonies were investigated: 10 potent colonies with one-year old queen, 10 potent colonies with two-year old queen, 10 medium potent and 10 weak honey bee colonies. Hygienic behaviour was expressed in a range from 95.12% to 99.50% in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old and two-year old queens. Statistically highly significant (p<0.01 differences were registered among the analysed honey bee colonies at the investigated region, in favour of the potent honey bee colonies, compared to the medium potent and weak colonies. Also, statistically highly significant (p<0.01 differences were recorded between potent colonies with one-year old queens and colonies with two-year old queens, in favour of the colonies with one-year old queens. In general, investigated colonies belong to a category of the so called "hygienic colonies", as the efficiency of elimination of damaged pupae amounted to 91.50%. Grooming behaviour of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype potentially exists, but its significance cannot be discussed as, on the whole, investigated colonies showed potential of 34,04%. Our results point to an indisputable relationship between analysed behaviours and the strength of honey bee colonies: hygienic behaviour is more expressed in potent colonies (from 95.12% to 99.50% regardless of queen age; grooming behaviour was expressed only in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old queen at all 11 localities, where the number of damaged mites ranged from 36,05% to 39,61%. The damaged mites were separated into six categories. The most frequent category of damage was damaged legs (53.38% in potent colonies with one-year old queens and 52.02% in potent colonies with two-year old queens. The potent honey bee colonies from the investigated region especially with one-year old queen, could be used for highly selected breeds improving and queens rearing.

Stanimirovi? Zoran Ž.

2005-01-01

212

ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)

213

Promoting the occupational health of indigenous farmworkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, approximately 78% of agricultural farmworkers are immigrants. In Oregon, a growing number of these farmworkers are indigenous and speak an indigenous language as their primary language. This group of farmworkers suffers from linguistic, cultural and geographic isolation and faces a unique set of challenges yet little has been done to identify their health needs. Using data from focus groups, partners from this community-based participatory research project examined indigenous farmworkers' concerns regarding occupational injury and illness, experiences of discrimination and disrespect, and language and cultural barriers. The data revealed examples of disrespect and discrimination based on the languages and cultures of indigenous farmworkers, and a lack of basic occupational health and safety information and equipment. For example, participants mentioned that occupational safety information was inaccessible because it was rarely provided in indigenous languages, and participants felt there were no legal means to protect farmworkers from occupational hazards. Community-based strategies designed to address the occupational health status of farmworkers must consider the unique circumstances of those farmworkers who do not speak Spanish or English. PMID:17668321

Farquhar, Stephanie; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Davis, Shelley; Abernathy, Michelle; McCauley, Linda; Cuilwik, Nancy; Shadbeh, Nargess

2008-06-01

214

Maximum bite force in elderly indigenous and non-indigenous denture wearers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the measures of maximum bite force (MBF) in elderly edentulous indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous individuals with new complete dentures at two different measuring times. A sample of 100 elderly subjects was divided into two groups: 50 indigenous and 50 non-indigenous, each including 25 females and 25 males. All individuals were totally edentulous, with new maxillary and mandibular removable complete dentures. Measurements were taken at the time of new prosthesis placement and after 1 month of use. Subjects were asked to perform with maximum effort three bites per side at maximum intercuspidation, with a rest time of 2 minutes in between. Statistics were analyzed with Student 's t-test. The MBF values were significantly higher in indigenous than non-indigenous subjects. Force after 1 month of wearing the new prosthesis was significantly higher than at the time of new prosthesis placement. No significant difference was found between sides. Elderly indigenous complete denture wearers had the greatest MBF values. Denture wearers were observed to undergo an adaptation process to the new prosthesis, with MBF increasing considerably after one month of use. PMID:25560689

Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara A; Fuentes, Ramón; Beltrán, Víctor; Navarro, Pablo; Pareja, Felipe; Raimundo, Lariça B

2014-01-01

215

Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA  

OpenAIRE

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments in...

Rocky Lemus; Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

2014-01-01

216

Indigenous Australia: The Role of Storytelling  

Science.gov (United States)

A collaborative effort between Australia's Cultural Network and the Australian Museum, this site showcases some fine examples of Indigenous Australian stories. Collected from all over Australia, the stories (currently 20) are offered in text, audio, and video formats, with brief introductions and a glossary of indigenous words. Short descriptions of the role of storytelling, custodianship, "Dreaming," and secret/ sacred stories are also provided. Users should note that RealPlayer G2 is required to view the video presentations, and that, at time of review, video playback quality was rather poor. The text and audio formats, however, were quite acceptable, making this site worthwhile for anyone interested in Indigenous Australian culture or storytelling in general.

217

Check Out The Chicken Wing!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will examine a chicken wing to discover the different tissues and organs that make it up. They will relate this to the concept that cells make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems in the organism.

Admin, Admin

2011-10-07

218

The Chicken and Egg Project  

OpenAIRE

This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children’s work.

Ivette Alkon

2004-01-01

219

The Chicken and Egg Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children’s work.

Ivette Alkon

2004-01-01

220

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

2014-05-13

221

Diversity of thermal ecotypes and potential pathotypes of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological diversification of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates was examined to determine whether bacteria adapted to grow at low temperature and/or potentially pathogenic correspond to genetically distinct lineages. Altogether, nine phylogenetic lineages were found among bacilli originating from North-Eastern Poland (n = 24) and Lithuania (n = 25) using multi-locus sequence typing. This clustering was chiefly confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One third of the bacilli were found to be psychrotolerant, which strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of thermal ecotypes among B. thuringiensis. PCR screening was also performed to detect potential enterotoxin genes and Bacillus anthracis pXO1- and pXO2-like replicons. The cytK-positive isolates (22%) were significantly associated with two phylogenetic lineages (potential CytK pathotypes), whereas there was no correlation between phylogenetic grouping and the presence of the potential tripartite enterotoxin pathotypes (86% of strains). A statistically significant association between phylogenetic lineages and ecologic properties was found with regard to the cry1-positive Lithuanian isolates, while the cry genes in Polish isolates and the pXO1- and pXO2 replicon-like elements showed scattered distribution across phylogenetic lineages. Our results support the hypothesis that B. thuringiensis comprises strains belonging to different phylogenetic lineages, which exhibit specific ecological properties. PMID:23521504

Swiecicka, Izabela; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Drewnowska, Justyna M; Murawska, Emilia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Lukaszuk, Edyta; Mahillon, Jacques

2013-08-01

222

Bioconversion of piceid to piceid glucoside using amylosucrase from Alteromonas macleodii deep ecotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol, or its glycoside form piceid, is a dietary antioxidant polyphenolic compound, found in grapes and red wine that has been shown to have protective effects against cardiovascular disease. However, very low water solubility of the compound may limit its application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The amylosucrase (AMAS) of Alteromonas macleodii Deep ecotype was expressed in Escherichia coli and showed high glycosyltransferase activity to produce the glucosyl piceid when piceid was used as an acceptor. The conversion yield of piceid glucoside was 35.2%. Biotransformation using culture of the E. coli harboring the amas gene increased the yield up to 70.8%. The transfer product was purified by reverse phase chromatography and recycling preparative HPLC, and the molecular structure of the piceid glucoside was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The piceid glucoside was identified as glucosyl-alpha-(1-->4)-piceid. The solubility of glucosyl piceid was 5.26 and 1.14 times higher than those of resveratrol and piceid, respectively. It is anticipated that dietary intake of this compound is more effective by enhancing the bioavailability of resveratrol in the human body because of its hydrophilic properties in the intestinal fluid. PMID:23221533

Park, Hyunsu; Kim, Jieun; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Park, Cheon-Seok; Lee, Hee-Seob; Cha, Jaeho

2012-12-01

223

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS.

Begum, Parvin, E-mail: parvinchy@ees.hokudai.ac.jp; Fugetsu, Bunshi

2013-09-15

224

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS

225

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defens [...] ive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p

Cecilia, Andere; M.A., Palacio; E.M., Rodriguez; E., Figini; M.T., Dominguez; E., Bedascarrasbure.

226

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

OpenAIRE

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populati...

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-01-01

227

Homestead Creator : a tool for indigenous designers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article presents in-situ findings of introducing a tablet prototype, with touch interaction and 3D graphical visualizations, to empower knowledgeable village elders in Namibia to locally re-create a 3D graphical context for previously recorded video clips of indigenous practices and narratives. Findings indicate that tablets enable those indigenous users to partake in design sessions more equally than with laptops and other input devices. Through a GUI design example we illuminate the unique opportunities and challenges in designing in the space where cultures meet.

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2012-01-01

228

Eagle and the Condor: Indigenous Alliances for Youth Leadership Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration…

Wihak, Christine; Hately, Lynne; Allicock, Sydney; Lickers, Michael

2007-01-01

229

Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

2013-01-01

230

Backyard poultry in Kabylie (Algeria): from an indigenous chicken to a local poultry breed?  

OpenAIRE

L’élevage de volailles d’arrière-cour constitue un outil important de lutte contre la pauvreté. Il est en outre promu comme mode de renforcement de la position féminine dans une communauté, sous réserve de l’observation dans les faits du biais de genre classiquement rapporté dans le contrôle de cet élevage. Les systèmes à faible niveau d’intrant concernés sont basés sur des races locales rustiques, adaptées à leur environnement. Néanmoins, des processus socio-économiq...

Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Fre?de?ric; Salhi, Abdellah; Iguer Ouada, Mokrane; Leroy, Pascal; Antoine-moussiaux, Nicolas

2012-01-01

231

CONTEMPORARY INDIGENOUS LITERATURE: FORMS AND CONTENTS IN THE POETRY AND PROSE OF THE II LITERARY PARTY OF INDIGENOUS POETICS.  

OpenAIRE

By analyzing the forms and contents of the presentations made by indigenous performers and writers at the I Literary Party of Indigenous Poetics, this article exposes the challenges faced by traditional genre theories in tackling indigenous narratives and analyses how this “crisis” contributes to widening hierarchical and Western biased conceptions. On a stage open to contemporary indigenous expression, as is the literary party, the concepts of performance and storytelling, with the socia...

Deborah Goldemberg; Rubelise Da Cunha

2010-01-01

232

Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78 %. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53 %, Heterakis gallinarum (21.33 %, Ascaridia galli (10.03 %, Strongyloides avium (9.96 %, Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61 %, Cotugnia digonopora (3.6 %, Capillaria sp. (1.5 %, Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04 % and Syngamus trachea (0.40 %. Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.

S.M. Kisia

2012-06-01

233

Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases. PMID:15214699

Irungu, L W; Kimani, R N; Kisia, S M

2004-03-01

234

Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available digenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

Xing Y. Chen

2011-02-01

235

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilea...

Kaufman Jay S; Bustos Patricia; Amigo Hugo

2010-01-01

236

Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

2011-01-01

237

Indigenous Australian Artworks in Intercultural Contact Zones  

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Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my arg ument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I wil l argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural und erstanding and competence.

Eleanore Wildurger

2009-01-01

238

Indigenous Australian Artworks in Intercultural Contact Zones  

OpenAIRE

This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998), by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my arg ument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I wil l argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural und erstanding and competence.

Eleanore Wildurger

2009-01-01

239

Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

2008-01-01

240

Antimicrobial agents deriving from indigenous plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytonutrients in many indigenous plants are receiving a lot of attention as they are important in antimicrobial and anticancer therapies. Tropical areas, especially India, South America and Africa, are the main sources of patentable plant products and have indigenous populations with well developed traditional medicinal knowledge. Phytochemicals, including carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, nitrogen-containing compounds, and organosulfur compounds, are receiving much attention as they impart important health benefits. This article gives an insight into some important phytochemicals, and analyses the ethical issues on property rights of plant products. Many patent applications have been lodged, and quite a number have been granted. Pharmaceutical industries are engaging in massive speculative bioprospecting on plant based phytochemicals and products, usually resulting in conflicts with indigenous populations. More focus is given here-in to Tylosema esculentum (marama) plant, found in drier parts of Southern Africa and known to contain high quantities of essential phytochemicals. Important phytochemicals in marama include fatty acid (mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, behenic acid), protein and phenolic acid components. The marama plant has high potential as a source of medical and cosmetic products. If conflicts surrounding property rights on plant based products are resolved, phytochemicals can be a good source of income for indigenous populations in areas where such plants are found. PMID:20653553

Avrelija, Cencic; Walter, Chingwaru

2010-01-01

241

Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

Trosper, Ronald L.

2001-01-01

242

Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

243

Beyond South Africa's 'indigenous knowledge - science' wars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, the paradoxes and difficulties attending the notion of indigenous knowledge in South Africa are reviewed and an alternative dialogue about intellectual heritage is proposed. Beginning with a survey of debates on 'indigenous knowledge' and sciences in India, Australia and Latin America [...] , the discussion draws attention to differences in regional discussions on the subject of knowledge diversity. Turning to the South African context, the paper foregrounds contradictions in the debate on traditional medicines and the sciences in relation to HIV. The bifurcation of 'indigenous knowledge' and 'science' is argued against. Debates on both indigenous knowledge and science within the critical humanities in South Africa have been characterised by denunciation: an approach which does not facilitate the important discussions needed on intellectual heritage, or on the relationship between sciences and coloniality. In dialogue with current research on the anthropology of knowledge, strategies are proposed to broaden the possibilities for scholarship on knowledge, sciences, and different ways of understanding the world.

Lesley J.F., Green.

244

Fermented Cereal from Indigenous Raw Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented cereal was prepared from indigenous raw material like parboiled rice and Bengal gram. The approximate analysis, microbiology, edibility of cereal product has been done. It was found to be a high nutritive value and acceptable as a food.

Sahana Parveen

2003-01-01

245

RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION  

OpenAIRE

In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white). This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is f...

Octavian Baston; Octavian Barna

2010-01-01

246

Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands' environmental gradient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate. Using two primer sets, we genotyped 378 plants at 384 polymorphic AFLP loci across regional ecotypes from central and eastern Kansas and Illinois. Neighbour-joining tree and PCoA revealed strong genetic differentiation between Kansas and Illinois ecotypes, which was better explained by IBE than IBD. We found high genetic variability within prairies (80%) and even fragmented Illinois prairies, surprisingly, contained high within-prairie genetic diversity (92%). Using Bayenv2, 14 top-ranked outlier loci among ecotypes were associated with temperature and precipitation variables. Six of seven BayeScanFST outliers were in common with Bayenv2 outliers. High genetic diversity may enable big bluestem populations to better withstand changing climates; however, population divergence supports the use of local ecotypes in grassland restoration. Knowledge of genetic variation in this ecological dominant and other grassland species will be critical to understanding grassland response and restoration challenges in the face of a changing climate. PMID:25370460

Gray, Miranda M; St Amand, Paul; Bello, Nora M; Galliart, Matthew B; Knapp, Mary; Garrett, Karen A; Morgan, Theodore J; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R; Akhunov, Eduard D; Johnson, Loretta C

2014-12-01

247

Biochemical composition of temperate and Arctic populations of Saccharina latissima after exposure to increased pCO2 and temperature reveals ecotypic variation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research suggested that the polar and temperate populations of the kelp Saccharina latissima represent different ecotypes. The ecotypic differentiation might also be reflected in their biochemical composition (BC) under changing temperatures and pCO2. Accordingly, it was tested if the BC of Arctic (Spitsbergen) and temperate S. latissima (Helgoland) is different and if they are differently affected by changes in temperature and pCO2. Thalli from Helgoland grown at 17 °C and 10 °C and from Spitsbergen at 10 °C and 4 °C were all tested at either 380, 800, or 1,500 µatm pCO2, and total C-, total N-, protein, soluble carbohydrate, and lipid content, as well as C/N-ratio were measured. At 10 °C, the Arctic population had a higher content of total C, soluble carbohydrates, and lipids, whereas the N- and protein content was lower. At the lower tested temperature, the Arctic ecotype had particularly higher contents of lipids, while content of soluble carbohydrates increased in the Helgoland population only. In Helgoland-thalli, elevated pCO2 caused a higher content of soluble carbohydrates at 17 °C but lowered the content of N and lipids and increased the C/N-ratio at 10 °C. Elevated pCO2 alone did not affect the BC of the Spitsbergen population. Conclusively, the Arctic ecotype was more resilient to increased pCO2 than the temperate one, and both ecotypes differed in their response pattern to temperature. This differential pattern is discussed in the context of the adaptation of the Arctic ecotype to low temperature and the polar night. PMID:25156486

Olischläger, Mark; Iñiguez, Concepción; Gordillo, Francisco Javier López; Wiencke, Christian

2014-12-01

248

Pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis, and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically important berry crop that contains many phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. In this study, important pomological features, including nutrient content and antioxidant properties, of a domesticated and 3 wild (Yayla, Yavuzlar, and Yedigöl) raspberry fruits were evaluated. Also, the amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs) and quercetin equivalents (QE). The highest phenolic compounds were found in wild Yayla ecotype (26.66 ± 3.26 GAE/mg extract). Whilst, the highest flavonoids were determined in wild Yedigöl ecotype (6.09 ± 1.21 QA/mg extract). The antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were investigated as trolox equivalents using different in vitro assays including DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), DMPD(•+), and O(•-)(2) radical scavenging activities, H(2)O(2) scavenging activity, ferric (Fe(3+)) and cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing abilities, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, ?-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results clearly show that p-coumaric acid is the main phenolic acid responsible for the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits. PMID:22417339

Gülçin, Ilhami; Topal, Fevzi; Çakmakç?, Ramazan; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet C; Erdogan, Ummugulsum

2011-05-01

249

A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or 'Gumboro disease' seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level i [...] nformation was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90) of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (?2= 16.1, P

E S, Swai; M J, Kessy; P N, Sanka; P F, Mtui.

250

Comparison of Plasma Amino Acid Levels of Two Breeds of Japanese Native Chicken and a Commercial Layer Line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to conduct amino acid profiling of two Japanese indigenous hens (Tosa-jidori; TJI and Ukokkei; UKO and compared with a commercial hen (JL. Asparagine, leucine and proline levels in commercial layers were higher than those in both native Japanese chickens. Lysine and glutamate in UKO were higher than those in others and taurine was also higher than in JL. Serine in UKO was lower than those in others and methionine and cysteine were also lower than in JL. Arginine in TJI was lower than those in JL and UKO. No significant differences between breed/line were observed in histidine, threonine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. These results suggest that levels of dietary amino acid requirements might be different between native Japanese chickens.

Takao Oka

2013-01-01

251

Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 ? mol mol?1) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops. PMID:25309569

Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Price, Andrew J.; McElroy, J. Scott; Torbert, H. Allen

2014-01-01

252

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

CERN Document Server

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for the future. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project involving experts in the higher education, library, and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a cult...

Nakata, N M; Warren, J; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M; Harley, R; Venugopal, S; Thorpe, K; Neville, R; Bolt, R

2014-01-01

253

A brief history of indigenous health in brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to provide a brief history context on the indigenous struggle for rights. It was at its peak in the 1970s, until the Indigenous Health Subsystem implementation in 1999. Method: it is a bibliographic review research made through BIREME and Scielo databases, including documents and publications of FUNASA, FUNAI, and the Brazilian legislation on indigenous, from 1970s to 2000s using the term: indigenous health. Results: after a myriad of movements that fought for indigenous rights recognition, the Indian Statute was sanctioned in 1973 regulating the indigenous issues in Brazil. Thereafter the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 it took a new direction, recognizing the right for cultural and social diversity, among others. Conclusion: the indigenous people integration to the health systems happened, and is still happening, according to the SUS purpose of reduce health inequalities among the whole population.

Maria Neyrian de Fátima Fernandes, Arieli Rodrigues Nóbrega, Rosinaldo Santos Marques, Ana Michele de Farias Cabral, Clélia Albino Simpson

2010-10-01

254

Indigenous participation and representation in Venezuelan electoral processes  

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Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.

Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ

2012-06-01

255

A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

256

Ancestral Plasticity and Allometry in Threespine Stickleback Fish Reveal Phenotypes Associated with Derived, Freshwater Ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

For over a century, evolutionary biologists have debated whether and how phenotypic plasticity impacts the processes of adaptation and diversification. The empirical tests required to resolve these issues have proven elusive, mainly because it requires documentation of ancestral reaction norms, a difficult prospect where many ancestors are either extinct or have evolved. The threespine stickleback radiation is not limited in this regard, making it an ideal system in which to address general questions regarding the role of plasticity in adaptive evolution. As retreating ice sheets have exposed new habitats, oceanic stickleback founded innumerable freshwater populations, many of which have evolved parallel adaptations to their new environments. Because the founding oceanic population is extant, we can directly evaluate whether specific patterns of ancestral phenotypic expression in the context of novel environments (plasticity), or over ontogeny, predisposed the repeated evolution of "benthic" and "limnetic" ecotypes in shallow and deep lakes, respectively. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that oceanic stickleback raised in a complex habitat and fed a macroinvertebrate diet expressed traits resembling derived, benthic fish. Alternatively, when reared in a simple environment on a diet of zooplankton, oceanic stickleback developed phenotypes resembling derived, limnetic fish. As fish in both treatments grew, their body depths increased allometrically, as did the size of their mouths, while their eyes became relatively smaller. Allometric trajectories were subtly but significantly impacted by rearing environment. Thus, both environmental and allometric influences on development, along with their interactive effects, produced variation in phenotypes consistent with derived benthic and limnetic fish, which may have predisposed the repeated genetic accommodation of this specific suite of traits. We also found significant shape differences between marine and anadromous stickleback, which has implications for evaluating the ancestral state of stickleback traits. PMID:22611287

Wund, Matthew A; Valena, Sophie; Wood, Susan; Baker, John A

2012-03-01

257

Distinct, ecotype-specific genome and proteome signatures in the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus, having multiple ecotypes of distinct genotypic/phenotypic traits and being the first documented example of genome shrinkage in free-living organisms, offers an ideal system for studying niche-driven molecular micro-diversity in closely related microbes. The present study, through an extensive comparative analysis of various genomic/proteomic features of 6 high light (HL and 6 low light (LL adapted strains, makes an attempt to identify molecular determinants associated with their vertical niche partitioning. Results Pronounced strand-specific asymmetry in synonymous codon usage is observed exclusively in LL strains. Distinct dinucleotide abundance profiles are exhibited by 2 LL strains with larger genomes and G+C-content ? 50% (group LLa, 4 LL strains having reduced genomes and G+C-content ? 35-37% (group LLb, and 6 HL strains. Taking into account the emergence of LLa, LLb and HL strains (based on 16S rRNA phylogeny, a gradual increase in average aromaticity, pI values and beta- & coil-forming propensities and a decrease in mean hydrophobicity, instability indices and helix-forming propensities of core proteins are observed. Greater variations in orthologous gene repertoire are found between LLa and LLb strains, while higher number of positively selected genes exist between LL and HL strains. Conclusion Strains of different Prochlorococcus groups are characterized by distinct compositional, physicochemical and structural traits that are not mere remnants of a continuous genetic drift, but are potential outcomes of a grand scheme of niche-oriented stepwise diversification, that might have driven them chronologically towards greater stability/fidelity and invoked upon them a special ability to inhabit diverse oceanic environments.

Bag Sumit K

2010-02-01

258

Karyotype variation is indicative of subgenomic and ecotypic differentiation in switchgrass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Karyotypes can provide information about taxonomic relationships, genetic aberrations, and the evolutionary origins of species. However, differentiation of the tiny chromosomes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. and creation of a standard karyotype for this bioenergy crop has not been accomplished due to lack of distinguishing features and polyploidy. Results A cytogenetic study was conducted on a dihaploid individual (2n?=?2X?=?18 of switchgrass to establish a chromosome karyotype. Size differences, condensation patterns, and arm-length ratios were used as identifying features and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assigned 5S and 45S rDNA loci to chromosomes 7 and 2 respectively. Both a maize CentC and a native switchgrass centromeric repeat (PviCentC that shared 73% sequence identity demonstrated a strong signal on chromosome 3. However, only the PviCentC probe labeled the centromeres of all chromosomes. Unexpected PviCentC and 5S rDNA hybidization patterns were consistent with severe reduction or total deletion of these repeats in one subgenome. These patterns were maintained in tetraploid and octoploid individuals. The 45S rDNA repeat produced the expected number of loci in dihaploid, tetraploid and octoploid individuals. Differences observed at the 5S rDNA loci between the upland and lowland ecotypes of switchgrass provided a basis for distinguishing these subpopulations. Conclusion Collectively, these results provide a quantitative karyotype of switchgrass chromosomes. FISH analyses indicate genetic divergence between subgenomes and allow for the classification of switchgrass plants belonging to divergent genetic pools. Furthermore, the karyotype structure and cytogenetic analysis of switchgrass provides a framework for future genetic and genomic studies.

Young Hugh A

2012-07-01

259

Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nati...

Cunningham Joan

2010-01-01

260

Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration and formation of undesirable "warmed over flavour" in chicken meat products are supposed to be the lack of ?-tocopherol in chicken meat. PMID:25049846

Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

2013-05-01

261

Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Thai Inheritance Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inheritance chickens are important in the developing countries, because of their meat quality. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic background of Baetong, Black-boned, and Praduhangdum chickens. 30 chickens each and 4 replications of the chicken breeds were reared for 14 weeks. 10 chickens of each replication were sampled and analyzed, including carcass characteristics and meat quality as well as Shear’s value, water holding capacity, and color of their meat. No different marketable weight and hot carcass weight was found (P>0.05. Baetong chickens were lower hot carcass yield than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Conversely, Baetong chickens were higher structural frame than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens were edible portion, and wing yield than Baetong chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Baetong chickens have more leg yield than Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. While, Praduhangdum chickens have more breast yield than the other chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more Shear’s force and Shear’s energy than Baetong breast meat and Praduhangdum breast meat (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat and skin was darken than Baetong and Praduhangdum breast meat and skin (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more drip losses than the others (P<0.05, while being lower cooking losses than the others (P<0.05. At the typical marketable weight, Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens have better meat quality compared with the carcass from Baetong chickens.

Nakarin Pripwai

2014-01-01

262

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil / Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dific [...] ultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX). Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis ( Abstract in english Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US [...] states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (

J.A., Noldin; J.M., Chandler; G.N., McCauley.

2006-12-01

263

Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.  

Chris Andersen

2011-04-01

264

Are Supernovae Recorded in Indigenous Astronomical Traditions?  

CERN Document Server

Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.

Hamacher, Duane W

2014-01-01

265

LIBRARIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper reviews experiences on library services to indigenous people developed in Latin America, from Argentina to Mexico. It provides a brief introduction to the reality of native communities all around the continent, and points out the outstanding projects on this issue. Since native populations are subjected to serious problems -such as discrimination, social exclusion, diseases, unemployment, loss of identity, endangered languages and cultural pressure-it argues that libraries can become an option to the recovery of culture and a way to guarantee the egalitarian access to strategic information, a resource that is vital for a balanced development and progress.KEYWORDS: Indigenous People; Latin America-Libraries; Latin America-Culture

Edgardo Civallero

2007-12-01

266

Indigenous Knowledge and Sea Ice Science: What Can We Learn from Indigenous Ice Users?  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on examples mostly from Iñupiaq and Yup’ik sea-ice expertise in coastal Alaska, this contribution examines how local, indigenous knowledge (LIK) can inform and guide geophysical and biological sea-ice research. Part of the relevance of LIK derives from its linkage to sea-ice use and the services coastal communities derive from the ice cover. As a result, indigenous experts keep track of a broad range of sea-ice variables at a particular location. These observations are embedded into a broader worldview that speaks to both long-term variability or change and to the system of values associated with ice use. The contribution examines eight different contexts in which LIK in study site selection and assessment of a sampling campaign in the context of inter annual variability, the identification of rare or inconspicuous phenomena or events, the contribution by indigenous experts to hazard assessment and emergency response, the record of past and present climate embedded in LIK, and the value of holistic sea-ice knowledge in detecting subtle, intertwined patterns of environmental change. The relevance of local, indigenous sea-ice expertise in helping advance adaptation and responses to climate change as well as its potential role in guiding research questions and hypotheses are also examined. The challenges that may have to be overcome in creating an interface for exchange between indigenous experts and seaice researchers are considered. Promising approaches to overcome these challenges include cross-cultural, interdisciplinary education, and the fostering of Communities of Practice.

Eicken, H.

2010-12-01

267

Chicken Skeleton - Ball and Socket Joint (Wing)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken has large feet because it spends so much of its time on the ground. The ball and socket joints and hinge joints allow the chicken to move its leg. It uses its sharp claws mainly for defense against predators.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

268

Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

269

Recognition, Reconciliation and Resentment in Indigenous Politics  

OpenAIRE

Dr. Glen Coulthard is an assistant professor in the First Nations Studies Program and the Department of Political Science. Glen has written and published numerous articles and chapters in the areas of contemporary political theory, indigenous thought and politics, and radical social and political thought (marxism, anarchism, post-colonialism). His most recent work on Frantz Fanon and the politics of recognition won Contemporary Political Theory’s Annual Award for Best Article of the Year in...

Coulthard, Glen

2011-01-01

270

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

271

[Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

2009-07-01

272

Stable isotopes reveal ecotypic variation of water uptake patterns in Aleppo pine  

Science.gov (United States)

Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) has a large natural distribution range that encompasses a multitude of thermal and moisture conditions found in the Mediterranean basin. We hypothesized that due to the recurrent incidences of drought stress and high temperatures that occur at varying degrees along its distribution range, populations of Aleppo pine have undergone ecotypic differentiation in soil water uptake patterns. This study analyzed stable isotopic compositions (?18O and ?2H) of xylem water to identify adaptive divergence associated to the pattern of soil water consumption by roots of Aleppo pine populations originating from the Mediterranean region. The results from this study show that genetic diversity in the extraction pattern of soil water can be found among populations and ecological regions of Aleppo pine under common garden conditions. However, the ability to detect such differences depended on the period of the year examined. In particular, data collection in full summer (end of July) proved to be the most adequate in revealing genetic divergence among populations, while end of spring and, to a lesser extent, end of summer, were less successful for this purpose. Both water uptake patterns (as estimated by ?18O and ?2H) and above-ground growth, exhibited significant relationships with both climatic and geographical variables. This suggests that the underlying variation among populations can be explained by certain characteristics at origin. In addition, we used a bayesian mixing model (SIAR package for R) that incorporated isotopic signatures from xylem and soil water in order to determine the predominant soil layer of water source consumption at the aforementioned periods of the growing season, where water availably ranged from lowest to highest. This allowed us to gain some understanding of Aleppo pines' differential reaction to drought, at the intraspecific level, across the fluctuating conditions of the growing season by comparing the relative contribution of each water source. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the Spanish project FENOPIN (AGL 2012-40151-C03). J.P.F. has been supported by the Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MCINN, Spain) and a Marie Curie Reintegration Grant (MC-ERG-246725, FP7, EU). We acknowledge M. Lucà and P. Sopeña for field and technical assistance.

Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Regina; Voltas, Jordi

2014-05-01

273

Pacific walruses, indigenous hunters, and climate change: Bridging scientific and indigenous knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents and evaluates two perspectives on changing climate-walrus-human relationships in the Beringian region, from the viewpoints of marine biology and ecology, and from that of indigenous hunters. Bridging these types of knowledge is vital in order to grasp the complexity of the processes involved and for advancing understanding of subarctic marine ecosystems that are currently experiencing rapid ecological and social change. We argue that despite substantial gaps and distinctions, information generated by scientists and indigenous hunters have many similarities. Differences in interpretation are primarily due to scaling and temporal rates of change of knowledge, which could be rectified through more active sharing of expertise and records, enhanced documentation of indigenous observations, more collaborative research, and increased insight from the social sciences.

Krupnik, Igor; Ray, G. Carleton

2007-11-01

274

Implementation of Indigenous Rights in Russia: Shortcomings and Recent Developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After more than 20 years of active engagement in Indigenous issues, RAIPON, the umbrella organization of the Indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East, was ordered to suspend its activities by the Russian Ministry of Justice in November 2012. Eventually, this order was withdrawn provided that RAIPON changed its statute, which subsequently took place in early 2013. Why such sudden and definitive decisions? Apparently, the measures taken against RAIPON were due to its active engagement to defend Indigenous peoples' rights especially vis-à-vis the Russian extractive industry. A starting point for all possible explanations is thus the existing gap between the legal protection of Indigenous peoples' and its enforcement. The aims of this article are thus to gain a deeper understanding of the legal protection of Indigenous peoples’ rights in the Russian Federation, and to explore the interests and the politics lying behind the government attitude vis-à-vis Indigenous peoples.

Anna Koch

2014-10-01

275

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

Science.gov (United States)

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-04-01

276

Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

Cassie Quigley

2009-02-01

277

Adaptation, Change and Continuity: The Case of Rongmei Indigenous Religion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of Christianity among the tribes of Northeast India presents few parallels in the history of religious conversions - a period when the entire tribes and communities within a span of hundred years abandoned their indigenous faith and converted to Christianity. Under such circumstance few indigenous primal religions of these numerous tribes have been able to withstand the mass exodus to Christianity. As a result the twentieth century witnessed the demise of most indigenous religions and their replacement by Christianity in the region. However, few indigenous religions have managed to survive and coexist with Christianity. This paper attempts to shed some insights into the efforts of the Rongmei Nagas in Manipur, Nagaland and Assam to preserve and propagate their indigenous religion often drawing influences and inspirations from Christianity and other religions to help preserve their indigenous faith.

Anderw Lathuipou Kamei

2013-07-01

278

Cutaneous thermal thresholds of tropical indigenes residing in Japan  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine the deacclimatization of the cutaneous thermal sensations of tropical indigenes residing in temperate climates. Tropical indigenes (n=13) who were born and raised in tropics but had resided in Japan for 5???61 months participated in this study, along with temperate indigenes (n=11). Their cutaneous thermal thresholds for warm, cool, hot, and cold sensations were measured in 12 body regions using a thermal stimulator controlled by a Peltier element and ...

Bakri, Ilham

2013-01-01

279

Readership Pattern of Indigenous Language Newspapers Among Selected Nigerian  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous language press which was the harbinger of journalism in Nigeria is suffering serious neglect. The neglect reflects in a number of ways among which is poor readership. Although, the fact of poor readership of indigenous language newspapers is a common knowledge, but it lacks empirical documentation as many researches on readership of newspapers were concentrated on newspapers written in English. This research attempt therefore examined the readership pattern of Indigenous language n...

Alabi, O. F.

2011-01-01

280

Contested Territories: Water Rights and the Struggles over Indigenous Livelihoods  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by developing large-scale water infrastructure. Three cases illustrate the encroachment process. In Colombia, the Embera Katio people’s water territory is colonized by a large-scale hydropower development ...

Rutgerd Boelens; Bibiana Duarte; Rossana Manosalvas; Patricio Mena; Tatinana Roa; Juana Vera

2012-01-01

281

Can Performance of Indigenous Factors Influence Growth and Globalization?  

OpenAIRE

This paper employs a total of thirty four openness factors and indigenous factors to construct two indicators for 62 world economies for the period 1998-2002. While most globalization studies concentrated on openness factors, regression estimates and simulation studies show that sound performance in indigenous factors are crucial to an economy’s growth and globalization. Empirical evidence shows that an optimal performance in indigenous factors can be identified, and that successful glo...

Li, Kui-wai; Pang, Iris A. J.; Ng, Michael C. M.

2007-01-01

282

Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam  

OpenAIRE

The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was ...

Haque, A.; Goswami, R. N.; Zaman, G.; Kayastha, R. B.

2011-01-01

283

Narratives of race and indigeneity in the Genographic Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

In its quest to sample 100,000 "indigenous and traditional peoples," the Genographic Project deploys five problematic narratives: (1) that "we are all African"; (2) that "genetic science can end racism"; (3) that "indigenous peoples are vanishing"; (4) that "we are all related"; and (5) that Genographic "collaborates" with indigenous peoples. In so doing, Genographic perpetuates much critiqued, yet longstanding notions of race and colonial scientific practice. PMID:17714251

TallBear, Kim

2007-01-01

284

Indigenous Rarámuris as University Students: Challenges for Information Literacy  

OpenAIRE

Our article describes the experience developing programs for Mexican indigenous students to support their admission and retention as university students. We present an analysis of national perspectives, focusing specifically on the efforts made by The Autonomous University of Chihuahua (UACH), Mexico, with indigenous Rarámuris local project through the Support Program for Indigenous Students (PAEI). In addition to providing benefits related to economics, sport activities, and physical, nutri...

Tarango, Javier; Murgui?a, Patricia; Lau, Jesu?s

2011-01-01

285

Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

An overview is presented of non-indigenous marine and estuarine plant and animal species recorded from The Netherlands. In this list both exotic species from outside NW Europe and non-indigenous species from elsewhere in NW Europe are enumerated. Species that have been suggested to be non-indigenous in The Netherlands but for which insufficient evidence could be found are discussed shortly as well. The list is based mainly on literature data supplemented by own observations of the author. At ...

Wolff, W. J.

2005-01-01

286

Indigenous and Tribal Children: Assessing Child Labour and Educational Challenges  

OpenAIRE

This working paper analyzes child labour and education challenges among indigenous and tribal peoples. A number of project and policy approaches are assessed, followed by a list of recommendations for action. The author describes common forms of social exclusion such as discrimination and cultural marginalization, and argues that current child labour and education initiatives tend to “forget” indigenous concerns and priorities unless safeguard mechanisms are included to ensure indigenous...

Larsen, Peter Bille

2003-01-01

287

REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

Pablo Reed

2011-04-01

288

Root and shoot transcriptome analysis of two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens uncovers the role of NcNramp1 in Cd hyperaccumulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, has been studied extensively for its ability to accumulate high levels of Zn and Cd in its leaves. Previous studies have indicated that the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation trait exhibited by this species involves different transport and tolerance mechanisms. It has also been well documented that certain ecotypes of N. caerulescens are much better Cd hyperaccumulators than others. However, there does not seem to be much ecotypic variation for Zn hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. In this study we employed a comparative transcriptomics approach to look at root and shoot gene expression in Ganges and Prayon plants in response to Cd stress to identify transporter genes that were more highly expressed in either the roots or shoots of the superior Cd accumulator, Ganges. Comparison of the transcriptomes from the two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens identified a number of genes that encoded metal transporters that were more highly expressed in the Ganges ecotype in response to Cd stress. Characterization of one of these transporters, NcNramp1, showed that it is involved in the influx of Cd across the endodermal plasma membrane and thus may play a key role in Cd flux into the stele and root-to-shoot Cd transport. NcNramp1 may be one of the main transporters involved in Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens and copy number variation appears to be the main reason for high NcNramp1 gene expression underlying the increased Cd accumulation in the Ganges ecotype. PMID:24547775

Milner, Matthew J; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Craft, Eric; Fei, Zhangjun; Ebbs, Stephen; Clemencia Zambrano, M; Ma, Jian Feng; Kochian, Leon V

2014-05-01

289

Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous

Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

2014-01-01

290

Pathogenicity of West Nile virus in chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the fall of 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated for the first time in the Western Hemisphere during an outbreak of neurologic disease in humans, horses, and wild and zoo birds in the northeastern United States. Chickens are a potential reservoir for WNV, and little is known about the pathogenicity of WNV in domestic chickens. Seven-week-old chickens derived from a specific-pathogen-free flock were inoculated subcutaneously with 1.8 x 10(3) 50% tissue culture infectious dose of a crow isolate of WNV in order to observe clinical signs and evaluate the viremic phase, gross and microscopic lesions, contact transmission, and immunologic response. There were no observable clinical signs in the WNV-inoculated chickens during the 21-day observation period. However, histopathologic examination of tissues revealed myocardial necrosis, nephritis, and pneumonitis at 5 and 10 days postinoculation (DPI); moderate to severe nonsuppurative encephalitis also was observed in brain tissue from one of four inoculated birds examined at 21 DPI. WNV was recovered from blood plasma for up to 8 DPI. Virus titers as high as 10(5)/ml in plasma were observed at 4 DPI. Fecal shedding of virus was detected in cloacal swabs on 4 and 5 DPI only. The WNV also was isolated from myocardium, spleen, kidney, lung, and intestine collected from chickens euthanatized at 3, 5, and 10 DPI. No virus was isolated from inoculated chickens after 10 DPI. Antibodies specific to WNV were detected in inoculated chickens as early as 5 DPI by the plaque reduction neutralization test and 7 DPI by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Chickens placed in contact with inoculated chickens at 1 DPI lacked WNV-specific antibodies, and no WNV was isolated from their blood plasma or cloacal swabs throughout the 21 days of the experiment. PMID:11007013

Senne, D A; Pedersen, J C; Hutto, D L; Taylor, W D; Schmitt, B J; Panigrahy, B

2000-01-01

291

Corn meal in broiler chicken nutrition  

OpenAIRE

In this paper the effect of application of corn meal in broiler chicken nutrition is presented. In meals the corn grain (C) is replaced by corn meal in the amount 100 % (T1) and 50 % (T2). Experiment lasted 42 days in system 3 x 4 (3 treatments x 4 repetitions). In every treatment 300 chicken were included. Feeding of chicken was ad libitum, with three meals: starter with 23,30 % CP and 12,78 MJ/kg ME; grower with 20,30 % CP and 13,10 MJ/kg ME, and finisher 17,70 % CP and 13,25 MJ/kg ME. Resu...

Miloševi? Niko; Stana?ev V.; Kov?in S.

2006-01-01

292

The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

Thi Dieu, Nguyen

1996-01-01

293

Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

2004-04-01

294

Create a new vision for indigenous development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

2009-07-01

295

Indigenous Australian art in practice and theory”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the centre of this article lies the famous Ngurrara Canvas , a work of art that has supported land claims in a Native Title Tribunal in the Kimberley region (NT in 1997. This artwork serves as model case for my discussion of the cross - cultural relevance of Indigenous Australian art. My concern is, in particular, the role European art museums play in representations of the ‘Other’. A brief look at some sample exh ibitions in Europe supports my perspective on Indi genous Australian art in cross - cultural contact zones.

Eleanor Wildburger

2013-01-01

296

Expression analysis of MAP2K9 and MAPK6 during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia was used as a host in order to investigate the involvement of MAP kinase machinery in the pathogenesis of Alternaria blight. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real time PCR based approaches were used to determine the change in transcript profile of MAP2K9 and MAPK6 in leaves of A. thaliana ecotpe Columbia at early, middle and late stages of Alternaria blight infection. It was observed that the expression of both MAP2K9 and MAPK6 simultaneously increased up to middle stage of disease progression. There was observed a positive correlation between the expression of MAPK6 and MAP2K9 as disease progressed from initial to middle stage of infection. Then, the expression of MAP2K9 decreased and that of MAPK6 increased as disease progressed towards late stage of infection. The increased levels of MAP2K9 and MAPK6, seem to be necessary for plant to defend the pathogen up to middle stage of infection. However, MAP2K9 may be down regulated at late stage of infection by pathogen to promote it's efficient colonization. Since MAPK6 expression remains unaltered till late stage, it suggests that it's expression is not only regulated by MAP2K9 but also by other MAP2K's. The above results are consistent with observations of earlier studies. In conclusion, the present study has suggested MAP2K9/MAPK6 module as possible target, which is influenced during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight in A. thaliana ecotype Columbia. Hence genetic modulation in expression levels of these components in Arabidopsis or Brassica could be a possible strategy for engineering defense against Alternaria blight disease. PMID:21947882

Kannan, P; Pandey, Dinesh; Gupta, Atul K; Punetha, H; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil

2012-04-01

297

A compatible interaction of Alternaria brassicicola with Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype DiG: evidence for a specific transcriptional signature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction of Arabidopsis with Alternaria brassicicola provides a model for disease caused by necrotrophs, but a drawback has been the lack of a compatible pathosystem. Infection of most ecotypes, including the widely-studied line Col-0, with this pathogen generally leads to a lesion that does not expand beyond the inoculated area. This study examines an ecotype, Dijon G (DiG, which is considered sensitive to A. brassicicola. Results We show that the interaction has the characteristics of a compatible one, with expanding rather than limited lesions. To ask whether DiG is merely more sensitive to the pathogen or, rather, interacts in distinct manner, we identified genes whose regulation differs between Col-0 and DiG challenged with A. brassicicola. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes, and their expression was verified using semi-quantitative PCR. We also tested a set of known defense-related genes for differential regulation in the two plant-pathogen interactions. Several known pathogenesis-related (PR genes are up-regulated in both interactions. PR1, and a monooxygenase gene identified in this study, MO1, are preferentially up-regulated in the compatible interaction. In contrast, GLIP1, which encodes a secreted lipase, and DIOX1, a pathogen-response related dioxygenase, are preferentially up-regulated in the incompatible interaction. Conclusion The results show that DiG is not only more susceptible, but demonstrate that its interaction with A. brassicicola has a specific transcriptional signature.

Gepstein Shimon

2009-03-01

298

Indigenous Australians' Access to Higher Education: A Catholic University's Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Australia's Indigenous peoples represent 2.5% of the national population but this number is increasing at a faster rate than the national average of other demographic groups. The history of the Indigenous peoples is one of dispossession and displacement, and a loss of cultures and languages. Access to and participation in education at all levels,…

Carpenter, Peter G.; McMullen, Gabrielle L.

2006-01-01

299

Uranium mining and indigenous social impact issues - Kakadu Region, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on indigenous social impact issues in the Kakadu/Alligators Rivers region of Australia. It briefly outlines the social history of the region, reflects on local, national and international attention being given to the impact of regional development on local indigenous (bininj) people, notes how social impact issues are being addressed and suggests some lessons learnt. (author)

300

Methodological Metissage: An Interpretive Indigenous Approach to Environmental Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…

Lowan-Trudeau, Greg

2012-01-01

301

Independent Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems amongst Indigenous Australians  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify independent correlates of reported gambling problems amongst the Indigenous population of Australia. A cross-sectional design was applied to a nationally representative sample of the Indigenous population. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented by remoteness and jurisdiction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to…

Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

2010-01-01

302

Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

2012-01-01

303

Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…

Thondhlana, Juliet

304

Closing the Gap: cultural safety in Indigenous health education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge for the future is to embrace a new partnership aimed at closing the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on life expectancy, educational achievement and employment opportunities. Significant improvements in contemporary Indigenous health care can be achieved through culturally safe health education programs for Indigenous students. However, while participation rates of Australian Indigenous students in the higher education sector are increasing, attrition rates are markedly higher than those of the general student population. This paper focuses on a unique degree program that is offered exclusively to Indigenous students in the field of mental health in the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health, Charles Sturt University. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to identify strategies that were especially helpful in sustaining students in the program and to identify and address barriers to the retention of students, to empower students to better prepare for the university environment and to inform academics within the course about areas that could be improved to provide a more culturally safe learning environment. The first stage of the study utilised focus group interviews with 36 Indigenous students across all three years of the program. The findings of the study addressing the issues of culturally appropriate pedagogy, curricula and cultural safety in the mental health degree program are discussed. PMID:21591823

Rigby, Wayne; Duffy, Elaine; Manners, Jan; Latham, Heather; Lyons, Lorraine; Crawford, Laurie; Eldridge, Ray

305

Illuminating the Lived Experiences of Research with Indigenous Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive…

Burnette, Catherine E.; Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Salois, Emily Matt

2011-01-01

306

Towards Growing Indigenous Culturally Competent Legal Professionals in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Review of Australian Higher Education (Bradley Review, 2008) and the Review of Higher Education Access and Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People (Behrendt Review, 2012) identified the need for tertiary institutions to incorporate Indigenous knowledges into curriculum to improve educational outcomes for Indigenous

Burns, Marcelle

2013-01-01

307

Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

Schafer, Marc

2010-01-01

308

Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

2013-01-01

309

Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

2009-01-01

310

Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

Barney, Katelyn

2010-01-01

311

Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

Katelyn Barney

2010-03-01

312

Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market  

OpenAIRE

Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nu...

Seyed Safdar Hosseini; Afsaneh Nikoukar; Arash Dourandish

2012-01-01

313

LIQUORICE IN CHICKEN-BROILERS FEEDING ?????? ? ????????? ??????-?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different liquorice’s dosage as additive to main diet influence on chicken-broilers quality and productivity is studied in the article. According to the results, it was established that liquorice addition use in chicken-broilers’ fattening diet during 42 days provided chick-en-broilers gain increase and fodder consumption decrease per 1 kg of the gain increasing, therefore, production economic efficiency

Struk V. N.

2013-04-01

314

LIQUORICE IN CHICKEN-BROILERS FEEDING ?????? ? ????????? ??????-?????????  

OpenAIRE

Different liquorice’s dosage as additive to main diet influence on chicken-broilers quality and productivity is studied in the article. According to the results, it was established that liquorice addition use in chicken-broilers’ fattening diet during 42 days provided chick-en-broilers gain increase and fodder consumption decrease per 1 kg of the gain increasing, therefore, production economic efficiency

Struk V. N.; Khalikov A. R.; Dikusarov V. G.; Karapetyan A. K.; Struk M. V.

2013-01-01

315

Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil  

OpenAIRE

Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored ...

Bakir, Emaad T.; Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.

2011-01-01

316

Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review  

OpenAIRE

Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds r...

Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

2013-01-01

317

Manufacture and performance of indigenous nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Along with the formulation of nuclear power programme, it was envisaged that nuclear fuel fabrication including design, development and production had to be arranged as governmental activity of Department of Atomic Energy (India). Fabrication of fuel has been initiated on a firm basis with initial commitment to supply half the core of fuel element for 40 MWt CIRUS reactor at Trombay. Based on the experience gained on the development of natural uranium oxide fuel, commitment was undertaken to fabricate half the initial core loading and standby fuel for RAPP-1. Later, to meet the fuel bundle requirements for continued operation of RAPP type reactors and enriched fuel bundle requirements for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the Nuclear Fuel Complex (Hyderabad)--an integrated nuclear fuel and related components fabrication facilities -- was set up. To date, a large number of natural uranium metal fuel rods for CIRUS, natural uranium oxide fuel bundles for RAPS and enriched uranium oxide fuel bundles for TAPS have been fabricated and delivered. Performance data on all these different types of fuels indigenously fabricated are considered to be satisfactory, proving thereby, the trust placed on the indigenous development/fabrication has been well deserved. Salient features for the various manufacturing and quality control steps and fuel behaviour are discussed. (auth.)

318

Indigenous Students and the Learning of English  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of students? proficiency in English in the Malaysian primary schools is still debatable. Approach: Unless the problem of students? proficiency is solved at the primary school level, it will fossilize and contribute toward students? anxiety in the language at the secondary and tertiary levels. Results: This research study looked into English needs of the indigenous or ?Orang Asli? students in primary schools in the district of Rompin-Endau, Pahang. These indigenous students still lag in education and with the implementation of teaching of science and mathematics in English in primary schools, they will be burdened with language difficulties. The researchers identify that the students preferred learning skill is listening to the teachers? explanation. And the task-based activity that can improve their proficiency is listening to songs and singing in English. Conclusion/Recommendations: Findings from this research could provide useful information for the curriculum developers at the Ministry of Education of Malaysia whether to revamp the present English curriculum or formulate a new curriculum to meet the English needs of the ?Orang Asli? students.

Shahrier Pawanchik

2010-01-01

319

A quest for indigenous truffle helper prokaryotes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuber aestivum is the most common European truffle with significant commercial exploitation. Its production originates from natural habitats and from artificially inoculated host tree plantations. Formation of Tuber ectomycorrhizae in host seedling roots is often inefficient. One possible reason is the lack of indigenous associative microbes. Here we aimed at metagenetic characterization and cultivation of indigenous prokaryotes associated with T. aestivum in a field transect cutting through the fungus colony margin. Several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed close association with the T. aestivum in the ectomycorrhizae and in the soil, but there was no overlap between the associative prokaryotes in the two different habitats. Among those positively associated with the ectomycorrhizae, we identified several bacterial genera belonging to Pseudonocardineae. Extensive isolation efforts yielded many cultures of ectomycorrhizae-associative bacteria belonging to Rhizobiales and Streptomycineae, but none belonging to the Pseudonocardineae. The specific unculturable Tuber-associated prokaryotes are likely to play important roles in the biology of these ectomycorrhizal fungi, including modulation of competition with other symbiotic and saprotrophic microbes, facilitation of root penetration and/or accessing mineral nutrients in the soil. However, the ultimate proof of this hypothesis will require isolation of the microbes for metabolic studies, using novel cultivation approaches. PMID:23754715

Gryndler, Milan; Soukupová, Lucie; Hršelová, Hana; Gryndlerová, Hana; Borovi?ka, Jan; Streiblová, Eva; Jansa, Jan

2013-06-01

320

Nuclear fuel fabrication - developing indigenous capability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early 70's for production of fuel for PHWRs and BWRs in India, has made several improvements in different areas of fuel manufacturing. Starting with wire-wrap type of fuel bundles, NFC had switched over to split spacer type fuel bundle production in mid 80's. On the upstream side slurry extraction was introduced to prepare the pure uranyl nitrate solution directly from the MDU cake. Applying a thin layer of graphite to the inside of the tube was another modification. The Complex has developed cost effective and innovative techniques for these processes, especially for resistance welding of appendages on the fuel elements which has been a unique feature of the Indian PHWR fuel assemblies. Initially, the fuel fabrication plants were set-up with imported process equipment for most of the pelletisation and assembly operations. Gradually with design and development of indigenous equipment both for production and quality control, NFC has demonstrated total self reliance in fuel production by getting these special purpose machines manufactured indigenously. With the expertise gained in different areas of process development and equipment manufacturing, today NFC is in a position to offer know-how and process equipment at very attractive prices. The paper discusses some of the new processes that are developed/introduced in this field and describes different features of a few PLC based automatic equipment developed. Salient features of innovative techniques being adopted in the area Of UO2 powder production are also briefly indicated. (author)

321

Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.  

Science.gov (United States)

When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. PMID:24528101

Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

2014-06-01

322

Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.

Woods John A

2012-11-01

323

A comparison of genetic diversity between South African conserved and field chicken populations using microsatellite markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the study was to determine genetic diversity within South African indigenous chicken populations and the effectiveness of the current conservation flocks in capturing the available diversity in the founder populations. Two chicken populations, Venda (VD_C) and Ovambo (OV_C) conserva [...] tion flocks (n = 56) from the Animal Production Institute in Irene and two founder population from which these conservation flocks were sampled; Venda (VD_F) and Ovambo (OV_F) field populations (n = 72) were genotyped for 29 autosomal microsatellite markers. All microsatellites typed were found to be polymorphic. A total of 213 alleles were observed for all four populations. The mean number of alleles per population ranged from 3.52 ± 1.09 (VD_C) to 6.62 ± 3.38 (OV_F). Mean observed (H O) and expected (H E) heterozygosity in the conservation flocks were 0.55 and 0.57 respectively. The corresponding values for the founder population were 0.62 and 0.68. The observed within population diversity measures indicated that field populations are more diverse than conservation flocks. The Reynolds genetic distance (D Reynolds) between conservation flocks and field population observed was 0.22 between VD_C and VD_F and 0.09 between OV_C and OV_F. STRUCTURE was used to cluster individuals to 2

B.J., Mtileni; F.C., Muchadeyi; S., Weigend; A., Maiwashe; E., Groeneveld; L.F., Groeneveld; M., Chimonyo; K., Dzama.

324

PATHOGENESIS OF CHICKEN-PASSAGED NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES ISOLATED FROM CHICKENS, WILD, AND EXOTIC BIRDS  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens and wild (anhinga) and exotic (yellow nape parrot, pheasant, and dove isolate) birds was examined after four passages of the isolates in domestic chickens. Groups of four-week-old specific-pathogen-free White Legh...

325

Combining abilities of growth traits among pure and crossbred meat type chickens / Posibilidades de combinación de las características de crecimiento entre pollos para carne puros y cruzados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cinco mil ciento diecinueve pollos fueron obtenidos, en un programa de mejora de pollos de engorde, a partir de una combinación dialélica de cuatro razas: Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) y Normal indígena (N). Los pollos fueron criados a 12 semanas en las que se registraron los datos sobre p [...] eso corporal por semana (BW), circunferencia del pecho (BG) y longitud de la tibia (TL). El genotipo de machos y hembras afectó significativamente (p Abstract in english Five thousand one hundred and nineteen chicks were obtained from a diallel combination of four breeds of chickens; (Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) and Normal indigenous (N) chickens) in a broiler improvement program. The chicks were reared to 12 weeks in which data on weekly body weight (BW [...] ), breast girth (BG) and tibia length (TL) were recorded. Sire and dam genotype significantly (p

A.O., Adebambo; C.O.N., Ikeobi; M.O., Ozoje; O.O., Oduguwa; A., Adebambo Olufunmilayo.

2011-12-01

326

Dadirri: Using a Philosophical Approach to Research to Build Trust between a Non-Indigenous Researcher and Indigenous Participants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—a rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants’ perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.

Megan Marie Stronach

2014-09-01

327

Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.

Condon John R

2011-09-01

328

Indigenous youth participatory action research: re-visioning social justice for social work with indigenous youths.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASW Code of Ethics identifies social justice as one of six foundational values of the social work profession. Indigenous communities have long questioned the authenticity of this commitment and rightly so, given the historical activities of social work and social workers. Still, the commitment persists as an inspiration for an imperfect, yet determined, profession. This article presents a theoretical discussion of questions pertinent for social justice in social work practice in Native American communities: Whose definition of social justice should prevail in work with and in Indigenous communities? What can a revisioning of social justice mean to the development of Native communities and for Native youths in particular? What methods or processes of social work are most appropriate for this social justice work? This article presents a case for the practice of youth participatory action research as one method to work for social justice in Native communities. PMID:24450018

Johnston-Goodstar, Katie

2013-10-01

329

Readership Pattern of Indigenous Language Newspapers Among Selected Nigerian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous language press which was the harbinger of journalism in Nigeria is suffering serious neglect. The neglect reflects in a number of ways among which is poor readership. Although, the fact of poor readership of indigenous language newspapers is a common knowledge, but it lacks empirical documentation as many researches on readership of newspapers were concentrated on newspapers written in English. This research attempt therefore examined the readership pattern of Indigenous language newspapers among selected university undergraduates and compared the pattern of readership of English and Indigenous language newspapers. The study is a survey of 150 students of Ajayi Crowther University selected through purposive sampling. Data were generated with Indigenous language Newspaper Readership Pattern Instrument (ILNRPI.The results reveal poor readership pattern of Indigenous Language newspaper with the readership pattern of English Language newspapers faring better. On the basis of the findings, useful suggestions were made. 
Key words: Indigenous; Language; Readership pattern; Undergraduates

O. F. ALABI

2011-11-01

330

Contested Territories: Water Rights and the Struggles over Indigenous Livelihoods  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by developing large-scale water infrastructure. Three cases illustrate the encroachment process. In Colombia, the Embera Katio people’s water territory is colonized by a large-scale hydropower development project. In Ecuador, large-scale drinking water development for megacities aims the water belonging to the Oyacachi community’s indigenous highland territory. In Peru, communal water rights of the Colca Valley indigenous peasantry are under threat because of large-scale irrigation development. As the cases show, Indigenous peoples and communities actively contest the undermining and subordination of their water and territorial rights through a myriad of multi-scalar livelihood defense strategies. The challenges that indigenous peoples face to defend their water-based livelihoods are, however, enormous and growing every day.

Rutgerd Boelens

2012-11-01

331

Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that different ecotypes of Maca (Red, Yellow and Black) after short-term (7 days) and long-term (42 days) treatment affects differentially spermatogenesis adult rats. After 7 days of treatment with Yellow and Red Maca, the length of stage VIII was increased (P<0.05), whereas with Black Maca stages II-VI and VIII were increased (P<0.05). Daily sperm production (DSP) was increased in the group treated with Black Maca compared with control values (P<0.05). Red or Yellow Maca did not alter DSP and epididymal sperm motility was not affected by treatment with any ecotype of Maca. After 42 days of treatment, Black Maca was the only ecotype that enhanced DSP (P<0.05). Moreover, Black Maca was the only that increased epididymal sperm motility (P<0.05). In relation to the control group, Red Maca did not affect testicular and epididymal weight nor epididymal sperm motility and sperm count; however, prostate weight was reduced (P<0.05). Black or Yellow Maca did not affect prostate weight. In conclusion, there were differences in the biological response of the three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Red and Black). Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility. PMID:16174556

Gonzales, Carla; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Nieto, Jessica; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

2006-02-20

332

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous

Breen, Helen M.

2012-01-01

333

Renal biopsy findings among Indigenous Australians: a nationwide review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Australia's Indigenous people have high rates of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. To define renal disease among these people, we reviewed 643 renal biopsies on Indigenous people across Australia, and compared them with 249 biopsies of non-Indigenous patients. The intent was to reach a consensus on pathological findings and terminology, quantify glomerular size, and establish and compare regional biopsy profiles. The relative population-adjusted biopsy frequencies were 16.9, 6.6, and 1, respectively, for Aboriginal people living remotely/very remotely, for Torres Strait Islander people, and for non-remote-living Aboriginal people. Indigenous people more often had heavy proteinuria and renal failure at biopsy. No single condition defined the Indigenous biopsies and, where biopsy rates were high, all common conditions were in absolute excess. Indigenous people were more often diabetic than non-Indigenous people, but diabetic changes were still present in fewer than half their biopsies. Their biopsies also had higher rates of segmental sclerosis, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and mixed morphologies. Among the great excess of biopsies in remote/very remote Aborigines, females predominated, with younger age at biopsy and larger mean glomerular volumes. Glomerulomegaly characterized biopsies with mesangiopathic changes only, with IgA deposition, or with diabetic change, and with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This review reveals great variations in biopsy rates and findings among Indigenous Australians, and findings refute the prevailing dogma that most indigenous renal disease is due to diabetes. Glomerulomegaly in remote/very remote Aboriginal people is probably due to nephron deficiency, in part related to low birth weight, and probably contributes to the increased susceptibility to kidney disease and the predisposition to FSGS. PMID:22932120

Hoy, Wendy E; Samuel, Terence; Mott, Susan A; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla S; Fogo, Agnes B; Dowling, John P; Hughson, Michael D; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Pugsley, David J; Kirubakaran, Meshach G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F

2012-12-01

334

Indigenous Development of a Track Etch Detector  

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Full Text Available Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs have been recognised by IAEA as a standard method for estimation of radon, thoron and their daughter products in the environment. The detectors that are commonly used in environmental monitoring are generally made from cellulose nitrate (LR-115 and polycarbonates (CR-39. In view of the non-availability of these detectors in India, need was felt to develop them indigenously. Accordingly, an attempt has been made to develop cellulose nitrate films for their use in SSNTD. Cellulose nitrate with a particular nitrogen content was used for preparing these films by a cast method. This films were annealed, evaluated and then compared with imported films. The background track density and alpha track density after exposure to 150 nCi of /sup 241/Am source at 2.5 cm distance were found to be comparable with those of imported films.

Ashok Kumar

2013-04-01

335

Composition of picocyanobacteria community in the Great Mazurian Lakes: isolation of phycoerythrin-rich and phycocyanin-rich ecotypes from the system--comparison of two methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study showed that the picocyanobacteria community of the Great Mazurian Lakes system (GML) was dominated by phycoerythrin-rich (PE) ecotypes and demonstrated a gradual decrease of the ratio between PE and phycocyanin-rich (PC) ecotypes. The Great Mazurian Lakes offer better conditions for the PE ecotype than for the PC one, despite the considerably high trophic status, probably thanks to low turbidity and attenuation of light in the water column. The successful isolation of PE and PC picocyanobacteria was achieved by two methods: the classic plate method and a modified flow-cytometry method. The modified flow-cytometry method proved to be superior: being more selective for PE picocyanobacteria as well as less time consuming and less laborious. The modifications introduced to the method, such us concentration of cyanobacterial cells by centrifugation to the density required by the flow cytometer, did not hinder the isolation while allowing to skip an intermediate phase of enrichment cultures that had been formerly proposed. The first phylogenetic analyses based on cpcBA operon and 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that picocyanobacteria isolates from GML could, with a high bootstrap support, be grouped into five and four clusters, respectively. Based on a cpcBA-IGS analysis and IGS length the study suggests that at least one of the clusters is new and has not been previously described. PMID:20568526

Jasser, Iwona; Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna; Koz?owska, Ewa; Królicka, Adriana; ?ukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja

2010-01-01

336

Indigenous Technology and Agricultural Production: The Case of Poultry Incubator  

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Full Text Available Most poultry equipments available in Nigeria are imported and the expensive nature of these equipment, the difficulties encountered in purchasing them, coupled with the problem of lack of fund has made large-scale production of poultry very difficult in Nigeria. This paper therefore, discusses the concept of indigenous technology and the relevance of indigenous technology to the economy of Nigeria. The paper further highlighted the food production problems in the country and finally explained the construction of poultry incubator using indigenous knowledge with the aid of local materials.

Stephen J. Ibitoye

2011-01-01

337

Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple  

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Full Text Available A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L. predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1 as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill, em diferentes meios; 2 as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3 as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após, ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após, coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI.The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L. predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1 the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pectinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill, in different media; 2 the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3 the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours, or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours, staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

Ana Maria Queijeiro López

2010-01-01

338

Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens.  

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Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macrophages within the spleen and lungs of chickens up to 4 d post-treatment. This finding suggests that, in order to obtain depletion of macrophages in chickens for greater than 5 d, it is necessary to administer clodronate liposomes 4 d apart. The study also showed that 2 treatments of clodronate liposomes at 4-day intervals resulted in the depletion of macrophages for up to 10 d. The findings of the present study will encourage more precise studies to be done on the potential roles of macrophages in immune responses and in the pathogenesis of microbial infections in chickens. PMID:25355996

Kameka, Amber M; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

2014-10-01

339

Physicochemical Properties of Malaysian Commercial Chicken Sausages  

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Full Text Available Sausage is becoming more popular to the Malaysian consumers. A study on quality characteristics for chicken sausages marketed in Malaysia was conducted to gauge the trend of marketed sausages today. A total of ten samples of chicken sausages from different brands were analyzed to determine the proximate composition, calcium and sodium contents, colour, folding test and textural properties (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force. The moisture, protein, fat and ash contents for chicken sausages were significantly different, in the range of 56.48-68.85%, 7.03-14.14%, 4.91-18.48% and 2.17-3.30%, respectively. The range of carbohydrate content was 6.69-21.59%. The calcium and sodium contents were varied in chicken sausages. The lightness value (L* of sausage was significantly different among the samples in the range of 44.42-65.54. All chicken sausages samples tested in this study show good gel strength with their folding test at more than 4.0. The hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force ranged between 3.84-7.25 kg, 12.79-15.65 mm, 0.25-0.41 ratio, 1.28-2.58 kg, 16.81-33.01 kg.mm and 0.58-1.95 kg, respectively. The results of this analysis showed that sausages produced by different manufacturers will varied significantly in quality and physicochemical properties.

Ishamri Ismail

2010-01-01

340

Application of Chicken Feathers inTechnical Textiles  

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Full Text Available The nonwoven is manufactured by using chicken feathers which are available at very low cost, so the end product too. The advantage is that there is a wide range of application of chicken feathers in textile field. The nonwoven which is prepared by chicken feather has very versatile and a wide application in the field of technical textiles.

CHINTA S.K

2013-04-01

341

The role of indigenous knowledge in disaster risk reduction: a critical analysis / Oageng Ivan Maferetlhane  

OpenAIRE

Although the importance of Indigenous Knowledge systems has been recognised by international organisations, such as the United Nations and World Bank, the role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction has to date not received the attention it deserves in South Africa. Little is known about how South Africa‘s indigenous communities use Indigenous Knowledge to avoid, prevent and deal with disasters. This study has sought to investigate the role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Ri...

Maferetlhane, Oageng Ivan

2013-01-01

342

Indigenous AIDS Organizing and the Anthropology of Activist Knowledge  

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Full Text Available Indigenous AIDS activists join AIDS activists worldwide today in theorizing the AIDS pandemic as a construct of social relations of power. Their anti-colonial and transnational activism holds scholars accountable to studying how power structures the production of knowledge about AIDS. This essay first examines how Indigenous AIDS activists theorize the colonial and transnational conditions of AIDS, and challenge states and international agencies to respect the sovereignty of Indigenous communities and knowledges. The essay then cites Indigenous activist knowledge as inspiration for revisiting critiques of coloniality in anthropology, and their implications for the anthropology of AIDS. Anthropologists studying AIDS can respond to AIDS activists by addressing how colonial legacies shape the processes and products of research and writing. By working within intersubjective and reflexive relationships with people and communities affected by AIDS, anthropologists can enter accountable dialogue with AIDS activists and on that basis produce anti-colonial and transnational knowledge about AIDS.

Scott L. Morgensen

2009-04-01

343

Azanza garckeana: A Valuable Edible Indigenous Fruit Tree of Botswana  

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Full Text Available Azanza garkeana (morojwa is a valuable edible indigenous fruit tree species confined to east and southern Africa. Because of its multiple use the species is selected and retained by farmers in Botswana when they clear the woodland for crops and building house. It is one of the indigenous fruit tree species that is semi-domesticated by local people in Botswana. The species is an important indigenous source of food in Botswana. Besides proving people with fruits, the tree also provides goods (timber, firewood, fodder etc. and services (soil conservation, shade etc.. The species is an important source of essential minerals particularly P, Ca, Mg and Na. This paper reviews Azanza garckeana as an important multipurpose indigenous fruit tree with high potential social and economic value in Botswana.

W. Mojeremane

2004-01-01

344

NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

Vipman Tandjiria

1999-01-01

345

Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of chicken litter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken litter generally consists of a mixture of bedding, manure, feathers and spilled food. Flock of birds litter (flock) is a litter consisting of hardwood shavings, feed, feathers and manure; and broiler litter (broiler) is a cake of chicken litter. A kinetic investigation of the pyrolysis of chicken litter (flock and broiler) was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at heating rates of 5 degrees C/min, 10 degrees C/min and 20 degrees C/min. Most of the materials decomposed between 270 degrees C and 590 degrees C at each heating rate. The region of decomposition of flock and broiler was slightly lower than that of the wood chips. Wood chips (bedding material) decomposed in two stages, while flock and broiler decomposed in three stages. Apparent activation energies increased from 99 to 484 kJ/mol for the three samples when the pyrolytic conversion increased from 5% to 95%. PMID:16540303

Kim, Seung-Soo; Agblevor, Foster A

2007-01-01

346

REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador  

OpenAIRE

One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s r...

Pablo Reed

2011-01-01

347

Genetic variation and relationships of eighteen Chinese indigenous pig breeds  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Chinese indigenous pig breeds are recognized as an invaluable component of the world's pig genetic resources and are divided traditionally into six types. Twenty-six microsatellite markers recommended by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and ISAG (International Society of Animal Genetics) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 Chinese indigenous pig breeds with 1001 individuals representing five types, and three commercial breeds with 184 individuals...

Li Meng-Hua; Fan Bin; Yu Mei; Zhao Shu-Hong; Zhang Gui-Xiang; Liu Bang; Wang Zhi-Gang; Yang Shu-Lin; Xiong Tong-An; Li Kui

2003-01-01

348

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of ave high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

349

Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.

Cunningham Joan

2010-08-01

350

An Indigenously Designed Apparatus for Measuring Orthodontic Force  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: An indigenous apparatus is designed to measure the orthodontic force delivered from elastomeric chains and compare this force with values obtained from the Instron universal testing machine. Material and Methods: An indigenously designed apparatus is developed to evaluate forces delivered by various orthodontic auxiliaries. The apparatus consists of a flat steel platform, movable arm, and a mounted screw gauge arm. Orthodontic brackets can be attached to these arms. An electric circuit is connected, to the movable arm, which will estimate the forces exerted between brackets with elastomeric chain. The circuit is connected to the signal conditioner which will display the reading. Elastomeric chain with four links is attached to the arms. The movable arm is adjusted to create orthodontic forces and calibrated on the digital displayer. Twenty Elastomeric chains are used and forces are calibrated with the indigenously designed apparatus. The values of the force is compared with the forces calibrated with Instron universal testing machine to compare the efficacy of the indigenous apparatus. Results: The force values obtained from activation of elastomeric chain segments, in the Instron universal testing machine and the indigenous apparatus were in the range of 100 to 150 grams, initially at 1mm activation then, took a steep rise to 300 to 350 grams at 5mm activation and then, had a gradual increase for the remaining 5mm activation, reaching 400 to 450 grams. Conclusion: The Indigenous apparatus can be considered efficient in measuring tensile force generated by orthodontic auxiliaries. PMID:24392423

Dinesh, S.P. Saravana; Arun, A.V.; Sundari, K.K. Shantha; Samantha, Christine; Ambika, K.

2013-01-01

351

Comparative proteomics reveals that a saxitoxin-producing and a nontoxic strain of Anabaena circinalis are two different ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Australia, saxitoxin production is restricted to the cyanobacterial species Anabaena circinalis and is strain-dependent. We aimed to characterize a saxitoxin-producing and nontoxic strain of A. circinalis at the proteomic level using iTRAQ. Seven proteins putatively involved in saxitoxin biosynthesis were identified within our iTRAQ experiment for the first time. The proteomic profile of the toxic A. circinalis was significantly different from the nontoxic strain, indicating that each is likely to inhabit a unique ecological niche. Under control growth conditions, the saxitoxin-producing A. circinalis displayed a higher abundance of photosynthetic, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolic proteins. Differential abundance of these proteins suggests a higher intracellular C:N ratio and a higher concentration of intracellular 2-oxoglutarate in our toxic strain compared with the nontoxic strain. This may be a novel site for posttranslational regulation because saxitoxin biosynthesis putatively requires a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. The nontoxic A. circinalis was more abundant in proteins, indicating cellular stress. Overall, our study has provided the first insight into fundamental differences between a toxic and nontoxic strain of A. circinalis, indicating that they are distinct ecotypes. PMID:24460188

D'Agostino, Paul M; Song, Xiaomin; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

2014-03-01

352

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

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Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

353

Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective  

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Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

Richardson Katya L

2012-12-01

354

Rajbansi festivals decoding indigenous knowledge system  

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Full Text Available Indigenous Knowledge System/ IKS and the set of local-levelmaterial apparatus are dependent upon non-adaptive domainsof the folk life (>folk culture>material apparatus. Altogethernon-reflective intangible part of culture (cultural values,social norms, folkways, taboo and traditional belief;reflective and tangible part (set of material apparatus andreflective but non-tangible part (information, knowledge andtraditional technologies constituting TKS constitute the FolkLife. Here, various aspects play major influence on the issueof Folk Life, such as, mode of communication (formal andinformal: firstly, with people via exchange ofgoods/message/women/power of word; secondly, with naturevia TKS; and thirdly, with Super Nature via performances(cultural/ social/ magical/ religious/ agricultural-seasonalduring religious festivals and other ceremonies. The networkso formed maintains connectivity among agrofacts, artifacts,sociofacts and mentifacts/psychofacts; and in this way, thetraditional social system (again highly non-adaptive is builtup on composition of various institutions. Of variousinstitutions in traditional social system (non-adaptive; IKS(adaptive is generally tested in the religious laboratory ofsurvival (religious institution.Within the traditional folk life of Rajbansi agrarian ruralstructure of northern West Bengal, a study has beenconducted to quarry the role of their festivals in propermanagement of IKS as they could communicate with socialsystem, nature and super-nature as well.

ASHOK DAS GUPTA

2010-12-01

355

The challenges of maintaining indigenous ecological knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK has led to concern that it is vulnerable amidst social and ecological change. In response, multiple authors have recommended the establishment of programs for the maintenance and revitalization of IEK systems. However, few studies have analyzed the methods, opportunities, and challenges of these programs. This is a critical gap, as IEK maintenance is challenging and will require layered and evidence-based solutions. We seek to build a foundation for future approaches to IEK maintenance. First, we present a systematic literature review of IEK maintenance programs (n = 39 and discuss the opportunities and challenges inherent in five broad groups of published approaches. Second, we use two case studies from the Republic of Vanuatu to illustrate these challenges in more depth. The first case study takes a community-based approach, which has inherent strengths (e.g., localized organization. It has, however, faced practical (e.g., funding and epistemological (changing modes of knowledge transmission challenges. The second case study seeks to facilitate IEK transmission within the formal school system. Although this model has potential, it has faced significant challenges (e.g., lack of institutional linkages. We conclude that supporting and strengthening IEK is important but that serious attention is needed to account for the social, situated, and dynamic nature of IEK. In closing, we use the review and case studies to propose four principles that may guide adaptive and flexible approaches for the future maintenance of IEK systems.

Joe McCarter

2014-09-01

356

Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology of disease, are used to place the various seafood products in risk categories and to identify areas of concern. It is concluded that the presence of pathogens in molluscs and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products are hazards which are presently not under control. In order to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum when products are stored at abuse temperature, it is recommended that additional barriers to growth are included in lightly preserved (e.g. cold smoked salmon) and low-heat treated (e.g REPFEDS) products. It is finally pointed out that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is the preferred strategy in most quality assurance programmes and it is recommended that microbiological criteria are applied only as guidelines in the verification of the HACCP-system - and not for official control purposes. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

Huss, Hans Henrik

1997-01-01

357

Chicken energia metabolism after single gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study investigated changes in the concentration of cholesterol and glucose in the serum of poultry after single whole-body gamma irradiation with 4,5 Gy dose. In the experiment we used chickens of initial age 21 and 35 days at the beginning of the experiment. (authors)

358

The Role of Chickens in Vitamin Discoveries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal models (bioassays have been of great service to humanity in all sorts of scientific-related advancements. Aves, specifically chickens, played an important role in vitamin discoveries, as it was the first species to be used in 1890`s to study beriberi. We briefly review its 30-year trajectory as an investigational tool in science and medicine.

Sigfrido Burgos

2006-01-01

359

Radicidation of fresh deboned chicken meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was performed on chicken thighs and breasts with the aim of improving their hygienic quality and extending their shelf-life. A dose of 2.5 kGy was found to extend shelf-life by a factor of two or three

360

Thermal stress on chickens in transit.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. An artificial chicken, 'Gloria', was constructed to simulate heat exchanges of poultry during transport. Tests of the instrument in a wind tunnel showed it to have insulation properties similar to that of a live bird. 2. Gloria accompanied chickens in two types of transport modules, A (enclosed) and B (open). The average temperature difference between inside and outside the loaded vehicles when stationary and in motion were 14.0 and 7.6 for Type A and 8.8 and 6.0 for Type B. Average air movement while vehicles were in motion was 0.5 m/s for Type A and 3.3 m/s for Type B. 3. Measurements of sensible heat loss from Gloria at different temperatures and wind speeds were compared with published estimates of thermoneutral heat production and thermal insulation for well and poorly feathered chickens to estimate the range of thermal stresses likely to be experienced by chickens in transit. 4. The results showed that the combination of circumstances necessary to ensure thermal comfort for birds both at rest and in motion is very rare (e.g. only between 7 and 8 degrees C for well feathered birds in enclosed vehicles). It is, however, possible to ensure thermal comfort over a wide range of ambient air temperatures by appropriate control of air movement within the vehicle whether at rest or in motion. PMID:8513408

Webster, A J; Tuddenham, A; Saville, C A; Scott, G B

1993-05-01

361

Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little  

Science.gov (United States)

Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

Maderazo, Catherine

2009-01-01

362

Isolation of Mycoplasma meleagridis from chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM) is a major cause of disease and economic loss in turkeys. Formerly it was thought that this species was very host specific and only restricted to turkey. In this study, we report on the recovery of MM from breeding flocks of chickens located near a turkey breeding unit. Ten MM field strains were isolated (by culture on Frey broth medium) from tracheal swabs of chickens displaying clinical signs of mycoplasmosis-essentially respiratory symptoms and poor performance. Assignment of the isolated field strains to MM was confirmed by a growth inhibition assay using MM-specific polyclonal antiserum and by PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA sequence as well as the Mm14 sequence, a MM-species-specific DNA fragment previously identified and characterized in our laboratory. The nucleotide sequence of Mm14 proved to be highly conserved among the 10 MM field strains, indicating a common source of infection. However, on the basis of slight differences in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell proteins and western blot profiles, two groups of the isolated MM field strains could be distinguished. Evidence of MM infection of chickens was further provided by serology, since 13.77% (35/254) of sera proved positive to MM by either rapid serum agglutination or recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, sera of all chickens from which MM was isolated were positive for antibodies to MM. Collectively, the data unambiguously show that MM could infect chickens; thus, MM warrants further exploration to determine its pathogenicity in this unusual host. PMID:21500629

Béjaoui Khiari, A; Landoulsi, A; Aissa, H; Mlik, B; Amouna, F; Ejlassi, A; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, B

2011-03-01

363

Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D10-values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

364

Reproductive performance of indigenous cattle in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Postpartum ovarian activity in indigenous Kedah-Kelantan cattle was monitored by progesterone radioimmunoassay to study the fertility of suckled cows exposed to natural mating. In the university herd, postpartum reproductive performance was monitored over two breeding periods. In one period, 34 suckled cows were bled weekly just before mating, with 70.6% showing detectable ovarian activity by 60 days postpartum. Cows bred at a mean (±SD) interval of 20.1±6.2 days (n=8) postpartum conceived at 51.1±23.7 days, with 87.5% conception, while cows bred at 49.1±7.1 days (n=17) conceived at 78.5±14.7 days, with 100% conception. In another breeding period when 37 suckled cows were bled twice weekly after calving, 21, 81.1 and 91.9% had resumed ovarian activity by 30, 60 and 90 days postpartum, respectively. The mean intervals to first oestrus and ovulation were 37.7±18.3 and 43.0±17.2 days, respectively. For animals bred at 25.8±3.7 days (n=12), the time to conception was 56.1±20.8 days, with 83.3% conception. When mated at 40.6±8.0 days (n=35), the mean interval to conception was 64.3±15.2 days postpartum, with 88% conception. In spite of calf suckling, high fertility to natural mating was observed by 90 days postpartum. Comparative studies were also conducted in a commercial herd (n=90) and smallholder cattle (n=73). Fertility after oestrus synchronization and AI was also investigated (n=70). Plasma progesterone profiles revealed that low conception to AI was associated with fertilization failure, although early embryonic mortality, anovulation and asynchrony between AI and oestrus were also detected

365

Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenous, resulting in full partnerships in which participants share expertise to meet mutual needs. With reference to literature and two illustrative examples of intercultural education initiatives in Mexico and Tanzania, we present an original conceptual framework for assessing indigenous participation in intercultural education. This incorporates a new ladder of participation depth (in relation to both curriculum content and decision making alongside separate considerations of breadth, i.e., stakeholder diversity, and scope, i.e., the number of key project stages in which certain stakeholder groups are participating. The framework can be used to compare intercultural education initiatives in differing contexts and might be adaptable to other intercultural work.

Santos H. Alvarado Dzul

2012-12-01

366

Caracterização morfológica de ecótipos de arroz daninho (Oryza sativa provenientes de áreas de arroz irrigado Morphological characterization of red rice (Oryza Sativa ecotypes derived from irrigated rice areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a caracterização fenotípica de 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, quando comparados aos cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em casa de vegetação. Foram semeados 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho e os quatro cultivares de arroz irrigado. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos com capacidade para 9 litros, contendo solo, utilizando-se cinco repetições por genótipo. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: coloração das folhas, pilosidade, afilhamento efetivo, graus-dia biológico para completar o florescimento, degrane, número de afilhos férteis, área foliar da folha-bandeira, altura de planta, número de sementes por panícula e produção por planta. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam grande variabilidade morfológica entre os ecótipos estudados.Aspects related to the phenotypical characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina were studied and compared to those of commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. The sixteen red rice ecotypes plus four rice cultivars were sown with five replications in plastic pails filled with 9 liters of soil. The genotypes were described according to the traits proposed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, 1980. The following plant and seed parameters were evaluated: leaf color and hairiness, effective tillering, biological day-degrees to complete the flowering period, seed shattering, number of fertile tillers, flag leaf area, plant height, number of seeds per panicle and seed production. The results showed a great morphological variability among the red rice ecotypes.

A.M.L. Schwanke

2008-06-01

367

Caracterização morfológica de ecótipos de arroz daninho (Oryza sativa) provenientes de áreas de arroz irrigado / Morphological characterization of red rice (Oryza Sativa) ecotypes derived from irrigated rice areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste estudo a caracterização fenotípica de 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, quando comparados aos cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em casa de vegetação. Foram semeados 16 ec [...] ótipos de arroz daninho e os quatro cultivares de arroz irrigado. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos com capacidade para 9 litros, contendo solo, utilizando-se cinco repetições por genótipo. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: coloração das folhas, pilosidade, afilhamento efetivo, graus-dia biológico para completar o florescimento, degrane, número de afilhos férteis, área foliar da folha-bandeira, altura de planta, número de sementes por panícula e produção por planta. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam grande variabilidade morfológica entre os ecótipos estudados. Abstract in english Aspects related to the phenotypical characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina were studied and compared to those of commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. The sixteen red rice ecotypes plus four ric [...] e cultivars were sown with five replications in plastic pails filled with 9 liters of soil. The genotypes were described according to the traits proposed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, 1980). The following plant and seed parameters were evaluated: leaf color and hairiness, effective tillering, biological day-degrees to complete the flowering period, seed shattering, number of fertile tillers, flag leaf area, plant height, number of seeds per panicle and seed production. The results showed a great morphological variability among the red rice ecotypes.

A.M.L., Schwanke; J.A., Noldin; A., Andres; S.O., Procópio; G., Concenço.

2008-06-01

368

Benthic non-indigenous species among indigenous species and their habitat preferences in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To date 11 non-indigenous benthic taxa have been reported in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea. Five of the 34 taxa forming the soft bottom communities are regarded as non-indigenous to this area. They are Marenzelleria spp., Mya arenaria, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus tigrinus and Amphibalanus improvisus. Non-indigenous species comprised up to 33% of the total number of identified macrofaunal taxa (mean 17%. The average proportion of aliens was 6% (max 46% in the total abundance of macrofauna, and 10% (max 65% in the biomass. A significant positive relationship was found between the numbers of native taxa and non-indigenous species. The number of native taxa was significantly higher on a sea bed covered with vascular plants than on an unvegetated one, but no such relationship was found for their abundance. No significant differences were found in the number and abundance of non-indigenous species between sea beds devoid of vegetation and those covered with vascular plants, Chara spp. or mats of filamentous algae. G. tigrinus preferred a sea bed with vegetation, whereas Marenzelleria spp. decidedly preferred one without vegetation.

Urszula Janas

2014-06-01

369

Medicinal Plants Diversity and its Indigenous use in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pakistan has a lot of diversity in the medicinal plants. More than 50% of the medicines used today in daily life are taken from plants source. According to WHO 80% of the population of the world use the traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. People living in the different provinces namely Punjab, Sind, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan an Kashmir are dependent o these natural resource (Plants for their daily life use of food, medicine, vegetable, fodder, feulwood, timber and religious purposes. About 75% of the total population villages and rural areas of the country depends on the traditional indigenous medicine. The indigenous knowledge of the medicinal plants is the rich source of the important medicinal plants knowledge and the elderly people are mostly more aware of the indigenous use of these medicinal plants.

Syed Aneel Gilani

2013-07-01

370

Uma visão indígena da história / An indigenous view of history  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir as possibilidades de ensino e construção de conhecimentos históricos na comunidade indígena guarani-mbya, da aldeia de Sapucaí, em um contexto de educação escolar intercultural. Refletindo acerca da utilização de documentação imagética - fotografias, gravuras e [...] iconografias produzidas por não-índios como fontes históricas na reconstrução e no registro de uma memória indígena. Abstract in english The main goal of this article is to discuss the teaching possibilities and historical knowledge construction in the indigenous communities of Guarani-mbya, from Sapucaí Indian settlement, in an intellectual school education context. Thinking over about the use of image documentation - photography, p [...] ictures and iconography - not produced by indigenous people as historical sources in the reconstruction and recording of an indigenous memory.

Paulo Humberto Porto, Borges.

1999-12-01

371

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Ampicillin in Chicken Infected with Eimeria tenella  

OpenAIRE

Coccidiosis and its following infection with clostridia in chicken are two common diseases in chicken. Ampicillin is a highly recommended therapy in clostridia infections in chicken. However, the effect of coccidiosis on ampicillin pharmacokinetics is not known. In this study, chicken infected with Eimeria tenella showed significant changes in ampicillin bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. Compared with noninfected chicken, intravenous injection of ampicillin in the infected chicken ...

Mahmoud Kandeel

2014-01-01

372

Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown to be invasive in orally challenged chickens as well as in three different human epithelial cell lines.

Knudsen, Katrine NØrrelund; Bang, Dang Duong

2006-01-01

373

Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations. PMID:21121089

Remeš, V; Székely, T

2010-12-01

374

Effect of Newcastle Disease Control and Improved Management on the Performance of Indigenous Poultry in Western Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

indigenous poultry farming is an important enterprise for small-scale farmers in the mandate areas of the Regional Research Centre (RRC) Kakamega, A topical Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study involving 407 farmers identified the main constraints to rural poultry production in the area as Newcastle disease (NCD), predation, and inadequate feeding or supplementation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of vaccination against Newcastle disease (NCD), daytime housing for chicks and feed supplementation on indigenous poultry production. The trial was implemented in four RRC clusters, each representing a specific agro-ecological zone.The clusters included Sabatia (UM1), Butula (LM1) Malava (LM2), and Uranga (LM3). Each cluster comprised of 22 to 35 experimental farmers in four groups assigned to the various treatments thus: Group 1 vaccination, 2. vaccination and supplementation, 3. vaccination, supplementation and daytime housing of chicks and 4. control group or farmer's practice. Since farmers adopted treatments according to their preference, the composition of each group varied as the experiment progressed. Birds were vaccinated after every three months to prevent NCD attacks,' To' avoid predation, the chicks were housed in movable or permanent structures where supplements such as brewers waste, blood and rumen contents from slaughterhouses were provided. From January 1997, data was collected weeklyom January 1997, data was collected weekly from individual households by frontline extension staff. Monthly monitoring and data verification on flock composition and dynamics, eggs production and utilisation, feed use and growth rates, was done by researchers and agricultural extensionists. The results demonstrated that Newcastle disease could be controlled by routine vaccination; feed supplementation improved the performance of housed birds in three clusters, but not in Sabatia where scarcity of feed was pronounced. It was further concluded that predation continued to constrain chicken productivity in the four clusters, during famine, a time when birds are not usually housed

375

Cold-Induced Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction in the Finger Of Tropical and Temperate Indigenes  

OpenAIRE

While heat acclimatization reflects the development of heat tolerance, it may weaken an ability to tolerate cold. The purpose of this study was to explore cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) responses in the finger of tropical indigenes during finger cold immersion, along with temperate indigenes. Thirteen tropical male indigenes (subjects born and raised in the tropics) and 11 temperate male indigenes (subjects born and raised in Japan and China) participated. Subjects immersed their middle fin...

Bakri, Ilham

2013-01-01

376

Mending baskets: The process of using indigenous epistemology to reinterpret Sacagawea  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study that applies indigenous epistemology to a study of Sacagawea, the Shoshone woman who traveled with the Lewis and Clark expedition. The research addresses the problem of misrepresentation of Sacagawea and other Indigenous Peoples. It incorporates indigenous epistemology toward alternative social action, language and rationality. This study refined seven categories that describe an indigenous epistemology research agenda. Those include recognition...

Phillips, Selene G.

2003-01-01

377

Decomposing Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The estimated gap in life expectancy (LE) between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures. This study aims to explain the Indigenous LE gap by common modifiable risk factors. Methods This study covered the period from 1986 to 2005. Unit record death data from the Northern Territory were used to ass...

Zhao Yuejen; Wright Jo; Begg Stephen; Guthridge Steven

2013-01-01

378

Representing Mayas : Indigenous Authorities and the Local Politics of Identity in Guatemala  

OpenAIRE

Against the backdrop of emerging indigenous movements in Latin America, the Maya Movement appeared as a political actor in the 1980s, bringing “the Indian Question” to the fore in Guatemalan politics. Rejecting racism and assimilationalist State policies, the Maya Movement seeks to recapture indigenous community organizing and indigenous law in her imagination of the multicultural nation-state. This has resulted in, among others, recognition of indigenous authorities in the Peace Accords ...

Rasch, E. D.

2008-01-01

379

Design for the contact zone. Knowledge management software and the structures of indigenous knowledges  

OpenAIRE

This article examines the design of digital indigenous knowledge archives. In a discussion of the distinction between indigenous knowledge and western science, a decentred perspective is developed, in which the relationship between different local knowledges is explored. The particular characteristics of indigenous knowledges raise questions about if and how these knowledges can be managed. The role of technology in managing indigenous knowledges is explored with examples from fieldwork in In...

Velden, Maja

2010-01-01

380

Gallus GBrowse: a unified genomic database for the chicken  

OpenAIRE

Gallus GBrowse (http://birdbase.net/cgi-bin/gbrowse/gallus/) provides online access to genomic and other information about the chicken, Gallus gallus. The information provided by this resource includes predicted genes and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, links to Gallus In Situ Hybridization Analysis (GEISHA), Unigene and Reactome, the genomic positions of chicken genetic markers, SNPs and microarray probes, and mappings from turkey, condor and zebra finch DNA and EST sequences to the chicken genome...

Schmidt, Carl J.; Romanov, Michael; Ryder, Oliver; Magrini, Vincent; Hickenbotham, Matthew; Glasscock, Jarret; Mcgrath, Sean; Mardis, Elaine; Stein, Lincoln D.

2008-01-01

381

Microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

Aim: To determine the microbial quality of culled chicken layers in Penang, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from three layer farms (designated as Farm A, Farm B and Farm C). A total of 67 culled chicken layer samples consisting of egg wash water, chicken carcass rinse, drinking water, cloaca swab, feed and faeces were examined for enterobacteriaceae, total and faecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli using the procedures in the bacteriological analytical manual. Res...

Ong Pek Geck; Frederick Adzitey; Raja Arief Deli; Nurul Huda; Gulam Rusul Rahmat Ali

2014-01-01

382

Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses  

OpenAIRE

Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine specific cDNA microarray was generated from a normalized and subtracted library. Gene expression in young chickens was studied using two different disease models, malabsorption syndrome and Salmonella en...

Hemert, S.

2007-01-01

383

Extensive Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Chicken Cecal Microbiome  

OpenAIRE

Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown speci...

Sergeant, Martin J.; Constantinidou, Chrystala; Cogan, Tristan A.; Bedford, Michael R.; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.

2014-01-01

384

Growth Performance of Crossbred and Purebred Chickens Resulting from Different Sire Strain in a Humid Tropical Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 357 progenies (both sexes produced by 23 sires belonging to 4 sire strains; 3 Nigerian indigenous (Naked-Neck, Frizzle and Normal and an exotic purebred (White Leghorn chickens were evaluated for growth traits at day-old, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks of age. The growth traits measured were body weight (BDW, body length (BDL, Breast Girth (BG and Keel Length (KL. Sire genotypes significantly (p0.05. Significant differences were also recorded for sex for each of the growth traits at different ages (p<0.05. Progenies of Naked Neck sire were generally superior in BDW followed by Frizzle, Normal and White Leghorn progenies. Male progenies were significantly (p<0.05 heavier and possess higher linear body measurements than their female counterpart in all age except KL at day-old and 20 week of age. The significance (p<0.05 of sire x sex interactions on growth traits varied with age. This study revealed the existence of genetic variations and potential for improvement amongst the Nigerian local chickens.

S.O. Peters

2006-01-01

385

La tradizione giuridica indigena / The indigenous legal tradition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Italian Abstract in english The main theme of this work is summarized in the attempt, first, to explain the nature of the legal relationships that develop in the Indigenous peoples reality, and if you can identify as a "legal system." Secondly, we will try to identify the social groups that have imposed a legal pluralist model [...] . The structure and methods of indigenous legal systems constitute an indivisible whole with the "world view" of these same people, and your culture, thus establishing their specific identities.

Carlos Humberto, Durand Alcántara.

2014-06-01

386

South African indigenous healing: how it works.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sangomas or inyangas are shamans, healers, priests, and prophets that have been the backbone of Bantu communities, especially in the rural areas of Southern Africa for eons. However, with rapid Westernization and the increasing allure of the commodity market, the old ways are rapidly eroding. Indigenous knowledge has always been transmitted orally, and there is little written down about the secret traditions of initiation. Hence, the bibliography listed at the end of this article is scant. This information is a result of personal experience gleaned during my own initiation into the world of sangoma and my subsequent experiences with these healing realms. The knowledge has been gained experientially and not by the scientific method. Some of it is secret and cannot be revealed. The information may differ somewhat from healer to healer but the general principles are the same. Most sub-Saharan African peoples believe in the importance of the ancestors being able to guide events, and they revere them because they have this power. I mostly will be describing the traditions that I encountered during my initiation and subsequent practice. There are others. Since sangoma wisdom is an oral tradition the individual's initiation will depend on the mentor and the spirit guides involved. That particular sangoma's healing repertoire will be somewhat different to another though the principles remain the same. The ancestors find the most efficient way to impart the information so that the healer can do the work. The way in which they transmit the knowledge will be unique to that person's receptivity and talents. Objective proof is not part of the experiential training. In fact, any attempt at systematic inquiry gets in the way of the process. One has to put cognitive, left-brained intellect aside. Obsession with data obliterates the intuitive. The sangoma or inyanga has a lot to teach the West about the spirit world and our ancestral roots. Science has put us in touch with a magical universe of technology. We may be technically advanced, but when it comes to psychospiritual wizardry we are really only beginners. PMID:23294823

Cumes, David

2013-01-01

387

Socioeconomic disparities in self-reported cardiovascular disease for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults: analysis of national survey data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and cardiovascular disease (CVD among Indigenous Australians, or whether any such relationship is similar to that in non-Indigenous Australians. Methods Weighted data on self-reported CVD and several SES measures were analyzed for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results After adjusting for age and sex, self-reported CVD prevalence was generally higher among those of lower SES in both the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. The relative odds of self-reported CVD were generally similar in the two populations. For example, the relative odds of self-reported CVD for those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.8 among Indigenous people and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2-1.5 among non-Indigenous people. However, Indigenous people generally had higher self-reported CVD levels than non-Indigenous people of the same age and SES group. Although smoking history varied by SES, smoking did not explain the observed relationships between SES and self-reported CVD. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in self-reported CVD among Indigenous Australians appear similar in relative terms to those seen in non-Indigenous Australians, but absolute differences remain. As with other population groups, the socioeconomic heterogeneity of the Indigenous population must be considered in developing and implementing programs to promote health and prevent illness. In addition, factors that operate across the SES spectrum, such as racism, stress, dispossession, and grief, must also be addressed to reduce the burden of CVD.

Cunningham Joan

2010-11-01

388

Genome-wide Association Study of Chicken Plumage Pigmentation  

Science.gov (United States)

To increase plumage color uniformity and understand the genetic background of Korean chickens, we performed a genome-wide association study of different plumage color in Korean native chickens. We analyzed 60K SNP chips on 279 chickens with GEMMA methods for GWAS and estimated the genetic heritability for plumage color. The estimated heritability suggests that plumage coloration is a polygenic trait. We found new loci associated with feather pigmentation at the genome-wide level and from the results infer that there are additional genetic effect for plumage color. The results will be used for selecting and breeding chicken for plumage color uniformity. PMID:25049737

Park, Mi Na; Choi, Jin Ae; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Taeheon

2013-01-01

389

A comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)

390

Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows updating parameters of the model to better describe processes observed in slaughterhouses. We propose Bayesian updating as a suitable technique to update expert judgment with microbiological data. Berrang and Dickens’s data are used to demonstrate performance of this method in updating parameters of the chicken processing line model.

Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten

2010-01-01

391

Chicken Bone Charcoal for Defluoridation of Groundwater in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal bone waste in Indonesia is quite high due to the high consumption of chicken, beef and pork. Bone charcoal is charcoal made from animal bones which can be utilized for reducing levels of fluoride (F in groundwater. This study is aimed to assess the utilization of chicken bones into charcoal to reduce levels of fluoride (defluoridation groundwater in Indonesia. Materials used in this study are chicken bones as raw materials for bone charcoal. The measured variables were (1 The quality of chicken bone charcoal, (2 Adsorption capacity of the bone charcoal to Fluoride in groundwater. The results showed that chicken bone charcoal consists of O2, Ca, P, C, Na, Mg and Al. Chicken bone charcoal has a quite high of the adsorption capacity as much as 67%. The more chicken bone charcoal is added to the higher percentage of Fluoride tends to increase the adsorption capacity up to 12 h. Therefore, chicken bone waste has a high potency to be processed become chicken bone charcoal for defluoridation of ground water.

Nova Rugayah

2014-01-01

392

Sensory evaluation of chicken breast treated with essential oil.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was sensory evaluation of samples of chicken breast meat treated with essential oil. The samples of chicken breast was divided into three groups and treated as follows: control group was packaging in air without treated, next group was with vacuum packaging without treated and last group was with vacuum packaging and treated oregano essential oil (0.2% v/w). Sensory properties of fresh chicken breast meat were monitored over a 15 days period. All fresh chickens’...

Adriana Pavelková

2013-01-01

393

BIOAPATITE MADE FROM CHICKEN FEMUR BONE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nano-bioapatite (BAP powder was successfully acquired from chicken femur bones via chemical treatment followed by calcination. The isolation of nano-bioapatite powder from chicken bone has not been published so far. The bioapatite powder was chemically and structurally characterized by elemental analysis (AAS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR techniques. The nano BAP powder showed needleshaped morphology. The crystallite size distribution and specific surface area proved the nanostructured character of the sample. Chemical analysis together with FTIR spectrometry have demonstrated that the BAP powder was Ca-deficient with Na, Mg and carbonate substitutions that make the BAP suitable for application as a filler in biocomposites.

MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

2011-09-01

394

Interaction between chicken gizzard caldesmon and tropomyosin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken gizzard muscle caldesmon has been examined for ability to interact with tropomyosin from chicken gizzard muscle by using fluorescence enhancement of tropomyosin labeled with dansyl chloride (DNS) and affinity chromatography. The binding of caldesmon to tropomyosin was regulated by Ca2+ and calmodulin, i.e., at low ionic strength most of the caldesmon bound to tropomyosin-Sepharose 4B was co-eluted by adding calmodulin only in the presence of Ca2+, but not in its absence. This regulation by Ca2+ and calmodulin was also suggested by fluorescence measurements. Actin- and calmodulin-binding sites on the caldesmon molecule were located in the 38K fragment (Fujii, T., Imai, M., Rosenfeld, G.C., & Bryan, J. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 2757-2763). When 38K-enriched fraction was applied to the tropomyosin-Sepharose, the 38K fragment was retained by the column and could be eluted by adding Ca2+ and calmodulin. PMID:3235448

Fujii, T; Ozawa, J; Ogoma, Y; Kondo, Y

1988-11-01

395

Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better biodiesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v. The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

Emaad T. Bakir

2011-12-01

396

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

Breen, Helen

2012-01-01

397

Resisting Exile in the "Land of the Free:" Indigenous Groundwork at Colonial Intersections  

Science.gov (United States)

The guest editorialists argue in this introduction that the phrase "indigenous groundwork at colonial intersections" identifies versatile cultural, historical, and social processes that fundamentally--at times devastatingly--shape relations among differently situated life forms on this planet. In short, Indigenous groundwork marks Indigenous

Clark, D. Anthony Tyeeme; Powell, Malea

2008-01-01

398

Transforming Education, Transforming Society: The Co-Construction of Critical Peace Education and Indigenous Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article seeks to contribute to the link between critical peace education and Indigenous education from an Indigenous international and comparative education perspective. The article first reviews the marginalization of critical peace education and Indigenous education. By bringing forward areas of common interest between peace education and…

Sumida Huaman, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

399

Supervision Provided to Indigenous Australian Doctoral Students: A Black and White Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of Indigenous Australians completing doctoral qualifications is disparately below their non-Indigenous contemporaries. Whilst there has been a steady increase in Indigenous completions in recent years, significant work remains to redress the imbalance. Supervision has been identified as a primary influencer of the likely success of…

Trudgett, Michelle

2014-01-01

400

Indigeneity-Grounded Analysis (IGA as Policy(-Making Lens: New Zealand Models, Canadian Realities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Engaging politically with the principles of indigeneity is neither an option nor a cop out. The emergence of Indigenous peoples as prime-time players on the world’s political stage attests to the timeliness and relevance of indigeneity in advancing a new postcolonial contract for living together differently. Insofar as the principles of indigeneity are inextricably linked with challenge, resistance, and transformation, this paper argues that reference to indigeneity as policy(- making paradigm is both necessary and overdue. To put this argument to the test, the politics of Maori indigeneity in Aotearoa New Zealand are analyzed and assessed in constructing an indigeneity agenda model. The political implications of an indigeneity-policy nexus are then applied to the realities of Canada’s Indigenous/Aboriginal peoples. The paper contends that, just as the Government is committed to a gender based analysis (GBA for improving policy outcomes along gender lines, so too should the principles of indigeneity (or aboriginality secure an indigeneity grounded analysis (IGA framework for minimizing systemic policy bias while maximizing Indigenous peoples inputs. The paper concludes by theorizing those provisional first principles that inform an IGA framework as a policy (-making lens.

Roger Maaka

2010-05-01

401

Connecting Indigenous Stories with Geology: Inquiry-Based Learning in a Middle Years Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

One way to integrate indigenous perspectives in junior science is through links between indigenous stories of the local area and science concepts. Using local indigenous stories about landforms, a teacher of Year 8 students designed a unit on geology that catered for the diverse student population in his class. This paper reports on the…

Larkin, Damian; King, Donna; Kidman, Gillian

2012-01-01

402

Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

2005-01-01

403

Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview…

White, Nereda

2010-01-01

404

Rigoberta Menchu Tum: Nobel Laureate Leads International Movement for Peace and Indigenous Rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

Profiles Rigoberta Menchu Tum, a Maya-Quiche woman from Guatemala who in 1992, was the first indigenous person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. The prize's youngest recipient, Menchu Tum is using the prize money and prestige to promote the international movement for peace and the rights of indigenous peoples and to contribute to indigenous

Palmer, Paula

1997-01-01

405

Introducing Agronomy Students to the Concepts of Indigenous and Cultural Knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a role for indigenous knowledge in extension education and research programs. Defines indigenous knowledge and then predicts efforts to utilize indigenous knowledge to facilitate the development of agriculture systems that will be agronomically, environmentally, and economically sound and enhance acceptance by practitioners because of the…

Schafer, John

1993-01-01

406

Indigenous Children in Australia: Health, Education and Optimism for the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

In Australia, Indigenous children are disproportionately affected by poor health. The combined consequences of illness and social factors in this population have an adverse affect on educational outcomes for Indigenous children, resulting in lower levels of achievement and attainment compared with non-Indigenous children. From early childhood,…

Lyons, Zaza; Janca, Aleksandar

2012-01-01

407

Enteropathy related to fish, rice, and chicken.  

OpenAIRE

Gastrointestinal symptoms in relation to the ingestion of proteins are common but only in the case of sensitisation to cows' milk protein, soy, or gluten have alterations in the function and structure of the small-intestine been reported. We describe 3 children with cows' milk protein intolerance and associated enteropathy related to fish, rice, and chicken, respectively. Repeated intestinal biopsies before and after an acute challenge with the specific food showed changes in the histological...

Vitoria, J. C.; Camarero, C.; Sojo, A.; Ruiz, A.; Rodriguez-soriano, J.

1982-01-01

408

Infection-interactions in Ethiopian village chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chickens raised under village production systems are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens, and current or previous infections may affect their susceptibility to further infections with another parasite, and/or can alter the manifestation of each infection. It is possible that co-infections may be as important as environmental risk factors. However, in cross-sectional studies, where the timing of infection is unknown, apparent associations between infections may be observed due to parasites sharing common risk factors. This study measured antibody titres to 3 viral (Newcastle disease, Marek's disease and infectious bursal disease) and 2 bacterial (Pasteurella multocida and Salmonella) diseases, and the infection prevalence of 3 families of endo- and ecto-parasites (Ascaridida, Eimeria and lice) in 1056 village chickens from two geographically distinct populations in Ethiopia. Samples were collected during 4 cross-sectional surveys, each approximately 6 months apart. Constrained ordination, a technique for analysis of ecological community data, was used to explore this complex dataset and enabled potential relationships to be uncovered and tested despite the different measurements used for the different parasites. It was found that only a small proportion of variation in the data could be explained by the risk factors measured. Very few birds (9/1280) were found to be seropositive to Newcastle disease. Positive relationships were identified between Pasteurella and Salmonella titres; and between Marek's disease and parasitic infections, and these two groups of diseases were correlated with females and males, respectively. This may suggest differences in the way that the immune systems of male and female chickens interact with these parasites. In conclusion, we find that a number of infectious pathogens and their interactions are likely to impact village chicken health and production. Control of these infections is likely to be of importance in future development planning. PMID:25085600

Bettridge, J M; Lynch, S E; Brena, M C; Melese, K; Dessie, T; Terfa, Z G; Desta, T T; Rushton, S; Hanotte, O; Kaiser, P; Wigley, P; Christley, R M

2014-11-15

409

Female Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation in Chicken  

OpenAIRE

During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription ...

Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Grootegoed, J. Anton; Baarends, Willy M.

2009-01-01

410

CHICKEN MEAT IN HUMAN NUTRITION FOR HEALTH  

OpenAIRE

The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks) regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) ...

Gordana Kralik; Zoran Škrti?; Marica Galonja; Stanko Ivankovi?

2001-01-01

411

Karyotype and Banding Patterns of Chicken Breeds  

OpenAIRE

Traditional karyotyping is invented in animal research for several decades depend on the analysis of characteristic banding patterns along the length of chromosome. In the present study chicken metaphase chromosomes were obtained by peripheral blood lymphocyte culture techniques, G-band patterns were obtained with trypsin and Giemsa, C-band patterns were treated with barium and the nuclear organizer regions (NORs) were identified by silver staining. All species studied presented a dipl...

Musa, H. H.; Li, B. C.; Chen, G. H.; Lanyasunya, T. P.; Xu, Q.; Bao, W. B.

2005-01-01

412

Engineering recombinant chicken antibodies for improved characteristics  

OpenAIRE

Phage libraries are a versatile source of recombinant antibody fragments directed against a wide variety of antigens. Recombinant antibodies have the advantage that they can be engineered to improve their binding or other characteristics. A chicken single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage library was panned against the 16 kDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Three phage displayed antibodies were obtained which bound specifically to the antigen. In soluble scFv format, howev...

Sixholo, Joy

2009-01-01

413

A chicken bone in the rectum.  

OpenAIRE

A case of an ingested chicken bone lodging in the anal canal is described which presented as severe rectal pain. Certain people are at increased risk of foreign body ingestion, in particular denture wearers. The foreign body is usually obvious and easily removed and although the risks of perforation are not high it is important to exclude it by proctosigmoidoscopy following removal of the foreign body.

Davies, D. H.

1991-01-01

414

Science Engagement and Literacy: A Retrospective Analysis for Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students in Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has underlined the importance of school students' engagement in science (including students' attitudes, interests and self beliefs). Engagement in science is important as a correlate of scientific literacy and attainment, and as an educational outcome in its own right. Students positively engaged with science are more likely to pursue science related careers, and to support science related policies and initiatives. This retrospective, secondary analysis of PISA 2006 national data for Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia examines and compares the factors associated with science literacy and with science engagement for indigenous and non-indigenous 15 year old students. Using a four step hierarchical regression model, our secondary analyses showed consistent patterns of influence on engagement in science for both indigenous and non-indigenous students in Aotearoa and Australia. Variations in students' interest, enjoyment, personal and general valuing, self-efficacy, and self concept in science were most strongly associated with the extent to which students engaged in science activities outside of school. In contrast, socioeconomic status, time spent on science lessons and study, and the character of science teaching experienced by students in their schools were the factors most explanatory of variations in science literacy. Yet, the factors that explained variation in science literacy had only quite weak associations with the suite of variables comprising engagement in science. We discuss the implications of these findings for science educators and researchers interested in enhancing students' engagement with science, and committed to contributing positively to closing the persistent gap in educational outcomes between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples.

Woods-McConney, Amanda; Oliver, Mary C.; McConney, Andrew; Maor, Dorit; Schibeci, Renato

2013-02-01

415

A GCC-box motif in the promoter of nudix hydrolase 7 (AtNUDT7) gene plays a role in ozone response of Arabidopsis ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arabidopsis nudix hydrolase 7 (AtNudt7) plays an important role in regulating redox homeostasis during stress/defense signaling and seed germination. The early responsiveness of AtNudt7 provides a useful marker especially during oxidative cell death in plants. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrate that AtNudt7 is transcriptionally regulated. AtNUDT7 promoter-GUS transgenic plants show rapid inducibility in response to ozone and pathogens. A 16-bp insertion containing a GCC-box motif was identified in the promoter of a Ws-2 ecotype and was absent in Col-0. The 16-bp sequence was identified in 5% of the Arabidopsis ecotypes used in the 1001 genome sequencing project. The kinetics of expression of Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1), a GCC-box binding factor is in synchrony with expression of AtNudt7 in response to ozone stress. ERF1 protein binds to the GCC-box motif in the AtNUDT7 promoter. In silico analysis of erf1 mutant and overexpressor lines supports a role for this protein in regulating AtNUDT7 expression. PMID:25451743

Muthuramalingam, Meenakumari; Zeng, Xin; Iyer, Niranjani J; Klein, Peter; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

2015-01-01

416

Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-e [...] sophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

Daise Aparecida, Rossi; Belchiolina Beatriz, Fonseca; Roberta Torres de, Melo; Gutembergue da Silva, Felipe; Paulo Lourenço da, Silva; Eliane Pereira, Mendonça; Ana Luzia Lauria, Filgueiras; Marcelo Emilio, Beletti.

2012-06-01

417

Multiple perineuriomas in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraneural perineurioma is an extremely rare condition characterized by perineurial cell proliferation within peripheral nerve (PN) sheaths. In the veterinary field, this entity has been reported only in a dog. We examined multiple enlargements of PNs in 11 chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) (9 Japanese bantams and 2 specific pathogen-free White Leghorn), which were inoculated with an avian leukosis virus (ALV) causing so-called fowl glioma. All chickens clinically exhibited progressive leg paralysis. Lumbosacral plexus, brachial plexus, and/or spinal ganglion were commonly affected, and these nerves contained a diffuse proliferation of spindle cells arranged concentrically in characteristic onion bulb-like structures surrounded by residual axons and myelin sheaths. The spindle cells were immunohistochemically negative for S-100alpha/beta protein. Electron microscopy revealed that these cells were characterized by short bipolar cytoplasmic processes, occasional cytoplasmic pinocytotic vesicles, and discontinuous basal laminae. These features are consistent with those of intraneural perineurioma. Furthermore, the specific sequence of the ALV was detected in the PN lesions of 8/11 (73%) birds by polymerase chain reaction. These results indicate that the multiple intraneural perineuriomas of chicken may be associated with the ALV-A causing fowl glioma. PMID:15753471

Toyoda, T; Ochiai, K; Ohashi, K; Tomioka, Y; Kimura, T; Umemura, T

2005-03-01

418

Feed Intake and Growth Performance of Indigenous Chicks Fed Diets with Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal as a Protein Supplement During Early Brooding Stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high cost of conventional feed ingredients in poultry diets has necessitated the investigation into unconventional readily available feedstuffs. The study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM on feed intake and growth performance of indigenous chicks. Eighty four unsexed indigenous chicks were assigned to four treatment diets, with each treatment being replicated three times. The dietary treatments were as follows; control diet (T1 without MOLM and diets containing MOLM were at the rate of 5% (T2, 10% (T3 and 15% (T4 to supplement the CP of the control diet. Chicks fed on 0% MOLM had a higher average weekly feed intake than the other three treatments (T2, T3 and T4. The highest weight gain was experienced between weeks 4 to 6 except for treatment 3 that had its peak weight gain on week 5. FCR was similar for all dietary treatments. Weekly live bird weight (WLBW advantage of chicks fed 0% MOLM diet was maintained followed by those fed diet containing 5% MOLM. The chicks on 10 and 15% MOLM diet recorded similar, but significantly (p < 0.05 lower WLBW from the 5 to 8th week than chicks on 0-5% MOLM. The study recommended MOLM inclusion levels of 5% in chicken diets during early brooding stage.

C.T. Gadzirayi

2014-01-01

419

Climatic change and indigenous and non-indigenous ravagers : a new reality?; Changements climatiques et les ravageurs indigenes et exotiques : une nouvelle realite?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact that climate change may have on ecological diversity was discussed with particular reference to the movement of indigenous and non-indigenous insects that are harmful to trees. Insects in particular, are more likely to evolve rapidly and adapt to ecological change. Those with a high rate of reproduction and which can move long distances will colonize new habitats and survive a wide range of bio-physical conditions. This PowerPoint presentation included a series of graphs, tables and charts to illustrate the increased presence of various harmful insects in northern forests, including the balsam twig aphid, balsam gall midge, gypsy moth, hemlock looper, western spruce budworm, and forest tent caterpillar. It was shown that large changes in ecosystems are expected to occur at northern latitudes and higher altitudes. tabs., figs.

Regniere, J.; Cooke, B.; Logan, J.A.; Carroll, A.; Safranyik, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Forest Service

2005-07-01

420

Occurrence of chicken anemia virus in backyard chickens of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The occurrence of CAV in backyard chickens in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was evaluated. The spleen and thymus of chickens from different origins were collected for DNA extraction and nested-PCR. CAV genome was detected in 30% of the flocks (n=20) examined. CAV origin for backya [...] rd chickens is speculated, taking into consideration its widespread incidence in the chicken industry, the contamination of live vaccines with CAV prior to its eradication from SPF flocks, and the use of attenuated CAV vaccines.

PR, Barrios; SY, Marín; M, Resende; RL, Rios; JS, Resende; RS, Horta; MP, Costa; NRS, Martins.

2009-06-01

421

Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

D. Todd

2010-09-01

422

Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to the reference Author(s; apart from the final evaluation (also based on some other features of the fragments, it is important to consider that the chicken bones could show lacunae of different shapes (spindle, elliptic and roundish, in accordance with the type and the breaking of the involved skeleton segments.

Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

2009-01-01

423

Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Gastro-Intestinal Tract of Chicken: Potential Use as Probiotic  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been suggested to have several beneficial effects on human and animals. These bacteria, indigenous to the gastro-intestinal tract, are important in regulating the balance among the desirable and undesirable intestinal microflora and in controlling enteric pathogenic infection in the host. Objectives of this research are to obtain lactic acid bacteria isolates from gastro-intestinal tract of chicken and to screen their ability as a probiotic agent i.e., their antagonistic against pathogenic bacteria, their survival at low pH and high concentration of bile salt. In this research, 74 samples used as sources of bacteria, and among them only 11 samples could be isolated as lactic acid bacteria with the total number of isolates of 61. Based on the preliminary screening i.e., their antagonistic factor against pathogenic bacteria, 20 isolates was further studied. Based on the identification scheme, these isolates belong to three species, i.e., Lactobacillus murinus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The result showed that most isolates grow well in the media with the initial pH of 5.5, but their growth were retarded when the initial pH 3.5. Only one isolate Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2 showed its growth at initial pH of 3.5. All isolates did not show any growth at initial pH 2.5, though their viability still high. The result based on the isolates resistance to bile salt showed that most isolates could grow at media with 0.20% of bile salt. Their growth was inhibited with the increasing bile salt concentration. However, few isolates could grow well at media with 1% of bile salt. Based on their characteristics three isolates i.e., Lactobacillus murinus Ar-3, Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2, and Pediococcus acidilactici Kd-6 were selected as probiotic agents for the continuing research. i.e. production of biomass and its application to chicken production. (Animal Production 9(2: 82-91 (2007 Key Words : Lactic acid bacteria, gastro- intestinal tract of chicken, probiotic agents

S Harimurti

2007-05-01

424

Transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants between lactobacilli isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the potential horizontal transfer of genetic traits for antibiotic resistance between lactobacilli isolated from the chicken gut, both in vitro and in vivo. Thirty-seven Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from the gizzard, small and large intestines and caeca of free-range broiler chickens showed multi-drug resistance as assessed by disc diffusion assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and chloramphenicol was determined in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth in a microplate assay. Almost all the lactobacilli isolates were resistant to vancomycin (except strains belonging to the Lactobacillus acidophilus group) and to tetracycline (MIC?128 ?g/ml). Only five strains were resistant to erythromycin, and six to chloramphenicol. The transfer rate in filter mating experiments performed using L. acidophilus strain 4M14E (EmR), Lactobacillus vaginalis strain 5M14E (CmR), Lactobacillus salivarius strain 5C14C (EmR), and the 4G14L and 3C14C strains of Lactobacillus reuteri (CmR) showed a frequency of approximately 1×104 cfu/ml of double-resistant transconjugants for the different combinations. The exception was the L. salivarius 5C14C (EmR) and L. vaginalis 5M14E (CmR) mating combination, which produced no transconjugants. In vivo experiments performed in gnotobiotic mice by mating L. acidophilus 4M14E (EmR) with L. reuteri 3C14C (CmR), L. reuteri 4G14L (CmR) or L. vaginalis 5M14E (CmR) resulted in transconjugants at 3.95±0.29, 3.16±0.33, and 4.55±1.52 log10 cfu/g of faeces, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that genetic exchange may occur between native bacterial strains within the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, which might maintain a dynamic gene pool conferring antibiotic resistance upon indigenous microbiota components, even in the absence of the pathogens. This possibility must be taken into account as a complementary criterion when lactobacilli are screened for probiotic use. PMID:22476322

Vieira de Souza, F; Roque, R; Silva Moreira, J L; Resende de Souza, M; Nicoli, J R; Neumann, E; Cantini Nunes, Á

2012-06-01

425

"You Tell Us": Indigenous Students Talk to a Tertiary Library.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Equity Grant provided an opportunity for the QUT Library to engage indigenous students in a dialog facilitated by an experienced storyteller who focused on cultural and motivational issues that affect the relationship between students and the library. Results and recommendations are discussed.…

Novak, Jan; Robinson, Gail

1998-01-01

426

Indigenous peoples and their demands in political systems  

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Full Text Available During the last two decades of the 20th century, indigenous groups mobilised themselves in many countries in Latin America with the aim of calling for various rights based on their ethnic status. This phenomenon is the subject that the author tackles in this article. To this end, he places the emergence of these movements in context, describes their characteristics, analyses their proposals and discusses the prominence that indigenous movements have acquired in different national political arenas. He also presents the impact that certain indigenous demands have had –such as those of the self-determination of land, the use of their own resources and the implementation of ethno-development– on the way in which politics is carried out (and understood in Latin American countries. Finally, the text analyses how indigenous movements have become important social actors for the new left, and the ways in which they have developed new ways of organisation and mobilisation through networks, alternative discourses and new repertories of collective action. In view of all of this, the author concludes that Latin America has become, once again, a fascinating laboratory that is deserving of the attention of scholars, both in the region itself and in other parts of the planet.

Willem Assies

2009-05-01

427

Installation and performance evaluation of an indigenous surface area analyser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An indigenously available surface area analyser was installed inside glove box and checked for its performance by analyzing uranium oxide and thorium oxide powders at RMD. The unit has been made ready for analysis of Plutonium oxide powders after incorporating several important features. (author)

428

Economic merits of indigenously designed simulator - an analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost economic factors involved in the procurement of indigenously designed simulator is presented. The use of simulators in radiotherapy treatment planning helps in accurate delivery of radiation to the target volume focal point and hence for the increased efficiency of radiotherapy units

429

Whose English Counts? Indigenous English in Saskatchewan schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on the body of North American literature related to English dialect-speaking Indigenous students schooled in majority group classrooms, this commentary paper explores two aspects of institutional racism at work in Saskatchewan schools: (a) the disproportionate representation of First Nations and Metis students in remedial language and…

Sterzuk, Andrea

2008-01-01

430

STUDY OF SELECTED RESPIRATORY INDICES AMONG INDIGENOUS GAME PLAYERS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine respiratory indices among male Indigenous game players. The present study was conducted on a sample of forty five (N=45 male Indigenous game players of age ranging from 18-25 years, which includes fifteen each kho-kho, kabaddi and mallakhamb players, who participated in inter-college competitions of Guru Nanak Dev University,Amritsar, India. All the participants were informed about objectives and methodology of the study and they agreed to participate in this study. Respiratory indices i.e. vital capacity, forced vital capacity and inspiratory capacity were measured with “MedSpiror” a computerized spirometer. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the significance of differences with regard to selected respiratory indices among Indigenous games i.e. kho-kho, kabaddi and mallakhamb players. Scheffe’s post-hoc test (SPHT was applied to see the direction and significance of differences where ‘F’value found statistically significant. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results revealed significant differences among inter-college level male Indigenous game (kho-kho, kabaddi, mallakhamb players with regard to vital capacity (p? 0.05, forced vital capacity (p? 0.05 and inspiratory capacity (p? 0.05. While comparing the means, it revealed that kho-kho players had better vital capacity, forced vital capacity and inspiratory capacity than their counterparts; kabaddi and mallakhamb players.

Amandeep Singh

2014-10-01

431

Indigenous VET Research and Statistics: Terms and Definitions. Support Document  

Science.gov (United States)

This document covers the data terms used in the "Indigenous Research and Statistics" resources. It covers information contained in the "Apprentices and Trainees June Quarter 2009 report," the "Students and Courses 2009" report and the "Student Outcomes 2009" report and their associated data tables. The primary purpose of this document is to assist…

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

2010-01-01

432

Mathematics Curriculum Development and Indigenous Language Revitalisation: Contested Spaces  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the development of two iterations of mathematics curricula over a 15-year period for classrooms teaching in te reo Maori, the endangered Indigenous language of Aotearoa New Zealand. Similarities and differences between the two iterations are identified. Although parameters set by the New Zealand Ministry of Education about what…

McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen; Trinick, Tony; Meaney, Tamsin

2013-01-01

433

Issues in English Language Assessment of Indigenous Australians  

Science.gov (United States)

Although English is widely used by Indigenous Australians as the main means of communication, national testing has consistently raised questions as to the level of their English language and literacy achievement. This article examines contextual factors (historical, linguistic, cultural, socio-political and educational) which underlie this…

Malcolm, Ian G.

2011-01-01

434

The Development of Indigenous Counseling in Contemporary Confucian Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the limitations of mainstream Western psychology, the necessity of indigenous psychology for the development of global community psychology is discussed in the context of multiculturalism. In addition to this general introduction, four articles underlying a common theme were designed to discuss (a) various types of value conflicts…

Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

2009-01-01

435

Oil frontiers and indigenous resistance in the Peruvian Amazon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Peruvian Amazon is culturally and biologically one of the most diverse regions on Earth. Since the 1920s oil exploration and extraction in the region have threatened both biodiversity and indigenous peoples, particularly those living in voluntary isolation. We argue that the phenomenon of peak oil, combined with rising demand and consumption, is now pushing oil extraction into the most remote corners of the world. Modern patterns of production and consumption and high oil prices are forcing a new oil exploratory boom in the Peruvian Amazon. While conflicts spread on indigenous territories, new forms of resistance appear and indigenous political organizations are born and become more powerful. The impacts of oil exploration and exploitation and indigenous resistance throughout the oil history of the Peruvian Amazon are reviewed here, focusing on the Achuar people in Rio Corrientes. The driving forces, impacts, and responses to the current oil exploration boom are analyzed from an environmental justice perspective. We conclude that, in a context of peak oil and growing global demand for oil, such devastating effects for minor quantities of oil are likely to increase and impact other remote parts of the world. (author)

Orta-Martinez, Marti [ICTA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, 4 Library Court. NW, Washington DC 20003 (United States)

2010-12-15

436

Beyond Hollywood Formulas: Evolv?ng Indigenous Yoruba Film Aesthetics  

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Full Text Available Home video scholarship is an emerging aspect of theatre studies in Nigeria. While previous studies have been merely critical of Nigerian film practitioners’ inability to evolve an indigenous form, they have failed in prescribing necessary strategies for achieving this. This study, therefore, fills this gap by proposing devices for evolving an indigenous meta-language for the Nigerian film industry. It concludes, amongst others, that Nigerian film industry should evolve an indigenous film language through a fusion of traditional story telling forms and conventional film codes.
Key words: Film; Indigenization; Yoruba video film; Aesthetics

Resumé: La bourse du Home vidéo est un aspect émergent des études théatrales au Nigéria. Les études précédentes ont été simplement des critiques de l'incapacité des praticiens du cinéma nigérian d’élaborer une forme indigène, et elles ont échoué dans la prescription des stratégies nécessaires pour atteindre cet objectif. Cette étude, par contre, comble cette lacune en proposant des dispositifs pour une évolution de métalangage indigène pour l'industrie cinématographique nigérienne. Il conclut, entre autres, que l'industrie cinématographique nigérienne devrait trouver un langage cinématographique autochtone via une fusion entre les formes de récit d'histoire traditionnellse et des codes cinématographiques conventionnels.
Mots-clés: Film; Indigénisation; Film Vidéo En Yoruba; Esthétiques

Abiodun Olayiwola

2011-06-01