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1

Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes in Ethiopia: Growth and Feed Utilization Potentials  

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Full Text Available Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro-ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (pChefe (heaviest locals at this age) ecotype, Jarso (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age) ecotype and mean daily gain of all local ecotypes, respectively at six weeks of age. Chefe chicks ecotypes showed 76.8% positive deviation over chicks from Jarso market sheds in terms of total body weight gain per bird at this age. The Fayoumi chicks consumed 41, 115 and 65% more feed than chicks from Chefe ecotype (highest body weight gain and feed intake among locals at this age), Jarso ecotype (lowest body weight gain and least feed intake among the locals at this age) and the mean feed intake of all local ecotypes, at six weeks of age, respectively. Among the local ecotypes, Jarso and Tepi had the smaller body weight gains while Chefe and Tilili had larger weight gains. The result from the analysis of variance showed a highly significant (pTilili growers. The Fayoumi chicks were 28, 77 and 52% heavier than chicks from Tilili ecotypes (heaviest locals at this age), Tepi ecotypes (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age) and mean body weight gain of local birds, respectively. Male growers from Tilili ecotype (heaviest locals at this age), Tepi ecotype (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age) and mean body weight gain of local birds, were 22, 30 and 33% heavier in body weight gain per bird over female chicken at twelve weeks of age, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was also significantly (pTepi and Horro chicks and the lowest feed requirement per units of gain was recorded for Tilili and Chefe chicks with feed conversion ratio of 4.95g and 5.2g feed per unit of gain, respectively.

D. Tadelle; C. Kijora; K. J. Peters

2003-01-01

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Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE) and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE)} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52) weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE) of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks) compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks) obtained for FE. Significant difference (p0.05) differences in other egg quality traits measured.

Sola-Ojo, F. E.; Ayorinde, K. L.; Jatto, O. M.; Toye, A. A.

2013-01-01

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Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria/ Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información básica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preli (more) minar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P Abstract in english Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least sq (more) uare means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P

Olawunmi, O. O; Salako, A. E; Afuwape, A. A

2008-12-01

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Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información básica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P <0,01) que las del ecotipo Yoruba. Los machos también fueron mayores (P <0,01) a las hembras en la longitud de la cresta y ala, largo de la pata y ancho de pecho, mientras que el peso vivo, longitud del dedo del pie y el muslo también fueron diferentes (P <0,05) dentro de cada ecotipo. La cresta de los machos fue más prominente que las de hembras. Los coeficientes de variación fueron muy pequeños, lo que significa una condición monotípica y una similitud de oportunidades de selección para el tipo, basada en parámetros corporales. El ecotipo Fulani fue más grande que Yoruba. El significativo mayor cuerpo (P <0,05) del Fulani sugiere una salida en función entre los genotipos. El pollo Fulani parece más adecuado para la producción de huevos que el tipo Yoruba. Su potencial para el desarrollo de un stock comercial más adaptado y la mejora genética de los pollos de la región y otras implicancias del tipo función se discuten.

O. O Olawunmi; A. E Salako; A. A Afuwape

2008-01-01

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Indigenous Chicken Production in Iran: A Review  

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Full Text Available One of the sources that, provide protein in developing countries, is native chicken. So, they should be taken into consideration in poultry improvement programs. Indeed, egg and meat production of indigenous chickens in Iran have been considered by different researchers. In this study, various works have been studied for different years and investigated some results regarding laying and meat production traits of Iranian indigenous chickens, as well as their crossings with exotic breeds.

Nasrollah Vali

2008-01-01

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Comparative Evaluation of Two Nigerian Local Chicken Ecotypes and Their Crosses for Growth Traits  

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Full Text Available The Nigerian local chickens were grouped on the basis of body size and body weight into Heavy Ecotype (HE) and Light Ecotype (LE). Comparative evaluation of growth traits; Body Weight (BWT), Body Weight Gain (BWG) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) at 4-weekly intervals (from 0-20 weeks) of HE, LE and their F1 crosses; HE x LE - Main Cross (MCX) and LE x HE - Reciprocal Cross (RCX) were carried out. The total of 214, 142, 190 and 185 day-old chicks of HE, LE, MCX and RCX, respectively were used for the study. The chicks in all the genetic groups were raised on deep litter pens from 0-20 weeks using standard management procedures. Data were subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed that the HE differed (p0.05) between the BWT of HE and the crossbred groups as from 8-20 weeks of age. The crossbred groups quickly overcame the initial set backs resulting from maternal/sire-dam interaction effects and grew significantly heavier than the straight bred heavy and light ecotypes during the period, 12-20 weeks of age. FCR showed highly significant (p<0.001) difference among the genetic groups which indicates differences in maintenance requirements. On the whole, results of FCR showed that the local chickens are less efficient in feed utilization.

O.M. Momoh; C.C. Nwosu; I.A. Adeyinka

2010-01-01

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Genetic characterization of Thai indigenous chickens compared with commercial lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 210 chicken samples, from seven strains, were genotyped using 20 microsatellite loci of which 16 are recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. The genetic variability and divergence of four Thai indigenous strains and three commercial lines were assessed to generate baseline information for conservation, promotion, and make sustainable utilization of indigenous chicken resources in Thailand. A total of 227 alleles were distributed ranging from six (MCW 111) to 16 (MCW 183 and LEI 166) alleles per locus. The highest (0.81) and lowest (0.77) average of expected heterozygosities were observed in indigenous chicken (Dang) and commercial layer (Isa Brown), respectively. All microsatellite loci were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for MCW111 and ADL372 in the Isa Brown line. The subpopulation division coefficient (F(ST)) was strong with the value of 0.183 indicating the genetic differentiation among the studied groups. Four genetic clusters were detected: the first group consisted of layers (Isa Brown and White Leghorn); the second group was broiler; the third group consisted of non-black feather indigenous chicken (Chee, Dang, and Leung Hang Khoa); and the fourth group was black feather indigenous chicken (Pradu Hang Dam). The results of this study also suggested that Pradu Hang Dam is suitable to be developed as a meat type chicken due to lower genetic distance between Pradu Hang Dam and broiler.

Dorji N; Daungjinda M; Phasuk Y

2011-04-01

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Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

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Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pmeat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

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Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pbreeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-Fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qiang; Ma, Jie-Qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-Geng

2013-10-01

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STUDY OF NEMATODES IN INDIGENOUS CHICKENS IN SWAT DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available Research was conducted on IO<) indigenous chickens. Examination of guts revealed that out of 100 guts. 51 per cent were positive for nematodes. Mixed infestation was 16 per cent. Two species i.e., Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum were identified. The incidence rate of Ascaridia galli was higher (42 %) as compared to Heterakis gallinarum (9 %).

R.S. Sayyed, M. S. Phulanl, W.M. Bhatti1, M. Pardehi1 and Shamsher Ali

2000-01-01

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Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarum were the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp. PMID:11212938

Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G; Ndebele, R; Thibanyane, T

2000-12-01

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Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarum were the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.

Mushi EZ; Binta MG; Chabo RG; Ndebele R; Thibanyane T

2000-12-01

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ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN  

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Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

T. Yudiarti; V. D.Yunianto; R. Murwani; E. Kusdiyantini

2012-01-01

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Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Heterophil/Lymphocyte Ratio  

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Full Text Available The effects of high environmental temperature on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined for a comparison of the ability to tolerate heat between Thai indigenous chickens, crossbred Thai indigenous chickens and broilers. One kilogram of the representative males and females of each of the three breeds were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2°C. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was investigated on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The results revealed the following information: For those chickens maintained in an environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C. With the environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the broilers was significantly higher than that of the Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds and Thai indigenous chickens (p<0.05), respectively. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the chickens for the environmental temperature of 38±2°C was significantly increased on day 7 and then significantly decreased to day 14 and 21 of experimental period (p<0.05). This finding indicated that when chickens were maintained in high environmental temperatures, they were under heat stress. Chickens could adapt to high environmental temperatures. Finally, Thai indigenous chickens and Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds tolerated higher environmental temperatures than the broilers.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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Measurement of Antibodies to Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Indigenous Chicken Flocks Around Maharlou Lake in Iran  

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Full Text Available To evaluate the seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) in indigenous chicken flocks, serum samples from 200 mature indigenous chickens in villages around Maharlou Lake in Southwest of Iran were tested for IBV antibodies using commercial IBV Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The studied indigenous chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall ELISA titer and seroprevalence of IBV antibodies revealed in this study were 1427 and 68%, respectively. The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of IBV in indigenous chicken flocks in Southwest of Iran and necessitate the regular vaccination programme against IB in native flocks.

M.M. Hadipour; F. Azad; A. Vosoughi; M. Fakhrabadipour; A. Olyaie

2011-01-01

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Growth Characteristics of Six Reciprocal Crosses of Kenyan Indigenous Chicken  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out at the poultry research unit of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Animal Husbandry Research Centre, Naivasha in 1993 and 1994, to investigate growth performance of six reciprocal crosses of indigenous chicken originating from the Taita, Nyeri and Kericho districts in Kenya. Six hundred mixed sex day old chicks were used. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and the birds weighed individually on weekly basis up to the age of 30 weeks. Non-linear regression model procedures of the statistical analysis system (SAS) were used in data analysis. The gompertz growth model was used in fitting the body weight data with three parameter estimates, A, B and K. A statistical analysis of residual variations was used to determine differences between fitted curves. There were significant differences in growth pattern among the reciprocal crosses of indigenous chicken and between male and female birds. There was a possible effect of the choice of dam or sire in a given combination. The Nyeri line seemed to perform potentially better as a dam for both male and female offspring. The Taita line on the other hand, seemed to potentially perform better as a sire and so was the Kericho line. Use of growth data beyond 20 weeks resulted in better expression of asymptotic nature of fitted curves. There is some potential for improvement of the performance among indigenous flocks by judicious cross breeding strategies.

J. M. Ndegwa; R. R. Mead; P. Norrish; D. D. Shephered; C. W. Kimani; A. M. Wachira

2012-01-01

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Bio-Economic Model to Support Breeding of Indigenous Chicken in Different Production Systems  

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A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to support breeding of indigenous chicken and used to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterise indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production systems in Kenya. The systems were defined on the basis of the feeding reg...

E.O. Menge; A.K. Kahi; I.S. Kosgey

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Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana  

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Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

E.Z. Mushi; M.G. Binta; R.G. Chabo; K. Itebeng

2012-01-01

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Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6 +/- 6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28 +/- 0.56 kg and 1.70 +/- 0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected. PMID:17137053

Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G; Itebeng, K

2006-09-01

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Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6 +/- 6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28 +/- 0.56 kg and 1.70 +/- 0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

Mushi EZ; Binta MG; Chabo RG; Itebeng K

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Blood Cell Characteristics, Hematological Values and Average Daily Gained Weight of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried at the Experimental Laboratory Unit, Division of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand in August to December 2004. Three different breeds of poultry were used, i.e., Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with three replications. The three poultry breeds were used as main plots, whilst gender (male and female) and sampling periods were used as subplots. An assay on blood characteristics and blood counts of red and white blood cells were carried out. Feed intake and average daily gained weight (ADG)/week were determined. The results showed that the appearances on blood cells characteristics of erythrocyte of red blood cells and white blood cells of heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, basophil and thrombocyte of the three poultry breeds were not different from one another. Hematological values of the three different breeds possessed normal blood values for normal growth and they fitted within a normal range of blood of normal chickens. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb) of Thai indigenous chickens was higher than both Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. White blood cells of heterophil of Thai indigenous crossbred chickens were higher than broiler chickens, whilst white blood of lymphocyte of female was higher than female. However, the differences found on hematological values of both male and female were not statistically significant. Daily feed intake/week and average daily gained weight increased/week of broiler chickens ranked the highest followed by Thai indigenous crossbred and the lowest was with Thai indigenous chickens.

Chinrasri Orawan; W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya  

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Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76%) dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80%) which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2%) adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

Ochieng Justus; George Owuor; Bockline Omedo Bebe

2013-01-01

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Part-period Egg Production and Egg Quality Characteristics of Two Ecotypes of Nigerian Local Chickens and Their F1 Crosses  

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Full Text Available Adaptation of the local chickens in Nigeria to the different agro-ecological zones has produced ecotypes that can be conveniently classified on the basis of body weight and size into two viz; Heavy Ecotype (HE) and Light Ecotype (LE). These distinct types may differ in their egg production characteristics. Short-term egg production and egg quality characteristics of HE and LE and their F1 crosses (HExLE and LExHE) were studied. The objective of the study was to evaluate the short-term egg production and quality traits of the HE, LE and their F1 reciprocal crosses. Data on percent hen-day production, egg number per hen, egg weight and egg mass of 50 pullets each of HE, LE, HEXLE and LEXHE were collected. Also, external and internal egg quality traits were assessed on a total of 640 eggs. Data were subjected to ANOVA technique. Result showed that there was no significant (p>0.05) genetic group effect on short-term percent hen-day production, egg number and egg mass. However, genetic group significantly affected egg weight (p<0.05). Genetic group effect was significant (p<0.01) in all the egg quality traits studied except shell weight. The crossbred groups demonstrated heterotic effects in egg width and egg shape index but their performances in the other egg quality traits remained intermediate between the two parents. On the basis of short-term egg production the HE and LE may not be considered as distinct strains. Egg quality traits obtained are comparable with most exotic breeds thus demonstrating high egg quality traits of the local chickens of Nigeria.

O.M. Momoh; A.O. Ani; L.C. Ugwuowo

2010-01-01

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Antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in the sera of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng, Botswana  

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A serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in apparently healthy and unvaccinated adult indigenous chickens. Haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to Newcastle disease virus were found in the sera of 51 out of 89 (57.3%) chic...

Mushi, E.Z.; Binta, M.G.; Chabo, R.G.; Hyera, J.M.K.; Thibanyane, K.M.; Mkaria, J.

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Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication  

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Full Text Available Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.

E.Z. Mushi; M.G. Binta; R.G. Chabo; R. Ndebele; T. Thibanyane

2012-01-01

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Detection of haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in unvaccinated indigenous chickens in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An examination of 200 serum samples from unvaccinated indigenous (local) chickens in Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria) using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test showed 73 sera to be positive and 127 to be negative for antibodies against Newcastle disease virus. The highest antibody titre observed was 1:128. The prevalence rate was higher (46.9%) in adult chickens than in young chickens of less than 12 weeks (23%). Presence of HI antibodies in unvaccinated indigenous chickens indicates that these birds had contracted infection and recovered thereafter.

Tewari SC; Aloba EA; Nawathe DR

1992-09-01

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Associations between Immune Traits and MHC B-F Gene in Shandong Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available In order to find the relationship between immune traits and the Major Histocompatibility Complex B-F (MHC B-F) gene, an immune traits model was established in Wenshang Barred Chicken (LH), Laiwu Black Chicken (LWH) and Jining Bairi Chicken (BR). PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods were used to identified haplotypes in these three Shandong indigenous chickens. As a result, 53 (LH), 52 (LWH) and 54 (BR) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the 264 bp of exon 2 in chicken MHC B-F gene. The least square analysis showed that 2, 2, 3 SNPs were respectively found significant associations with antibody responses to H5, H9 and ND in LH chickens; 1, 3 and 3 SNPs were respectively found significant associations with antibody responses to H5, H9 and ND in LWH chickens but none with SRBC. In BR chickens, there was association with responses to H5 (2 SNPs), H9 (3 SNPs), ND (3 SNPs) and SRBC (3 SNPs). These results indicate that the genomic region bearing exon 2 of the MHC B-F gene has significant effects on antibody responses to SRBC and vaccination against AI and ND.

F.W. Li; Y. Lu; Q.X. Lei; Y. Zhou; H.X. Han; G.M. Li; B. Wu; D.G. Cao; S.B. Wang

2012-01-01

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The Contribution of Scavenging Indigenous Chicken to the Socio-Economic Welfare of the Rural Households  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most than 90% of farmers in Western Kenya keep chicken which are mainly indigenous breeds. The most common production system is extensive free-range production. chickens are ranked second to cattle in the livestock industry of which but since they readily fetch cash they play a role as a source of security to most households. Apart from this chicken have a special place in the social and cultural practices of the people of this region and it is difficult to attach monetary value to these practices. Local breeds are believed to be resistance to diseases, cheap to maintain, increase rapidly after calamities and are a resource of available to even the poorest families. The main production constraints are disease, lack of feed, predation and bad weather. The purpose of this trial was to increase consumption and enhance family income through sales of eggs and chicken meat. To achieve these local communities were trained on improved management technologies. Evaluation of the trial showed the technologies could greatly enhance production, translating into higher consumption and sales of chickens and chicken products, thus substantially benefiting the farmers. Trial results showed that the cost of input in chicken production is far below the value of output as most chickens scavenge for feed. Simple financial analyses have shown that with minimal inputs, a farmer could get between Ksh. 3600 and Ksh. 4100 per single hen in one year

2002-01-01

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Molecular Characterization of Indonesian Indigenous Chickens based on Mitochondrial DNA Displacement (D)-loop Sequences  

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Full Text Available The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement (D)-loop sequences were used to study the genetic diversity and relationship of Indonesian indigenous chickens. A total of 483 individuals belonging to 15 population breeds and 43 individuals belonging to 6 populations of jungle fowl (2 populations of Gallus gallus and 4 populations of Gallus varius) were sampled. The hypervariable I (HVI) segment of the D-loop was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. Sixty nine haplotypes were identified from 54 polymorphic sites with polymorphism between nucleotides 167 and 397 contributing to 94.5% of the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian indigenous chickens can be grouped into five distinct clades (clade I, II, IIIc, IIId, and IV) of the previously identified seven clades (clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId, and IV) in Asian indigenous chickens. Fifty haplotypes belong to clade II, seven haplotypes are in clade IV, six are in clade IIId, three are in clade I and one haploype is in clade IIIc. There was no breed-specific clade. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) based on partial D-loop sequences of Indonesian chicken indicates that 67.85% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within the population and 32.15% between populations. One of the haplotypes (represented by PLC4) was shared by all populations, suggesting that these populations may share the same maternal ancestor. These results show a high mitochondrial D-loop diversity and indicate multiple maternal origins for Indonesian indigenous chickens.

SRI SULANDARI; MOCH SYAMSUL ARIFIN ZEIN; TIKE SARTIKA

2008-01-01

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Protein Intake of Growing Indigenous Chickens on Free-Range and Their Response to Supplementation  

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Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine protein intake and the response of growing indigenous chickens to protein supplementation under free-ranging conditions. In the first experiment, data were collected from which a model was designed to estimate daily feed intake of free-ranging indigenous chicken from the Crop Contents (CC). The second experiment applied the model under on-farm conditions to estimate feed intake of free-ranging growers. Crude Protein (CP) intake was calculated as the product of crude protein concentration and total intake of feed. Results indicated that the mean protein level of CC was 11.2%, Dry Matter Intake (DMI) of free-ranging growers was 78.3g/grower/day and the mean Crude Protein Intake (CPI) was about 8.5 g. In order to establish the response of the growers to protein supplementation in an on-farm set-up, the third experiment provided protein supplements at 0, 1.6, 3.2 and 4.8 g CP/bird/day. Daily CPI for each of the four supplementary groups was calculated to be 8.5, 10.1, 11.7 and 13.3 g/bird. Growth rate and body weight increased with increasing protein supplementation up to 3.2 g CP/bird/day. Higher levels of protein supplementation did not significantly increase growth rate or body weight. Therefore, the CP requirement for growing indigenous chickens on free-range was estimated at 11.7 g/day. Protein supplementation of 3.2 g/bird/day to a growing indigenous chicken on free-range is therefore mandatory for optimum growth.

A.M. Kingori; J.K. Tuitoek; H.K. Muiruri; A.M. Wachira; E.K. Birech

2007-01-01

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Helminth Parasites in the Intestinal Tract of Indigenous Chickens in Jordanian Villages  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out on sixty female adult indigenous chickens from local markets in four different villages (Omabhara, Iraqalamir, Albusah and Wadisheta) zones around Amman, Jordan to determine occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Their ages ranged between 4-6 months. All specimens of chickens were examined for helminth parasites. It was found that nematodes and cestode were recovered. Nematodes were the most commonly seen parasites. Only five chickens of 60 hens were free from parasites which are infected of rate 91.6% prevalence. The main helminths found in the intestines were Nematodes and Cestode. Nematodes were higher than Cestode by about 20 percent in duodenum, ileum and colon respectively. In conclusion, Parasitism could be big constraint to production in the study area and we recommend a sustainable control strategy. This study found high prevalence of end parasites among village chickens within the survey period and ecological zone. Based on the known of pathological effects of these parasites, the results of this study highlight both the eminent and potential constraints of these parasites to the overall village chicken production. We therefore recommend the institution of a programmed control measure for improved harnessing of the potentials of village chicken production in the region.

Hamad H. Al-Jamaien

2013-01-01

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Genetic dissection of growth traits in a Chinese indigenous × commercial broiler chicken cross.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In China, consumers often prefer indigenous broiler chickens over commercial breeds, as they have characteristic meat qualities requested within traditional culinary customs. However, the growth-rate of these indigenous breeds is slower than that of the commercial broilers, which means they have not yet reached their full economic value. Therefore, combining the valuable meat quality of the native chickens with the efficiency of the commercial broilers is of interest. In this study, we generated an F2 intercross between the slow growing native broiler breed, Huiyang Beard chicken, and the fast growing commercial broiler breed, High Quality chicken Line A, and used it to map loci explaining the difference in growth rate between these breeds. RESULTS: A genome scan to identify main-effect loci affecting 24 growth-related traits revealed nine distinct QTL on six chromosomes. Many QTL were pleiotropic and conformed to the correlation patterns observed between phenotypes. Most of the mapped QTL were found in locations where growth QTL have been reported in other populations, although the effects were greater in this population. A genome scan for pairs of interacting loci identified a number of additional QTL in 10 other genomic regions. The epistatic pairs explained 6-8% of the residual phenotypic variance. Seven of the 10 epistatic QTL mapped in regions containing candidate genes in the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway, suggesting the importance of this pathway in the regulation of growth in this chicken population. CONCLUSIONS: The main-effect QTL detected using a standard one-dimensional genome scan accounted for a significant fraction of the observed phenotypic variance in this population. Furthermore, genes in known pathways present interesting candidates for further exploration. This study has thus located several QTL regions as promising candidates for further study, which will increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying growth-related traits in chickens.

Sheng Z; Pettersson ME; Hu X; Luo C; Qu H; Shu D; Shen X; Carlborg O; Li N

2013-01-01

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Chick Mortality in Indigenous Chickens (Gallus domesticus) under Free-range Management in Sebele, Gaborone, Botswana  

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Full Text Available A total of 125 out of 307 (41%) chicks belonging to the indigenous breed of chickens under free-range management died in the first three months of life with most chicks being lost in the first month. The main cause of chick mortality was predation mostly by dogs but also as a result of inclement weather especially during the cold weather season. It is imperative that brooding should be provided to curb these chick losses and adequate housing should be provided for the hens so as to protect the young chicks from predation.

E.Z. Mushi; M.G. Binta; R.G. Chabo; B. Seipone

2005-01-01

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Seroprofile of Antibodies to Fowl Poxvirus in Commercial and Indigenous Chickens in Southwestern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of Fowl Poxvirus (FPV) antibodies in both local and exotic poultry in some states of south western, Nigeria using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. A total of 552 serum samples from farms in 4 states of southwestern Nigeria, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo and Lagos states as well as 184 sera of indigenous chicken from various households were obtained for the study. Of this, 248 samples from 3 farms were from vaccinated flocks while 304 samples from 3 other farms were from non-vaccinated flocks against Fowl Pox (FP). An overall prevalence of 80% was obtained for the non-vaccinated chickens. Of this, the local chicken showed 89% prevalence, growers, 10% layers, 75 and 80% in breeders, a prevalence of 95 -97% in layers and 100% was observed in layers and breeders, respectively in the vaccinated flocks. Within the states where samples were collected, 80% prevalence was observed in Lagos state and 75% in Oyo state. There were no significant differences between the prevalences in the groups except for the grower type that was significantly lower than the others. The mean standard deviation of the positive sera was higher in local chicken (1.350+134) when compared to all the other groups including the vaccinated birds (p< 0.001). There was no significant difference (p< 0.05) between the titres obtained in the vaccinated layers and breeders and between the non vaccinated layers and breeders. The vaccinated breeders, however, had significantly higher mean titres (p< 0.005) than the non-vaccinated breeders. The result showed that fowl pox is endemic in both exotic and indigenous poultry in southwestern Nigeria. The results also showed that there was a significantly higher response in the local breeds to FPV infection than in the exotic breeds, as has been observed with other disease agent.

O.G. Ohore; B.O. Emikpe; D.O. Oluwayelu; R.O. Adeyemi; M.A. Ockiya

2007-01-01

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A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

Mukaratirwa S; Hove T

2009-09-01

36

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised. PMID:20169754

Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

2009-09-01

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Breeding objectives for indigenous chicken: model development and application to different production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenous chickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for feed resources with no supplementation and healthcare; intensive system (IS), where the chickens were permanently confined and supplied with rationed feed and healthcare; and semi-intensive system (SIS), a hybrid of FRS and IS, where the chickens were partially confined, supplemented with rationed feeds, provided with healthcare and allowed to scavenge within the homestead or in runs. The model allows prediction of the live weights and feed intake at different stages in the life cycle of the IC and can compute the profitability of each production system using both traditional and risk-rated profit models. The input parameters used in the model represent a typical IC production system in developing countries but are flexible and therefore can be modified to suit specific situations and simulate profitability and costs of other poultry species production systems. The model has the capability to derive the economic values as changes in the genetic merit of the biological parameter results in marginal changes in profitability and costs of the production systems. The results suggested that utilisation of IC in their current genetic merit and production environment is more profitable under FRS and SIS but not economically viable under IS. PMID:22644732

Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2012-05-29

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Breeding objectives for indigenous chicken: model development and application to different production systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenous chickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for feed resources with no supplementation and healthcare; intensive system (IS), where the chickens were permanently confined and supplied with rationed feed and healthcare; and semi-intensive system (SIS), a hybrid of FRS and IS, where the chickens were partially confined, supplemented with rationed feeds, provided with healthcare and allowed to scavenge within the homestead or in runs. The model allows prediction of the live weights and feed intake at different stages in the life cycle of the IC and can compute the profitability of each production system using both traditional and risk-rated profit models. The input parameters used in the model represent a typical IC production system in developing countries but are flexible and therefore can be modified to suit specific situations and simulate profitability and costs of other poultry species production systems. The model has the capability to derive the economic values as changes in the genetic merit of the biological parameter results in marginal changes in profitability and costs of the production systems. The results suggested that utilisation of IC in their current genetic merit and production environment is more profitable under FRS and SIS but not economically viable under IS.

Okeno TO; Magothe TM; Kahi AK; Peters KJ

2012-12-01

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Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Naked Neck and Normally Feathered Nigerian Indigenous Chickens in a Sub Humid Tropical Environment  

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Haematological and serum biochemical indices of Nigerian indigenous chickens of two genetic groups were evaluated. One hundred and twenty (120) cocks with average weight of 1.10kg, corresponding to sixty (60) naked neck (NaNa) and sixty (60) normally feathered (nana) were utilized in the study. On t...

A.O. Ladokun; A. Yakubu; J.R. Otite; J.N. Omeje; O.A. Sokunbi; E. Onyeji

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Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

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This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10) unconventional and local ingredients from Sen...

S.B. Ayssiwede; J.C. Zanmenou; Y. Issa; M.B. Hane; A. Dieng; C.A.A.M. Chrysostome; M.R. Houinato; J.L. Hornick; A. Missohou

 
 
 
 
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Effect of Human Menopausal Gonadotropin on Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Nigerian Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Nigerian indigenous chickens. Twenty five healthy cocks were randomly assigned to five treatments consisting of intramuscularly administered 6.0, 12.0, 18.0, 12.0 I.U of Pergonal® and sterile water (control). At the end of the three week experimental period, five birds from each group were bled weekly from the wing veins for haematology and serum biochemistry. Results of this study showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in haematological parameters between the treatments. Serum total protein, albumin, urea and electrolytes differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the treatments. However, the values were within normal range, indicating that Pergonal® had no deleterious effect on these parameters.

F.C. Iheukwuemere; A.H. Abu; M. Ameh

2006-01-01

42

Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

Schou TW; Permin A; Juul-Madsen HR; Sørensen P; Labouriau R; Nguyên TL; Fink M; Pham SL

2007-04-01

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Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens. PMID:17166322

Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

2006-12-14

44

Differential expression of Toll-like receptor mRNA in White Leghorn and indigenous chicken of India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present experiment, the expression profile of Toll-like receptor mRNA in indigenous and pure line chickens was studied. The expression of TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7 were quantified in heterophils of Aseel, Kadaknath, Naked neck, Dwarf and White Leghorn lines by Quantitative Real-time PCR. White Leghorns expressed significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of TLR3 mRNA compared to other lines. TLR4 and TLR5 mRNA were significantly highly expressed in Kadaknath line. Among the TLRs investigated TLR5 was more expressed in all lines studied. TLR7 was highly expressed in indigenous chicken Aseel and Kadaknath than other lines. Dwarf chicken expressed significantly (P < 0.01) lower levels of all TLRs investigated. On the basis of the present study we conclude that the differential expression of TLR mRNA in the heterophils of indigenous and other chicken breeds might contribute to their variable disease resistance/susceptibility.

Ramasamy KT; Reddy MR; Raveendranathan DN; Murugesan S; Chatterjee RN; Ullengala R; Haunshi S

2010-10-01

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Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Egg Production, Hatchability and Post-Hatch Offspring Performance of Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available Indigenous chickens in Kenya are estimated to be 21.5 million and are found in all the ecological zones in the country. They are 75% of the poultry population and produce 46 and 58% of the egg and meat, respectively. These levels of production are comparatively low compared to their numbers. The low productivity of indigenous chickens in Kenya and other parts of the world is partly attributed to poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper healthcare, poor nutrition and housing. This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary protein levels on egg production, hatchability and post-hatch offspring feed intake, feed efficiency and growth rate of indigenous chickens. Seventy two hens averaging 46 weeks in age, were offered four diets formulated from similar ingredients but differing in protein levels: 100, 120, 140 and 170 g CP/kg DM. Diets were randomly allocated to hens such that each diet had nine replicates each consisting of two hens. The hens were housed in battery cages and diets offered ad-libitum. Laying percentage, egg weight and feed intake were measured over an 8-week period. There was an increase (p0.05) at 120 and 140 g CP/kg DM. The laying percentage of hens offered 170 g CP/kg DM was lower (p0.05) on offspring feed intake (51-56 g), live weight gain (6.5 -8.5 g / day) and feed conversion efficiency (0.13-0.15). It is, therefore, concluded that the dietary crude protein requirement for laying indigenous hens is about 120 g CP/kg and maternal dietary protein level has no effect on hatchability and post-hatch offspring feed intake, feed efficiency and growth rate. The findings will help in the formulation of indigenous chicken layer diet with the appropriate protein content.

A.M. Kingori; J.K. Tuitoek; H.K. Muiruri; A.M. Wachira

2010-01-01

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Production Performance of Dual Purpose Crosses of Two Indigenous with Two Exotic Chicken Breeds in Sub-tropical Environment  

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Full Text Available An ongoing crossbreeding experiment is being conducted with the objective of producing dual purpose synthetic chicken for village poultry production in Ethiopia. The two exotic chicken breeds used were the Fayoumi (F) and Rhode Island Red (R) as dam line, whereas the two indigenous chicken breeds used were the Naked neck (N) and local Netch (W); a white feathered chicken. The indigenous breeds were used as sire line to produce the hybrids FN (F? X N?) and RW (R? X W?). Growth and egg production performance of the crosses were compared with each other and with the exotic pure line performance. Both body and egg weight of FN was improved while body weight of RW was reduced and age at first egg was significantly reduced, compared to their respective dam line. Egg production for the crosses was lower than for their maternal lines. Although FN cross chicks weighed more and grew faster than RW chicks during the brooding period, the difference became insignificant as they grew older. However, the higher overall average body weight gain of RW crosses that was observed was mainly due to higher weight gain for the RW cocks. No significant differences were observed in overall egg production and quality traits between the two crosses, but significant age effect within crosses was found. Mortality in the FN cross was lower than in the RW cross. These F1 crosses will be used as parents to produce a 4-way synthetic crossbred chicken.

Fassill Bekele; T. Adnoy; H.M. Gjoen; J. Kathle; Girma Abebe

2010-01-01

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Associations of Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR) Gene Polymorphisms with Reproductive Traits in a Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breed  

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Full Text Available Chicken Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR) is a physiological candidate gene for reproductive traits. The objective of the current research was to investigate the association of VLDLR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and the reproductive traits in a Chinese Indigenous chicken breed (Wenshang Luhua chicken). A total of 528 individuals were genotyped with PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). As a result, an A?G mutation on exon 6 (A12321G) and an A?G mutation on intron 17 (A13876G) were identified. In locus 12321, genotypes have significantly effect on Egg Weight at 300 days (EW) and the chickens harboring genotype A2A2 had significantly higher EW (p0.05). Four diplotypes were constructed on the two SNPs. Significantly dominant effects of diplotypes H1H1 were observed for traits EW whereas H4H4 had a negative effect on it. Also for EWFE, LWFE, LW and EP, the H1H1 chickens were superior to H4H4 chickens it maybe tell that H1H1 is an advantaged diplotype for chicken reproductive traits.

D.G. Cao; Y. Zhou; Q.X. Lei; H.X. Han; F.W. Li; G.M. Li; Y. Lu; B. Wu; Z.L. Wang

2012-01-01

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Effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Leaves Meal Incorporation in Diets on Growth Performances, Carcass Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens  

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The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Ninety six (96) indigenous Sene...

S.B. Ayssiwede; A. Dieng; H. Bello; C.A.A.M. Chrysostome; M.B. Hane; A. Mankor; M. Dahouda; M.R. Houinato; J.L. Hornick

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Expression Profile of Toll-Like Receptor mRNA in an Indigenous Aseel Breed of Chicken in India  

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Full Text Available Expression profile of chicken six Toll-like Receptor (TLR) mRNAs were analyzed in the heterophils, lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum, caecal tonsils and kidneys of 12-weeks old indigenous village chicken in India, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TLR 2 type 1 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum and caecal tonsils. TLR2 type 2 mRNA was expressed only in the lungs. TLR 3 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen and caecal tonsils. TLR 4 mRNA was expressed only in lungs, liver and spleen. TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs were expressed in all the tissues examined. With respect to tissues, heterophils and lungs expressed all the TLR mRNAs examined while kidneys expressed only TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs. All the TLR amplified PCR products were partially sequenced and showed high homologies with the available chicken (commercial) TLR gene sequences. There could be a possibility of correlation between TLR mRNA expressions with higher levels of innate immunity seen in indigenous village breeds of chickens.

G. Dhinakar Raj; T.M. Chozhavel Rajanathan; K. Kumanan; S. Elankumaran

2009-01-01

50

Genomic DNA fingerprinting of indigenous chicken breeds with molecular markers designed on interspersed repeats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy more than fifty different local breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus L.) are known to have been present in the past. The overall situation is now critical since most of these breeds are becoming extinct or threatened and only a few are subject of conservation plans. The use of molecular markers for the analysis of chicken populations could help in characterizing their genetic variation and preserving them from genetic erosion. valuable and irreplaceable sources of chicken germplasm from indigenous populations of the veneto region were analyzed by means of DNA fingerprinting with molecular markers designed on interspersed mini- and microsatellite repeats. The identification of either among-breed discriminant or breed-specific markers was based on the S-SAP and M-AFLP systems derived from the AFLP technology. Genomic DNA fingerprints were generated in 84 individuals belonging to six local breeds (Ermellinata, Padovana, Pépoi, Polverara, Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata) and one commercial line used as reference standard. A number of variation statistics were computed to assess the genetic variability within and relatedness among breeds: the effective number of alleles per locus (n(e)= 1.570), total and single-breed genetic diversity (H(T)= 0.366 and H(S)= 0.209, respectively) and the fixation index (G(ST)= 0.429). The mean genetic similarity coefficients within and between local breeds were 0.769 and 0.628, respectively. Markers useful for the genetic traceability of breeds revealed significant sequence similarities with either genic or intergenic regions of known chromosome position. Sequence tagged site primers were designed for the most discriminant markers in order to develop multiplex non-radioactive genomic PCR assays. Analysis of the population structure along with individual assignment tests successfully identified all breed clusters and subclusters. The vast majority of animals were correctly allocated to their breed of origin, demonstrating the suitability and reliability of the chosen AFLP-derived marker systems for detecting population structure and tracing individual breeds. The local breeds have been preliminarily identified according to sequence-specific SNPs and haplotypes and the polymorphism information content of genomic AFLP-derived markers is reported and critically discussed. PMID:19891738

Soattin, M; Barcaccia, Gianni; Dalvit, C; Cassandro, M; Bittante, G

2009-10-01

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Genomic DNA fingerprinting of indigenous chicken breeds with molecular markers designed on interspersed repeats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Italy more than fifty different local breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus L.) are known to have been present in the past. The overall situation is now critical since most of these breeds are becoming extinct or threatened and only a few are subject of conservation plans. The use of molecular markers for the analysis of chicken populations could help in characterizing their genetic variation and preserving them from genetic erosion. valuable and irreplaceable sources of chicken germplasm from indigenous populations of the veneto region were analyzed by means of DNA fingerprinting with molecular markers designed on interspersed mini- and microsatellite repeats. The identification of either among-breed discriminant or breed-specific markers was based on the S-SAP and M-AFLP systems derived from the AFLP technology. Genomic DNA fingerprints were generated in 84 individuals belonging to six local breeds (Ermellinata, Padovana, Pépoi, Polverara, Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata) and one commercial line used as reference standard. A number of variation statistics were computed to assess the genetic variability within and relatedness among breeds: the effective number of alleles per locus (n(e)= 1.570), total and single-breed genetic diversity (H(T)= 0.366 and H(S)= 0.209, respectively) and the fixation index (G(ST)= 0.429). The mean genetic similarity coefficients within and between local breeds were 0.769 and 0.628, respectively. Markers useful for the genetic traceability of breeds revealed significant sequence similarities with either genic or intergenic regions of known chromosome position. Sequence tagged site primers were designed for the most discriminant markers in order to develop multiplex non-radioactive genomic PCR assays. Analysis of the population structure along with individual assignment tests successfully identified all breed clusters and subclusters. The vast majority of animals were correctly allocated to their breed of origin, demonstrating the suitability and reliability of the chosen AFLP-derived marker systems for detecting population structure and tracing individual breeds. The local breeds have been preliminarily identified according to sequence-specific SNPs and haplotypes and the polymorphism information content of genomic AFLP-derived markers is reported and critically discussed.

Soattin M; Barcaccia G; Dalvit C; Cassandro M; Bittante G

2009-10-01

52

Effect of transient prepubertal hypothyroidism on serum testosterone level and seminal characteristics of Iranian indigenous chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Forty 6-week-old male Iranian indigenous chickens were randomly assigned into two equal groups, designated as control or propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated group. The goitrogen, PTU, was administered at a level of 0.1% (w:w) to the diet of PTU-treated group between the weeks 7 and 13 of age. From the week 13 to 26, both groups were fed with a PTU-free diet. The lighting schedule was 14 h-light:10 h-darkness. Blood sampling started at week 7 of age, and repeated every other week until the week 19 as well as body weighing simultaneously. Chicks were trained by the abdominal massage method and semen samples were collected from the week 21 and repeated once a week for seven weeks. Proc Mixed of SAS (6.03 edn.) was used to data analysis and body weight was considered as covariate in statistical model. The effect of PTU treatment on serum thyroxine (T4) levels (P 0.05). The effect of age on all parameters, including body weight (P 0.05); but the interaction was significant for body weight (P 0.05). No significant correlation observed between testosterone and T4 levels in both groups. (author)

2009-01-01

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Relationships between cock semen viability and the fertility of artificially inseminated South African indigenous chicken breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english One hundred and sixty hens and 32 cocks of four different South African indigenous chicken breeds (Naked Neck (NN), Ovambo (OVB), Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) and Venda (VD) were used in this study. Reproductive performance tests as determined by the number of ejaculations per five minutes of abdominal sexual massage (5ASM) were used to select 16 high performing (HP) and 16 low performing (LP) cocks from a population of 80 cocks. Cocks with >2 ejaculates/60 min or (more) ate/60 min following ASM were considered as HP or LP cocks, respectively. Semen was collected from each cock following 5ASM, evaluated for semen viability and 0.05 mL diluted semen used to inseminate five hens per breed, in each experimental group. Significant differences in ejaculation rates and semen quality and quantity were recorded in the four breeds of cocks - with the HP cocks of the PK breed producing the highest ejaculation rate (4.1 ± 0.1/60 min), ejaculate volume (0.7 ± 0.02 mL), sperm motility (92 Class Test 2 ± 0.7), percentage live sperm (88.4 ± 0.7%) and total sperm per ejaculate. Significant differences were also recorded in hen fertility and subsequent hatchability of set eggs. Semen from the HP cocks were superior to those from the LP cocks, as evidenced in most of the fertility and hatchability parameters, with PK layers producing eggs that gave the highest average egg weight (58.04 ± 0.9 g), fertility (74.3 ± 0.2%), hatchability of set eggs (84.03 ± 0.7%), percentage of normal chicks (98.1 ± 0.7%) and chick weight (37.9 ± 0.3 g). Results suggest that selection of high performing cocks following five minutes of sexual massage prior to semen collection enhances semen quality and quantity leading to significant improvement in the fertility of artificially inseminated hens.

Molekwa, J.T.; Umesiobi, D.O.

2009-01-01

54

Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country.

Henning J; Khin A; Hla T; Meers J

2006-10-01

55

Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country. PMID:17265778

Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

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Application of risk-rated profit model functions in estimation of economic values for indigenous chicken breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic values for productive (egg number, average daily gain, live weight, and mature weight) and functional (fertility, hatchability, broodiness, survival rate, feed intake, and egg weight) traits were derived for three production systems utilizing indigenous chicken in Kenya. The production systems considered were free-range, semi-intensive, and intensive system and were evaluated based on fixed flock size and fixed feed resource production circumstances. A bio-economic model that combined potential performances, feeding strategies, optimum culling strategies, farmer's preferences and accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and economic dynamics was employed to derive risk-rated economic values. The economic values for all the traits were highest in free-range system under the two production circumstances and decreased with level of intensification. The economic values for egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate were positive while those for mature weight, broodiness, egg weight, and feed intake were negative. Generally, the economic values estimated under fixed feed resource production circumstances were higher than those derived under fixed flock size. The difference between economic values estimated using simple (traditional) and risk-rated profit model functions ranged from -47.26% to +67.11% indicating that inclusion of risks in estimation of economic values is important. The results of this study suggest that improvement targeting egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate would have a positive impact on profitability of indigenous chicken production in Kenya. PMID:22246574

Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2012-01-15

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Application of risk-rated profit model functions in estimation of economic values for indigenous chicken breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The economic values for productive (egg number, average daily gain, live weight, and mature weight) and functional (fertility, hatchability, broodiness, survival rate, feed intake, and egg weight) traits were derived for three production systems utilizing indigenous chicken in Kenya. The production systems considered were free-range, semi-intensive, and intensive system and were evaluated based on fixed flock size and fixed feed resource production circumstances. A bio-economic model that combined potential performances, feeding strategies, optimum culling strategies, farmer's preferences and accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and economic dynamics was employed to derive risk-rated economic values. The economic values for all the traits were highest in free-range system under the two production circumstances and decreased with level of intensification. The economic values for egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate were positive while those for mature weight, broodiness, egg weight, and feed intake were negative. Generally, the economic values estimated under fixed feed resource production circumstances were higher than those derived under fixed flock size. The difference between economic values estimated using simple (traditional) and risk-rated profit model functions ranged from -47.26% to +67.11% indicating that inclusion of risks in estimation of economic values is important. The results of this study suggest that improvement targeting egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate would have a positive impact on profitability of indigenous chicken production in Kenya.

Okeno TO; Magothe TM; Kahi AK; Peters KJ

2012-08-01

58

Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83 % of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64 % in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72 % variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74 % variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds.

Malomane DK; Norris D; Banga CB; Ngambi JW

2013-10-01

59

Characteristics and Destinations of Indigenous Chickens Marketed in Guera Region, East-Central Chad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess zooeconomic parameters like age, weight, price and destinations of produced chickens that are sold on three main markets of Guera, east-central Chad. Data were collected over six months on the market places of Mongo and Mangalme and four months on the market place of Bitkine. The transversal and retrospective survey was coupled with direct observations and weightings. For 1549 marketed chickens, the males made up 57% and the females 43%. The average values per chicken were found to be 16.29.9 months for age, 1082.4371.2 g for weight and 1607.8FCFA 414.6 for price. Average age and weight of sold chickens were significantly higher (p<0.001) on Mangalme market, with an average price significantly lower (p<0.001). On the whole, 52% of surveyed chickens were intended for sale in the capital NDjamena, 39% in Mongo city, 7% in Bitkine and 2% in Mangalme. According to the final destinations declared by buyers, average age and weight of the sold chickens to be consumed in Bitkine were significantly lower (p<0.001) but with an average price significantly higher (p<0.001). The Mangalme sellers sold mainly old chickens in order to earn more money. The pressure exerted by NDjamena traders to purchase chickens in Bitkine increases prices.

Mopate Logtene Youssouf; Ndjimtoloum Nadjissara; El Hadji Fallou Gueye

2011-01-01

60

Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and two sexes. The Naked-Neckchickens had lower breast (Pectoralis major), fillet (Pectoralis minor) (P0.05) in drip loss and cooking loss values. The shear value of cooked breast and thigh muscles of Naked-Neck chickens was significantly lower (P0.05), redness (a*) (P0.05) in moisture, protein, fat and ash contents. The Naked-Neck chicken contained higher (P0.05) between breeds in soluble collagen percentage of both types of muscles. For the fatty acid composition ofNaked-Neck and indigenous chickens, both breast and thigh muscles contained more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

Wattanachant, C.; Wattanasit, S.; Wattanachant, S.; Songsang, A.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

An evaluation of ratios as a measure of carcass traits using mature indigenous chickens in Limpopo Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Live weight and weight of body parts of 60 mature indigenous chickens were collected to investigate whether the use of ratios in poultry science may cause misinterpretation of data and misleading conclusions. Three villages from Mukula Tribal land in Thulamela municipality from Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa were identified for the purpose of this study. Five mature chickens were bought from each village, weighed, killed, dressed and cut to get the bo (more) dy parts using the standard procedures. This was done across the four distinct seasons from March 2005 to March 2006. The data was collected using a weighing scale with variables of interest being the sex, season and village. Summary statistics were computed and data was analyzed in two separate ways using the Statistical Analysis Software Packages as follows: Firstly each individual body part was expressed as ratio of body weight and data analyzed using a simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Secondly, live body weight was used a covariate in the analysis of other body parts using the ANCOVA procedures. Ratios suggested differences gizzard, liver, head and feet and body length due to sex and in gizzard, liver and body length due to village which were not apparent with ANCOVA. The results from this study suggested that ratios did not remove the variation due to differences in sex and village and may lead us to wrong conclusions. From this study, one can draw conclusions that use of ANCOVA gives us the exceptional method for interpreting the data correctly.

Tshovhote, N.J.; Nesamvuni, A.E.; Nephawe, K.A.; Groenewald, I.

2010-01-01

62

MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida or Ascaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed.  

Science.gov (United States)

In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida were compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance. PMID:19945754

Schou, T W; Labouriau, R; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Sørensen, P; Cu, H P; Nguyen, V K; Juul-Madsen, H R

2009-11-10

63

Comparison of the Egg Characteristics of Different Sudanese Indigenous Chicken Types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three local types of Sudanese indigenous fowls, large Baladi (LB), Bare-neck (BN) and Betwil (BT) were studied for detection of maturity live weight and egg characteristics. The (BN) average live weight (1547.2±274.5 gm) was heavier than either (LB) (1494.4±349.8 gm) or (BT) (1198.3±257.5 gm), The Betwil average live weight is significantly (P< 0.05) lighter than those of other two local types. The weekly hen-day egg production means were 3.7, 3.2 and 3.9 for (BN), (BT) and (LB) respectively, while the corresponding hen-housed egg production means were 3.3, 2.7 and 3.4. The rate of egg production during the laying period (36 weeks) was 47.14, 38.57 and 48.57 for (BN), (BT) and (LB) respectively. There were significant differences (P< 0.05) in average egg-shell thickness among local types. The means of egg-shell thickness for (BT) and (BN), 36.2±4.2 and 36.2±4.0?respectively were similar and both significantly thicker than that of (LB), 34.3±3.6?

Mekki Dafaalla Mohammed; Yousif Ibrahimm Abdalsalam; Abdelrahman Mohammed Kheir; Wang Jin-yu; Musa Hassan Hussein

2005-01-01

64

ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV) IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS  

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Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF) and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT) of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

2005-01-01

65

Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Naked Neck and Normally Feathered Nigerian Indigenous Chickens in a Sub Humid Tropical Environment  

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Full Text Available Haematological and serum biochemical indices of Nigerian indigenous chickens of two genetic groups were evaluated. One hundred and twenty (120) cocks with average weight of 1.10kg, corresponding to sixty (60) naked neck (NaNa) and sixty (60) normally feathered (nana) were utilized in the study. On the basis of feather colour, the normal plumage cocks were subdivided into two equal phenotypic groups. Each genetic group was divided into four replicates of fifteen birds each in a completely randomized design. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences between the genotypes in the mean values of white blood cells(WBC), mean corpuscular volume(MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration(MCHC). However, naked neck cocks were significantly superior in packed cell volume (PCV) haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells(RBC) compared with their normally feathered counterparts(41.00 vs 35.90%; 13.68 vs 11.60 g/dl; 4.84 vs 4.21x106/ml; p>0.05). With the exception of PCV which was significantly (p>0.05) higher in brown cocks than white coloured cocks (38.30 vs 33.50%), plumage colour had no significant effect on the variables estimated. No significant differences were observed in total protein, albumin, urea, glucose, cholesterol, serum alanine amino transaminase (SALT) and serum aspartate amino transferase (SAST) of the genetic groups. The normally feathered cocks, however had significantly (P0.05) affect serum biochemical parameters suggesting that the two colour variants might not be true representation of genetically distinct subpopulations. The present result on blood parameters of both naked neck and normally feathered cocks could serve as a baseline data, which could be exploited in the improvement of local stock.

A.O. Ladokun; A. Yakubu; J.R. Otite; J.N. Omeje; O.A. Sokunbi; E. Onyeji

2008-01-01

66

Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74?g average daily gain and 57·96?g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

Okeno TO; Kahi AK; Peters KJ

2013-01-01

67

Growth Performance of Indigenous X Exotic Crosses of Chicken and Evaluation of General and Specific Combining Ability under Sudan Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two thousand three hundred and fourty six chickens, line X tester crosses were obtained from fifteen consecutive hatches at weekly interval. Testers were exotic cockerels; Rhode Island Red (RIR), Bovans (BO) and Egyptian Fayoumi (FO), while lines were indigenous hens; large Baladi (LB), Bare-neck (BN) and Betwil (BT). The nine genetic groups of crosses were reared up to 18 weeks of age in litter opened-house system. Significant differences (DMRT 5%) for average body weight of different crosses were obtained at hatching, 2, 14, 16 and 18 weeks of age. Biweekly average weight gain showed similarity in growth pattern of the various crosses. Sex affected body weight insignificant at hatching, whereas the differences were significant (P< 0.05) at 2 weeks of age and highly significant (P< 0.01) for the subsequent ages. Hatching effect was found to be highly significant (P< 0.01) on body weight at various ages; however, sex X hatch interaction was found to be significant (P< 0.05) at day old and disappeared thereafter. The average live weight at 18 week of age for the nine groups was adjusted for hatching and sex effects. There were significant differences (P< 0.05) of lines and testers, however, line X tester interaction was not significant for 18 weeks body weight. The estimated general combining ability (gca), thus the additive gene effect, was relatively high for both lines (-42.03, 19.90 and 22.13) and testers (-36.74, 10.74 and 26.00). On the other hand the specific combining ability (sca), which involves dominance, over dominance and epistasis effects, was found to be minor in both positive and negative values for the nine groups, ranging from -14.66 to 17.37. The general combining ability estimated was of high value and seemed to be much important than specific combining ability for body weight at 18 weeks of age.

Mekki Dafaalla Mohammed; Yousif Ibrahimm Abdalsalam; Abdel Rahman Mohammed kheir; Wang Jin-yu; Musa Hassan Hussein

2005-01-01

68

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10) unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata), cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds) and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis) were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM) percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea) to 94.9% (C. vulgaris). The Crude Protein (CP) content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea) to 61.9% (cockroaches meal), with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%). Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9%) Ether Extract (EE) values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%), Moringa (9.8%), Leuceana (6.4%) and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%), while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF) content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera) to 16.8% (C. tora) while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea) to 19% (Citrullus seeds). A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%), followed by Cassia (15.2%), Moringa (13.6%), Leuceana (11.4%) and Sesbania leaves (7.1%), while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME) value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches) to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris) and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata) to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera). Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%), followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%), Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%), whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

S.B. Ayssiwede; J.C. Zanmenou; Y. Issa; M.B. Hane; A. Dieng; C.A.A.M. Chrysostome; M.R. Houinato; J.L. Hornick; A. Missohou

2011-01-01

69

Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

Adebajo MC; Ademola SI; Oluwaseun A

2012-01-01

70

Factors influencing reproductive performance of cows from different Nguni ecotypes in southern Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the reproductive performance of two Nguni ecotypes (Nguni and Landim) raised in a subtropical environment to enhance strategies for livestock development and restocking programmes within the southern African region. Reproduction data collected between 1996 and 2009 from 365 cows of the Landim and Nguni ecotypes were analysed. From the results, ecotype, place of birth, year and season of birth/calving had significant effects on age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI). Overall means for AFC and CI were 1,071?±?166 days and 432?±?85 days, respectively, while average calving rate was 88.0?±?4.7%. Heifers born in the dry season had lower AFC than heifers born in the wet season. Heifers born at Impaputo Breeding Center were the youngest at first calving, followed by the South African born ones. Heifers of the Landim ecotype also calved younger than heifers of the Nguni ecotype. CI was shorter in wet seasons (main breeding seasons) than in dry seasons. Interaction between ecotype and year-season (p?ecotypes. This might aid future cattle development and restocking programmes in southern Africa taking into consideration the adaptation of indigenous genotypes and climate change. PMID:21773680

Maciel, Sonia Maria Ataide; Amimo, Joshua; Martins, Manuel; Mwai, Ally Okeyo; Scholtz, Michiel Matthys; Neser, Frederick Wilhelm Cornelius

2011-07-20

71

Factors influencing reproductive performance of cows from different Nguni ecotypes in southern Mozambique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess the reproductive performance of two Nguni ecotypes (Nguni and Landim) raised in a subtropical environment to enhance strategies for livestock development and restocking programmes within the southern African region. Reproduction data collected between 1996 and 2009 from 365 cows of the Landim and Nguni ecotypes were analysed. From the results, ecotype, place of birth, year and season of birth/calving had significant effects on age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI). Overall means for AFC and CI were 1,071?±?166 days and 432?±?85 days, respectively, while average calving rate was 88.0?±?4.7%. Heifers born in the dry season had lower AFC than heifers born in the wet season. Heifers born at Impaputo Breeding Center were the youngest at first calving, followed by the South African born ones. Heifers of the Landim ecotype also calved younger than heifers of the Nguni ecotype. CI was shorter in wet seasons (main breeding seasons) than in dry seasons. Interaction between ecotype and year-season (p?ecotypes. This might aid future cattle development and restocking programmes in southern Africa taking into consideration the adaptation of indigenous genotypes and climate change.

Maciel SM; Amimo J; Martins M; Mwai AO; Scholtz MM; Neser FW

2012-03-01

72

Semen Characteristics of the Brown Ecotype of Sahel Goats in the Semi-arid Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the semen characteristics of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection from two to twelve months of age. It was observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased over-age (months) and that at three months of age, there were significant levels of semen characteristic values. In conclusion, the spermiogram of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks was studied with a view to document the semen profile of indigenous and possibly evolving ecotypes of sahal bucks for future studies of improved breeding and selection.

V.A. Maina; S.U.R. Chaudhari; A. Williams

2006-01-01

73

A Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR to Assess Differential Expression Levels of TCF3 Gene in Two Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds  

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Full Text Available Semi-Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to quantify and compare variations in avian TCF3 expression level between two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds for different tissues. Six primer combinations in addition to -actin as an internal control were used. The expression level of TCF3 was greater in Jinghai breed than Suqin breed for different tissues. The variability of gene expression between two breeds showed 18.55, 37.85 and 66.15% higher expression in Jinghai breed than Suqin breed for kidney, lung and spleen tissues, respectively. Differences were found to be significant (p<0.05) only for expression level in lung and spleen tissues. Significant effect of sex upon TCF3 expression was detected for both breeds.

Wang Jin-yu; Bian Liang-yong; Yang Yan; Li lin-Chuan; H. Hassan Musa; M. Dafalla Mekki

2007-01-01

74

Comparative study on productive performance, egg quality, egg geometry and hatching traits of three age groups of indigenous Peshawari Aseel chickens  

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Full Text Available The aim of study was to compare three production cycles of different age groups of indigenous Peshawari Aseel chicken at Indigenous Chicken Genetic Resource Center (ICGRC), UVAS Ravi Campus Pattoki for the duration of 4 weeks. For this Purpose 24 birds of 3 different production cycles (1, 2 and 3 at the age of 35, 65 and 95) were used. Eight birds in each category comprising 7 females and 1 male were placed in each replicate.  The data was collected regarding production performance, egg quality and egg geometry and analyzed through Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. Means were compared using Fisher’s LSD (Least significant Difference) Test by the help of SAS (Statistical Analysis System). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in cumulative feed intake at the start of experiment week 1, week 3 and week 4. The birds in 2nd production cycle remained the highest feed consumer throughout the experimental period followed by 1st and 3rd production cycles along with same trend in calories, protein, Ca, P, Lysine and Methionine intake throughout the experimental period. The birds in 2nd production cycle remained significantly higher egg producer along with production of higher egg mass and better FCR. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the egg shell % of 1st, 2nd and 3rd production cycles. The birds of 3rd production cycle remained the highest in the Haugh unit score and yolk index throughout the experimental period followed by 1st and 2nd production cycle. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in shape index, egg surface area and egg volume in all the three production cycles. The birds of 3rd production cycle remained significantly higher in shape index throughout the experimental period followed by the 1st and 2nd production cycle.

A. Sohail; A. Muhammad; J. Hussain; A. Iqbal; M. Usman; A. Rehman; F. Hussnain

2013-01-01

75

Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using functional gene data was consistent in neighbor joining and principal component plot analyses, while genetic characterization using microsatellite data gave varied results depending on the analysis methodology.

Akaboot P; Duangjinda M; Phasuk Y; Kaenchan C; Chinchiyanond W

2012-01-01

76

Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using functional gene data was consistent in neighbor joining and principal component plot analyses, while genetic characterization using microsatellite data gave varied results depending on the analysis methodology. PMID:22869543

Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W

2012-07-19

77

Serological Status for Newcastle Disease Virus in Unvaccinated Indigenous Chickens in Yewa Division of Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A sero-epidemiological survey of antibody to Newcastle disease (ND) virus was conducted in the unvaccinated local chickens in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. All the 180 sera samples collected tested positive for ND antibody. The range of HI antibody titre was 23 to 27. Out of the 180 chicks tested, 44 (24.4%) had HI antibody titre of 23; the remaining birds (75.6%) had higher titres of up to 27. The results showed the high endemicity of the disease among the local chicken population in the survey area in Nigeria.

M.A. Oyekunle; A.O. Talabi; A.O. Okeowo

2006-01-01

78

Serological Status for Newcastle Disease Virus in Unvaccinated Indigenous Chickens in Yewa Division of Ogun State, Nigeria  

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A sero-epidemiological survey of antibody to Newcastle disease (ND) virus was conducted in the unvaccinated local chickens in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. All the 180 sera samples collected tested positive for ND antibody. The range of HI an...

M.A. Oyekunle; A.O. Talabi; A.O. Okeowo

79

Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage  

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Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt) were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1) and marinated only ingredients (control 2) were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*), lipid oxidation (TBARS), myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin) and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05) but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05). However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w) showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

Wongwiwat, P.; Yanpakdee, S.; Wattanachant, S.

2007-01-01

80

Growth Performances, Carcass and Organs Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) Leaves Meal  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study carried out from September to December 2010 was to evaluate the effects of Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal inclusion in the diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. One hundred and four (104) indigenous Senegal chicks of 4 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 26 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 13 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4) dietary treatments LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21 containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (5-17th week old), zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 13 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW) were 864 g, 1166.48 g, 905 g and 887.16 g/bird, the Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG) were 7.77 g, 10.88 g, 8.15 g and 8.10 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI) of 39.86 g, 51 g, 40.39 g and 44.75 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 7.04, 5.54, 6.27 and 6.80 respectively for birds fed LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21 diets. The Leuceana leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 21% had not caused any adverse effect on LBW, ADWG, DFI, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Apart from the dark yellowing of abdominal fat of carcasses from birds fed LL21 diet, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed LL7 and LL14 diets. Thus, these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 214 and 48 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit) compared to the control.

S.B. Ayssiwede; C.A.A.M. Chrysostome; J.C. Zanmenou; A. Dieng; M.R. Houinato; M. Dahouda; Y. Akpo; J.L. Hornick; A. Missohou

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Chicken Chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics". Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics".

Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

2008-01-01

82

Ecotypic responses of switchgrass to altered precipitation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthropogenic climate change is projected to alter precipitation patterns, resulting in novel environments for plants. The responses of dominant plant species (e.g. Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass)) to climate changes can drive broader ecosystem processes such as primary productivity. Using a rainfall mesocosm facility, three ecotypes of P. virgatum (collected from Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, USA) were subjected to three precipitation regimes (average, –25%, +25%) to determine the physiological and growth responses to altered precipitation in a common garden setting. Results showed mean maximum photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, midday water potential and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence were lowest in the Kansas ecotypes. Increased precipitation treatments raised the mean midday water potentials and lowered water-use efficiency. Aboveground biomass responded positively to changes in precipitation, but flowering initiation was later and rates were lower for Texas ecotypes. In general, ecotype origin was a better predictor of differences in physiological responses and flowering, whereas the precipitation treatments had greater control over biomass production. Depending on the growth variable measured, these results show responses for P. virgatum are under varying ecotypic or environmental control with few interactions, suggesting that future predictions to climate change need not inherently consider localised adaptations in this economically important and widely distributed species.

Hartman JC; Nippert JB; Springer CJ

2012-01-01

83

PHOTOSYNTHESIS, CARBON ALLOCATION, AND GROWTH OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ECOTYPES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation in Geranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and ...

84

Genetic Improvement of Local Chickens by Crossing with the Label Rouge (T55XSA51): Growth Performances and Heterosis Effects  

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Full Text Available The study of Genetic improvement of local chickens by crossing with the Label Rouge was carried out on the Experimentation Farm of the Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, from August 2007 to may 2008. At the hatching, 6 lots of chicks were made up: the lot MnFl, composed of 47 chicks resulting from the crossing between females Label Rouge and males of North ecotype; the lot MlFn, composed of 58 chicks resulting from the crossing between North females and males Label Rouge; the lot MsFl, composed of 36 chicks resulting from the crossing between Label Rouge females and males of the South ecotype; the lot of north local chickens composed of 112 chicks; the lot of South local chickens composed of 128 chicks and the lot of Label Rouge composed of 204 chicks. Label Rouge have an age-type weight significantly higher than the cross ones (p<0.05) and those have also an age-type weight more significant than the local chickens (p<0.01). The Label Rouge had more important feed intake than the local chickens and the crossbreeds had a feed intake intermediate between the ones of the Label Rouge and the local chickens. Among the chickens resulting from a parent of North ecotype, the hens resulting from a cock of North ecotype had a weak feed efficiency compared to the one resulting from females of North ecotype. The weight average heterosis was 21.95, 14.47 and 27.69%, respectively for the cross MnFl, MlFn and MsFl. Those of the female were 1.17; 23.2 and 4.62%, respectively for the cross MnFl, MlFn and MsFl. A negative heterosis effect was obtained for the feed intake and the feed efficiency of the various crossbreeds.

I.A.K. Youssao; M. Senou; M. Dahouda; M.T. Kpodekon; J. Djenontin; N-D. Idrissou; G.A. Bonou; U.P. Tougan; S. Ahounou; H.M. Assogba; E. Bankole; X. Rognon; M. Tixier-Boichard

2009-01-01

85

Haemoglobin Polymorphisms in the Nigerian Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available Haemoglobin (Hb) alleles and their frequencies as well their effect of some phenotypic characteristics were studied in local (LB) and Exotic Birds (EB) (Meat-type strain). Blood samples were collect from the local birds and exotic birds. The local birds were from reputable commercial farm. Blood samples were analyzed for haemoglobin types determined by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The result showed that Hb genotypes were the same for exotic birds (AA) and also the phenotype characteristics studied were uniform but the local birds varied in Hb type and phenotype characteristics. The frequencies of HbA and HbA in local birds were 0.68 and 0.33, respectively and genotype frequencies HbAA (0.35) and Hb AB (0.65) and frequencies of HbA in exotic bird was 1.00 with genotype frequency of 100%. The local birds? population was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg?s equilibrium while the exotic birds were not. This suggests that the sample was a mixture of subpopulations with different gene frequencies. The relations among the investigated genotypes, plumage and shank colors were discussed.

Salako, A.E; A.O.Ige

2006-01-01

86

Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest Ethiopia using microsatellite markers  

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In this study, indigenous chicken populations representing seven different areas of northwest Ethiopia were studied using microsatellite markers to determine genetic diversity and variation. Three local lines of South African chicken and two commercial chicken strains were included for comparison. T...

Hassen, Halima; Neser, F.W.C.; De Kock, A.; Van Marle-Koster, Este

87

[Comparison of physiological characteristics of different ecotype plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on the responses of photosynthesis, leaf water content and stoma resistance of 4 different ecotype plants to water stresses showed that their mechanism of drought-resistance was different. Mesic plants limited water loss from transpiration by increasing their stoma resistance, while xeric plants decreased water loss by keeping the high concentration of cell protoplasm. The latter had a higher efficiency of keeping water than the former. The leaf water content and stoma resistance was decreased from mesic to xeric plants, while the net photosynthetic rate per unit leaf was increased, indicating the difference of physiological characteristics among different ecotype plants.

Tai P; Guo S; Song Y; Sun T; Li P; Jiang S

2000-02-01

88

Genetic Improvement of Local Chickens by Crossing with the Label Rouge (T55*SA51): Carcass Characteristic, Organoleptic Qualities and Heterosis Effects  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristic and the organoleptic qualities of Label Rouge, North and South Local Chicken and their crossbreed MnFl (females Label Rouge x males of North ecotype), MlFn (North females ecotype x males Label Rouge) and MsFl (Label Rouge females x males of the South ecotype). This study was carried out on the Experimentation Farm of the Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, from August 2007 to may 2008. Ten chicken of each genotype were slaughtered at 24 weeks age. The local chickens of the North ecotype had a live weight at the slaughter significantly higher than that of the Southern ecotype and lower compared to the cross and the Label Rouge; the same tendency was observed for the noble carcass cuts. The carcass yield was similar for the six genetic types. The meats of Label Rouge chickens, the local chickens and the Cross MsFl were less tender (p<0.05) than those of North chickens and the Cross containing the “North blood” (MnFl and MlFn). No significant differences were observed in other hand on the juiciness and the flavor for the six genetic types. For each type of crossing, the heterosis effect of the live weight, the hot carcass weight and the wet carcass weight had a close values. In general, the different heterosis rates of the crossing male of North ecotype x female Label was superior than those of the other crossings.

I.A.K. Youssao; M. Senou; M. Dahouda; M.T. Kpodekon; J. Djenontin; N-D. Idrissou; G.A. Bonou; U.P. Tougan; S. Ahounou; H.M. Assogba; E. Bankole; X. Rognon; M. Tixier-Boichard

2009-01-01

89

Effect of cold acclimation on the photosynthetic performance of two ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of cold acclimation of two ecotypes (Antarctic and Andes) of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. Caryophyllaceae on their photosynthetic characteristics and performance under high light (HL) were compared. Non-acclimated plants of the Antarctic ecotype exhibited a higher (34%) maximal rate of photosynthesis than the Andes ecotype. In cold-acclimated plants the light compensation point was increased. Dark respiration was significantly increased during the exposure to 4 degrees C in both ecotypes. Cold-acclimated Antarctic plants showed higher Phi(PSII) and qP compared with the Andes ecotype. In addition, the Antarctic ecotype exhibited higher heat dissipation (NPQ), especially in the cold-acclimated state, which was mainly associated with the fast relaxing component of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ(F)). By contrast, the Andes ecotype exhibited a lower NPQ(F) and a significant increase in the slowly relaxing component (NPQ(s)) at low temperature and HL, indicating higher sensitivity to low temperature-induced photoinhibition. Although the xanthophyll cycle was fully operational in both ecotypes, cold-acclimated Antarctic plants exposed to HL exhibited higher epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments (EPS) compared with the cold-acclimated Andes ecotype. Thus, the photosynthetic apparatus of the Antarctic ecotype operates more efficiently than that of the Andes one, under a combination of low temperature and HL. The ecotype differences are discussed in relation to the different climatic conditions of the two Colobanthus. PMID:18057038

Bravo, León A; Saavedra-Mella, Felipe A; Vera, Felipe; Guerra, Alexi; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Ivanov, Alexander G; Huner, Norman P A; Corcuera, Luis J

2007-01-01

90

Effect of cold acclimation on the photosynthetic performance of two ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of cold acclimation of two ecotypes (Antarctic and Andes) of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. Caryophyllaceae on their photosynthetic characteristics and performance under high light (HL) were compared. Non-acclimated plants of the Antarctic ecotype exhibited a higher (34%) maximal rate of photosynthesis than the Andes ecotype. In cold-acclimated plants the light compensation point was increased. Dark respiration was significantly increased during the exposure to 4 degrees C in both ecotypes. Cold-acclimated Antarctic plants showed higher Phi(PSII) and qP compared with the Andes ecotype. In addition, the Antarctic ecotype exhibited higher heat dissipation (NPQ), especially in the cold-acclimated state, which was mainly associated with the fast relaxing component of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ(F)). By contrast, the Andes ecotype exhibited a lower NPQ(F) and a significant increase in the slowly relaxing component (NPQ(s)) at low temperature and HL, indicating higher sensitivity to low temperature-induced photoinhibition. Although the xanthophyll cycle was fully operational in both ecotypes, cold-acclimated Antarctic plants exposed to HL exhibited higher epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments (EPS) compared with the cold-acclimated Andes ecotype. Thus, the photosynthetic apparatus of the Antarctic ecotype operates more efficiently than that of the Andes one, under a combination of low temperature and HL. The ecotype differences are discussed in relation to the different climatic conditions of the two Colobanthus.

Bravo LA; Saavedra-Mella FA; Vera F; Guerra A; Cavieres LA; Ivanov AG; Huner NP; Corcuera LJ

2007-01-01

91

Killer whale ecotypes: is there a global model?  

Science.gov (United States)

Killer whales, Orcinus orca, are top predators occupying key ecological roles in a variety of ecosystems and are one of the most widely distributed mammals on the planet. In consequence, there has been significant interest in understanding their basic biology and ecology. Long-term studies of Northern Hemisphere killer whales, particularly in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), have identified three ecologically distinct communities or ecotypes in that region. The success of these prominent ENP studies has led to similar efforts at clarifying the role of killer whale ecology in other regions, including Antarctica. In the Southern Hemisphere, killer whales present a range of behavioural, social and morphological characteristics to biologists, who often interpret this as evidence to categorize individuals or groups, and draw general ecological conclusions about these super-predators. Morphologically distinct forms (Type A, B, C, and D) occur in the Southern Ocean and studies of these different forms are often presented in conjunction with evidence for specialised ecology and behaviours. Here we review current knowledge of killer whale ecology and ecotyping globally and present a synthesis of existing knowledge. In particular, we highlight the complexity of killer whale ecology in the Southern Hemisphere and examine this in the context of comparatively well-studied Northern Hemisphere populations. We suggest that assigning erroneous or prefatory ecotypic status in the Southern Hemisphere could be detrimental to subsequent killer whale studies, because unsubstantiated characteristics may be assumed as a result of such classification. On this basis, we also recommend that ecotypic status classification for Southern Ocean killer whale morphotypes be reserved until more evidence-based ecological and taxonomic data are obtained. PMID:22882545

de Bruyn, P J N; Tosh, Cheryl A; Terauds, Aleks

2012-08-09

92

Recent nonhybrid origin of sunflower ecotypes in a novel habitat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genomics of local adaptation is an increasingly active field, providing insights into the forces driving ecological speciation and the repeatability of evolution. Demography and gene flow play an important role in determining the paths by which parallel evolution occurs and the genomic signatures of adaptation. In the annual sunflowers, hybridization between species has repeatedly led to the colonization of extreme habitats, such as sand dunes. In a new case of adaptation to sand dunes that occurs in populations of H. petiolaris growing at Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (Colorado), we wished to determine the age and long-term migration patterns of the system, as well as its ancestry. We addressed these questions with restriction-associated DNA (RAD) sequence data, aligned to a reference transcriptome. In an isolation with migration model using RAD sequences, coalescent analysis showed that the dune ecotype originated since the last ice age, which is very recent compared with the hybrid dune species, H. anomalus. Large effective population sizes and substantial numbers of gene migrants per generation between dune and nondune ecotypes explained the highly heterogeneous divergence observed among loci. Analysis of RAD-derived SNPs identified heterogeneous divergence between the dune and nondune ecotypes, as well as identifying its nearest relative. Our results did not support the hypothesis that the dune ecotype has hybrid ancestry, suggesting that adaptation of sunflowers to dunes has occurred by multiple mechanisms. The ancestry and long-term history of gene flow between incipient sunflower species provides valuable context for our understanding of ecological speciation and parallel adaptation.

Andrew RL; Kane NC; Baute GJ; Grassa CJ; Rieseberg LH

2013-02-01

93

Adaptation of tobacco etch potyvirus to a susceptible ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana capacitates it for systemic infection of resistant ecotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Viral pathogens continue to emerge among humans, domesticated animals and cultivated crops. The existence of genetic variance for resistance in the host population is crucial to the spread of an emerging virus. Models predict that rapid spread decreases with the frequency and diversity of resistance alleles in the host population. However, empirical tests of this hypothesis are scarce. Arabiodpsis thaliana—tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) provides an experimentally suitable pathosystem to explore the interplay between genetic variation in host's susceptibility and virus diversity. Systemic infection of A. thaliana with TEV is controlled by three dominant loci, with different ecotypes varying in susceptibility depending on the genetic constitution at these three loci. Here, we show that the TEV adaptation to a susceptible ecotype allowed the virus to successfully infect, replicate and induce symptoms in ecotypes that were fully resistant to the ancestral virus. The value of these results is twofold. First, we showed that the existence of partially susceptible individuals allows for the emerging virus to bypass resistance alleles that the virus has never encountered. Second, the concept of resistance genes may only be valid for a well-defined viral genotype but not for polymorphic viral populations.

Lalic, Jasna; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Carrasco, Purificacion; Elena, Santiago F.

2010-01-01

94

The adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in two ecotypes of a marine gastropod  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Few surveys have concentrated on studying the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity within genetically-distinct conspecific ecotypes. Here, we conduct a test to assess the adaptive value that partial phenotypic plasticity may have for survival in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis. This species has evolved canalized ecotypes but, nevertheless, the ecotypes show some phenotypic plasticity for the traits under divergent selection between wave-exposed and high-predation habitats. Results We exposed juveniles of each ecotype to several environmental treatments under laboratory conditions in order to produce shape variation associated with plasticity. The two ecotypes from different treatments were then transplanted to the wave-exposed habitat and the survival rate was monitored. Ecotype explained the largest distinction in survival rate while treatment caused variation in survival rate within the ecotype released into its parental habitat which was correlated with plastic changes in shell shape. Snails that had experienced a treatment mimicking the environment of the transplantation location survived with the highest rate, while individuals from the contrary experimental treatment had lower survivorship. Conclusions We conclude that the partial plastic response shown in Littorina saxatilis has a significant impact on fitness, although this remains small compared to the overall adaptive difference between ecotypes.

Hollander Johan; Butlin Roger K

2010-01-01

95

Effect of Ecotype on Semen Characteristics of Sahel Goats in Borno State  

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Full Text Available A research was conducted to study the influence of ecotype on semen characteristics in 5 white and 5 brown ecotypes of sahel goats. Semen was collected from eight to forty-eight weeks of age and analyzed for semen characteristics and abnormalities. Body weights and scrotal circumference were also measured from three months to 1 year of age on a monthly basis. Analysis to determine the difference between the two ecotypes was performed. The only significant difference between the two ecotypes was in body weights, scrotal circumference and protoplasmic droplet abnormality. It was concluded that there was no superiority in the mean semen characteristics between the white and brown ecotypes of sahel bucks. This may be due to the total absence of coordinated breeding programmes evidenced by random indiscriminate mating in the goat population in Borno pastoral setting. This suggests that the conservation and preservation of most cherished traits are un-achievable under the current husbandry practices.

V.A. Maina; S.U.R. Chaudhari; A.Y. Ribadu

2006-01-01

96

The growth, flowering and chemical composition of leaves of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L.  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the Botanical Garden of UMCS in Lublin. A collection of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L. from Dukla, Roztocze Region and Bieszczady mountain range, were the subject of our study. The aim of the study was to compare the biometrical features and chemical composition of garlic leaves. There were substantial differences both in growth characteristics and flowering characteristics of the ecotypes of Allium ursinum. The Dukla ecotype formed the longest leaves, whereas the shortest ones were found in the Roztocze ecotype. The Bieszczady ecotype was characterized by the widest leaf blades, the longest leaf stalk and flowering stems as well as the largest diameter of inflorescence. The Roztocze ecotype had the largest number of flowers in an inflorescence, while the Dukla ecotype had the shortest flowering stems and the fewest flowers in an inflorescence. The largest concentration of dry mass in leaves was detected in A. ursinum from Roztocze. The largest concentration of proteins was detected in the leaves of A. ursinum from Bieszczady. The most flavonoids were assayed in the leaves of the Roztocze ecotype of A. ursinum, the fewest in the Dukla one. Phenolic acids were at their highest concentration in the leaves of bear's garlic from Dukla, while the lowest concentration was recorded in the leaves of the ecotype from Bieszczady. The garlic leaves from Dukla had also the highest content of essential oil, while the Roztocze ones had the lowest oil content. The ecotypes of Allium ursinum differed substantially when it comes to the number of components of their essential oils and the amount of selected components.

Marzena B?a?ewicz-Wo?niak; Anna Michowska

2011-01-01

97

[Quality variation and ecotype division of Panax quinquefolium in China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quality variation and ecotype classification of Chinese herbal medicine are important scientific problems in Daodi herbal medicine research. The diversity of natural environmental conditions has led to form unique multi-Daodi, multi-product areas that produce particular Chinese herbal medicine. China is one of three big American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) producing areas worldwide, with over 300 years of application and 40 years of cultivation history. Long-term production practice has led to the formation of three big advocate produce areas in China: Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong. P. quinquefolium L. grown under certain environmental conditions will develop long-term adaptations that will lead to more stable strains (different ecotypes). P. quinquefolium L., can vary greatly in quality; however, the ecological mechanisms causing this variation are still unclear. Root samples were collected from four-year-old cultivated P. quinquefolium L. plants in the three major genuine (Daodi) American ginseng-producing areas of Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong province, China. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the contents of eight ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg2). Data for nine ecological factors, including temperature, moisture and sunlight, were obtained from the ecological database of Geographic Information System for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Soil samples from the sampling sites were collected. Effective boron and iron, available nitrogen and potassium, as well as other trace elements and soil nutrients, were determined by conventional soil physicochemical property assay methods. Analytical methods of biostatistics and numerical taxonomy were used to divide ecotypes of the three main Panax quinquefolium L. producing areas in China based on ginsenoside content, climate, soil and other ecological factors. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ecological division of P. quinquefolium L. producing areas in China has ever been conducted. The results show that there are two chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. in China: ginsenoside Rb1-Re from outside Shanhaiguan, and ginsenoside Rg2-Rd from inside Shanhaiguan. Similarly, there are two types of climatic characteristics: inside Shanhaiguan (Beijing, Shandong) and outside Shanhaiguan (Northeast). This suggests that the formation and differentiation of chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. is closely related to variability of the climatic and geographical environment. Additionally, ecological variation of the three main producing areas, characteristics of two climatic ecotypes, and soil characteristics are also discussed and summarized. These results provide experimental scientific evidence of the quality variation and ecological adaptation of P. quinquefolium L. from different producing areas. They also deepen our understanding of the biological nature of Daodi P. quinquefolium L. formation, and offer novel research models for other multi-origin, multi-Daodi Chinese herbal medicines ecotypes. In addition, the results demonstrate the critical need for improving quality, appropriate ecological regionalization and promoting industrialized development of P. quinquefolium L.

Huang LF; Suo FM; Song JY; Wen MJ; Jia GL; Xie CX; Chen SL

2013-04-01

98

[Quality variation and ecotype division of Panax quinquefolium in China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality variation and ecotype classification of Chinese herbal medicine are important scientific problems in Daodi herbal medicine research. The diversity of natural environmental conditions has led to form unique multi-Daodi, multi-product areas that produce particular Chinese herbal medicine. China is one of three big American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) producing areas worldwide, with over 300 years of application and 40 years of cultivation history. Long-term production practice has led to the formation of three big advocate produce areas in China: Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong. P. quinquefolium L. grown under certain environmental conditions will develop long-term adaptations that will lead to more stable strains (different ecotypes). P. quinquefolium L., can vary greatly in quality; however, the ecological mechanisms causing this variation are still unclear. Root samples were collected from four-year-old cultivated P. quinquefolium L. plants in the three major genuine (Daodi) American ginseng-producing areas of Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong province, China. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the contents of eight ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg2). Data for nine ecological factors, including temperature, moisture and sunlight, were obtained from the ecological database of Geographic Information System for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Soil samples from the sampling sites were collected. Effective boron and iron, available nitrogen and potassium, as well as other trace elements and soil nutrients, were determined by conventional soil physicochemical property assay methods. Analytical methods of biostatistics and numerical taxonomy were used to divide ecotypes of the three main Panax quinquefolium L. producing areas in China based on ginsenoside content, climate, soil and other ecological factors. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ecological division of P. quinquefolium L. producing areas in China has ever been conducted. The results show that there are two chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. in China: ginsenoside Rb1-Re from outside Shanhaiguan, and ginsenoside Rg2-Rd from inside Shanhaiguan. Similarly, there are two types of climatic characteristics: inside Shanhaiguan (Beijing, Shandong) and outside Shanhaiguan (Northeast). This suggests that the formation and differentiation of chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. is closely related to variability of the climatic and geographical environment. Additionally, ecological variation of the three main producing areas, characteristics of two climatic ecotypes, and soil characteristics are also discussed and summarized. These results provide experimental scientific evidence of the quality variation and ecological adaptation of P. quinquefolium L. from different producing areas. They also deepen our understanding of the biological nature of Daodi P. quinquefolium L. formation, and offer novel research models for other multi-origin, multi-Daodi Chinese herbal medicines ecotypes. In addition, the results demonstrate the critical need for improving quality, appropriate ecological regionalization and promoting industrialized development of P. quinquefolium L. PMID:23833949

Huang, Lin-Fang; Suo, Feng-Mei; Song, Jing-Yuan; Wen, Mei-Jia; Jia, Guang-Lin; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Lin

2013-04-01

99

Indigenous Existentialism and the Body  

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Full Text Available This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive), detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined only in relation to an imagined authentic past, indigenous existentialism is inhibited because indigenous people lack a conscious awareness of cultural immediacy. There is nothing more immediate than the body and, thus, I began to theorise indigenous existentialism through an analyses of the indigenous body, its genealogy, and its immediacy. To help me process this theorisation I engage with current Cultural Studies debates surrounding the analyses of the body. I conclude that an indigenous existentialism will recognise that the power of the body is still unknown.

Brendan Hokowhitu

2011-01-01

100

Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions) and southern (9 accessions) regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differences for most of the traits in the northern ecotypes (first collection) while for southern ecotypes no significant differences were obtained for the studied traits except seed yield. Among and within ecotypes genotypic coefficient of variation indicated higher level of variation among ecotypes than within ecotypes. In both of the experiments, there was a large genetic variation for silybin and silymarin quality and quantity. Cluster analysis of 34 accessions was performed for morphological traits and silymarin and silybin characteristics, separately. The resulting dendrogram based on silybin and silymarin characteristics revealed that the native accessions such as Dezfoul, Fereydounkenar and Nour, had highest flavonolignans and they were better than the foreign varieties. Also, there was no clear relationship between clustering based on morphological traits and flavonolignan compounds.

Majid Shokrpour; Mohammad Moghaddam; Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Ziai; Aziz Javanshir

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes with contrasted root architecture in response to phosphate deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Owing to a weak availability in soil, plants have developed numerous morphological, physiological and biochemical adaptations to acquire phosphate (Pi). Identification and characterisation of key genes involved in the initial steps of Pi-signalling might provide clues about the regulation of the complex Pi deficiency adaptation mechanism. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach was performed to investigate proteome responses to Pi starvation in Arabidopsis. Two ecotypes were selected according to contrasting responses of their root system architecture to low availability of Pi. Thirty protein spots were shown to be affected by Pi deficiency. Fourteen proteins appeared to be up-regulated and ten down-regulated with ecotype Be-0, wheras only thirteen proteins were observed as down-regulated for ecotype Ll-0. Furthermore, systematic and opposite responses to Pi deficiency were observed between the two ecotypes. The sequences of these 30 differentially expressed protein spots were identified using mass spectrometry, and most of the proteins were involved in oxidative stress, carbohydrate and proteins metabolism. The results suggested that the modulation of alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and aconitate hydratase may contribute to the contrasted adaptation strategy to Pi deficiency of Be-0 and Ll-0 ecotypes. A focus on aconitate hydratase highlighted a complex reverse response of the pattern of corresponding spots between the two ecotypes. This protein, also potentially involved in iron homeostasis, was speculated to contribute, at least indirectly, to the root architecture response of these ecotypes.

Chevalier F; Rossignol M

2011-11-01

102

STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken), Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05) in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs) as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs) produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

2004-01-01

103

Chicken beancurd  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a chicken deep processed food, in particular to an edible chicken beancurd for hot pot, oil frying, frying and the like. The components of edible chicken beancurd are followingraw material: 40-60g of fresh grade breast, 10-20g of chicken skin, 1-3g of egg white powder, 15-20g of ice water, 1.3-1.8g of common salt, 1-2g of white sugar, 0.3-0.5g of monosodium glutamate and 0.05g of five-spice powder and the preparation method comprises the following steps: high-speed cutting and stirring, dishing, stewing, slitting, quick freezing and package. As the invention adopts ascientific process and an advanced formula, the produced products have pure white appearance which is similar to the conventional beancurd and the edible chicken beancurd has order cutting blocks, soft and tender mouthfeel, good integrity after longtime boiling, good chewing feeling, incapability of oil frying, stir frying, boiling, rich nutrition, easy digestion and special flavor.

JIQUAN DONG; LIANG SHI

104

Mobile indigenous peoples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2008 the theme of the UN Permanent Forum onIndigenous Issues (UNPFII1) was ‘Climate Change, Bio-culturalDiversity and Livelihoods: the stewardship role of indigenouspeoples and new challenges’.

Troy Sternberg; Dawn Chatty

2008-01-01

105

Photosynthetic responses to salinity stress of halophytic seashore paspalum ecotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in photosynthetic capacity in variable salinity ranges were applied to explore mechanisms of salinity tolerance in seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) ecotypes. Nine ecotypes exhibiting a wide range of salinity tolerance were grown in a greenhouse using nutrient/sand culture, with six salinity levels of 1.1–49.7 dS m?1 (denoted as ECw0 to ECw50; electrical conductivity of water). With increasing salinity, chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly only at ECw50 in comparison with nonsaline control. As salinity increased, initial chlorophyll fluorescence (F0) increased, while maximum fluorescence (Fm) and the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio (Fv/Fm) tended to decrease. As salinity increased, reflectance at visible wavelengths (507–706 nm) was enhanced, whereas it decreased at wavelength ?760 nm. Compared to Adalayd, more tolerant SI 93-2 and HI 101 exhibited significantly lower reflectance in the photosynthetically active range (PAR), and higher reflectance beyond the PAR. All seashore paspalums maintained active photosynthetic capacity, as indicated by minor reductions in pigments, high light-harvesting capacity, and high maximum photochemical efficiency (high Fv/Fm values of 0.75–0.81) at high salt levels. SI 93-2 and HI 101 were characterized by high Fm and high Fv/Fm at ECw50 with minimal changes with increasing salinity. Also, SI 93-2 and HI 101 exhibited higher density and canopy cover. This resulted in low reflectance, as indicated by significantly higher IR/R (ratio of infrared to red wavelength) and NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) indexes, and lower stress indexes (Stresses 1 and 2) compared to the least salt-tolerant Adalayd. IR/R and Stress 1 indexes were found to be useful tools for salinity tolerance evaluation, accounting for 85% of shoot and 51% of root growth variations, respectively.

Lee G; Carrow RN; Duncan RR

2004-06-01

106

Tissue and Blood Amino Acids Composition of an Ecotype Cichlid ‘Wesafu’, Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis niloticus Using Paper Chromatography  

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Full Text Available Wesafu is an indigenous ecotype cichlid and a very important part of the fisheries of Epe lagoon in Lagos Nigeria. Investigation of the amino acids composition of tissue and blood samples of Wesafu, T. zillii and O. niloticus using paper chromatography (Ranjna, 1999) was conducted. Only 14 amino acids (Alanine, Cysteine, Asphatic acid, Phenylalanine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Leucine, Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Tryptophan, Glutamic acid) were analyzed. In the muscles, 11 amino acids were identified with alanine, guanine and methionine absent in all three fish tissue sampled. Phenylalanine, isoleucine and valine were absent in O. niloticus but present in Wesafu and T. zillii while Tryptophan and Glutamic acid were present in O. niloticus but absent in the tissues of Wesafu and T. zillii. However, all 14 AA assayed were present in different proportions in the blood samples of the three species. This report further suggests that the Wesafu is different from either of the two species and warrant species identification at a level of molecular biology.

A.M. Hammed; H.A. Fashina-Bombata; O.O. Fajana

2010-01-01

107

[Effect of red and blue spectrum on photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were studied under different red and blue light excitation by LED red and blue lamp-house. Photosynthesis did not carry on under red and blue light of 50 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). When red and blue light intensity was increased, photosynthesis rate, stoma limit value and transpiration rate of the two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were all increased. But photosynthesis rate stopped increasing under red and blue light of 1 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis and of 907 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis, which is known as light saturation. And the effect of blue light on photosynthesis became weaker than red light under higher light intensity. Increasing light intensity can promote plant photosynthesis rate in the range of low light intensity. But when light intensity reaches light saturation, photosynthesis rate does not increases but decreases. Because though light quantum numbers is increasing, the numbers of coloring mater does not change and is saturated. On the other hand, when the light intensity is of light saturation, the stoma limit value was increased and the transpiration rate was decreased in order to reduce water waste. When light intensity reaches the value that plant can bear, the plant will automatically close stoma in order to decrease transpiration and to save water. Plant balances every physiological index and makes sure that physiology damage is the least and production is the greatest. Although grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis has lower stoma limit and higher water waste, it also has higher photosynthesis rate than yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis. And the photosynthesis capability and physiology adaptation of grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis is greater than that of yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis.

Zhou C; Yang YF; Wang K

2008-07-01

108

Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Ecotypes via Physiological Traits  

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Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, ?Seyah-Roud?, ?Ahar-Hourand?, ?Oskou?, ?Malekan? and ?Sefida-Khan? were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and ?Sefida-Khan? had comparatively less sodium contents than ?Oskou?, ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes ?Malekan?, Ahar- Hourand and ?Oskou? were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes ?Malekan? and ?Ahar-Hourand? were better.

Hassan MONIRIFAR; Maryam BARGHI

2009-01-01

109

ISSR profiling of genetic variability in the ecotypes of Antheraea mylitta Drury, the tropical Tasar silkworm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antheraea mylitta, Drury, the semi-wild silk-producing lepidopteran insect commonly known as tasar silkworm is unique to India and is distributed over a wide tropical forest range covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madnya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Uttaranchal. The populations found in different areas are know by their specific local names and are considered as different ecotypes, but it is difficult to separate the populations on the basis of morphological and life-cycle traits and thus molecular characterization was attempted. The present communication relates to the results obtained from the analysis of polymorphism unraveled by twelve ISSR primers for 11 populations of A. mylitta belonging to six ecotypes and 41 individuals of "Railey"--ecotype collected from five zones of Dandakarnya forest in Madnya Pradesh. This communication, further, presents molecular evidences on genetic differences between eleven ecotype populations and highlights the genotypic diversification of a single ecotype into further separate discrete gene pools. The canonical discriminant function analysis revealed grouping of the five populations of Railey ecotype into two "clumps", while accessions of other ecotypes stood separated from each other. Thr "Railey" populations on detailed study, further, revealed separation of two (Tokapal and Nangur) populations into discrete gene pools and the other three (Kondagaon, Darba and Tongpal) populations, in spite of larger geographic distance between them, overlapped one on the other. The analysis also identified nine markers, which can be utilized to characterize specific population and will be of help to follow the ongoing genetic changes triggered by various ecological factors and human influences on the "Railey" ecotype.

Chatterjee SN; Vijayan K; Roy GC; Nair CV

2004-02-01

110

ISSR profiling of genetic variability in the ecotypes of Antheraea mylitta Drury, the tropical Tasar silkworm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antheraea mylitta, Drury, the semi-wild silk-producing lepidopteran insect commonly known as tasar silkworm is unique to India and is distributed over a wide tropical forest range covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madnya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Uttaranchal. The populations found in different areas are know by their specific local names and are considered as different ecotypes, but it is difficult to separate the populations on the basis of morphological and life-cycle traits and thus molecular characterization was attempted. The present communication relates to the results obtained from the analysis of polymorphism unraveled by twelve ISSR primers for 11 populations of A. mylitta belonging to six ecotypes and 41 individuals of "Railey"--ecotype collected from five zones of Dandakarnya forest in Madnya Pradesh. This communication, further, presents molecular evidences on genetic differences between eleven ecotype populations and highlights the genotypic diversification of a single ecotype into further separate discrete gene pools. The canonical discriminant function analysis revealed grouping of the five populations of Railey ecotype into two "clumps", while accessions of other ecotypes stood separated from each other. Thr "Railey" populations on detailed study, further, revealed separation of two (Tokapal and Nangur) populations into discrete gene pools and the other three (Kondagaon, Darba and Tongpal) populations, in spite of larger geographic distance between them, overlapped one on the other. The analysis also identified nine markers, which can be utilized to characterize specific population and will be of help to follow the ongoing genetic changes triggered by various ecological factors and human influences on the "Railey" ecotype. PMID:15065428

Chatterjee, S N; Vijayan, K; Roy, G C; Nair, C V

2004-02-01

111

Assessment of Milk Thistle Ecotypes for Drought Resistance in a Hydroponic System  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate drought resistance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) at seedling stage. The experiment was designed as a split plot in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were combination of drought stress levels as main plots and different milk thistle ecotypes as subplot layouts replicated 3 times and run in a hydroponic system. Root length, root volume, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and dry weight of root were measured for assessing the ecotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences between the measured traits at 1% level. Significant interaction between stress and ecotypes, indicated that the ecotypes had different trends over stress levels. Mean comparison of ecotypes suggested that decreased chlorophyll, root tolerance index, root volume and dry weight and increased electrolyte leakage were related to the increased stress intensity. Values of root tolerance index and electrolyte leakage suggested Ghaemieh as a drought tolerant ecotype. Correlation among root characteristics and root tolerance index showed that root volume and dry weight are more efficient criteria, compared to root length, for evaluation of drought tolerance in milk thistle genotypes.

R. Deliri; M. Shokrpour; A. Asghari; E. Esfandiari; R. Seyed Sharifi

2010-01-01

112

Hierarchical classification of switchgrass genotypes using SSR and chloroplast sequences: ecotypes, ploidies, gene pools, and cultivars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important crop for bioenergy feedstock development. Switchgrass has two main ecotypes: the lowland ecotype being exclusively tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) and the upland ecotype being mainly tetraploid and octaploid (2n = 8x = 72). Because there is a significant difference in ploidy, morphology, growth pattern, and zone of adaptation between and within the upland and lowland ecotypes, it is important to discriminate switchgrass plants belonging to different genetic pools. We used 55 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci and six chloroplast sequences to identify patterns of variation between and within 18 switchgrass cultivars representing seven lowland and 11 upland cultivars from different geographic regions and of varying ploidy levels. We report consistent discrimination of switchgrass cultivars into ecotype membership and demonstrate unambiguous molecular differentiation among switchgrass ploidy levels using genetic markers. Also, SSR and chloroplast markers identified genetic pools related to the geographic origin of the 18 cultivars with respect to ecotype, ploidy, and geographical, and cultivar sources. SSR loci were highly informative for cultivar fingerprinting and to classify plants of unknown origin. This classification system is the first step toward developing switchgrass complementary gene pools that can be expected to provide a significant heterotic increase in biomass yield.

Zalapa JE; Price DL; Kaeppler SM; Tobias CM; Okada M; Casler MD

2011-03-01

113

Hierarchical classification of switchgrass genotypes using SSR and chloroplast sequences: ecotypes, ploidies, gene pools, and cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important crop for bioenergy feedstock development. Switchgrass has two main ecotypes: the lowland ecotype being exclusively tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) and the upland ecotype being mainly tetraploid and octaploid (2n = 8x = 72). Because there is a significant difference in ploidy, morphology, growth pattern, and zone of adaptation between and within the upland and lowland ecotypes, it is important to discriminate switchgrass plants belonging to different genetic pools. We used 55 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci and six chloroplast sequences to identify patterns of variation between and within 18 switchgrass cultivars representing seven lowland and 11 upland cultivars from different geographic regions and of varying ploidy levels. We report consistent discrimination of switchgrass cultivars into ecotype membership and demonstrate unambiguous molecular differentiation among switchgrass ploidy levels using genetic markers. Also, SSR and chloroplast markers identified genetic pools related to the geographic origin of the 18 cultivars with respect to ecotype, ploidy, and geographical, and cultivar sources. SSR loci were highly informative for cultivar fingerprinting and to classify plants of unknown origin. This classification system is the first step toward developing switchgrass complementary gene pools that can be expected to provide a significant heterotic increase in biomass yield. PMID:21104398

Zalapa, J E; Price, D L; Kaeppler, S M; Tobias, C M; Okada, M; Casler, M D

2010-11-23

114

Demographic characteristics of circumpolar caribou populations: ecotypes, ecological constraints, releases, and population dynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on the status of caribou {Rangifer tarandus) herds throughout the circumpolar region during the last 20 years were obtained from the literature and personal communication with researchers. Information was analysed in relation to ecotype (insular, montane, barren-ground, and woodland/forest), population status (increasing, stable, decreasing), herd size, human impact, and temporal change in number. The data support the conclusions (1) that each ecotype is exposed to different ecological constraints and releases, which influence the demographic characteristics of their populations, (2) that subspecific (genotypic) classification does not explain the demographic characteristics of caribou populations, (3) that insular and montane ecotype populations are relatively stable, (4) that barren-ground ecotype herds are currently experiencing synchronous population growth throughout the circumpolar region and may undergo population cycles, (5) that in North America, the woodland caribou subspecies (genotype) forms the largest barren-ground ecotype herd in the world and is not endangered nor at risk, (6) that populations of woodland/forest ecotypes are declining and threatened throughout the circumpolar region, possibly due to the interaction of human disturbance and predation, and (7) that no relationship exists between herd size and risk of being classified as threatened by researchers.

F.F. Mallory; T.L. Hillis

1998-01-01

115

Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics of Australia ecotype Solanum nigrum L. and its implication in screening hyperaccumulator.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot culture experiment was used to determine the differences in uptake characteristics of a cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. discovered in China, an ecotype from Melbourne, Australia and a non-hyperaccumulator Solanum melogena Australian ecotype was not significantly different to the China ecotype. In particular, Cd concentration in leaves and shoots of S. nigrum collected from Australia were 166.0 and 146.3 mg kg(-1) respectively when 20 mg kg(-1) Cd spiked, and were not significantly different to the ecotype imported from China which had 109.8 and 85.3 mg kg(-1) respectively, in the stems and leaves. In contrast, the tolerance of the eggplant to Cd was significantly less than the two S. nigrum ecotypes. Although some morphological properties of S. nigrum collected from Australia were different from that of the plants collected from China, Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics of two ecotypes were similar. The results suggested that the tolerance and uptake of Cd may be a constitutive trait of this species. PMID:23488006

Wei, Shuhe; Clark, Gary; Doronila, Augustine Ignatius; Jin, Jian; Monsant, Alison Carol

2013-01-01

116

Influence of light and temperature on Prochlorococcus ecotype distributions in the Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

In a focused analysis of Prochlorococcus population structure in the western North Atlantic, we found that the relative abundances of ecotypes varied significantly with depth and, at seasonally stratified locations, with degree of vertical mixing. More limited regional variation was observed (e.g., Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, continental slope, and equatorial current), and local patchiness was minimal. Modeling of a combined North and South Atlantic data set revealed significant, independent effects of light and temperature on ecotype abundances, suggesting that they are key ecological determinants that establish the different habitat ranges of the physiologically and genetically distinct ecotypes. This was in sharp contrast with the genus Synechococcus, whose total abundance was related to light but did not vary in a predictable way with temperature. Comparisons of field abundances with growth characteristics of cultured isolates of Prochlorococcus suggested the presence of ecotype-specific thermal and light adaptations that could be responsible for the distinct distribution patterns of the four dominant ecotypes. Significantly, we discovered that one "low-light-adapted" ecotype, eNATL2A, can thrive in deeply mixed surface layers, whereas another, eMIT9313, cannot, even though they have the same growth optimum for (low) light. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Zinser, E. R.; Johnson, Z. I.; Coe, A.; Karaca, E.; Veneziano, D.; Chisholm, S. W.

2007-01-01

117

Genetic diversity and population structure of Indonesian native chickens based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indonesian native chickens are considered an important genetic resource, particularly with respect to their excellent traits for meat and egg production. However, few molecular genetic studies of these native chickens have been conducted. We analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of 4 populations of Indonesian native chickens: Black Kedu (BK), Kedu (KD), Kampung (LOC), and Arab (AR). Blood samples from 188 individuals were collected in central and western Java. Genomic DNA was genotyped using 98 autosomal SNP markers, of which 87 were found to be polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci and the average heterozygosity of each population were in the range of 0.765 to 0.878 and 0.224 to 0.263, respectively. The 4 populations of Indonesian chickens appeared to be derived from 3 genetic populations (K = 3): maximum likelihood clustering showed that the BK variety and AR breed were each assigned to a distinct cluster, whereas the LOC ecotype and KD variety were admixed populations with similar proportions of membership. Principal components analysis revealed that eigenvector 1 separated BK and AR from the other 2 populations. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from pairwise distance matrix (F(ST)) estimates, for individuals and between populations, corroborated that the LOC ecotype and KD variety were related closely, whereas the BK variety and AR breed diverged at greater distances. These results also confirmed the usefulness of SNP markers for the study of genetic diversity. PMID:22010231

Riztyan; Katano, T; Shimogiri, T; Kawabe, K; Okamoto, S

2011-11-01

118

Genetic diversity and population structure of Indonesian native chickens based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indonesian native chickens are considered an important genetic resource, particularly with respect to their excellent traits for meat and egg production. However, few molecular genetic studies of these native chickens have been conducted. We analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of 4 populations of Indonesian native chickens: Black Kedu (BK), Kedu (KD), Kampung (LOC), and Arab (AR). Blood samples from 188 individuals were collected in central and western Java. Genomic DNA was genotyped using 98 autosomal SNP markers, of which 87 were found to be polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci and the average heterozygosity of each population were in the range of 0.765 to 0.878 and 0.224 to 0.263, respectively. The 4 populations of Indonesian chickens appeared to be derived from 3 genetic populations (K = 3): maximum likelihood clustering showed that the BK variety and AR breed were each assigned to a distinct cluster, whereas the LOC ecotype and KD variety were admixed populations with similar proportions of membership. Principal components analysis revealed that eigenvector 1 separated BK and AR from the other 2 populations. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from pairwise distance matrix (F(ST)) estimates, for individuals and between populations, corroborated that the LOC ecotype and KD variety were related closely, whereas the BK variety and AR breed diverged at greater distances. These results also confirmed the usefulness of SNP markers for the study of genetic diversity.

Riztyan; Katano T; Shimogiri T; Kawabe K; Okamoto S

2011-11-01

119

Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (?ST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of indigenous chicken of Bangladesh. These results suggest that Bangladeshi indigenous chickens still have abundant genetic diversity and have originated from multiple maternal lineages, and further conservation efforts are warranted to maintain the diversity.

Bhuiyan MS; Chen S; Faruque S; Bhuiyan AK; Beja-Pereira A

2013-06-01

120

Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia  

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Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds) and mountain (Parsnip herd) ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively). Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

Elena S. Jones; Michael P. Gillingham; Dale R. Seip; Douglas C. Heard

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Taxonomic resolution, ecotypes and the biogeography of Prochlorococcus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to expand our understanding of the diversity and biogeography of Prochlorococcus ribotypes, we PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced the 16S/23S rRNA ITS region from sites in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Ninety-three per cent of the ITS sequences could be assigned to existing Prochlorococcus clades, although many novel subclades were detected. We assigned the sequences to operational taxonomic units using a graduated scale of sequence identity from 80% to 99.5% and correlated Prochlorococcus diversity with respect to environmental variables and dispersal time between the sites. Dispersal time was estimated using a global ocean circulation model. The significance of specific environmental variables was dependent on the degree of sequence identity used to define a taxon: light correlates with broad-scale diversity (90% cut-off), temperature with intermediate scale (95%) whereas no correlation with phosphate was observed. Community structure was correlated with dispersal time between sample sites only when taxa were defined using the finest sequence similarity cut-off. Surprisingly, the concentration of nitrate, which cannot be used as N source by the Prochlorococcus strains in culture, explains some variation in community structure for some definitions of taxa. This study suggests that the spatial distribution of Prochlorococcus ecotypes is shaped by a hierarchy of environmental factors as well dispersal limitation.

Martiny AC; Tai AP; Veneziano D; Primeau F; Chisholm SW

2009-04-01

122

Transcriptomic and physiological variations of three Arabidopsis ecotypes in response to salt stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. Analysis of natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis is an effective approach to characterize candidate salt responsive genes. Differences in salt tolerance of three Arabidopsis ecotypes were compared in this study based on their responses to salt treatments at two developmental stages: seed germination and later growth. The Sha ecotype had higher germination rates, longer roots and less accumulation of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide than the Ler and Col ecotypes after short term salt treatment. With long term salt treatment, Sha exhibited higher survival rates and lower electrolyte leakage. Transcriptome analysis revealed that many genes involved in cell wall, photosynthesis, and redox were mainly down-regulated by salinity effects, while transposable element genes, microRNA and biotic stress related genes were significantly changed in comparisons of Sha vs. Ler and Sha vs. Col. Several pathways involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, hormone metabolism and development, and the Gene Ontology terms involved in response to stress and defense response were enriched after salt treatment, and between Sha and other two ecotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that the Sha ecotype is preconditioned to withstand abiotic stress. Further studies about detailed gene function are needed. These comparative transcriptomic and analytical results also provide insight into the complexity of salt stress tolerance mechanisms.

Wang Y; Yang L; Zheng Z; Grumet R; Loescher W; Zhu JK; Yang P; Hu Y; Chan Z

2013-01-01

123

Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can be related to fish ecotypes. Broadly speaking, there were steady increases in abundance of species that were either Lusitanian, small-bodied, or low-/mid-trophic-level ecotypes, and generally declining or only marginally increasing trends of most Boreal, large-bodied, or high-trophic-level ecotypes or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure.

Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.

2011-01-01

124

Proteomic characterization of Phragmites communis in ecotypes of swamp and desert dune.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phragmites communis Trin. (common reed) is a recognized model plant for studying its adaptation to contrasting and harsh environments. To understand the inherent molecular basis for its remarkable resistance to combined stresses, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the leaf proteins from two ecotypes, i.e. swamp and desert dune, naturally growing in the desert region of northwestern China. First, a proteome reference map of Phragmites was established based on the swamp ecotype. Proteins were resolved by 2-D/SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 177 spots were identified corresponding to 51 proteins. The major proteins identified are proteins involved in photosynthesis, glutathione and ascorbic acid metabolism as well as protein synthesis and quality control. Second, the 2-DE profiles of the two ecotypes were compared quantitatively via DIGE analysis. Compared with swamp ecotype, 51 proteins spots are higher-expressed and 58 protein spots are lower-expressed by twofold or more in desert dune ecotype. Major differences were found for the proteins involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis and quality control and antioxidative reactions. The physiological significance of such differences is discussed in the context of a flow of complex events in relation to plant adaptation to combined environmental stresses. PMID:19701903

Cui, Suxia; Hu, Jia; Yang, Bin; Shi, Lu; Huang, Fang; Tsai, Sau-Na; Ngai, Sai-Ming; He, Yikun; Zhang, Jianhua

2009-08-01

125

Proteomic characterization of Phragmites communis in ecotypes of swamp and desert dune.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phragmites communis Trin. (common reed) is a recognized model plant for studying its adaptation to contrasting and harsh environments. To understand the inherent molecular basis for its remarkable resistance to combined stresses, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the leaf proteins from two ecotypes, i.e. swamp and desert dune, naturally growing in the desert region of northwestern China. First, a proteome reference map of Phragmites was established based on the swamp ecotype. Proteins were resolved by 2-D/SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 177 spots were identified corresponding to 51 proteins. The major proteins identified are proteins involved in photosynthesis, glutathione and ascorbic acid metabolism as well as protein synthesis and quality control. Second, the 2-DE profiles of the two ecotypes were compared quantitatively via DIGE analysis. Compared with swamp ecotype, 51 proteins spots are higher-expressed and 58 protein spots are lower-expressed by twofold or more in desert dune ecotype. Major differences were found for the proteins involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis and quality control and antioxidative reactions. The physiological significance of such differences is discussed in the context of a flow of complex events in relation to plant adaptation to combined environmental stresses.

Cui S; Hu J; Yang B; Shi L; Huang F; Tsai SN; Ngai SM; He Y; Zhang J

2009-08-01

126

Divergence is focused on few genomic regions early in speciation: incipient speciation of sunflower ecotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early in speciation, as populations undergo the transition from local adaptation to incipient species, is when a number of transient, but potentially important, processes appear to be most easily detected. These include signatures of selective sweeps that can point to asymmetry in selection between habitats, divergence hitchhiking, and associations of adaptive genes with environments. In a genomic comparison of ecotypes of the prairie sunflower, Helianthus petiolaris, occurring at Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (Colorado), we found that selective sweeps were mainly restricted to the dune ecotype and that there was variation across the genome in whether proximity to the nondune population constrained or promoted divergence. The major regions of divergence were few and large between ecotypes, in contrast with an interspecific comparison between H. petiolaris and a sympatric congener, Helianthus annuus. In general, the large regions of divergence observed in the ecotypic comparison swamped locus-specific associations with environmental variables. In both comparisons, regions of high divergence occurred in portions of the genetic map with high marker density, probably reflecting regions of low recombination. The difference in genomic distributions of highly divergent regions between ecotypic and interspecific comparisons highlights the value of studies spanning the spectrum of speciation in related taxa.

Andrew RL; Rieseberg LH

2013-09-01

127

Genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of the turfgrass seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz). Vegetative tissues or seeds of 46 seashore paspalum ecotypes were obtained from various locations in the United States, Argentina, and South Africa. Leaf DNA extracts were screened for RAPD markers using 34 10-mer random primers. A total of 195 reproducible RAPD fragments were observed, with an average of six fragments per primer. One hundred and sixty-nine fragments (87% of the total observed) were polymorphic, among which 27 fragments (16%) were present in three or less ecotypes, indicating the occurrence of a high level of genetic variation among the examined accessions of this species. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal coordinates analysis were performed on the RAPD data set. The results illustrate genetic relationships among the 46 ecotypes, and between ecotypes and their geographical origins. Ecotypes from southern Africa could be differentiated from the U.S. and most of the Argentinean ecotypes. With a few exceptions, ecotypes collected from Argentina, Hawaii, Florida, and Texas were separated into distinct clusters. PMID:18470139

Liu, Z W; Jarret, R L; Duncan, R R; Kresovich, S

1994-12-01

128

Genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of the turfgrass seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz). Vegetative tissues or seeds of 46 seashore paspalum ecotypes were obtained from various locations in the United States, Argentina, and South Africa. Leaf DNA extracts were screened for RAPD markers using 34 10-mer random primers. A total of 195 reproducible RAPD fragments were observed, with an average of six fragments per primer. One hundred and sixty-nine fragments (87% of the total observed) were polymorphic, among which 27 fragments (16%) were present in three or less ecotypes, indicating the occurrence of a high level of genetic variation among the examined accessions of this species. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal coordinates analysis were performed on the RAPD data set. The results illustrate genetic relationships among the 46 ecotypes, and between ecotypes and their geographical origins. Ecotypes from southern Africa could be differentiated from the U.S. and most of the Argentinean ecotypes. With a few exceptions, ecotypes collected from Argentina, Hawaii, Florida, and Texas were separated into distinct clusters.

Liu ZW; Jarret RL; Duncan RR; Kresovich S

1994-12-01

129

The ecotype concept to measure bovine adaptability under tropical climatic conditions: reproductive performance in dairy cattle breed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data was collected from 2663 registers from 657 cows of the breed Lucerna. The ecotypes were selected on basis of color and uniformity of coat, length of hair besides skin and mucous color. Tests analysis shown statistical difference among ecotypes in reference to the mean of the days open (p

2000-01-01

130

Abiotic ecotypes in south-central Spanish rivers: Reference conditions and pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Physico-chemical water quality in five of Spain's main rivers was assessed during the years 2001-2003. A previous physiographical river typology was carried out by applying System B of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) which distinguished four main river ecotypes: calcareous headwaters, siliceous rivers, plain rivers, and large rivers. The physiographical classification into river ecotypes also corresponded to distinct hydrochemical types. Reference values of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate fitted for local river ecotypes surpassed only slightly Natural and background levels established by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 2003). Half of the sampled sites were above the limits established as reference conditions. Additionally, concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to agriculture and less to forest land. - Agriculture by means of nutrient surpluses and water diversion for irrigation, along with poor sewage treatment of urban wastes are the main environmental problems in Spanish rivers.

Moreno, J.L. [Centro Regional de Estudios del Agua (CREA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ctra. de las Penas, km 3, Albacete 02071 (Spain)]. E-mail: jlmoreno@prov-ab.uclm.es; Navarro, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios del Agua (CREA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ctra. de las Penas, km 3, Albacete 02071 (Spain); De las Heras, J. [Centro Regional de Estudios del Agua (CREA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ctra. de las Penas, km 3, Albacete 02071 (Spain)

2006-10-15

131

Abiotic ecotypes in south-central Spanish rivers: Reference conditions and pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical water quality in five of Spain's main rivers was assessed during the years 2001-2003. A previous physiographical river typology was carried out by applying System B of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) which distinguished four main river ecotypes: calcareous headwaters, siliceous rivers, plain rivers, and large rivers. The physiographical classification into river ecotypes also corresponded to distinct hydrochemical types. Reference values of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate fitted for local river ecotypes surpassed only slightly Natural and background levels established by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 2003). Half of the sampled sites were above the limits established as reference conditions. Additionally, concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to agriculture and less to forest land. - Agriculture by means of nutrient surpluses and water diversion for irrigation, along with poor sewage treatment of urban wastes are the main environmental problems in Spanish rivers

2006-01-01

132

Ultrastructural changes, zinc hyperaccumulation and its relation with antioxidants in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zn phytotoxicity and its possible detoxifying responses in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance, i.e. hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) were investigated. HE grew better with high Zn concentrations of 29.11gkg(-1) DW in shoots when exposed to 500microM Zn2+. Toxicity symptoms caused by Zn in root cells of both ecotypes mainly included plasmolysis, disruption of plasma membranes and increased cell vacuolation. At high supplied Zn concentration, chloroplasts suffered from structural disorganization in both ecotypes. Zn-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O(2)-) productions in leaves were determined by a histochemical method, which revealed that Zn stress may have involved NADPH oxidase, protein phosphatases and intracellular Ca2+ to activate the reactive oxygen species production. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis may have led to increased H2O2 and O(2)- accumulations in leaves of HE. In response to higher Zn concentrations, ascorbic acid significantly increased in both ecotypes and levels of glutathione increased in both leaves and roots of HE and in roots of NHE without any change in the leaves of NHE. The enzymatic activities like those of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in leaves of HE were all enhanced at supplied Zn concentration of 500microM, which may account for its better growth. PMID:18693116

Jin, Xiao Fen; Yang, Xiao E; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar; Li, Hong; Li, Junying

2008-06-28

133

Callose plug deposition patterns vary in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and tomato species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollen grain contains the male gametophyte that extends a pollen tube that grows through female tissues in order to deliver sperm to the embryo sac for double fertilization. Growing pollen tubes form periodic callose plugs that are thought to block off the older parts of the tube and maintain the cytoplasm near the growing tip. The morphology of callose plugs and the patterns of their deposition were previously shown to vary among species, but variation within a species had not been examined. We therefore systematically examined callose plug deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, tested for heritability using reciprocal crosses between ecotypes that had differing deposition patterns, and investigated the relationship between callose plugs and pollen tube growth rate. We also surveyed callose plug deposition patterns in different species of tomato. Results We used in vitro grown pollen tubes of 14 different A. thaliana ecotypes and measured the distance from the pollen grain pore to the first callose plug (termed first interval). This distance varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in some cases even within an ecotype. Pollen tubes without a callose plug were shorter than those with a callose plug, and tubes with a callose plug near the grain were, on average, longer than those with the first callose plug farther from the grain. Variations in the first callose plug position were also observed between different species of tomato. Conclusions We showed that the position of the first callose plug varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in tomato species, and that callose plug deposition patterns were heritable. These findings lay a foundation for mapping genes that regulate callose plug deposition or that determine pollen tube length or growth rate.

Qin Peng; Ting Dylan; Shieh Andrew; McCormick Sheila

2012-01-01

134

Niche partitioning among Prochlorococcus ecotypes along ocean-scale environmental gradients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prochlorococcus is the numerically dominant phytoplankter in the oligotrophic oceans, accounting for up to half of the photosynthetic biomass and production in some regions. Here, we describe how the abundance of six known ecotypes, which have small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences that differ by less than 3%, changed along local and basin-wide environmental gradients in the Atlantic Ocean. Temperature was significantly correlated with shifts in ecotype abundance, and laboratory experiments confirmed different temperature optima and tolerance ranges for cultured strains. Light, nutrients, and competitor abundances also appeared to play a role in shaping different distributions.

Johnson ZI; Zinser ER; Coe A; McNulty NP; Woodward EM; Chisholm SW

2006-03-01

135

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

Michael Engel; Abdulaziz Alqarni; Mohammed Hannan; Ayman Owayss

2011-01-01

136

Functional analysis of metal tolerance proteins isolated from Zn/Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of Sedum alfredii Hance can accumulate 24- and 28-fold higher leaf and stem Zn concentrations when compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum. Heterologous expression of a metal tolerance protein (MTP1) encoding gene from HE plants (SaMTP1) or the homologous gene from NHE plants (SnMTP1) suppressed Zn(2+) hypersensitivity in the ?zrc1 yeast mutant. In plants, SaMTP1 localized to the tonoplast. Furthermore, MTP1 transcript level in the shoot of HE plants was more than 80-fold higher than that of NHE plants. The transcript level of SaMTP1 in shoot was up-regulated 1-fold by Zn(2+) while the expression of SnMTP1 was slightly inhibited. These data suggest that SaMTP1 can play an important role in Zn accumulation in HE plants.

Zhang M; Senoura T; Yang X; Nishizawa NK

2011-08-01

137

Functional analysis of metal tolerance proteins isolated from Zn/Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of Sedum alfredii Hance can accumulate 24- and 28-fold higher leaf and stem Zn concentrations when compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum. Heterologous expression of a metal tolerance protein (MTP1) encoding gene from HE plants (SaMTP1) or the homologous gene from NHE plants (SnMTP1) suppressed Zn(2+) hypersensitivity in the ?zrc1 yeast mutant. In plants, SaMTP1 localized to the tonoplast. Furthermore, MTP1 transcript level in the shoot of HE plants was more than 80-fold higher than that of NHE plants. The transcript level of SaMTP1 in shoot was up-regulated 1-fold by Zn(2+) while the expression of SnMTP1 was slightly inhibited. These data suggest that SaMTP1 can play an important role in Zn accumulation in HE plants. PMID:21781966

Zhang, Min; Senoura, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaoe; Nishizawa, Naoko K

2011-07-20

138

INDIGENOUS MEDICINE AND MENTAL HEALTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The different medical alternatives used today by humanity enrich the prophylaxis as well as the diagnoses and the treatment of diseases when these are tackled within a multicausal framework. In this paper two of these alternatives are considered: Western medicine and indigenous medicine. It focuses on the concept of health developed by these two approaches, emphasizes the need to reassess indigenous medicine, and examines in general how mental health disorders are regarded from the point of view of indigenous medicine. The author stresses that in order to understand this conception it is necessary to get acquainted with the cosmogony and cosmology characteristics of indigenous people

Vallejo Samudio, Álvaro Roberto

2006-01-01

139

Growth responses of Betula pendula ecotypes to red and far-red light  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effect of Red light (R), Far-red light (FR) and R/FR combinations on shoot growth of latitudinal ecotypes of B. pendula was studied using special diodes that emit monochromatic lights. When a 12 hrs PAR (110 µmol m-2 s-1) was extended with R, FR or R/FR ratios, lower intensities of monochromatic lights could not prevent growth cessation. At 25 µmol m-2 s-1, FR compared to R enhanced stem elongation in all ecotypes. This was due to the inhibitive effect of (more) R on internode elongation. When day-length was extended by R/FR at various ratios, there was continuous shoot elongation, but was found to be declining with increasing ratios. The more the R, the shorter were the internodes of each plant. B. pendula ecotypes produced branches when PAR light during the day was extended by incandescent light, but did not do so when the light extensions were made by monochromatic R or FR or their combination. Branching increased with decreasing latitude of the ecotype

Tsegay, Berhanu A.; Lund, Leidulf; Nilsen, Jarle; Olsen, Jorunn E.; Molmann, Jorgen M.; Ernsten, Arild; Juntttila, Olavi

2005-04-01

140

Morpho-Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Some Tunisian Barley Ecotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aim is to study whether we still have genetic diversity of barley all around the country, or there has been genetic erosion leading to a reduction in landraces barley cultivars. To fulfill this purpose, some ecotypes were collected from few frequented various bioclimatic regions and morpho-physiological and molecular level were studied. Our results showed differences among the ecotypes studied based on the morpho-physiological criteria such as heading date, density and ear length and response to saline stress. The molecular analysis showed the limits of the morpho-physiological approach. In fact, identical ecotypes were found grown in different parts of the country and the morpho-physiological differences observed could be due to environmental conditions’ adaptation acquired over time. Also, ecotypes that were grown mixed together in the same area and having similar physiological behavior were found different using the RAPD markers method. Important local barley genetic variability was found, concluding the Tunisian germplasm richness.

Raoudha Abdellaoui; Hatem Cheik M’Hamed; M`barek Ben Naceur; Leila Bettaieb-Kaab; Jeannette Ben Hamida

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Parallel evolution of dwarf ecotypes in the forest tree Eucalyptus globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three small populations of a dwarf ecotype of the forest tree Eucalyptus globulus are found on exposed granite headlands in south-eastern Australia. These populations are separated by at least 100 km. Here, we used 12 nuclear microsatellites and a chloroplast DNA marker to investigate the genetic affinities of the dwarf populations to one another and to their nearest populations of tall E. globulus. Cape Tourville was studied in greater detail to assess the processes enabling the maintenance of distinct ecotypes in close geographical proximity. The three dwarf populations were not related to one another and were more closely related to adjacent tall trees than to one another. At Cape Tourville the dwarf and tall ecotypes were significantly differentiated in microsatellites and in chloroplast DNA. The dwarf and tall populations differed in flowering time and no evidence of pollen dispersal from the more extensive tall to the dwarf population was found. The three dwarf populations have evolved in parallel from the local tall ecotypes. This study shows that small marginal populations of eucalypts are capable of developing reproductive isolation from nearby larger populations through differences in flowering time and/or minor spatial separation, making parapatric speciation possible. PMID:17587385

Foster, Susan A; McKinnon, Gay E; Steane, Dorothy A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

2007-01-01

142

Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale 'excitement' call suggests universality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or 'excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

Rehn N; Filatova OA; Durban JW; Foote AD

2011-01-01

143

Genetic diversity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) ecotypes based on morphological traits, allicin content and RAPD markers  

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Full Text Available Sixteen ecotypes of Allium hirtifolium, collected from their main local growth areas of Lorestan in Iran, were evaluated for genetic variation of morphological traits, allicin content and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data. The investigated morphological characteristics include: mean bulb weight, clove number, plant height, leaf number, leaf width, leaf length, days-to-emergence and days-to-flowering. Duncan`s multiple range test showed that the ecotypes were significantly different for most morphological characters. A dendrogram prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using UPGMA algorithm separated the 16 ecotypes in six groups. There was no significant correlation between ecological conditions and morphological traits. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between allicin content and bulb weight, which is useful for indirect selection of ecotypes with high bulb weight and therefore, high amount of allicin content. Molecular analysis of diversity was carried out using RAPD technique with 16 random primers of 10-mer oligonucleotides. Out of 353 bands obtained, 336 were polymorphic among ecotypes. Cluster analysis on RAPD data separated the 16 ecotypes into four groups. Our results indicate that genetic parameters were very effective in morphological and phytochemical divergence of ecotypes.

Ali Asili; Javad Behravan; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Javad Asili

2010-01-01

144

Analysis of Morphological Traits of Geographically Separated Population of Indigenous Muscovy Duck (Cairina Moschata)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inter and intra specific variation among muscovy duck ecotypes from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were studied The work evaluate the morphological variation of three ecotypes ( rainforest ecotypes, humid or guinea savanna and dry savanna ecotypes) covering southern or coastal region, central...

D.M. Ogah

145

Identification of irradiated chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.).

1990-01-01

146

Some Agronomical and Cytological Properties of Wild Sheep`s Fescue Ecotypes (Festuca ovina ssp.)  

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Full Text Available In this study, the number of chromosome was determined in the wild ecotypes of Festuca ovina ssp., collected from five different natural pasture locations in Erzurum (Eastern Turkey). As a result of examinations, it was determined that the plants collected from Ispir town were diploid (2n=14), the plants from Tuzcu village, Koprukoy town and Uzundere town were tetraploid (2n=28) and those from the pasture of Ataturk University in Erzurum city were hexaploid (2n=42). There were no aneuploid plants in the collected ecotypes. The ecotypes (Ispir, Uzundere and University) of 3 various locations with different ploidy types were cultivated in the field for 2 years. During the cultivation period, the plant height, hay yield and plant crude protein content and yield were determined during various cutting times for each of the ecotypes. Evaluations were made according to the means of two years. Plant height (15.67-55.05 cm), fresh hay yield (22.71-65.52 g plant-1) and dry hay yield (9.12-31.54 g plant-1) and protein yield (1.49-3.47 g plant-1) significantly increased until the cutting time of 16 June and the subsequent cutting reduced yield after this date. The crude protein content (7.74-16.42%) reduced as the cutting time was delayed. The maximum plant yield for the hexaploid plants was reached at the end of May while the maximum plant yield for diploid and tetraploid plants was at the end of June. The effect of ploidy type was significant on plant height and crude protein content. The diploid ecotypes had longest plant height (40.37 cm) and the highest crude protein content (12.99%).

Ilknur Akgun; Metin Tosun; Sevim Sagsoz; Oule Turhan

2004-01-01

147

Chinese drug cooked chicken  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a Chinese drug cooked chicken soupwhich comprises chicken meat, broomrape, Chinese angelica root, spicebush root, mountain pepper root, haw thorn root, red ginseng, astragalus root, Glabrousleaf Pittosporum Root, water and a small amount of table salt, the chicken soup is prepared through stewing with small fire in sand pot.

JU TUGEN

148

Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Purpose: The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998) management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through in (more) terviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers.

Balbinot, Zandra; Minghini, Luciano; Borim-de-Souza, Rafael

2012-12-01

149

Dermatology outpatient population profiling: indigenous and non-indigenous dermatoepidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the population using Australian dermatology outpatient services, in particular, Indigenous patients. This information is important to direct the strategic planning of dermatology services. METHODS: This study is a multicentre, retrospective audit of all patients attending public, outpatient dermatology clinics over 7 months across four Perth tertiary hospitals. The patient population (4873 patients) was profiled by age, gender, Indigenous status and rural/urban status. Medical records of the Indigenous patient population (104 patients) were reviewed to reveal the most common skin conditions. RESULTS: The population using public, outpatient services had a median age of 48 years, 51.4% were male and 13.6% were from rural areas. Male patient median age was 50 years compared to 45 years for female patients (P = 0.002). Indigenous patients had a median age of 22 years, a female to male ratio of 3:2 and 26.9% were from rural areas. Over 50% of Indigenous patient appointments were missed. Skin infections, eczematous conditions and naevi were the most common skin conditions in Indigenous patients. CONCLUSIONS: This data can guide strategies towards improving the provision of dermatology services for the Australian population. Particular attention is required towards improving Indigenous Australians' capacity to access dermatology services.

Heyes C; Chan J; Halbert A; Clay C; Buettner P; Gebauer K

2011-08-01

150

The response of Hordeum spontaneum desert ecotype to drought and excessive light intensity is characterized by induction of O2 dependent photochemical activity and anthocyanin accumulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of the current research was to study the role of anthocyanin accumulation, O(2)-related photochemical processes and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the response of desert and Mediterranean plants to drought and excessive light. Plants of Hordeum spontaneum were collected from Mediterranean and desert environments and were subjected to terminal drought for 25 days and then measured for PSII yield at 2 and 21% O(2), NPQ, net carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content (LRWC), anthocyanin concentration and leaf absorbance. Under terminal drought, LRWC, carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance decreased similarly and significantly in both the Mediterranean and the desert ecotypes. Anthocyanin accumulated more in the desert ecotype than in the Mediterranean ecotype. NPQ increased more in the Mediterranean ecotype as compared with the desert ecotype. PSII yield decreased significantly in the Mediterranean ecotype under drought and was much lower than in the desert ecotype under drought. The relatively high PSII yield under drought in the desert ecotype was O(2) dependent. The response of the H. spontaneum ecotype from a desert environment to drought stress was characterized by anthocyanin accumulation and induction of O(2) dependent photochemical activity, while the response of the Mediterranean ecotype was based on a higher induction of NPQ.

Eppel A; Keren N; Salomon E; Volis S; Rachmilevitch S

2013-03-01

151

The response of Hordeum spontaneum desert ecotype to drought and excessive light intensity is characterized by induction of O2 dependent photochemical activity and anthocyanin accumulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the current research was to study the role of anthocyanin accumulation, O(2)-related photochemical processes and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the response of desert and Mediterranean plants to drought and excessive light. Plants of Hordeum spontaneum were collected from Mediterranean and desert environments and were subjected to terminal drought for 25 days and then measured for PSII yield at 2 and 21% O(2), NPQ, net carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content (LRWC), anthocyanin concentration and leaf absorbance. Under terminal drought, LRWC, carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance decreased similarly and significantly in both the Mediterranean and the desert ecotypes. Anthocyanin accumulated more in the desert ecotype than in the Mediterranean ecotype. NPQ increased more in the Mediterranean ecotype as compared with the desert ecotype. PSII yield decreased significantly in the Mediterranean ecotype under drought and was much lower than in the desert ecotype under drought. The relatively high PSII yield under drought in the desert ecotype was O(2) dependent. The response of the H. spontaneum ecotype from a desert environment to drought stress was characterized by anthocyanin accumulation and induction of O(2) dependent photochemical activity, while the response of the Mediterranean ecotype was based on a higher induction of NPQ. PMID:23352404

Eppel, Amir; Keren, Nir; Salomon, Eitan; Volis, Sergei; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

2012-12-08

152

Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

2002-01-01

153

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Bangladeshi Chicken using RAPD Markers  

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Full Text Available Understanding the genetic diversity at molecular level is a prerequisite in developing strategies for effective conservation and utilization of chicken genetic resources. We studied the genetic variation within and between Bangladeshi native (Naked Neck, Frizzle and Non-descriptive indigenous) and exotic (White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, Commercial layer and broiler) chicken populations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Four out of the 20 random primers exhibited sufficient variability for studied populations. The four primers yielded a total of 39 distinct bands, 25 of which were polymorphic. Estimation of polymorphic loci, intra-population similarity indices and Nei’s gene diversity suggested that genetic diversities within a population were high in non-descriptive, Frizzle, Naked Neck, Rhode Island Red and White Leghorn chicken populations compared to the commercial layer and broiler populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (GST = 0.34) and gene flow (Nm = 0.98) values reflected a high level of population differences. UPGMA dendrogram segregated the chicken populations in various degree based on their genetic distance. The overall genetic distance among native chicken was relatively low comparison to the exotic populations. The results of present study might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation of native chicken genetic resources in Bangladesh.

M.B.R. Mollah; F.B. Islam; M.S. Islam; M.A. Ali; M.S. Alam

2009-01-01

154

Morphological Traits of Lotus japonicus (Regal) Ecotypes Collected in Japan  

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Full Text Available Forty-seven wild accessions of Lotus japonicus Regal (Japanese trefoil) indigenous to Japan were investigated for nine morphological characters. Average temperature and annual precipitation were negatively correlated with stem color and seed weight. On the other hand, latitude was positively correlated with these traits. Consequently, accessions from sites at higher latitudes with low temperatures and precipitation tend to have dark red stems and heavy seeds. Cluster analysis based on nine morphological characters classified 47 wild accessions into six major groups. Cluster I included four accessions of tall and erect plants. These plants are phenotypically similar to commercial variety ‘Empire’. Cluster II consisted of three accessions of creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster III contained 24 accessions that had average values for all morphological characters evaluated. Cluster IV included two accessions of erect plants with rounded leaflets and dark red stems. Cluster V included four accessions of small, creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster VI included seven accessions of small and erect plants, a phenotype that also applies to ‘Gifu B-129’, which is used as experimental strain worldwide. These data were deposited into LegumeBase, an online database (http://www.legumebase.brc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp/) supported by the National BioResource Project (NBRP) in Japan.

Masatsugu Hashiguchi; Shin-ichi Tsuruta; Ryo Akashi

2011-01-01

155

More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous

Bunten, Alexis Celeste

2010-01-01

156

Genetic Relationship among Chicken Populations of India Based on SNP Markers of Myostatin Gene (GDF 8)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data on ten SNP markers of Myostatin gene (GDF-8) was generated on nine breeds/populations of indigenous poultry and Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). The SNPs were five in promoter region, one each in intron 1 and 2 and three in exon 1. The data was analyzed to find out the genetic relationship among the indigenous chicken populations. PCR-RFLP was carried out to genotype the populations at seven SNPs while three were genotyped by SNaPshot method using automated DNA sequencer as no restriction sites were found at the SNP sites. ANOVA revealed 18% of the variation among the populations. The correspondence analysis separated out Punjab Brown, Red jungle fowl and Nicobari populations from the rest of the indigenous chicken populations. It is postulated that the populations of Punjab Brown and Nicobari showed the recent common ancestry with Red jungle fowl.

S.T. Bharani Kumar; Neeraj Dilbaghi; S.P.S. Ahlawat; Bina Mishra; M.S. Tantia; R.K. Vijh

2007-01-01

157

Seawater irrigation: antioxidant defence responses in leaves and roots of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) ecotype.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salinity is a widespread environmental stress for crop plants. It is common in arid, semiarid, and coast regions. In those environments, seawater infiltrations can occur or the sea provides the only source of water for irrigation. The effects of 10% and 20% seawater in nutrient solutions were studied in 30 day-old plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) ecotype Katharina Piacenza. Growth parameters, ascorbate and glutathione contents, and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in shoots and roots. The results showed antioxidative responses of the ecotype to both salt treatments. The different activity patterns of antioxidant molecules and enzymes in the leaves and roots suggested a different kind of reaction to the two seawater concentrations.

Di Baccio D; Navari-Izzo F; Izzo R

2004-12-01

158

In silico selection of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes with enhanced stress tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate models predict increased occurrences of combined abiotic and biotic stress. Unfortunately, most studies on plant stress responses include single or double stress scenarios only. Recently, we established a multi-factorial system in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) to study the influence of simultaneously applied heat, drought, and virus. Our transcriptome analysis revealed that gene expression under multi-factorial stress is not predictable from single stress treatments. Combined heat and drought stress reduced expression of defense genes and genes involved in R-mediated disease responses, which correlated with increased susceptibility of Arabidopsis to virus infection. Eleven genes were found to be differentially regulated under all stress conditions. Assuming that regulated expression of these genes is important for plant fitness, Arabidopsis ecotypes were clustered according to their expression. Interestingly, ecotypes showing a close correlation to stressed Col-0 prior stress treatment showed improved growth under stress conditions. This result suggests a functional relevance of these genes in stress tolerance.

Prasch CM; Sonnewald U

2013-09-01

159

The Biological Responses of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) in Diverse Ecotypes of Sichuan  

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Full Text Available Loquats (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) have formed different ecological types in various zones during the long course of their cultivation and acclimatization. The data of biological responses and ecological suitability was very important for loquat plantation in different eco-zones. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development characters, flowering and fruiting habits and fruit quality of loquat in three diverse ecotypes of Sichuan by field survey. The results showed that in mid-subtropical damp and heat ecotype, the loquat trees grew vigorously and young shoots sprouted four times annually. The flower buds were mainly originated from the Summer shoots and the flowering stage most centered from September to December. In addition, a rapid growth stage of fruits was observed from March to April and fruit quality was fine in May. In Southern subtropical dry and hot eco-zone, young shoots might be developed four or five times annually. Flowering and fruiting could occur several times a year as the development differences of Spring and Summer shoots with flower buds differentiation without trees treatments. In the valley of Southern temperate warm and dry ecotype, the phenophase of loquat were late about 20 to 30 days. The loquat fruits were mainly originated from Summer flowerings and mature at June with more than 15% soluble solids, super quality and nice appearance. These results obtained from comprehensive investigation would provide valuable information for techniques of cultivation in distinctive ecotypes and facilitated the economic plantation for loquats in the diverse eco-zones of the world.

G.L. Jiang; G.L. Zhang; S.X. Sun; J. Li; H.J. Xie; D. Chen; M.Y. Tu

2010-01-01

160

The Gambling Behavior of Indigenous Australians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

Hing N; Breen H; Gordon A; Russell A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Ecotypic variation in response to light spectra in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated Scots pine adaptive responses to the light spectra by measuring hypocotyl length in seeds sampled from three natural Scots pine ecotypes across a latitudinal cline ranging from 63° to 68° N in Sweden where the adaptive cline is known to be steeper. Seeds were germinated under dark (D) and three monochromatic continuous light wavelengths: blue (B), red (R) and far-red (FR). Analysis of variance revealed a northward decrease in the inhibitory effect of FR with respect to D, the so-called far red high irradiance response. Ecotypic variation for hypocotyl development was observed under the FR and D treatments, while the trends for the B and R treatments were not statistically significant. Under FR the ecotypic variation showed an increase in hypocotyl length northwards, in contrast to the treatment under D which showed a decrease in the hypocotyl length northwards. These results could be interpreted in view of the previously reported northward increase in FR requirement to maintain growth in Norway spruce and Scots pine. Prior to the performance of the main light experiment, the maternal effect on progeny performance was investigated, which showed the absence of maternal environment effect on the performance of the seedlings.

Ranade SS; García-Gil MR

2013-02-01

162

Genetic diversity and reproductive biology in ecotypes of the facultative apomict Hypericum perforatum L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apomixis is a mode of asexual reproduction through seed. Progeny produced by apomixis are clonal replicas of a mother plant. The essential feature of apomixis is that embryo sacs and embryos are produced in ovules without meiotic reduction or egg cell fertilisation. Thus, apomixis fixes successful gene combinations and propagates high fitness genotypes across generations. A more profound knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate reproductive events in plants would contribute fundamentally to understanding the evolution and genetic control of apomixis. Molecular markers were used to determine levels of genetic variation within and relationship among ecotypes of the facultative apomict Hypericum perforatum L. (2n = 4x = 32). All ecotypes were polyclonal, being not dominated by a single genotype, and characterised by different levels of differentiation among multilocus genotypes. Flow cytometric analysis of seeds indicated that all ecotypes were facultatively apomictic, with varying degrees of apomixis and sexuality. Seeds set by haploid parthenogenesis and/or by fertilisation of aposporic egg cells were detected in most populations. The occurrence of both dihaploids and hexaploids indicates that apospory and parthenogenesis may be developmentally uncoupled and supports two distinct genetic factors controlling apospory and parthenogenesis in this species. Cyto-embryological analysis showed that meiotic and aposporic processes do initiate within the same ovule: the aposporic initial often appeared evident at the time of megaspore mother cell differentiation. Our observations suggest that the egg cell exists in an active metabolic state before pollination, and that its parthenogenetic activation leading to embryo formation may occur before fertilisation and endosperm initiation.

Barcaccia G; Arzenton F; Sharbel TF; Varotto S; Parrini P; Lucchin M

2006-04-01

163

Plant response to climate change varies with topography, interactions with neighbors, and ecotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the future of any given species represents an unprecedented challenge in light of the many environmental and biological factors that affect organismal performance and that also interact with drivers of global change. In a three-year experiment set in the Mongolian steppe, we examined the response of the common grass Festuca lenensis to manipulated temperature and water while controlling for topographic variation, plant-plant interactions, and ecotypic differentiation. Plant survival and growth responses to a warmer, drier climate varied within the landscape. Response to simulated increased precipitation occurred only in the absence of neighbors, demonstrating that plant-plant interactions can supersede the effects of climate change. F. lenensis also showed evidence of local adaptation in populations that were only 300 m apart. Individuals from the steep and dry upper slope showed a higher stress/drought tolerance, whereas those from the more productive lower slope showed a higher biomass production and a greater ability to cope with competition. Moreover, the response of this species to increased precipitation was ecotype specific, with water addition benefiting only the least stress-tolerant ecotype from the lower slope origin. This multifaceted approach illustrates the importance of placing climate change experiments within a realistic ecological and evolutionary framework. Existing sources of variation impacting plant performance may buffer or obscure climate change effects. PMID:23691663

Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Song, Daniel S; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

2013-02-01

164

Chicken feeding pot  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a new chicken-feeding basin, to which three devices are added than a general one, consisting of an elastic height-adjustable guard ring (1) arranged additionally at the outer edge of the bottom plate of the chicken-feeding basin, a cone-shaped cover (2) arranged additionally on the upper part of a feeding orifice of a feed storage cylinder, an umbrella-like cone-shaped cover (3) keeping the rain out of the feeding basin. The utility model has three advantages: firstly, minimize the waste of the feed. Take a 90-day-marketable 3-yellow chicken for example, each can save 0.2 kg of the feed. Secondly, prevent the chicken dung from entering the feed, thereby avoiding the spread of the virus in the feed, boosting the healthy growing of the chicken and enhancing the surviving rate of the chicken. Thirdly, be applicable to both indoor and outdoor feedings.

TANG LIANG

165

Cooking method of chicken slices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cooking method of chicken slices, comprising the following steps: butchering live chickens in sequence, removing chicken feathers, cleaning by opening the chests of the chicken and removing moisture on the surfaces of the chickens. After that, the cooking method for each chicken comprises the following steps: putting each chicken into a boiler with condiment adding water until that the chicken is immersed boiling the chickenwith intense fire and keeping at 10 minutes taking out the chicken from the boiler and drying then slicing the chicken putting the chicken slices into a container pouring the soup blend in the boiler onto the chicken slices pouring sesame oil and vinegar onto the chicken slices sprinkling chicken essence onto the chicken slices vacuum packing the container sterilizing under high temperature and obtaining finished products, wherein, the condiment is sugar, ginger, welsh onion, star anise, spice leaf, salt, fennel and liquorice. The chicken slices which are cooked by the method have a good consistency from the exterior chicken slices to the interior chicken slices, are tasted good, and are convenient for eating.

LIMIN HUANG

166

Chicken life cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

A female chicken is called a hen and a male chicken is called a rooster. Hens lay eggs as a way to reproduce. The egg then hatches into a baby chick and the chick matures into an adult hen or rooster.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

167

Transcriptomics Research in Chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For example, compared to mammals, the use of a Z/W sex determination system is a special aspect of the avian genome where the female is the heterogametic sex (ZW) and the male is the homogametic (ZZ) sex. A comparison of the genomic sequences of platypus, chicken and human showed that sex chromosomes evolved separately in birds and mammals.

Dongying Yang; Chen Gao; Lianqin Zhu; Ligang Tang; Juan Liu; Haisheng Nie

2012-01-01

168

The chicken SLAM family.  

Science.gov (United States)

The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities. PMID:23064403

Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

2012-10-13

169

The chicken SLAM family.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

Straub C; Viertlboeck BC; Göbel TW

2013-01-01

170

Crispy chicken nugget  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a poultry food, in particular to a crispy chicken nugget which belongs to fried chicken deep processed food. The crispy chicken nugget comprises wrapped chicken blocks, breadedpowder crusts and auxiliary materials. The ratio of the chicken blocks to the breaded powder crusts to sousing material is 10:9:1 the breaded powder material contains the following components: morethan or equal to 55 percent of flour, 25-35 percent of corn flour, and less than or equal to 10 percent of modified starch the sousing material is compounded from the following components: 0.8-1.5 percent of common salt, 0.4-1 percent of granulated sugar, 0.4-0.8 percent of monosodium glutamate and 0.5-2 percent of flavoring essence if the sousing material is required to have spice flavor, les than or equal to 5 percent of spice power is needed to be added and the preparation process of the crispy chicken nugget comprises the following steps: raw material inspection and acceptance, chickenrubbing, rolling and kneading for sousing, cutting and stirring for emulsification, stirring to make stuffing, forming and wrapping, oil frying, quick freezing and packaging. The crispy chicken nuggetadopts an advanced scientific manufacturing process, is treated and preserved by oil frying quick freezing and is subject to oil frying and heating when the crispy chicken nugget is used, the crustshave good crisp mouthfeel the chicken blocks are tightly wrapped by the crusts formed of the breaded powder, juice cannot be lost when the oil frying processing is carried out and the chicken blocksare fresh and tender and enough juice and the seasoning enables to enhance the meat quality and the crisp taste.

RONGMAO LUO; LIANG SHI; CHUNLONG ZHAO; QIANG YANG; CHAOHUA ZHANG

171

Indigenous health and climate change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research.

Ford JD

2012-07-01

172

Indigenous Writing: Relating Practice Led Research to Indigenous Postgraduate Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methodology of this paper continues the work I have done writing the ‘subjective academic narrative’ for publication within refereed academic journals. Storytelling is a basic human activity and the academy since the mid 20th century has begun to see its value rather than use it as the non-academic side of the dichotomy between thought and reason and feeling and emotion that the Enlightenment left as its residue of academic thought and knowledge. I use this methodology to enter into the privileged academic discussion and to add to it regarding the  relationship of Indigenous knowledge to the academy that remains a challenge in Australian Universities in this postmodern and postcolonial moment. This paper recognises the need to open discussion about how Indigenous people might be facilitated within the academy to bring their knowledge-models into the university and its traditional dominant knowledge systems. This paper looks at Practice Led Research (PLR) as a possible pathway for supporting the transition of Indigenous community scholars into university postgraduate courses. It explores how PLR contributes to an appropriate entry point into postgraduate studies for some Indigenous students who have significant life experiences and narratives and/or productions of artefacts that act to replace the breadth of undergraduate credentials. This paper identifies and explicates a nexus between Practice Led Research and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC). In doing so, it provides a reference point for University protocols and practices regarding RPL and RCC.  

Josie Jacqueline Arnold

2012-01-01

173

Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

|Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. This insightful volume contributes to the understanding of indigenous empowerment through education, and creates a new foundation for implementing specialized indigenous/minority education worldwide, engaging the…

Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.

2005-01-01

174

Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Races, Ecotypes and Their General Charecterisctisc in Turkey  

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Full Text Available The present studies carried out before the development of migratory beekeeping on the identification of the Anatolian honeybee population showed that the honeybee population could be a valuable genetic potential for breeding and also preservation. Since these initial studies, many research have been carried out to identify races, ecotypes; morphological, physiological and behavioural characteristics of honeybees inhabited in Turkey. According to the behavioural and ecological data of Ruttner (1), there are three different honeybee races in Turkey, Apis mellifera anatoliaca, Apis mellifera caucasica, Apis mellifera meda.

Etem Akyol; Nuray Ahinler; Duran Ozkok

2006-01-01

175

Do pollinator distributions underlie the evolution of pollination ecotypes in the Cape shrub Erica plukenetii?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background and AimsAccording to the Grant-Stebbins model of pollinator-driven divergence, plants that disperse beyond the range of their specialized pollinator may adapt to a new pollination system. Although this model provides a compelling explanation for pollination ecotype formation, few studies have directly tested its validity in nature. Here we investigate the distribution and pollination biology of several subspecies of the shrub Erica plukenetii from the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa. We analyse these data in a phylogenetic context and combine these results with information on pollinator ranges to test whether the evolution of pollination ecotypes is consistent with the Grant-Stebbins model.Methods and Key ResultsPollinator observations showed that the most common form of E. plukenetii with intermediate corolla length is pollinated by short-billed Orange-breasted sunbirds. Populations at the northern fringe of the distribution are characterized by long corollas, and are mainly pollinated by long-billed Malachite sunbirds. A population with short corollas in the centre of the range was mainly pollinated by insects, particularly short-tongued noctuid moths. Bird exclusion in this population did not have an effect on fruit set, while insect exclusion reduced fruit set. An analysis of floral scent across the range, using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, showed that the scent bouquets of flowers from moth-pollinated populations are characterized by a larger number of scent compounds and higher emission rates than those in bird-pollinated populations. This was also reflected in clear separation of moth- and bird-pollinated populations in a two-dimensional phenotype space based on non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis of scent data. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences strongly supported monophyly of E. plukenetii, but not of all the subspecies. Reconstruction of ancestral character states suggests two shifts from traits associated with short-billed Orange-breasted sunbird pollination: one towards traits associated with moth pollination, and one towards traits associated with pollination by long-billed Malachite sunbirds. The latter shift coincided with the colonization of Namaqualand in which Orange-breasted sunbirds are absent.ConclusionsErica plukenetii is characterized by three pollination ecotypes, but only the evolutionary transition from short- to long-billed sunbird pollination can be clearly explained by the Grant-Stebbins model. Corolla length is a key character for both ecotype transitions, while floral scent emission was important for the transition from bird to moth pollination.

Van der Niet T; Pirie MD; Shuttleworth A; Johnson SD; Midgley JJ

2013-09-01

176

Essential oils and fatty acids composition of Tunisian, German and Egyptian caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed ecotypes: A comparative study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aims to compare for the first time a Tunisian caraway seed ecotype with German and Egyptian ones regarding their fatty acid and essential oil compositions by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses. Results showed that total fatty acid (TFA) content varied from 2.90 to 7.30%, based on dry matter weight (DMW). The Tunisian ecotype exhibited the higher TFA proportion (7.30% DMW) than the two other ones. Petroselinic acid (C18:1n-12) was the major fatty acid in the three ecotypes, with the following proportions: 31.12% in TCE, 30.88 and 29.46% in GCE and ECE, respectively. Moreover, TCE contained a higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) proportion (87.86% TFA) than GCE (82.94% TFA) and ECE (80.76% TFA). The essential oil yield (based on dry matter weight) presented significant differences between the three caraway seed ecotypes studied. It is interesting to point out that the highest essential oil yield was observed in TCE (1.41%), followed by ECE (1.21%). In addition, 41 volatile compounds were identified in the seed essential oils of the three caraway ecotypes, the main ones being carvone (61.58–77.35%) and limonene (16.15–29.11%). This study showed that caraway seeds are rich in an unusual fatty acid, the petroselinic one. Additionally, the prevalence of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids is considered to be positive from the nutritional point of view. Consequently, the use of this oil in human dietary and in the alimentary industry seems to be a promising alternative. Besides, caraway seed essential oil obtained from the three caraway ecotypes displayed the same chemotype, namely carvone. This bioactive compound has various applications, as fragrance and flavour, potato sprouting inhibitor, antimicrobial agent and also in the medical field.

Laribi B; Kouki K; Bettaieb T; Mougou A; Marzouk B

2013-01-01

177

Ecotypic variability in the metabolic response of seeds to diurnal hydration-dehydration cycles and its relationship to seed vigor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seeds in the seed bank experience diurnal cycles of imbibition followed by complete dehydration. These conditions pose a challenge to the regulation of germination. The effect of recurring hydration-dehydration (Hy-Dh) cycles were tested on seeds from four Arabidopsis thaliana accessions [Col-0, Cvi, C24 and Ler]. Diurnal Hy-Dh cycles had a detrimental effect on the germination rate and on the final percentage of germination in Col-0, Cvi and C24 ecotypes, but not in the Ler ecotype, which showed improved vigor following the treatments. Membrane permeability measured by ion conductivity was generally increased following each Hy-Dh cycle and was correlated with changes in the redox status represented by the GSSG/GSH (oxidized/reduced glutathione) ratio. Among the ecotypes, Col-0 seeds displayed the highest membrane permeability, whilst Ler was characterized by the greatest increase in electrical conductivity following Hy-Dh cycles. Following Dh 2 and Dh 3, the respiratory activity of Ler seeds significantly increased, in contrast to the other ecotypes, indicative of a dramatic shift in metabolism. These differences were associated with accession-specific content and patterns of change of (i) cell wall-related laminaribiose and mannose; (ii) fatty acid composition, specifically of the unsaturated oleic acid and ?-linoleic acid; and (iii) asparagine, ornithine and the related polyamine putrescine. Furthermore, in the Ler ecotype the content of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates fumarate, succinate and malate increased in response to dehydration, in contrast to a decrease in the other three ecotypes. These findings provide a link between seed respiration, energy metabolism, fatty acid ?-oxidation, nitrogen mobilization and membrane permeability and the improved germination of Ler seeds following Hy-Dh cycles.

Bai B; Sikron N; Gendler T; Kazachkova Y; Barak S; Grafi G; Khozin-Goldberg I; Fait A

2012-01-01

178

Variability of the physico-mechanical properties of the ecotypes of nut fruits (Juglans regia L.) in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present time among the endangered species of plants, there exists elements of flora which can be found in Slovakia. Within the framework of the program "Protection of Endangered Genebank Plants in Slovakia" is the processing, existence and description of individual king nut ecotypes (Juglans Regia L.). Several agrophysical methods were applied for evaluating and grouping advantageous ecotypes in genebanks. This work presents the results obtained of the dimension and weight characteristics of fruits and shells, together with the determined necessary force for cracking nutfruits. The research was done on 16 selected samples obtained from 11 localities of southern Slovakia.

Rataj V.; Brindza J.

1999-01-01

179

Two-eyed seeing: a framework for understanding indigenous and non-indigenous approaches to indigenous health research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents two-eyed seeing as a theoretical framework that embraces the contributions of both Indigenous and Western "ways of knowing" (world-views). It presents key characteristics and principles of these different perspectives and suggests ways in which they might be used together to answer our most pressing questions about the health of Indigenous people and communities. Presenting a critique of positivism, which has historically undermined and/or dismissed Indigenous ways of knowing as "unscientific," it discusses the origins of both Western and Indigenous approaches to understanding health; the importance of giving equal consideration to diverse Indigenous and non-Indigenous worldviews such that one worldview does not dominate or undermine the contributions of others; and how balanced consideration of contributions from diverse worldviews, embraced within a two-eyed seeing framework, can reshape the nature of the questions we ask in the realm of Indigenous health research.

Martin DH

2012-06-01

180

Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

Kirmayer LJ; Dandeneau S; Marshall E; Phillips MK; Williamson KJ

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Moving toward reconciliation in indigenous child welfare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Touchstones of Hope reconciliation movement consists of principles (culture and language, self-determination, structural interventions, non discrimination, and holistic approach) that guide a reconciliation process of truth-telling, acknowledging, restoring and relating to reshape indigenous child welfare led by indigenous peoples and supported by their non-indigenous counterparts. This article describes a reconciliation movement in Canada grounded in Touchstones of Hope principles, involving a reconciliation process between indigenous and non-indigenous individuals, which has enabled culturally relevant concepts of child welfare and plans for child safety to emerge.

Auger A

2012-01-01

182

Identification of Italian ecotypes of Juglans regia L. by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers  

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Full Text Available Juglans regia L. is a multipurpose species important for quality wood and fruit production. In order to contrast the erosion and to properly conserve, manage and revaluate the genetic resources of Italian walnut, possible ecotypes, naturally adapted and still present in Italy have been researched. Leaves and fruits have been sampled in Campania region, localities of Montella, Cervinara, Fisciano, and in Abruzzo region, localities of Sulmona, Pescasseroli, Villetta Barrea, and Civitella Alfedena. The sites are located at different altitudes and climatic conditions. Materials have been collected on a total of 276 plants. Molecular, morphological and preliminary biochemical analyses have been carried out on this germplasm and on material belonging to 80 plants of 4 famous Italian walnut varieties (Bleggiana and Feltrina, North Italy; Sorrento and Malizia, Southern Italy), in order to have a comparison model. 134 ISSR, morphological and biochemical data have shown peculiar characters for Montella and Pescasseroli in comparison with the other accessions. Because of the peculiar environmental conditions of their locations, the effect of the temperature on the fruit development and fatty acid contents, it is possible to suppose that Montella and Pescasseroli are ecotypes which could be utilised as essential fat acid source and as material for afforestation of mountain zones.

Pollegioni P; Bartoli S; Malvolti ME; Mapelli S; Bertani A; Cannata F

2006-01-01

183

Ecotype differentiation and coexistence of two parapatric tetraploid subspecies of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) in the Alps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two tetraploid subspecies of Dactylis glomerata L., subsp. reichenbachii (Hausm.) Stebbins et Zohary and subsp. glomerata, occur in the French Alps. The former is confined to dolomitic, south-facing, alpine lawns above 2000 m, whereas the latter occurs in non-dolomitic habitats in subalpine meadows mainly below 1900 m. Previous studies of allozyme variation have shown that genetic introgression between the two subspecies occurs over large areas. By contrast, morphologically intermediate individuals only occur in an extremely narrow area, suggesting that the morphological and physiological differences between the two subspecies is of adaptive significance. A reciprocal clone transplant experiment was set up to examine (1) any genetic differences between subspecies indicative of ecotypic differentiation in relation to habitat characteristics and (2) the level of phenotypic plasticity in the two subspecies. Genetic differentiation was confirmed by a statistically significant taxon × site interaction effect in anova for all traits studied. The glomerata populations produced more tillers, longer leaves and higher culms in all sites, especially in their home environment. However, reichenbachii populations produced more seeds than the glomerata populations in the original reichenbachii environment, suggesting ecotypic differentiation between the two subspecies. This result might also explain why the glomerata subspecies is unable to colonize dolomitic habitats occupied by the reichenbachii subspecies. The reichenbachii populations showed less plasticity than the glomerata populations for leaf length and floriferous tiller number, a result which is discussed in the context of the response of plants from productive and non-productive habitats to environmental variation.

Gauthier P; Lumaret R; Bedecarrats A

1998-08-01

184

Comparative quantitative proteomics of prochlorococcus ecotypes to a decrease in environmental phosphate concentrations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The well-lit surface waters of oligotrophic gyres significantly contribute to global primary production. Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus are a major fraction of photosynthetic organisms within these areas. Labile phosphate is considered a limiting nutrient in some oligotrophic regions such as the Caribbean Sea, and as such it is crucial to understand the physiological response of primary producers such as Prochlorococcus to fluctuations in the availability of this critical nutrient. Results Prochlorococcus strains representing both high light (HL) (MIT9312) and low light (LL) (NATL2A and SS120) ecotypes were grown identically in phosphate depleted media (10 ?M Pi). The three strains displayed marked differences in cellular protein expression, as determined by high throughput large scale quantitative proteomic analysis. The only strain to demonstrate a significantly different growth rate under reduced phosphate conditions was MIT9312. Additionally, there was a significant increase in phosphate-related proteins such as PhoE (> 15 fold increase) and a depression of the Rubisco protein RbcL abundance in this strain, whereas there appeared to be no significant change within the LL strain SS120. Conclusions This differential response between ecotypes highlights the relative importance of phosphate availability to each strain and from these results we draw the conclusion that the expression of phosphate acquisition mechanisms are activated at strain specific phosphate concentrations.

Fuszard Matthew A; Wright Phillip C; Biggs Catherine A

2012-01-01

185

Genomic diversity of "deep ecotype" Alteromonas macleodii isolates: evidence for Pan-Mediterranean clonal frames.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have compared genomes of Alteromonas macleodii "deep ecotype" isolates from two deep Mediterranean sites and two surface samples from the Aegean and the English Channel. A total of nine different genomes were analyzed. They belong to five clonal frames (CFs) that differ among them by approximately 30,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over their core genomes. Two of the CFs contain three strains each with nearly identical genomes (~100 SNPs over the core genome). One of the CFs had representatives that were isolated from samples taken more than 1,000 km away, 2,500 m deeper, and 5 years apart. These data mark the longest proven persistence of a CF in nature (outside of clinical settings). We have found evidence for frequent recombination events between or within CFs and even with the distantly related A. macleodii surface ecotype. The different CFs had different flexible genomic islands. They can be classified into two groups; one type is additive, that is, containing different numbers of gene cassettes, and is very variable in short time periods (they often varied even within a single CF). The other type was more stable and produced the complete replacement of a genomic fragment by another with different genes. Although this type was more conserved within each CF, we found examples of recombination among distantly related CFs including English Channel and Mediterranean isolates. PMID:23729633

López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

2013-01-01

186

Genomic diversity of "deep ecotype" Alteromonas macleodii isolates: evidence for Pan-Mediterranean clonal frames.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have compared genomes of Alteromonas macleodii "deep ecotype" isolates from two deep Mediterranean sites and two surface samples from the Aegean and the English Channel. A total of nine different genomes were analyzed. They belong to five clonal frames (CFs) that differ among them by approximately 30,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over their core genomes. Two of the CFs contain three strains each with nearly identical genomes (~100 SNPs over the core genome). One of the CFs had representatives that were isolated from samples taken more than 1,000 km away, 2,500 m deeper, and 5 years apart. These data mark the longest proven persistence of a CF in nature (outside of clinical settings). We have found evidence for frequent recombination events between or within CFs and even with the distantly related A. macleodii surface ecotype. The different CFs had different flexible genomic islands. They can be classified into two groups; one type is additive, that is, containing different numbers of gene cassettes, and is very variable in short time periods (they often varied even within a single CF). The other type was more stable and produced the complete replacement of a genomic fragment by another with different genes. Although this type was more conserved within each CF, we found examples of recombination among distantly related CFs including English Channel and Mediterranean isolates.

López-Pérez M; Gonzaga A; Rodriguez-Valera F

2013-01-01

187

Tetraploid European Salicornia species are best interpreted as ecotypes of multiple origin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salicornia procumbens and S. stricta are two tetraploid European salt marsh species of locally adjacent but ecologically differentiated distribution. Whereas S. procumbens grows in the lowest part of the salt marsh, it is replaced by S. stricta in the middle part (and diploid Salicornias in the upper part). Using AFLPs and a reciprocal transplantation experiment, we investigated whether the two species represent distinct evolutionary lineages. The analysis of AFLP variation clearly showed that both species are not monophyletic. Also, accessions do not cluster according to geographical origin. The transplantation experiment revealed that S. procumbens shows significantly reduced fitness when transplanted into the habitat of S. stricta. Reduction of fitness of S. stricta in the habitat of S. procumbens is less obvious. In both habitats S. procumbens performs better than S. stricta in terms of seed production and dry weight. On the background of these results, it is hypothesized that S. procumbens and S. stricta represent intraspecific ecotypes which originated repeatedly in adaptation to their specific environments and which dispersed widely. We hypothesize that the ecologically vicariant distribution of S. procumbens and S. stricta along the inundation gradient in the saltmarsh in spite of their good performance in the respective non-native habitats results from strong selection during seed germination and seedling establishment. Reproductive isolation between locally adjacent or even intermingled ecotypes is suggested to be achieved by high levels of selfing.

Teege P; Kadereit JW; Kadereit G

2011-10-01

188

Karyotype Analysis of several Ecotypes of Capsicum annuum L. in Iran  

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Full Text Available Capsicum (pepper) is a member of the Solanaceae family and this genus has a great economic importance in food, drug, spices and industry. In this study, seeds of ten ecotypes of Capsicum spp. were obtained from the plant gene bank of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. The standard karyotype was prepared for the ecotypes and the characteristics of the chromosomes including long arm, short arm, total length (TL), arm ratio and centromeric index were calculated and chromosome types were determined. The number of chromosomes in somatic cells of all genotypes was 24 (2n=2x=24). All genotypes had a pair of satellite chromosome. The first 2 principal component analysis (PCA) justified over 99% of the total variations determined for cytological parameters. The highest total haploid length (51.65 ?m) was detected in G7 while G8 demonstrated the least (43.46 ?m). Cluster analysis was carried out for chromosomal parameters, classifying genotypes in three classes.

Mahyar ROHAMI; Abdollah MOHAMMADI; Mahmood KHOSROSHAHLI; Hami AHMADI; Nafiseh DARANDEH

2010-01-01

189

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

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Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05). Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

Cecilia Andere; M.A. Palacio; E.M. Rodriguez; E. Figini; M.T. Dominguez; E. Bedascarrasbure

2002-01-01

190

BROMUS TECTORUM: INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND ELEVATION ECOTYPE ON PLANT GROWTH, TISSUE BIOCHEMISTRY, AND TISSUE COMBUSTIBILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) invasion of rangelands in the western United States is an immense ecological and economic concern. We investigated the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration (270, 320, 370, 420 'mol mol-1) and elevation ecotype (low, mid, high) on its growth, tissue bioche...

191

Habitat-specific foraging and sex determine mercury concentrations in sympatric benthic and limnetic ecotypes of threespine stickleback.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury (Hg) is a widespread environmental contaminant known for the neurotoxicity of its methylated forms, especially monomethylmercury, which bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in aquatic food webs. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification rates are known to vary among species utilizing different food webs (benthic vs limnetic) within and between systems. The authors assessed whether carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and total Hg (THg) concentrations differed between sympatric benthic and limnetic ecotypes and sexes of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Benka Lake, Alaska, USA. The mean THg concentration in the limnetic ecotype was significantly higher (difference between benthic and limnetic means equals 26?mg/kg dry wt or 16.1%) than that of the benthic ecotype. Trophic position and benthic carbon percentage utilized were both important determinants of THg concentration; however, the 2 variables were of approximately equal importance in females, whereas trophic position clearly explained more of the variance than benthic carbon percentage in males. Additionally, strong sex effects (mean difference between females and males equals 45?mg/kg dry wt or 29.4%) were observed in both ecotypes, with female fish having lower THg concentrations than males. These results indicate that trophic ecology and sex are both important determinants of Hg contamination even within a single species and lake and likely play a role in governing Hg concentrations in higher trophic levels. PMID:23456641

Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Ackerly, Kerri L; O'Hara, Todd M

2013-05-10

192

Habitat-specific foraging and sex determine mercury concentrations in sympatric benthic and limnetic ecotypes of threespine stickleback.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mercury (Hg) is a widespread environmental contaminant known for the neurotoxicity of its methylated forms, especially monomethylmercury, which bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in aquatic food webs. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification rates are known to vary among species utilizing different food webs (benthic vs limnetic) within and between systems. The authors assessed whether carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and total Hg (THg) concentrations differed between sympatric benthic and limnetic ecotypes and sexes of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Benka Lake, Alaska, USA. The mean THg concentration in the limnetic ecotype was significantly higher (difference between benthic and limnetic means equals 26?mg/kg dry wt or 16.1%) than that of the benthic ecotype. Trophic position and benthic carbon percentage utilized were both important determinants of THg concentration; however, the 2 variables were of approximately equal importance in females, whereas trophic position clearly explained more of the variance than benthic carbon percentage in males. Additionally, strong sex effects (mean difference between females and males equals 45?mg/kg dry wt or 29.4%) were observed in both ecotypes, with female fish having lower THg concentrations than males. These results indicate that trophic ecology and sex are both important determinants of Hg contamination even within a single species and lake and likely play a role in governing Hg concentrations in higher trophic levels.

Willacker JJ; von Hippel FA; Ackerly KL; O'Hara TM

2013-07-01

193

Structure and Evolution of Genes Encoding Polyubiquitin and Ubiquitin-like Proteins in Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotype Columbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia ubiquitin gene family consists of 14 members that can be divided into three types of ubiquitin genes; polyubiquitin genes, ubiquitin-like genes and ubiquitin extension genes. The isolation and characterization of eight ubiquitin sequences, consisting of four...

Callis, J.; Carpenter, T.; Sun, C. W.; Vierstra, R. D.

194

Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by germinating seeds of two edaphic ecotypes of Silene nutans L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two parapatric ecotypes of Silene nutans, exhibiting distinct allozyme patterns, morphology and autecology were investigated for differences in exudation of low molecular weight organic acids from germinating seeds, and for differences in seed phosphorus content. The calcicolous ecotype is restricted to calcareous soils, and the silicicolous one predominantly occurs on acid soils, and sometimes, although less frequently, on neutral to alkaline soils. No clear difference was found between ecotypes. However, within the silicicolous ecotype seed samples showed marked differences in exudation pattern and seed phosphorus content depending on origin along the soil acidity gradient. Seeds of low-pH origin exuded more dicarboxylic acids (malic + succinic acid, oxalic acid) and had a lower phosphorus content than seeds of high pH origin. The exudation of dicarboxylic acids from seeds of low pH origin is probably an adaptation to adverse conditions (aluminium toxicity) on acid soils. The pattern is similar to that found among different cultivars of wheat. It is contrasted to the pattern found on comparison of a suite of calcifugous and calcicolous species, where exudation of di- and tricarboxylic acids is associated with solubilisation of recalcitrantly bound phosphorus and iron in calcareous soils.

Bruun, Hans Henrik; Van Rossum, Fabienne; Ström, Lena

2001-12-01

195

A Study of Agronomic and Morphological Variations in Certain Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Ecotypes of the Cold Region of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and classify the genetic diversity among alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ecotypes collected from the cold regions of Iran, based on some agro-morphological traits. Twenty one alfalfa ecotypes were collected and planted in a Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) with three replications in April 1998 at Nyshabour Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty three above ground agro-morphological characters were recorded during the growing seasons of 1999-2001. The variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical procedures to discriminate differences among genotypes and determine groups based on their similarities. Factor analysis was performed for all agro-morphological traits and reduced them down to 6 common factors which accounted for 80.45% of total variations among the genotypes studied. The twenty one ecotypes were classified in to 4 clusters by cluster analysis. Each group had at least one trait which made it different from the other groups (group 1: No. of pods per raceme and 100-seed weight; group 2: forage yield, dry matter yield, regrowth rate and stem dry matter yield; group 3: leaf-stem ratio, leaf dry matter yield and group 4: seed yield). These results suggest the presence of variation among alfalfa ecotypes available in cold regions in Iran, which could be considered for further breeding strategies and studies.

M. Basafa; M. Taherian

2009-01-01

196

Investigating the Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Weed Management on Forage and Seed Yield of Alfalfa Ecotypes (Medicago sativa L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate fertilizing and weed management effects on forage and seed yield of alfalfa ecotypes, a field trial was conducted during 2008-2009 growing season at Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Alfalfa ecotypes including (Ghareghozlo, Hoakmabad, Malekkandi, Kozre, Faminin, Galebani, Rahnani, Shorkat, Chaleshtar, Ghareaghaj, Gharoghlogh, Ordobad, Sedighan, Silvana, Sahandava, Ghahavand, Mohajerankaraj and Mashhad) were allocated to main plots; sub plots consisted of two levels of none fertilizing and fertilization treatments using simultaneous application of potassium sulphate and phosphate triple at rates of 150 and 350 K/ha, respectively and sub-sub plots were allocated to weeding and none weeding treatments based on a complete randomized block design in a splitsplit- plot scheme with three replicates. Results showed that the effect of ecotype on forage yield was not significant. Gharoghlogh and Silvana produced the highest (18270 kg/ha) and the lowest (14630 kg/ha) green forage yield, respectively at both cuttings (first and second cuts). The interaction of fertilization and weeding on forage yield was significant (p<0.01). On the other hand, with application of fertilizer, forage yield 11.74% was increased and it was enhanced 26.93% by manual weeding. Furthermore, results revealed that ecotype fertilizer interaction was significant (p<0.05) for weed dry weight. Ecotype weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05) for number of seed per pod and seed weight (p<0.01). In addition, fertilizer weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05) for number of seed per plant. Among the treatments, highest number of seed per plant was produced by fertilizer and weeding treatment (2734) and the lowest one was obtained by non-fertilizer and non-weeding treatment (559.5).

Ali Reza Heidarian; Ali Reza Beheshti; Farzad Mokhberdoran

2012-01-01

197

Lead tolerance and physiological adaptation mechanism in roots of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Lead (Pb) accumulation in soils affects plants primarily through their root systems. The aim of this study was to investigate early symptoms of the loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation in root tissues and physiological adaptation mechanism to Pb in accumulating ecotypes (AE) and non-accumulating ecotypes (NAE) of Sedum alfredii under Pb stress in hydroponics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Histochemical in situ analyses, fluorescence imaging, and normal physiological analysis were used in this study. Pb accumulation in roots of both AE and NAE increased linearly with increasing Pb levels (0-200 ?M), and a significant difference between both ecotypes was noted. Both loss of plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation in root tissues became serious with increasing Pb levels, maximum tolerable Pb level was 25 and 100 ?M for NAE and AE, respectively. Pb supplied at a toxic level caused a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root cells in both ecotypes. However, the root cells of AE had inherently higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and lipoxygenase (LOX) in control plants, and the induction response of these antioxidant enzymes occurred at lower Pb level in AE than NAE. AE plants maintained higher ascorbic acid and H(2)O(2) concentrations in root cells than NAE when exposed to different Pb levels, and Pb induced more increase in dehydroascorbate (DHA), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in AE than NAE roots. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate that histochemical in situ analyses of root cell death and lipid peroxidation under Pb short-term stress was sensitive, reliable, and fast. Higher tolerance in roots of accumulating ecotype under Pb stress did depend on effective free oxygen scavenging by making complex function of both constitutively higher activities and sensitive induction of key antioxidant enzymes in root cells of S. alfredii.

Huang H; Gupta DK; Tian S; Yang XE; Li T

2012-06-01

198

Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

Marchand, Dawn Marie

2011-01-01

199

Indigenous people and mineral taxation regimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indigenous people in several major mineral-producing countries have established a substantial and growing capacity to tax mineral resources extracted from their traditional lands. However, very little analysis has been conducted regarding the conceptual and practical issues involved in designing mineral taxation regimes for use by indigenous people. The general literature on mineral taxation is of limited relevance because basic assumptions it makes regarding the nature of the taxing authority (national or state governments) do not apply to indigenous peoples. This article discusses some key characteristics of indigenous communities as they relate to taxation of mineral resources. It identifies a number of approaches to mineral taxation which might be utilized by indigenous groups and which acknowledge the specific constraints and circumstances they face while at the same time recognizing their need to attract and maintain investment on their traditional lands. It also review the inter-relationship between indigenous and state or governmental tax regimes. 36 refs.

O`Faircheallaigh, C. [Griffith University, Nathan, Qld. (Australia). School of Politics and Public Policy

1998-12-01

200

SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR THE RECOGNITION OF THE INDIGENOUS MOVEMENTS AND THE INDIGENOUS POLITICAL ECOLOGY  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze the impact that social movements have in the acknowledgement of indigenous movements, and more specifically in the indigenous political economy. The ethnic component of indigenous movement is oriented toward the conclusion that they can not be studies as the other social movements under the theoretical approach of social movements. Finally, it is analyzed the trend of transnationalization of indigenous movements.

José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Chicken breading machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A chicken breading machine including a basket, with a mesh bottom, which is adapted to be rocked while holding floured chicken pieces. The mesh bottom of the basket allows loose flour and cracks to fall from the basket. The basket includes at least one tumble bar positioned at or near the bottom of the basket to cause chicken to tumble as the basket is rocked. A rocking device is adapted to rock the basket. A sifting device can be removably positioned below the basket. The sifting device contains a screen to retain cracks and permit flour to sift through the screen so that the flour can be reused without having to manually sift the flour from the cracks.

STEWART BILLY J

202

Chicken NK cell receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. PMID:23542703

Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

2013-03-29

203

Symbiotic relationships between native ecotypes of Desmodium incanum and Rhizobia in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Desmodium incanum is a herbaceous legume native to Uruguay. Its perennial characteristics and good adaptability make this legumen interesting for animal nutrition and introduction in agricultural management practices. The research on native legume species well adapted to diverse ecological conditions,is an important subject for the agronomic potential that many species show. The objective of this work was to assess the nodulation status in the field and the nitrogen fixing capacity of rhizobial strains. This legume is well nodulated in the field and its nodulation is specific. None of the rhizobial strains isolated from other legume species (native o exotic)nodulated D.incanum.There were differences among the ecotypes studied in their symbiotic behaviour. 15 N methods permitted differentiation of the N-fixing capacity of rhizobial strains

1999-01-01

204

[Ecoepidemiology of Haemonchus contortus bahiensis, ecotype present in sheep of arid zones of Venezuela  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frequency distribution of female Haemonchus contortus bahiensis Grisi, 1974 in sheep from Venezuelan arid zones is 15.32% for the type with vulvar flap, 51.6% for the vulvar-knob and 33.07% for smooth type. A Shannon-Weaver diversity index corresponding to 1.44 bits was calculated for these forms with similarities in the general size, egg-size and in the number of the longitudinal cuticular ridges. An aggregated kind of distribution in the host population according to the K parameter of a negative binomial distribution was recorded for male and female worms. A complicated interaction was observed between the abundance, aggregation and prevalence of this ecotype and the importance of these findings is discussed with regard to host-parasite relationships.

Morales G; Pino LA

1987-07-01

205

Experimental Study of the ecotypic orchard with biogas as a link in mid region of China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new mode of ecotypic orchard with biogas as a link in mid region of China was presented, which is based on ecology?economics and energy science. The results show that the biogas technology, piggery heating system with subminiature kang, the utilization technology of substituting the ferment residues (i.e. bio dross and bio liquid) for pesticide and chemical fertilizer, etc. are feasible in the extreme. Simultaneously , the biogas technology can be used to organize the individual agricultural technology (i.e. raise pig, pomiculture, forage grass, etc.) properly to produce pollution free fruits and vegetables. In the model the biogas plays a role as a linkage between plantation and breeding, link the plantation and breeding together and improve each other, and forms a benign ecology cycle which can provide social and economic benefit.

Zhang Quanguo; Yang Shiguan; Xu Guangyin; Zhao Tinglin; Xu Guizhuan; Shi Jingzhao

2003-01-01

206

Are melanistic populations of the Karoo girdled lizard, Karusasaurus polyzonus, relics or ecotypes? A molecular investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been proposed that melanism in cordylids evolved in response to a single climaticevent and that melanistic populations of Karusasaurus polyzonus are relictual. This studyinvestigates the genetic relationships of melanistic and non-melanistic populations ofK. polyzonus along the west coast of South Africa. Thirty-five specimens of K. polyzonus werecollected from three ‘melanistic’ and eight ‘non-melanistic’ sample localities. Partial sequencedata were derived for two mitochondrial DNA loci (16S rRNA and nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide dehydrogenase component 2 (ND2)) and analysed using maximum parsimony,maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. In addition, a haplotype network wasconstructed using TCS and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was conducted. Thederived topologies were highly congruent and showed that melanistic and non-melanisticpopulations were interdigitated on all tree topologies and a number of haplotypes were sharedbetween melanistic and non-melanistic specimens. These results suggest that melanisticpopulations of K. polyzonus are ecotypes, not relics.

Hanlie M. Engelbrecht; P. le Fras N. Mouton; Savel R. Daniels

2011-01-01

207

Identification of metalliferous ecotypes of Cistus ladanifer L. using RAPD markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic diversity of Cistus ladanifer ssp. ladanifer (Cistaceae) growing on ultramafic and non-ultramafic (basic and schists) soils in the NE of Portugal was studied in order to identify molecular markers that could distinguish the metal-tolerant ecotypes of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used in order to estimate genetic variation and differences between populations. The RAPD dataset was analysed by means of a cluster analysis and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Our results indicate a significant partitioning of molecular variance between ultramafic and non-ultramafic populations of Cistus ladanifer, although the highest percentage of this variance was found at the intra-population level. Mantel's test showed no relationship between inter-population genetic and geographic distances. A series of RAPD bands that could be related to heavy metal tolerance were observed. The identification of such markers will enable the use of Cistus ladanifer in phytoremediation procedures. PMID:15948588

Quintela-Sabarís, Celestino; Kidd, Petra S; Fraga, María Isabel

208

Identification of metalliferous ecotypes of Cistus ladanifer L. using RAPD markers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The genetic diversity of Cistus ladanifer ssp. ladanifer (Cistaceae) growing on ultramafic and non-ultramafic (basic and schists) soils in the NE of Portugal was studied in order to identify molecular markers that could distinguish the metal-tolerant ecotypes of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used in order to estimate genetic variation and differences between populations. The RAPD dataset was analysed by means of a cluster analysis and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Our results indicate a significant partitioning of molecular variance between ultramafic and non-ultramafic populations of Cistus ladanifer, although the highest percentage of this variance was found at the intra-population level. Mantel's test showed no relationship between inter-population genetic and geographic distances. A series of RAPD bands that could be related to heavy metal tolerance were observed. The identification of such markers will enable the use of Cistus ladanifer in phytoremediation procedures. (orig.)

Quintela-Sabaris, C.; Fraga, M.I. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Kidd, P.S. [Dept. of Soil Science and Chemical Agronomy, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2005-04-01

209

Identification of metalliferous ecotypes of Cistus ladanifer L. using RAPD markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genetic diversity of Cistus ladanifer ssp. ladanifer (Cistaceae) growing on ultramafic and non-ultramafic (basic and schists) soils in the NE of Portugal was studied in order to identify molecular markers that could distinguish the metal-tolerant ecotypes of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used in order to estimate genetic variation and differences between populations. The RAPD dataset was analysed by means of a cluster analysis and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Our results indicate a significant partitioning of molecular variance between ultramafic and non-ultramafic populations of Cistus ladanifer, although the highest percentage of this variance was found at the intra-population level. Mantel's test showed no relationship between inter-population genetic and geographic distances. A series of RAPD bands that could be related to heavy metal tolerance were observed. The identification of such markers will enable the use of Cistus ladanifer in phytoremediation procedures.

Quintela-Sabarís C; Kidd PS; Fraga MI

2005-03-01

210

Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken meat, chicken skin and chicken liver at low temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine survival of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) in chicken meat, chicken skin medallions and chicken liver contaminated with this bacterium at +4 °C and -20 °C, after 24 hours of incubation. The survival of C. jejuni at +4 °C, -20 °C in chicken meat, chicken skin medallions and chicken liver were examined after 24 hours of incubation with C. jejuni. All samples were previously tested for the presence of Campylobacter species according to ISO 10272-1:2006. After 24 hours of incubation at +4 ° C, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken meat slightly decreased on both non-selective and selective plates, but still in range of 10. After 24 hours of incubation at -20 ° C, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken meat was in range of 10 cfu/ml on non-selective plate, with complete absence of growth on selective plate. After 24 hours of incubation, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken liver increased on selective and non-selective plates (>10) at +4 ° C, while at -20 ° C there were no C. jejuni survived on both plates. 24 hours of incubation at both temperatures did not much influence the number of C. jejuni in chicken meet, while chicken skin medaillons allowed increase of the number of bacteria. Incubation of chicken liver at + 4° C allowed bacterial multiplication, while incubation at -20 ° C caused absence of survival (Tab. 1, Ref. 12).

Kocic B; Ivic-Kolevska S; Miljkovic-Selimovic B; Milosevic Z

2012-01-01

211

Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken meat, chicken skin and chicken liver at low temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine survival of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) in chicken meat, chicken skin medallions and chicken liver contaminated with this bacterium at +4 °C and -20 °C, after 24 hours of incubation. The survival of C. jejuni at +4 °C, -20 °C in chicken meat, chicken skin medallions and chicken liver were examined after 24 hours of incubation with C. jejuni. All samples were previously tested for the presence of Campylobacter species according to ISO 10272-1:2006. After 24 hours of incubation at +4 ° C, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken meat slightly decreased on both non-selective and selective plates, but still in range of 10. After 24 hours of incubation at -20 ° C, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken meat was in range of 10 cfu/ml on non-selective plate, with complete absence of growth on selective plate. After 24 hours of incubation, the number of survived C. jejuni in chicken liver increased on selective and non-selective plates (>10) at +4 ° C, while at -20 ° C there were no C. jejuni survived on both plates. 24 hours of incubation at both temperatures did not much influence the number of C. jejuni in chicken meet, while chicken skin medaillons allowed increase of the number of bacteria. Incubation of chicken liver at + 4° C allowed bacterial multiplication, while incubation at -20 ° C caused absence of survival (Tab. 1, Ref. 12). PMID:22693971

Kocic, B; Ivic-Kolevska, S; Miljkovic-Selimovic, B; Milosevic, Z

2012-01-01

212

Evaluating adaptive divergence between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes of a salmonid fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Next-generation sequencing and the application of population genomic and association approaches have made it possible to detect selection and unravel the genetic basis to variable phenotypic traits. The use of these two approaches in parallel is especially attractive in nonmodel organisms that lack a sequenced and annotated genome, but only works well when population structure is not confounded with the phenotype of interest. Herein, we use population genomics in a nonmodel fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to better understand adaptive divergence between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes and to further our understanding about the genetic basis of migration. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) tag sequencing was used to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in migrant and resident O. mykiss from two systems, one in Alaska and the other in Oregon. A total of 7920 and 6755 SNPs met filtering criteria in the Alaska and Oregon data sets, respectively. Population genetic tests determined that 1423 SNPs were candidates for selection when loci were compared between resident and migrant samples. Previous linkage mapping studies that used RAD DNA tag SNPs were available to determine the position of 1990 markers. Several significant SNPs are located in genome regions that contain quantitative trait loci for migratory-related traits, reinforcing the importance of these regions in the genetic basis of migration/residency. Annotation of genome regions linked to significant SNPs revealed genes involved in processes known to be important in migration (such as osmoregulatory function). This study adds to our growing knowledge on adaptive divergence between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes of this species; across studies, this complex trait appears to be controlled by many loci of small effect, with some in common, but many loci not shared between populations studied.

Hale MC; Thrower FP; Berntson EA; Miller MR; Nichols KM

2013-08-01

213

Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic "dormancy-repressing" and "dormancy-promoting" routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here.

Vaistij FE; Gan Y; Penfield S; Gilday AD; Dave A; He Z; Josse EM; Choi G; Halliday KJ; Graham IA

2013-06-01

214

Genotype and Sex Effect on Gastrointestinal Nutrient Content, Microflora and Carcass Traits in Nigerian Native Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nutrient concentration of crop and gizzard contents of three genotypes of indigenous scavenging chickens under rural conditions were investigated along-side with the micro-flora community of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT), body dimensions and carcass traits. Genotype significantly (pSalmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were prevalent in the caeca of all the scavenging birds. It was concluded that there are genotype and sex effects on crop and gizzard content, linear body measurements and presence or absence of bacteria in the caeca of the Nigerian native chickens raised under rural extensive system This findings further corroborates the abundance of genetic variation that can be exploited in developing any stock improvement programme for growth, carcass or disease resistance traits involving the Nigerian local chickens.

Sunday O. Peters; Olusegun M.O. Idowu; Brilliant O. Agaviezor; Raphael O. Egbede; Adeboye O. Fafiolu

2010-01-01

215

Genetic diversity of the Xuefeng black bone chicken based on microsatellite markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied polymorphisms of 23 microsatellite loci from 23 chromosomes in an indigenous breed of Xuefeng black bone chicken from Hunan in order to elucidate its genetic diversity and structure and to propose reasonable measures for its conservation and utilization. Seventy-nine alleles were identified in 50 individuals and the mean number of alleles was 3.435 per locus. Average heterozygosity and polymorphic information content of 23 microsatellite loci were 0.6285 and 0.5496, respectively. These results indicate that this breed of Xuefeng black bone chicken has a high level of genetic diversity and may provide a scientific basis for future conservation and utilization of the Xuefeng black bone chicken.

Lin Wei; Shenggui Liu; Xianwei Shi

2008-01-01

216

The evolving male: spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes are divergent at Y chromosome but not mtDNA or autosomal markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of the Y chromosome to sexual selection may make this chromosome an important player in the formation of reproductive isolating barriers, and ultimately speciation. Here, we investigate the role of the Y chromosome in phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes. This species contains six known ecotypes (grouped into four subspecies) that exhibit striking differences in morphology, habitat and mating system, despite having adjacent or overlapping ranges and little genetic divergence at previously studied mtDNA and autosomal markers. We examined the phylogeographic structure for all six ecotypes across the species range (n = 261, 17 geographic locations) using DNA sequences from three Y chromosome markers, two maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) markers, and a biparentally inherited autosomal intron. mtDNA and autosomal analyses revealed low divergence (most ?(ST) values <0.1) between ecotypes and geographic regions, concordant with previous studies. In contrast, Y intron analyses revealed fixed differences amongst the three most phenotypically divergent groups: S. l. longirostris vs. S. l. roseiventris vs. combined S. l. orientalis/S. l. centroamericana/Tres Marias ecotypes). Another ecotype (whitebelly), previously postulated to be a hybrid between the two phenotypically most divergent ecotypes, had Y haplotypes from both putative parent ecotypes, supporting a hybrid designation. Reduced introgression of the Y chromosome has previously been observed in other organisms ranging from insects to terrestrial mammals, and here we demonstrate this phenomenon in a marine mammal with high dispersal capabilities. These results indicate that reduced introgression of the Y chromosome occurs in a wide taxonomic range of organisms and support the growing body of evidence that rapid evolution of the Y chromosome is important in evolutionary diversification. PMID:23551274

Andrews, Kimberly R; Perrin, William F; Oremus, Marc; Karczmarski, Leszek; Bowen, Brian W; Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

2013-04-02

217

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE ECOTYPES OF Echinochloa crus-galli var crus-galli (L). Beauv (Barnyard grass: Poaceae) IN MALAYSIA and INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the morphological traits of barnyard grass ecotypes from diverse geographic origin. Seeds (caryops is) were collected from 17 locations of rice fields throughout Malaysia (11 states) and Indonesia (six provinces) and were grown in pots each containing 10 kg of paddy field soil. The experiments were arranged using completely randomized design (CRD) with five replicates. Mean separation was calculated using Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was performed to determine the individual relationship within ecotype s of barnyard grass. Twelve morphological traits such as culm, panicle, leaf, and spikelet traits were measured. The growth characters such as emer gence date, heading time, and growth duration were also evaluated. The average of emergence date, heading time, and growth duration of barnyard grass collected from Perils, Kedah, Penang, and Johor were relatively earlier th an other ecotypes. Six groups were classi fied based on the cluster analysis of Malaysian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Principal component indicated that group six was found to be highly variable compared to others. While three groups were identified in Indonesian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Group one was observed to be highly variable. Results demonstr ated that morphological variation among ecotypes of barnyard grass showing differences between the two regions illustrate the role of geographic variation.

ARIFIN TASRIF; ABDUL SHUKOR JURAIMI; JUGAH KADIR; SUHAIMI NAPIS; SOET1KNO S. SASTROUTOMO

2004-01-01

218

Towards a critique of indigenous African religion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustra...

Johan Strijdom

219

Welfare of broiler chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust) are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

Adele Meluzzi; Federico Sirri

2010-01-01

220

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

DIRECTIONS IN INDIGENOUS RESILIENCE RESEARCH.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The last decade or so of research in Canada, reflected in this special issue, has increased our understanding of the distinction between Indigenous resilience and the research into Indigenous resilience.Measurement offers glimpses of resilience, mostly from the potentially distorted view of how resilient youth face specific adversity - adversity that is set by the funding opportunity: tobacco, substance abuse, suicide, or HIV infection. The driving role of funding has obvious problems; the priorities of funders may not be the priorities of communities and results can tell more about the funding opportunity than about resilience itself. Even so, this problem-focussed research has the very practical advantage of producing results geared to solutions.A major lesson of this body of work is that we should allow ourselves the space (and the modesty) to recognize that Aboriginal resilience is greater than we have been able to measure under specific funding opportunities. Even with this limitation, our results shows a large degree of specificity - what strengthens youth resilience to one type of adversity in one setting might well not work in another. Five proposals emerge from the findings.

Andersson N

2008-01-01

222

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil/ Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dificultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes ár (more) eas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX). Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis ( Abstract in english Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed ((more) at 25 cm. At the thirty-sixth month after burial, ecotypes Arkansas 2, Louisiana 2 and 4, Mississippi 4 and Texas 1 had viable seeds, but at less than 1%. Freshly harvested red rice seeds buried at 12 cm near College Station, TX, survived longer than seeds placed on the soil surface. The percentage of maximum viable seeds was 2% for blackhull type Texas 4, after 17 months. In both studies, commercial rice cultivar seeds were not viable after 5 months, regardless of their position in the soil. Under farming conditions with no fallow land preparations or deep tillage, most red rice seed germinated or was dead after 2 to 3 years, with only minor variation among ecotypes.

Noldin, J.A.; Chandler, J.M.; McCauley, G.N.

2006-12-01

223

Role of aromatic aldehyde synthase in wounding/herbivory response and flower scent production in different Arabidopsis ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) are key enzymes operating at the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains two genes, At2g20340 and At4g28680, encoding pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent AADCs with high homology to the recently identified Petunia hybrida phenylacetaldehyde synthase involved in floral scent production. The At4g28680 gene product was recently biochemically characterized as an L-tyrosine decarboxylase (AtTYDC), whereas the function of the other gene product remains unknown. The biochemical and functional characterization of the At2g20340 gene product revealed that it is an aromatic aldehyde synthase (AtAAS), which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine to phenylacetaldehyde and dopaldehyde, respectively. AtAAS knock-down and transgenic AtAAS RNA interference (RNAi) lines show significant reduction in phenylacetaldehyde levels and an increase in phenylalanine, indicating that AtAAS is responsible for phenylacetaldehyde formation in planta. In A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0), AtAAS expression was highest in leaves, and was induced by methyl jasmonate treatment and wounding. Pieris rapae larvae feeding on Col-0 leaves resulted in increased phenylacetaldehyde emission, suggesting that the emitted aldehyde has a defensive activity against attacking herbivores. In the ecotypes Sei-0 and Di-G, which emit phenylacetaldehyde as a predominant flower volatile, the highest expression of AtAAS was found in flowers and RNAi AtAAS silencing led to a reduction of phenylacetaldehyde formation in this organ. In contrast to ecotype Col-0, no phenylacetaldehyde accumulation was observed in Sei-0 upon wounding, suggesting that AtAAS and subsequently phenylacetaldehyde contribute to pollinator attraction in this ecotype. PMID:21284755

Gutensohn, Michael; Klempien, Antje; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Huh, Jung-Hyun; Luo, Hongli; Weizbauer, Renate; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Tholl, Dorothea; Dudareva, Natalia

2011-03-09

224

Role of aromatic aldehyde synthase in wounding/herbivory response and flower scent production in different Arabidopsis ecotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) are key enzymes operating at the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains two genes, At2g20340 and At4g28680, encoding pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent AADCs with high homology to the recently identified Petunia hybrida phenylacetaldehyde synthase involved in floral scent production. The At4g28680 gene product was recently biochemically characterized as an L-tyrosine decarboxylase (AtTYDC), whereas the function of the other gene product remains unknown. The biochemical and functional characterization of the At2g20340 gene product revealed that it is an aromatic aldehyde synthase (AtAAS), which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine to phenylacetaldehyde and dopaldehyde, respectively. AtAAS knock-down and transgenic AtAAS RNA interference (RNAi) lines show significant reduction in phenylacetaldehyde levels and an increase in phenylalanine, indicating that AtAAS is responsible for phenylacetaldehyde formation in planta. In A. thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0), AtAAS expression was highest in leaves, and was induced by methyl jasmonate treatment and wounding. Pieris rapae larvae feeding on Col-0 leaves resulted in increased phenylacetaldehyde emission, suggesting that the emitted aldehyde has a defensive activity against attacking herbivores. In the ecotypes Sei-0 and Di-G, which emit phenylacetaldehyde as a predominant flower volatile, the highest expression of AtAAS was found in flowers and RNAi AtAAS silencing led to a reduction of phenylacetaldehyde formation in this organ. In contrast to ecotype Col-0, no phenylacetaldehyde accumulation was observed in Sei-0 upon wounding, suggesting that AtAAS and subsequently phenylacetaldehyde contribute to pollinator attraction in this ecotype.

Gutensohn M; Klempien A; Kaminaga Y; Nagegowda DA; Negre-Zakharov F; Huh JH; Luo H; Weizbauer R; Mengiste T; Tholl D; Dudareva N

2011-05-01

225

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O2?-) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.

2008-08-15

226

Predator faunas past and present: quantifying the influence of waterborne cues in divergent ecotypes of the isopod Asellus aquaticus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waterborne chemical cues are an important source of information for many aquatic organisms, in particular when assessing the current risk of predation. The ability to use chemical cues to detect and respond to potential predators before an actual encounter can improve prey chances of survival. We investigated predator recognition and the impact of chemical cues on predator avoidance in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. This isopod has recently colonised a novel habitat and diverged into two distinct ecotypes, which encounter different predator communities. Using laboratory-based choice experiments, we have quantified behavioural responses to chemical cues from predators typical of the two predator communities (larval dragonflies in the ancestral habitat, perch in the newly colonised habitat) in wild-caught and lab-reared Asellus of the two ecotypes. Individuals with prior experience of predators showed strong predator avoidance to cues from both predator types. Both ecotypes showed similar antipredator responses, but sexes differed in terms of threat-sensitive responses with males avoiding areas containing predator cues to a larger extent than females. Overall, chemical cues from fish elicited stronger predator avoidance than cues from larval dragonflies. Our results indicate that in these isopods, prior exposure to predators is needed to develop antipredator behaviour based on waterborne cues. Furthermore, the results emphasise the need to analyse predator avoidance in relation to waterborne cues in a sex-specific context, because of potential differences between males and females in terms of vulnerability and life history strategies.

Harris S; Karlsson Green K; Pettersson LB

2013-05-01

227

The 5' Third of Cauliflower mosaic virus Gene VI Conditions Resistance Breakage in Arabidopsis Ecotype Tsu-0.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes vary in their responses to viruses. In this study, we analyzed the variation in response of A. thaliana ecotype Tsu-0 to Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). This ecotype was previously reported to be resistant to two CaMV isolates (CM1841 and CM4-184), but susceptible to W260. In this study, we show that Tsu-0 is resistant to four additional CaMV isolates. CaMV propagated within the rosette leaves of Tsu-0 plants, but did not appear to spread systemically into the inflorescence. However, virus viability in rosette leaves of Tsu-0 plants apparently was not compromised because infectious CaMV could be recovered from these organs. W260 overcomes Tsu-0 resistance by a passive mechanism (i.e., this virus avoids activating plant defenses). The portion of the viral genome responsible for W260 resistance breakage was mapped to the 5' third of gene VI, which we have termed RBR-1. This region is also responsible for controlling the ability of CaMV to infect different types of solanaceous plants. Hence, the pathways by which plants of different families interact with CaMV may be conserved through evolution.

Agama K; Beach S; Schoelz J; Leisner SM

2002-02-01

228

The 5' Third of Cauliflower mosaic virus Gene VI Conditions Resistance Breakage in Arabidopsis Ecotype Tsu-0.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes vary in their responses to viruses. In this study, we analyzed the variation in response of A. thaliana ecotype Tsu-0 to Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). This ecotype was previously reported to be resistant to two CaMV isolates (CM1841 and CM4-184), but susceptible to W260. In this study, we show that Tsu-0 is resistant to four additional CaMV isolates. CaMV propagated within the rosette leaves of Tsu-0 plants, but did not appear to spread systemically into the inflorescence. However, virus viability in rosette leaves of Tsu-0 plants apparently was not compromised because infectious CaMV could be recovered from these organs. W260 overcomes Tsu-0 resistance by a passive mechanism (i.e., this virus avoids activating plant defenses). The portion of the viral genome responsible for W260 resistance breakage was mapped to the 5' third of gene VI, which we have termed RBR-1. This region is also responsible for controlling the ability of CaMV to infect different types of solanaceous plants. Hence, the pathways by which plants of different families interact with CaMV may be conserved through evolution. PMID:18943093

Agama, K; Beach, S; Schoelz, J; Leisner, S M

2002-02-01

229

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.

Jin Xiaofen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn; Islam, Ejazul [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam 48800, Hyderabad (Pakistan); Liu Dan [School of Tourism and Health, Zhejiang Forestry College, 311300 Lin' an (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2008-08-15

230

The autopsy of chicken nuggets reads "chicken little".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the contents of chicken nuggets from 2 national food chains. BACKGROUND: Chicken nuggets have become a major component of the American diet. We sought to determine the current composition of this highly processed food. METHODS: Randomly selected nuggets from 2 different national fast food chains were fixed in formalin, sectioned and stained for microscopic analysis. RESULTS: Striated muscle (chicken meat) was not the predominate component in either nugget. Fat was present in equal or greater quantities along with epithelium, bone, nerve, and connective tissue. CONCLUSION: Chicken nuggets are mostly fat, and their name is a misnomer.

Deshazo RD; Bigler S; Skipworth LB

2013-11-01

231

Health services use and lifestyle choices of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many countries, the health outcomes of Indigenous populations are far worse than those of non-Indigenous populations. Two possible reasons for these differences are poor lifestyle choices and a lack of access to health services when ill. This paper uses Australian data on 17,449 adults, which was collected in the National Health Survey 2004-05 and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2004-05, to examine whether Indigenous Australians make different lifestyle choices and health services use than non-Indigenous Australians. After controlling for a range of observable characteristics, it is found that Indigenous Australian are more likely to make poorer lifestyle choices, but are more likely to use health services than non-Indigenous Australians. There is evidence that these results are magnified for Indigenous Australians who live in remote areas. As the lifestyle choices of Indigenous Australians are so different from those of non-Indigenous Australians, the payoff from policies aimed at changing these choices is likely to be large both in terms of the efficient use of the health budget and more importantly in terms of health outcomes for Indigenous Australians.

Whelan S; Wright DJ

2013-05-01

232

Behavioural defenses of the honey bee ecotype from Sjenica–Pešter against Varroa destructor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two behaviours of honey bees, hygienic and grooming, are mechanisms of defense against brood diseases and parasitic mites, including Varroa destructor. Apis mellifera colonies remove the worker brood infested with Varroa destructor mites from the nest (hygienic behaviour), and groom the mites off other adult bees (grooming behaviour). In this study hygienic and grooming behaviours of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype were analysed in 440 honey bee colonies from 11 localities in the region of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski plateau, Podpešterje, Golija Mt. and Rogozna ML At each locality 40 honey bee colonies were investigated: 10 potent colonies with one-year old queen, 10 potent colonies with two-year old queen, 10 medium potent and 10 weak honey bee colonies. Hygienic behaviour was expressed in a range from 95.12% to 99.50% in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old and two-year old queens. Statistically highly significant (p<0.01) differences were registered among the analysed honey bee colonies at the investigated region, in favour of the potent honey bee colonies, compared to the medium potent and weak colonies. Also, statistically highly significant (p<0.01) differences were recorded between potent colonies with one-year old queens and colonies with two-year old queens, in favour of the colonies with one-year old queens. In general, investigated colonies belong to a category of the so called "hygienic colonies", as the efficiency of elimination of damaged pupae amounted to 91.50%. Grooming behaviour of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype potentially exists, but its significance cannot be discussed as, on the whole, investigated colonies showed potential of 34,04%. Our results point to an indisputable relationship between analysed behaviours and the strength of honey bee colonies: hygienic behaviour is more expressed in potent colonies (from 95.12% to 99.50%) regardless of queen age; grooming behaviour was expressed only in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old queen at all 11 localities, where the number of damaged mites ranged from 36,05% to 39,61%. The damaged mites were separated into six categories. The most frequent category of damage was damaged legs (53.38% in potent colonies with one-year old queens and 52.02% in potent colonies with two-year old queens). The potent honey bee colonies from the investigated region especially with one-year old queen, could be used for highly selected breeds improving and queens rearing.

Stanimirovi? Zoran Ž.; Stevanovi? Jevrosima B.; ?irkovi? D.

2005-01-01

233

AGENT FOR CHICKEN HEPATOSIS PREVENTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine, veterinary science. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention refers to veterinary science, namely to therapy of internal nontransmitting diseases, particularly to drugs for chicken hepatosis prevention. The agent for chicken hepatosis prevention contains the ingredients in the following relation: antihepatotoxic serum 0.9-1.15 titre units antisplenotoxic serum 0.9-1.15 titre units phenol 0.004-0.005 mg physiological solution up to 1 ml. The agent is introduced to chickens and chicks in dose 0.2 ml/kg of body weight subcutaneously or intramuscularly. ^ EFFECT: invention allows higher effectiveness of chicken hepatosis prevention. ^ 4 tbl

BURKOV PAVEL VALER EVICH; SHCHERBAKOV PAVEL NIKOLAEVICH; SHCHERBAKOVA TAT JANA BORISOVNA

234

Analysis of Morphological Traits of Geographically Separated Population of Indigenous Muscovy Duck (Cairina Moschata)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter and intra specific variation among muscovy duck ecotypes from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were studied The work evaluate the morphological variation of three ecotypes ( rainforest ecotypes, humid or guinea savanna and dry savanna ecotypes) covering southern or coastal region, central and northern part of Nigeria. Twelve morphological traits including weight were considered. Significant (p<0.05) variation exist within and between ecotypes using population coefficient of variation (ANOVA) bill height had the highest coefficient of variation 79.52 while body length recorded the least variation. There are marked differences in body morphology between sexes in all the ecotypes indicating significant sexual dimorphism. Correlation between the traits were low to high. The inter specific variations in bill structure and body morphology are indication of adaptation to the environment and influence of ecological condition

D.M. Ogah

2009-01-01

235

Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

First comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets.Water markets are acceptable to Indigenous respondents.There are caveats in the design of water markets to protect Indigenous water values.These caveats include not separating land and water title and supporting equity.Shared preservation value among all respondents for catchments of high ecological and customary value.

Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

2013-09-01

236

Towards a critique of indigenous African religion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.How to cite this article: Strijdom, J., 2011, ‘Towards a critique of indigenous African religion’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(1), Art. #950, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.950

Johan Strijdom

2011-01-01

237

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from three ecotypes of Zataria multiflora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Zataria multiflora Boiss. is a traditional and popular spice in Iran. The effects of 3 ecotypes (ECTPs) of Z. multiflora essential oils (EOs) against most common causes of food-borne and nosocomial infections were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the EOs were examined by broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The chemical compositions of the EOs from 3 ECTPs of Z. multiflora have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Analysis of the EOs indicated that 3 chemotypes were present in Z. multiflora, including carvacrol, thymol-carvacrol, and linalool, whereas previous studies have only found carvacrol and thymol. Inhibition studies showed that the tested EOs entirely inhibited the growth of yeasts at concentrations of less than 1 ?L/mL. Moreover, the oils exhibited significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 ?L/mL. Conclusion: These results suggest that the EOs from Z. multiflora should be investigated further for possible use in antimicrobial products and food preservatives.

Zomorodian K; Saharkhiz M; Rahimi M; Bandegi A; Shekarkhar G; Bandegani A; Pakshir K; Bazargani A

2011-01-01

238

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0-80mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS. PMID:23892171

Begum, Parvin; Fugetsu, Bunshi

2013-06-29

239

Essential oil analysis and phytotoxic activity of two ecotypes of Zataria multiflora Boiss. growing in Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to assess the allelopathic effect of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of two different ecotypes (ECTPs A and B) of Zataria multiflora Boiss. with the aim of evaluating their in vitro germination and growth inhibition potential. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the oils revealed that carvacrol and linalool (77.4% and 90.6%) were the two major oil components in ECTPs A and B, respectively, which were regarded as two different chemotypes. Other important volatile compounds found in ECTP A were ?-pinene (2.7%), p-cymene (7.9%) and ?-terpinene (3.5%). However, in ECTP B these compounds were in lesser amounts and ?-terpinene was not detected. The inhibitory effects of both EOs of ECTPs at concentrations of 0, 80, 160, 320 and 640 µL L?¹ on the seed germination and seedling growth of four noxious weeds were evaluated. A significant reduction (p ? 0.05) in germination rate, seedling length, root and stem fresh and dry weights were observed by ECTPs; the highest suppressing effect was observed at 320 and 640 µL L?¹. The results reported in this study suggest that herbicidal properties of the two ECTP oils could be attributed to their major components.

Saharkhiz MJ; Smaeili S; Merikhi M

2010-10-01

240

Essential oil analysis and phytotoxic activity of two ecotypes of Zataria multiflora Boiss. growing in Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to assess the allelopathic effect of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of two different ecotypes (ECTPs A and B) of Zataria multiflora Boiss. with the aim of evaluating their in vitro germination and growth inhibition potential. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the oils revealed that carvacrol and linalool (77.4% and 90.6%) were the two major oil components in ECTPs A and B, respectively, which were regarded as two different chemotypes. Other important volatile compounds found in ECTP A were ?-pinene (2.7%), p-cymene (7.9%) and ?-terpinene (3.5%). However, in ECTP B these compounds were in lesser amounts and ?-terpinene was not detected. The inhibitory effects of both EOs of ECTPs at concentrations of 0, 80, 160, 320 and 640 µL L?¹ on the seed germination and seedling growth of four noxious weeds were evaluated. A significant reduction (p ? 0.05) in germination rate, seedling length, root and stem fresh and dry weights were observed by ECTPs; the highest suppressing effect was observed at 320 and 640 µL L?¹. The results reported in this study suggest that herbicidal properties of the two ECTP oils could be attributed to their major components. PMID:20954087

Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Smaeili, Somaie; Merikhi, Mohammad

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Genetic and Ecotypic Characterization of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important forest tree species inPoland and it covers 5.2% of forest area. Present genetic structure of beech populations has beenformed within the last few thousand years and influenced by many different factors, not only ofenvironmental (postglacial) and genetic origin, but also by anthropogenic ones. In Poland, beechattains its north-eastern limit of natural range, and is limited by continental climate, wintertemperatures, air humidity and soil conditions. The growth of beech stands outside the natural beechlimit indicates that the species possesses a potentially wider range.Based on their phytosociological characteristics, nine beech experimental plots of one hectare areawere established in selected seed stands, representing the typical plant associations and the most importantbeech provenance (seed) regions. The genetic analyses were performed using isoenzymeelectrophoresis for seven loci (GOT, LAP, MDH, MNR, PGM, PGI, SKDH) and DNA markers usingRAPD primers. The following genetic parameters were calculated: average number of alleles perlocus, percentage of polymorphic loci and heterozygosity (on the basis of isoenzyme analysis).Dendrograms based on genetic distances were constructed.There is a slight decrease of genetic variation of beech populations towards the north of Poland,which can be explained by migration paths and selection after the glacial period. The geneticdifferentiation of beech in Poland does not allow distinguishing provenance regions. The data show amosaic character of species differentiation and an ecotypic variation.

SU?KOWSKA, Ma?gorzata

2010-01-01

242

Halomonas and Marinobacter ecotypes from hydrothermal vent, subseafloor and deep-sea environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Moderately halophilic and euryhaline bacteria are routinely found in cool to warm hydrothermal vent and nearby cold, deep-sea environments. To elucidate the diversity of these microorganisms - with the goal of determining which among them constitute ecotypes specifically associated with hydrothermal vent and subseafloor habitats - PCR primers were designed to detect natural populations of euryhaline Gammaproteobacteria belonging to the cosmopolitan genera Halomonas and Marinobacter. The distribution patterns of 16S rRNA gene sequence data revealed that Halomonas group 2A comprised a subseafloor population at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Complementary biogeographic and physiological data suggested that other Halomonas clades include members that are cold adapted (Halomonas group 2B) or associated with massive sulfide deposits (Halomonas group 2C). Similarly, a monophyletic Marinobacter clade may represent Fe(2+) -oxidizing facultative chemoautotrophs based on the phylogenetic data presented here and previously reported phenotypic characterizations. The biogeographic distributions of Halomonas and Marinobacter isolates and clones reveal that these are cosmopolitan genera, commonly found in the deep sea and in hydrothermal vent settings. As such, they are good candidates for further laboratory investigations into the biogeochemical processes in these environments.

Kaye JZ; Sylvan JB; Edwards KJ; Baross JA

2011-01-01

243

Fatty acid and essential oil composition of three Tunisian caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed ecotypes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The essential oil and fatty acid composition of Tunisian annual caraway (Carum carvi L.) seeds from three ecotypes was investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses.RESULTS: Total fatty acid (TFA) proportion of caraway seeds varied from 2.95% to 5.68% (w/w). The fatty acid composition revealed that Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid--petroselinic acid--the proportion of which varied from 31.53% and 38.36% of TFA. Essential oil yields were relatively low and ranged from 0.86% to 1.20% (w/w). Forty-one volatile compounds were identified, the main ones being carvone (76.78-80.53%) and limonene (13.05-20.29%).CONCLUSION: Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid--petroselinic acid--which is of potential industrial significance. In addition, Tunisian caraway essential oil is carvone chemotype. This fact is of great economic interest due to the several applications of carvone in the alimentary and medicinal industries.

Laribi Bochra; Kouki Karima; Mougou Abdelaziz; Marzouk Brahim

2010-02-01

244

Fatty acid and essential oil composition of three Tunisian caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed ecotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The essential oil and fatty acid composition of Tunisian annual caraway (Carum carvi L.) seeds from three ecotypes was investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. RESULTS: Total fatty acid (TFA) proportion of caraway seeds varied from 2.95% to 5.68% (w/w). The fatty acid composition revealed that Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid-petroselinic acid-the proportion of which varied from 31.53% and 38.36% of TFA. Essential oil yields were relatively low and ranged from 0.86% to 1.20% (w/w). Forty-one volatile compounds were identified, the main ones being carvone (76.78-80.53%) and limonene (13.05-20.29%). CONCLUSION: Tunisian caraway seed oil is rich in an unusual fatty acid-petroselinic acid-which is of potential industrial significance. In addition, Tunisian caraway essential oil is carvone chemotype. This fact is of great economic interest due to the several applications of carvone in the alimentary and medicinal industries.

Laribi B; Kouki K; Mougou A; Marzouk B

2010-02-01

245

Diversity of thermal ecotypes and potential pathotypes of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological diversification of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates was examined to determine whether bacteria adapted to grow at low temperature and/or potentially pathogenic correspond to genetically distinct lineages. Altogether, nine phylogenetic lineages were found among bacilli originating from North-Eastern Poland (n = 24) and Lithuania (n = 25) using multi-locus sequence typing. This clustering was chiefly confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One third of the bacilli were found to be psychrotolerant, which strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of thermal ecotypes among B. thuringiensis. PCR screening was also performed to detect potential enterotoxin genes and Bacillus anthracis pXO1- and pXO2-like replicons. The cytK-positive isolates (22%) were significantly associated with two phylogenetic lineages (potential CytK pathotypes), whereas there was no correlation between phylogenetic grouping and the presence of the potential tripartite enterotoxin pathotypes (86% of strains). A statistically significant association between phylogenetic lineages and ecologic properties was found with regard to the cry1-positive Lithuanian isolates, while the cry genes in Polish isolates and the pXO1- and pXO2 replicon-like elements showed scattered distribution across phylogenetic lineages. Our results support the hypothesis that B. thuringiensis comprises strains belonging to different phylogenetic lineages, which exhibit specific ecological properties.

Swiecicka I; Bartoszewicz M; Kasulyte-Creasey D; Drewnowska JM; Murawska E; Yernazarova A; Lukaszuk E; Mahillon J

2013-08-01

246

Diversity of thermal ecotypes and potential pathotypes of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological diversification of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates was examined to determine whether bacteria adapted to grow at low temperature and/or potentially pathogenic correspond to genetically distinct lineages. Altogether, nine phylogenetic lineages were found among bacilli originating from North-Eastern Poland (n = 24) and Lithuania (n = 25) using multi-locus sequence typing. This clustering was chiefly confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One third of the bacilli were found to be psychrotolerant, which strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of thermal ecotypes among B. thuringiensis. PCR screening was also performed to detect potential enterotoxin genes and Bacillus anthracis pXO1- and pXO2-like replicons. The cytK-positive isolates (22%) were significantly associated with two phylogenetic lineages (potential CytK pathotypes), whereas there was no correlation between phylogenetic grouping and the presence of the potential tripartite enterotoxin pathotypes (86% of strains). A statistically significant association between phylogenetic lineages and ecologic properties was found with regard to the cry1-positive Lithuanian isolates, while the cry genes in Polish isolates and the pXO1- and pXO2 replicon-like elements showed scattered distribution across phylogenetic lineages. Our results support the hypothesis that B. thuringiensis comprises strains belonging to different phylogenetic lineages, which exhibit specific ecological properties. PMID:23521504

Swiecicka, Izabela; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Drewnowska, Justyna M; Murawska, Emilia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Lukaszuk, Edyta; Mahillon, Jacques

2013-04-11

247

Genomic divergence between the migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Atlantic cod displays a range of phenotypic and genotypic variations, which includes the differentiation into coastal stationary and offshore migratory types of cod that co-occur in several parts of its distribution range and are often sympatric on the spawning grounds. Differentiation of these ecotypes may involve both historical separation and adaptation to ecologically distinct environments, the genetic basis of which is now beginning to be unravelled. Genomic analyses based on recent sequencing advances are able to document genomic divergence in more detail and may facilitate the exploration of causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. We examined genomic divergence between the stationary and migratory types of cod in the Northeast Atlantic, using next-generation sequencing of pooled DNA from each of two population samples. Sequence data was mapped to the published cod genome sequence, arranged in more than 6000 scaffolds (611 Mb). We identified 25 divergent scaffolds (26 Mb) with a higher than average gene density, against a backdrop of overall moderate genomic differentiation. Previous findings of localized genomic divergence in three linkage groups were confirmed, including a large (15 Mb) genomic region, which seems to be uniquely involved in the divergence of migratory and stationary cod. The results of the pooled sequencing approach support and extend recent findings based on single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and suggest a high degree of reproductive isolation between stationary and migratory cod in the North-east Atlantic.

Karlsen BO; Klingan K; Emblem A; Jørgensen TE; Jueterbock A; Furmanek T; Hoarau G; Johansen SD; Nordeide JT; Moum T

2013-09-01

248

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee (more) colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p

Andere, Cecilia; Palacio, M.A.; Rodriguez, E.M.; Figini, E.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bedascarrasbure, E.

2002-01-01

249

Widening inequality in extreme macrosomia between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations of Quebec, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in macrosomia by severity in Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous populations of Québec, Canada. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort of 2,298,332 singleton live births in the province of Québec, 1981-2008. Indigenous births were identified by community of residence (First Nations, Inuit, non-Indigenous) and language spoken (First Nations, Inuit, French/English). High birth weight (HBW) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were categorised by severity (moderate, very, extreme). Time trends in HBW and LGA, by severity, were estimated using odds ratios (OR) and rate differences for Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous births, adjusting for maternal characteristics. RESULTS: Relative to non-Indigenous, First Nations (but not Inuit) had higher rates of extreme HBW (1.3% vs. 0.1%) and extreme LGA birth (12.6% vs. 2.2%), and rates increased over time. First Nations had progressively elevated ORs with greater severity of macrosomia, and associations were strongest for extreme HBW >5,000 g (OR=12.4) and LGA >97th percentile (OR=7.2). CONCLUSION: Inequalities in extreme macrosomia between First Nations and non-Indigenous Quebecers are pronounced and widened between 1981 and 2008. IMPLICATIONS: Studies are needed to determine why macrosomia rates are increasing in Québec's First Nations, and how they compare with Indigenous sub-groups of demographically similar countries, including Australia and New Zealand.

Auger N; Park AL; Zoungrana H; Fon Sing M; Lo E; Luo ZC

2013-02-01

250

Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6 ± 10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6 ± 10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche. PMID:22641520

Amigo, Hugo; Vásquez, Sofía; Bustos, Patricia; Ortiz, Guillermo; Lara, Macarena

2012-05-01

251

Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6 ± 10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6 ± 10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.

Amigo H; Vásquez S; Bustos P; Ortiz G; Lara M

2012-05-01

252

Recruiting and Retaining Indigenous Farmworker Participants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation.

Farquhar S; de Jesus Gonzalez C; Hall J; Samples J; Ventura S; Sanchez V; Shadbeh N

2013-06-01

253

Fermented Cereal from Indigenous Raw Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fermented cereal was prepared from indigenous raw material like parboiled rice and Bengal gram. The approximate analysis, microbiology, edibility of cereal product has been done. It was found to be a high nutritive value and acceptable as a food.

Sahana Parveen; Fauzia Hafiz

254

Survey-Sami and Indigenous Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Centre for Sami Studies at The University of Tromsø has by The Research Council of Norway been assigned to make a survey of Sami and Indigenous research going on in the Nordic countries.

SESAM SESAM

2005-01-01

255

Natural disasters and indigenous displacement in Bolivia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Those seeking to understand and address the reasons for growing numbers of displaced indigenous people in Bolivia should consider the relationship between traditional knowledge and the impacts of climate change.

Ludvik Girard

2012-01-01

256

Assessing the changing diet of indigenous peoples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because a dietary transition is occurring among indigenous populations from traditional foods to more market (store-bought) foods, there are concerns about a rise in diet-related chronic disease. More research into dietary intakes of indigenous peoples is needed. When the use of longitudinal studies is not possible, the use of cross-sectional data to characterize the process of dietary change appears to be an appropriate way to assess change during rapid transition.

Whiting SJ; Mackenzie ML

1998-08-01

257

Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin) and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase) were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H) and Wenchang (W) chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C) and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C) for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

Xing Y. Chen; Run S. Jiang; Zhao Y. Geng

2011-01-01

258

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

2012-01-01

259

Indigenous Algorithms, Organizations, and Rationality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental economics and bounded rationality are very different from one another, but both claim to offer a more general and more empirical type of economic theory. Experimental economists, in addition, claim that their game-theoretic analyses provide rigorous, calculable, inferences from individual decisions to society as a whole. They claim to be describing the basis of social stability, although the argument depends on a unitary conception of “society” that ethnologists have now largely rejected. Both groups view rationality as inherently or originally individualistic and “utility maximizing” rather than inherently or originally social—albeit for entirely different reasons. Neither recognizes rationality as inherently bound up with organizations. These views have no basis in ethnography and are sharply in conflict with the stress on local knowledge in the most successful contemporary development policies. A crucial empirical issue is the nature and power of indigenous decision algorithms. The economists treat them as non-existent, insignificant, or erroneous. I show that they are organizationally situated and part of the organizational process, genuinely optimizing, and the basis of cultural ecological adaptation. Moreover, it is this external adaptation, not an internal game-like system of self-perpetuating rules, that is the ultimate basis of social stability, as well as dynamism.

Murray Leaf

2008-01-01

260

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

 
 
 
 
261

Research on Indigenous Elders: From Positivistic to Decolonizing Methodologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders.

Braun KL; Browne CV; Ka'opua LS; Kim BJ; Mokuau N

2013-07-01

262

Structure of the rare archaeal biosphere and seasonal dynamics of active ecotypes in surface coastal waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details regarding their community structure and long-term seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In this study, we monitored the interannual archaeal community composition of abundant and rare biospheres in northwestern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by pyrosequencing 16S rDNA and rRNA. A detailed analysis of the rare biosphere structure showed that the rare archaeal community was composed of three distinct fractions. One contained the rare Archaea that became abundant at different times within the same ecosystem; these cells were typically not dormant, and we hypothesize that they represent a local seed bank that is specific and essential for ecosystem functioning through cycling seasonal environmental conditions. The second fraction contained cells that were uncommon in public databases and not active, consisting of aliens to the studied ecosystem and representing a nonlocal seed bank of potential colonizers. The third fraction contained Archaea that were always rare but actively growing; their affiliation and seasonal dynamics were similar to the abundant microbes and could not be considered a seed bank. We also showed that the major archaeal groups, Thaumarchaeota marine group I and Euryarchaeota group II.B in winter and Euryarchaeota group II.A in summer, contained different ecotypes with varying activities. Our findings suggest that archaeal diversity could be associated with distinct metabolisms or life strategies, and that the rare archaeal biosphere is composed of a complex assortment of organisms with distinct histories that affect their potential for growth.

Hugoni M; Taib N; Debroas D; Domaizon I; Jouan Dufournel I; Bronner G; Salter I; Agogué H; Mary I; Galand PE

2013-04-01

263

Ancestral Plasticity and Allometry in Threespine Stickleback Fish Reveal Phenotypes Associated with Derived, Freshwater Ecotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For over a century, evolutionary biologists have debated whether and how phenotypic plasticity impacts the processes of adaptation and diversification. The empirical tests required to resolve these issues have proven elusive, mainly because it requires documentation of ancestral reaction norms, a difficult prospect where many ancestors are either extinct or have evolved. The threespine stickleback radiation is not limited in this regard, making it an ideal system in which to address general questions regarding the role of plasticity in adaptive evolution. As retreating ice sheets have exposed new habitats, oceanic stickleback founded innumerable freshwater populations, many of which have evolved parallel adaptations to their new environments. Because the founding oceanic population is extant, we can directly evaluate whether specific patterns of ancestral phenotypic expression in the context of novel environments (plasticity), or over ontogeny, predisposed the repeated evolution of "benthic" and "limnetic" ecotypes in shallow and deep lakes, respectively. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that oceanic stickleback raised in a complex habitat and fed a macroinvertebrate diet expressed traits resembling derived, benthic fish. Alternatively, when reared in a simple environment on a diet of zooplankton, oceanic stickleback developed phenotypes resembling derived, limnetic fish. As fish in both treatments grew, their body depths increased allometrically, as did the size of their mouths, while their eyes became relatively smaller. Allometric trajectories were subtly but significantly impacted by rearing environment. Thus, both environmental and allometric influences on development, along with their interactive effects, produced variation in phenotypes consistent with derived benthic and limnetic fish, which may have predisposed the repeated genetic accommodation of this specific suite of traits. We also found significant shape differences between marine and anadromous stickleback, which has implications for evaluating the ancestral state of stickleback traits.

Wund MA; Valena S; Wood S; Baker JA

2012-03-01

264

Karyotype variation is indicative of subgenomic and ecotypic differentiation in switchgrass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Karyotypes can provide information about taxonomic relationships, genetic aberrations, and the evolutionary origins of species. However, differentiation of the tiny chromosomes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and creation of a standard karyotype for this bioenergy crop has not been accomplished due to lack of distinguishing features and polyploidy. Results A cytogenetic study was conducted on a dihaploid individual (2n?=?2X?=?18) of switchgrass to establish a chromosome karyotype. Size differences, condensation patterns, and arm-length ratios were used as identifying features and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assigned 5S and 45S rDNA loci to chromosomes 7 and 2 respectively. Both a maize CentC and a native switchgrass centromeric repeat (PviCentC) that shared 73% sequence identity demonstrated a strong signal on chromosome 3. However, only the PviCentC probe labeled the centromeres of all chromosomes. Unexpected PviCentC and 5S rDNA hybidization patterns were consistent with severe reduction or total deletion of these repeats in one subgenome. These patterns were maintained in tetraploid and octoploid individuals. The 45S rDNA repeat produced the expected number of loci in dihaploid, tetraploid and octoploid individuals. Differences observed at the 5S rDNA loci between the upland and lowland ecotypes of switchgrass provided a basis for distinguishing these subpopulations. Conclusion Collectively, these results provide a quantitative karyotype of switchgrass chromosomes. FISH analyses indicate genetic divergence between subgenomes and allow for the classification of switchgrass plants belonging to divergent genetic pools. Furthermore, the karyotype structure and cytogenetic analysis of switchgrass provides a framework for future genetic and genomic studies.

Young Hugh A; Sarath Gautam; Tobias Christian M

2012-01-01

265

Karyotype variation is indicative of subgenomic and ecotypic differentiation in switchgrass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Karyotypes can provide information about taxonomic relationships, genetic aberrations, and the evolutionary origins of species. However, differentiation of the tiny chromosomes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and creation of a standard karyotype for this bioenergy crop has not been accomplished due to lack of distinguishing features and polyploidy. RESULTS: A cytogenetic study was conducted on a dihaploid individual (2n?=?2X?=?18) of switchgrass to establish a chromosome karyotype. Size differences, condensation patterns, and arm-length ratios were used as identifying features and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assigned 5S and 45S rDNA loci to chromosomes 7 and 2 respectively. Both a maize CentC and a native switchgrass centromeric repeat (PviCentC) that shared 73% sequence identity demonstrated a strong signal on chromosome 3. However, only the PviCentC probe labeled the centromeres of all chromosomes. Unexpected PviCentC and 5S rDNA hybidization patterns were consistent with severe reduction or total deletion of these repeats in one subgenome. These patterns were maintained in tetraploid and octoploid individuals. The 45S rDNA repeat produced the expected number of loci in dihaploid, tetraploid and octoploid individuals. Differences observed at the 5S rDNA loci between the upland and lowland ecotypes of switchgrass provided a basis for distinguishing these subpopulations. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results provide a quantitative karyotype of switchgrass chromosomes. FISH analyses indicate genetic divergence between subgenomes and allow for the classification of switchgrass plants belonging to divergent genetic pools. Furthermore, the karyotype structure and cytogenetic analysis of switchgrass provides a framework for future genetic and genomic studies.

Young HA; Sarath G; Tobias CM

2012-01-01

266

Distinct, ecotype-specific genome and proteome signatures in the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus, having multiple ecotypes of distinct genotypic/phenotypic traits and being the first documented example of genome shrinkage in free-living organisms, offers an ideal system for studying niche-driven molecular micro-diversity in closely related microbes. The present study, through an extensive comparative analysis of various genomic/proteomic features of 6 high light (HL) and 6 low light (LL) adapted strains, makes an attempt to identify molecular determinants associated with their vertical niche partitioning. Results Pronounced strand-specific asymmetry in synonymous codon usage is observed exclusively in LL strains. Distinct dinucleotide abundance profiles are exhibited by 2 LL strains with larger genomes and G+C-content ? 50% (group LLa), 4 LL strains having reduced genomes and G+C-content ? 35-37% (group LLb), and 6 HL strains. Taking into account the emergence of LLa, LLb and HL strains (based on 16S rRNA phylogeny), a gradual increase in average aromaticity, pI values and beta- & coil-forming propensities and a decrease in mean hydrophobicity, instability indices and helix-forming propensities of core proteins are observed. Greater variations in orthologous gene repertoire are found between LLa and LLb strains, while higher number of positively selected genes exist between LL and HL strains. Conclusion Strains of different Prochlorococcus groups are characterized by distinct compositional, physicochemical and structural traits that are not mere remnants of a continuous genetic drift, but are potential outcomes of a grand scheme of niche-oriented stepwise diversification, that might have driven them chronologically towards greater stability/fidelity and invoked upon them a special ability to inhabit diverse oceanic environments.

Paul Sandip; Dutta Anirban; Bag Sumit K; Das Sabyasachi; Dutta Chitra

2010-01-01

267

Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: Identifying threats and conservation priorities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the USA, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represents a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well-adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models, however the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375-780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Worthington TA; Brewer SK; Grabowski TB; Mueller J

2013-07-01

268

Ecotypes and pathogenicity of ice-nucleation-active Pseudomonas syringae isolated from deciduous fruit tree orchards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ice-nucleation-active (INA) strains of Pseudomonas syringae were isolated as epiphytes from pome and stone fruit orchards in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Fifty percent of the 82 strains were pathogenic in immature pear and sweet cherry fruit. Pathogenic strains isolated from trees in either pome or stone fruit orchards had a corresponding degree of virulence in the two hosts. Nearly all INA strains, however, induced hypersensitivity in tobacco and produced syringomycin. An INA strain of P. syringae pv. syringae from pear colonized inoculated apricot trees, attaining 108 to 109 colony-forming units per gram (fresh weight) of flowers at full bloom, and expressed an in vivo frequency of ice nucleation at 6 × 103 cells per - 5 C ice nucleus. These high populations were detected after flower infection which was mediated by damage from several mild frosts (ie, - 1.3 to - 4.7 C). Bacteriocin and phage typing demonstrated no appreciable differences between pome and stone fruit INA P. syringae. All INA strains produced at least one bacteriocin and were subdivided into 11 producer groups; groups 6C, 8B, 8F, and 13 contained 88% of the INA strains. Nine phage sensitivity groups were identified, and 73% of the strains were classified in either phage groups 1 or 2. Phages (12B, S3, and ø17), which had been reported to specifically lyse pear strains of P. syringae pv. syringae were either weakly virulent or avirulent on INA strains isolated from trees in either pome or stone fruit orchards in the PNW. Phage typing differentiated PNW INA strains from most strains from England whereas bacteriocin typing differentiated them from most California strains. Therefore, at least three major ecotypes of INA P. syringae were discerned.

Gross DC; Cody YS; Proebsting ELJr; Radamaker GK; Spotts RA

1984-02-01

269

Structure of the rare archaeal biosphere and seasonal dynamics of active ecotypes in surface coastal waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details regarding their community structure and long-term seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In this study, we monitored the interannual archaeal community composition of abundant and rare biospheres in northwestern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by pyrosequencing 16S rDNA and rRNA. A detailed analysis of the rare biosphere structure showed that the rare archaeal community was composed of three distinct fractions. One contained the rare Archaea that became abundant at different times within the same ecosystem; these cells were typically not dormant, and we hypothesize that they represent a local seed bank that is specific and essential for ecosystem functioning through cycling seasonal environmental conditions. The second fraction contained cells that were uncommon in public databases and not active, consisting of aliens to the studied ecosystem and representing a nonlocal seed bank of potential colonizers. The third fraction contained Archaea that were always rare but actively growing; their affiliation and seasonal dynamics were similar to the abundant microbes and could not be considered a seed bank. We also showed that the major archaeal groups, Thaumarchaeota marine group I and Euryarchaeota group II.B in winter and Euryarchaeota group II.A in summer, contained different ecotypes with varying activities. Our findings suggest that archaeal diversity could be associated with distinct metabolisms or life strategies, and that the rare archaeal biosphere is composed of a complex assortment of organisms with distinct histories that affect their potential for growth. PMID:23536290

Hugoni, Mylène; Taib, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Domaizon, Isabelle; Jouan Dufournel, Isabelle; Bronner, Gisèle; Salter, Ian; Agogué, Hélène; Mary, Isabelle; Galand, Pierre E

2013-03-27

270

Geographic and Breed Distribution Patterns of an A/G Polymorphism resent in the Mx Gene Suggests Balanced Selection in Village Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An A/G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) at position 1,892 of the Mx gene coding sequence has been linked to susceptibility/resistance to avian viral infection in vitro. Using PCR-RFLP and sequencing methods, 1,946 samples from 109 populations from Asia, Africa and Europe; grouped as indigenous village, commercial, fancy chicken as well as wild junglefowl were genotyped for the polymorphism. Allele and genotype frequencies were calculated. Only the G allele was present in Ceylon junglefowl Gallus lafayetti. Using the wild red junglefowl G. gallus population as reference, we assessed if the A/G alleles and genotypes frequencies have been affected by the breeding history and the geographic dispersion of domestic chicken. Within group variation was high but overall there were no significant variation in distribution of alleles and genotypes frequencies between the red junglefowl and indigenous village chickens (p>0.1946), with the exception of the East Asian group (p<0.0001). However, allele and genotype frequencies were significantly different between the red junglefowl and the commercial or fancy groups (p<0.0001). A small but significant negative correlation (r = - 0.166, p<0.0003) was observed between allelic and geographic distance matrices amongst indigenous village chicken populations. Human selection and genetic drift are likely the main factors having shaped today’s observed allele and genotype frequencies in commercial and fancy breeds. In indigenous village chicken and red junglefowl, we propose that both A and G alleles have been maintained by natural selection for disease resistance through a balancing selection mechanism.

S. Ommeh; L.N. Jin; H. Eding; F.C. Muchadeyi; S. Sulandari; M.S.A. Zein; G. Danbaro; C.E. Wani; S.G. Zhao; Q.H. Nie; X.Q. Zhang; M. Ndila; R. Preisinger; G.H. Chen; I.A. Yousif; K.-N. Heo; S.J. Oh; M. Tapio; D. Masiga; O. Hanotte; H. Jianlin; S. Weigend

2010-01-01

271

Method for making chicken with green pepper  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for making chicken with green pepper and belongs to the field of pot-stewed chicken processing. The method can effectively overcome the defect that pot-stewed chicken does not have the faint scent and peppery taste of green pepper and tastes poor. The method comprises the following steps of: killing and defeathering a one year old chicken with a weight of 1 kilogram cleaning the defeathered chicken and hanging the cleaned chicken for draining putting the chicken on a chopping board with the stomach of the chicken upwards holding the chicken body by a left hand chopping the middle of the breastbone of the chicken inserting a chopstick into the stomach of the chicken to unfold the chicken forming a small round opening on the lower abdomen of the chicken putting 30 grams of green pepper into the round opening uniformly coating brown sugar syrup on the surface of the chicken body frying the chicken into frying pan of which the temperature is 170 DEG C for 30 seconds putting the fried chicken flatwise in a stock pot adding 10 grams of sodium nitrate and appropriate amount of soap, brine, soy sauce, table salt, pepper, illicium fruit, fennel and sesame oil into the stock pot boiling the mixture over a soft fire for 2 hours and taking the boiled chicken out of the pot by using a fork naturally cooling the boiled chicken and packaging the cooled chicken by using a vacuum plastic bag. The method is mainly used for processing pot-stewed chicken.

XIUWEN LI

272

Avaliação de germinação e dormência de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho/ Seed germination and dormancy of red rice ecotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relativos à germinação e dormência de 16 ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os ecótipos foram estudados e comparados com os cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em condições de casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram realizados durante o ano agrícola 2001/02, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experiment (more) al de Terras Baixas, no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Foram avaliadas em laboratório a biometria e a massa de mil grãos, além de testes de germinação e dormência aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita dos genótipos. Os resultados evidenciaram grande variabilidade nas características morfofisiológicas dos ecótipos estudados. Os ecótipos de arroz-vermelho avaliados, procedentes de lavouras de arroz irrigado do RS e SC, apresentaram alta variabilidade quanto às características das sementes e à intensidade e duração da dormência. Alguns ecótipos avaliados apresentaram sementes com período de dormência maior que 150 dias após a colheita. Os resultados deste trabalho confirmam também que o êxito no manejo do arroz-vermelho em lavouras infestadas depende da recomendação e adoção por parte dos produtores não de medidas isoladas, mas de um grupo de medidas complementares que, quando adotadas conjuntamente, permitem minimizar os problemas com o arroz-vermelho. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate aspects related to the phenotypic characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The ecotypes were studied and compared to the commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. In the laboratory experiment, seed biometry, 1000 seed-weight and seed germination and dormancy 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after harvesting were evaluated. The red ri (more) ce ecotypes from the rice fields evaluated showed wide variability in seed characteristics and dormancy intensity and duration. Some ecotypes showed dormancy period above 150 days after harvesting. The results of this study confirm that red rice populations infesting rice fields are quite diverse, and appropriate control of red rice is only achieved when growers adopt not only isolated control measures, but also several management practices to reduce red rice yield losses.

Schwanke, A.M.L.; Andres, A.; Noldin, J.A.; Concenço, G.; Procópio, S.O.

2008-01-01

273

Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy, longevity and germination requirements in wild/weedy Sorghum bicolor in Ethiopia: implications for seed mediated transgene dispersal and persistence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed dispersal is one of the vehicles of gene flow in plants. If a seed carrying transgene(s) is dispersed into the environment, the fate can be determined by its persistence in the soil bank, which can also vary in different ecotypes of a species and the physical environment of the soil including temperature and moisture. This study aimed at investigating ecotypic differences in wild sorghum for dormancy and longevity and their response to varying levels of temperature and moisture for seed germination to aid efforts to predict the potential risk of transgene flow via seeds and persistence in the soil. Wild sorghum seed was collected from different geographical regions in Ethiopia and buried for a maximum of 24 months in the soil. In a separate study, three levels of constant temperature and five levels of osmotic potential (?s) were used to investigate variation in wild sorghum ecotypes for seed germination. Viability of buried seeds declined over time, but the rate of decline differed among ecotypes. Better seed longevity was observed at 20 cm soil depth than 10 cm in two wild sorghum ecotypes. Crop seeds depleted within the first six months regardless of the burial depth whereas on the average 1.24% viability was observed in wild sorghum seed after 24 months of burial in the soil. Ecotypic differences were also evident in response to varying temperature and ?s. Therefore, dispersed seeds carrying crop genes (including transgenes) could persist in the soil for considerable period of time, which may have implications for transgene flow and persistence. PMID:23772355

Adugna, Asfaw

2013-05-30

274

Ecotypic variation for seed dormancy, longevity and germination requirements in wild/weedy Sorghum bicolor in Ethiopia: implications for seed mediated transgene dispersal and persistence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed dispersal is one of the vehicles of gene flow in plants. If a seed carrying transgene(s) is dispersed into the environment, the fate can be determined by its persistence in the soil bank, which can also vary in different ecotypes of a species and the physical environment of the soil including temperature and moisture. This study aimed at investigating ecotypic differences in wild sorghum for dormancy and longevity and their response to varying levels of temperature and moisture for seed germination to aid efforts to predict the potential risk of transgene flow via seeds and persistence in the soil. Wild sorghum seed was collected from different geographical regions in Ethiopia and buried for a maximum of 24 months in the soil. In a separate study, three levels of constant temperature and five levels of osmotic potential (?s) were used to investigate variation in wild sorghum ecotypes for seed germination. Viability of buried seeds declined over time, but the rate of decline differed among ecotypes. Better seed longevity was observed at 20 cm soil depth than 10 cm in two wild sorghum ecotypes. Crop seeds depleted within the first six months regardless of the burial depth whereas on the average 1.24% viability was observed in wild sorghum seed after 24 months of burial in the soil. Ecotypic differences were also evident in response to varying temperature and ?s. Therefore, dispersed seeds carrying crop genes (including transgenes) could persist in the soil for considerable period of time, which may have implications for transgene flow and persistence.

Adugna A

2013-12-01

275

The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC) in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

Doolittle Amity

2010-01-01

276

Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area.

Armstrong E; Hersh D; Hayward C; Fraser J; Brown M

2012-06-01

277

Promoting the occupational health of indigenous farmworkers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the United States, approximately 78% of agricultural farmworkers are immigrants. In Oregon, a growing number of these farmworkers are indigenous and speak an indigenous language as their primary language. This group of farmworkers suffers from linguistic, cultural and geographic isolation and faces a unique set of challenges yet little has been done to identify their health needs. Using data from focus groups, partners from this community-based participatory research project examined indigenous farmworkers' concerns regarding occupational injury and illness, experiences of discrimination and disrespect, and language and cultural barriers. The data revealed examples of disrespect and discrimination based on the languages and cultures of indigenous farmworkers, and a lack of basic occupational health and safety information and equipment. For example, participants mentioned that occupational safety information was inaccessible because it was rarely provided in indigenous languages, and participants felt there were no legal means to protect farmworkers from occupational hazards. Community-based strategies designed to address the occupational health status of farmworkers must consider the unique circumstances of those farmworkers who do not speak Spanish or English.

Farquhar S; Samples J; Ventura S; Davis S; Abernathy M; McCauley L; Cuilwik N; Shadbeh N

2008-06-01

278

Cytokine gene polymorphism among Indigenous Australians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health profile of Indigenous Australians is characterised by high rates of classic 'lifestyle' diseases. Potential roles of inflammation in pathophysiology of these diseases requires investigation. It is not clear if genetic regulation of inflammation in Indigenous Australians is similar to other populations. This study characterised frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for eight cytokine genes for 100 individuals from a remote Indigenous Australian community and assessed novel genetic variants in four cytokine genes. We used a commercially-available allelic discrimination assay for SNP genotyping; re-sequencing was undertaken by standard Sanger sequencing methodologies for 26 samples. Frequencies of cytokine gene SNPs differed significantly from the Caucasian population (P?Indigenous Australians did not consistently resemble reported HapMap frequencies in Northern and Western European populations, Yoruba Nigerian or Han Chinese. Our findings indicate Indigenous Australians might have an inherited propensity for strong inflammatory responses. Preliminary evidence of novel genetic variants highlights the need to catalogue the extent of genetic variation in specific population groups. Improved understanding of differences in genetic variation between specific population groups could assist in assessment of risk for lifestyle diseases.

Cox AJ; Moscovis SM; Blackwell CC; Scott RJ

2013-08-01

279

Indigenous teacher training within an intercultural perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current analysis discusses indigenous teacher training foregrounded on the activities that involve teachers, Kaingang chiefs and government officials responsible for this policy in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Specialization Course in Professional Education integrated to Fundamental Education, within the modality Education for Young People and Adults – A differentiated proposal for Amerindians, is the main objective of current study. The course is run by the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and funded by the Secretary for Professional Education and Technology of the Brazilian Ministry of Education. Studies related to the research ‘Amerindian Education and Interculturality’ underlie the above-mentioned specialization course within a wider context of the formation of indigenous teachers and indigene school education.

Claudia Pereira Antunes; Maria Aparecida Bergamaschi

2012-01-01

280

Diversity and distribution of ecotypes of the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy gene pufM in the Delaware estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria has been examined in marine habitats, but the types of AAP bacteria in estuarine waters and distribution of ecotypes in any environment are not well known. The goal of this study was to determine the diversity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and to examine the distribution of select ecotypes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for the pufM gene, which encodes a protein in the light reaction center of AAP bacteria. In PCR libraries from the Delaware River, pufM genes similar to those from Beta- (Rhodoferax-like) or Gammaproteobacteria comprised at least 50% of the clones, but the expressed pufM genes from the river were not dominated by these two groups in August 2002 (less than 31% of clones). In four transects, qPCR data indicated that the gammaproteobacterial type of pufM was abundant only near the mouth of the bay whereas Rhodoferax-like AAP bacteria were restricted to waters with a salinity of <5. In contrast, a Rhodobacter-like pufM gene was ubiquitous, but its distribution along the salinity gradient varied with the season. High fractions (12 to 24%) of all three pufM types were associated with particles. The data suggest that different groups of AAP bacteria are controlled by different environmental factors, which may explain current difficulties in predicting the distribution of total AAP bacteria in aquatic environments. PMID:18469118

Waidner, Lisa A; Kirchman, David L

2008-05-09

 
 
 
 
281

Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity evolution in three maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) ecotypes during preharvest, harvest and postharvest drying  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glucosinolate profiles, glucosinolate contents and myrosinase activity were evaluated in yellow, red and black hypocotyls of maca during pre-harvest, at harvest and during post-harvest drying. At harvest, six glucosinolates (GLs) were identified: 5-methylsulfinylpentyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl, benzyl, 3-methoxybenzyl, 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl and 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl, of which benzyl glucosinolate was the most abundant in the three ecotypes, representing 80% of the total GLs. A significant increase in GLs was observed for the three ecotypes during the 90days before harvest and during the 15-30days of post-harvest drying. This was followed by an important decrease of GLs during the 30-45day period, which was attributed to cell breakdown, due to fluctuations in temperatures during the drying process, and was correlated with a high myrosinase action. During the last period of post-harvest drying, GLs were much lower and correlated to lower myrosinase activity and lower maca hypocotyl humidity. A combination of artisanal and other processing techniques should be utilised, in order to best preserve maca glucosinolates.

Yábar E; Pedreschi R; Chirinos R; Campos D

2011-08-01

282

Estradiol-17? hormone concentration and follicles number in exotic Burgo chicken supplemented by Sauropus androgynus leaves extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Putranto HD, Setianto J, Santoso U, Warnoto, Nurmeliasari, Zueni A. 2012. Estradiol-17? hormone concentration and follicles number in exotic Burgo chicken supplemented by Sauropus androgynus leaves extract. Biodiversitas 13: 1-6. Bengkulu Province of Indonesia has an indigenous crossbreed chicken named burgo or Rejang chicken. A conservation effort in this study was represented by supplementing 4 different levels of leaves extract of Sauropus androgynus (or katuk) (LESA) to improve number of fertile eggs. The purpose of study was to identify the effects of LESA supplementation on female burgo chicken’s serum estradiol-17? (E2) hormone concentration profile and number of follicles. LESA was added into drinking water (0, 9, 18 and 27 g/chicken/day) during 8 weeks of threatment. The results showed that supplementation of LESA dosed 9 to 27 g/chickens/day had significantly affected E2 concentrations and number of follicles (P < 0.05). In contrast, the average of female burgo E2 concentration with supplemented LESA was higher than control group. The total number of small follicle yield was highest (86.5%) compared to medium follicle (7.8%) and large follicle (5.3%). Many primary follicles (primordial) and post ovulatory follicles were probably in micro size and unseen by an usual visual counting. It seems that serum E2 hormone concentration correlated to total number of preheararchal follicles. Supplemented LESA was able to improve the serum estrogen steroid hormone concentration and number of preheararchal follicle (small and medium follicles) in female burgo chicken.

HERI DWI PUTRANTO; JOHAN SETIANTO; URIP SANTOSO; WARNOTO; NURMELIASARI; AHMAD ZUENI

2012-01-01

283

Chicken thigh skinner  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A chicken thigh skinner includes a table having a feed end and a discharge end. A skinning portion of the table is adjustable along the longitudinal axis of the table to accommodate different size poultry parts. The skinning portion defines an elongated slot which is generally Y-shaped in plan. The arms of the Y define a generally triangular-shaped spear. A pair of counter-rotating spiral cut skinning rolls extend along and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the table. The skinning rolls define a nip which is positioned below the slot of the skinning portion of the table. A conveyor is supported by the table above the nip of the skinning rolls and the slot of the skinning portion of the table.

MARTIN EUGENE G; MARTIN HAROLD C

284

Effect of maduramicin and monensin on survival of Lactobacillus salivarius 51R administered in the crop and caeca of young chickens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rifampicin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius 51R was administered orally to newly hatched broiler chickens. The resistance to rifampicin enabled us to differentiate the organism administered from indigenous strains. One day after inoculation, Lactobacillus salivarius 51R dominated among lactobacilli in the crop and caeca of all inoculated chickens, even in those ones receiving maduramicin and monensin at 5 and 100 mg per kg of feed mixture, respectively. Coliform counts in both crop and caeca of inoculated chickens were significantly lowered on the first day after treatment. Also, counts of the crop enterococci were decreased in inoculated chickens. Rifampicin-resistant lactobacilli were still present in high numbers in the crop and caecal contents of inoculated chickens sampled 5 days after inoculation. Differences in counts of total lactobacilli, coliform bacteria, and enterococci were mostly nonsignificant in these samples. Our results demonstrate that (i) bacterial counts in the chicken gut were influenced by probiotic Lactobacillus administration, and (ii) chicken lactobacilli are resistant to ionophore coccidiostats under in vivo conditions.

Rada V; Marounek M

1997-01-01

285

Effect of maduramicin and monensin on survival of Lactobacillus salivarius 51R administered in the crop and caeca of young chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rifampicin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius 51R was administered orally to newly hatched broiler chickens. The resistance to rifampicin enabled us to differentiate the organism administered from indigenous strains. One day after inoculation, Lactobacillus salivarius 51R dominated among lactobacilli in the crop and caeca of all inoculated chickens, even in those ones receiving maduramicin and monensin at 5 and 100 mg per kg of feed mixture, respectively. Coliform counts in both crop and caeca of inoculated chickens were significantly lowered on the first day after treatment. Also, counts of the crop enterococci were decreased in inoculated chickens. Rifampicin-resistant lactobacilli were still present in high numbers in the crop and caecal contents of inoculated chickens sampled 5 days after inoculation. Differences in counts of total lactobacilli, coliform bacteria, and enterococci were mostly nonsignificant in these samples. Our results demonstrate that (i) bacterial counts in the chicken gut were influenced by probiotic Lactobacillus administration, and (ii) chicken lactobacilli are resistant to ionophore coccidiostats under in vivo conditions. PMID:9205734

Rada, V; Marounek, M

1997-01-01

286

Introduction: Special Issue on Indigenous Early Parenthood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This introduction underscores many of the points raised and facts presented in the articles of this special edition of the International Indigenous Policy Journal on Indigenous Early Parenthood. It briefly mentions the interrelationship between economic deprivation and high fertility rates among Canada’s First Nations populations as well as the challenges and consequences of early parenting. While the authors may not make policy prescriptions, they emphasize the need for young parents and their children to receive the supports needed to help break the cycle of negative outcomes, which can be achieved through education, protection, and actualizing the value of ensuring that every child is a welcome and sacred gift.

Marlene Brant Castellano

2013-01-01

287

Chicken soup for treating arthritis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses chicken soup for treating arthritis, comprising the following components: 10-20 grams of twotooth achyranthes root, 10-20 grams of cinnamon, 10-20 grams of pawpaw and 10-20 grams of notopterygium root. The preparation method comprises the following steps: crushing the components, putting into a gauze bag, removing the viscera of a white chicken, putting the gauze bag into the abdomen of the chicken, putting into an earthen pot, adding water, cooking until removing the bone from the meat and being edible, baking the chicken bone by using a tile, grinding into powder and taking with yellow wine. The chicken soup for treating the arthritis, which is provided by the invention, has prevalence and easy acquirement of the materials and simple preparation, and conforms to the concept that medicine tonifying is not as good as food tonifying at present traditional Chinese medicinal materials which have curative effect to the arthritis are added into the chicken soup, which strengthens the nutrition, relieves the ailment, is more effective in comparison with a western medicine eaten for treating and also saves the medicine expense.

ZAIWEN ZHANG

288

Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais  

Science.gov (United States)

|Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand…

Iseke, Judy M.

2011-01-01

289

Community-Based Indigenous Digital Storytelling with Elders and Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

|Indigenous digital storytelling and research are as much about the process of community relationships as they are about the development of digital products and research outcomes. Indigenous researchers, digital storytelling producers, and academics work in different communities with research collaborators who are indigenous community members,…

Iseke, Judy; Moore, Sylvia

2011-01-01

290

The role of phenotypic plasticity on the proteome differences between two sympatric marine snail ecotypes adapted to distinct micro-habitats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of phenotypic plasticity is increasingly being recognized in the field of evolutionary studies. In this paper we look at the role of genetic determination versus plastic response by comparing the protein expression profiles between two sympatric ecotypes adapted to different shore levels and habitats using two-dimensional protein maps. Results We compared qualitative and quantitative differences in protein expression between pools of both ecotypes from different environments (field and laboratory conditions). The results suggested that ecotype differences may affect about 7% of the proteome in agreement with previous studies, and moreover these differences are basically insensitive to environmental changes. Thus, observed differences between wild ecotypes can be mainly attributed to genetic factors rather than phenotypic plasticity. Conclusions These results confirm the mechanism of adaptation already proposed in this species and a minor role of phenotypic plasticity in this ecological speciation process. In addition, this study provides a number of interesting protein spots potentially involved in adaptation, and therefore candidates for a future identification.

Martínez-Fernández Mónica; de la Cadena María; Rolán-Alvarez Emilio

2010-01-01

291

PHYTOTOXICITY AND FIELD EFFICACY OF EXSEROHILUM LONGIROSTRA JC/MIN THE CONTROL OF BARNYARDGRASS ECOTYPES (ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI VAR. CRUS-GALLI(L.) BEAUV)  

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Full Text Available Five selected ecotypes of bamyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-gatti) from several rice growing areas in Malaysia and Indonesia were tested for their susceptibility to the potentia l bioherbicide (Exserohilum longirostratum). Bamyardgrass seedlings at the 2-3-lcaf stage were treated with 2.5xl07 conidia/ml from E. longirostratum at different application frequencies (single, double and triple). In addition, aqueous extract assays were ev aluated for the presence of a phytotoxic compound responsible for the virulence of the bioherbicide. Results of the study showed that disease severity significantly increased 20 days after treatment and resulted in mortality of the seedlin gs. Ecotypes from Perak and Lampung were most susceptible to the bioherbicide upon triple applications. Percentage dry weight reductions were 86.34 and 83.14%, respectively. Other ecotypes (Melaka, Banten and South Sulawesi) were observed to have a relatively similar response. Moreover, aqueous extracts of E. longirostratum increased mortality up to 92.50% of bamyardgrass seedlings. These findings suggest that regular (double and triple) applications of E. longirostratum at a concentration of 2.5xl07 conidia/ml significantly increased mortality among bamyardgrass ecotypes. Mortality of the seedlings was attributed to the presence of a secondary phytotoxic metabolite.

ABDUL SHUKOR JURAIMI; ARIFIN TASRIF; JUGAH KADIR; SUHAIMI NAPIS; SOETIKNO SLAMET SASTROUTOMO

2005-01-01

292

Germination of seeds of a paspalum ecotype from Guarapuava, Paraná State / Germinação de sementes de um ecótipo de paspalum da região de Guarapuava – Pr  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the caryopsis classification, the acid scarification and the treatment with potassium nitrate in the seed germination of a Paspalum notatum Flügge ecotype from the Guarapuava region, Paraná State. The experimental design was the completely...

Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho; Denise Bruginski de Carvalho

293

Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones  

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Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an interculturalperspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998), by the Anmatyerre artistLucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expressesexistential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and arttheory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

Eleonore Wildburger

2009-01-01

294

Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs.

1993-01-01

295

Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

2011-01-01

296

Indigenous Youth Migration and Language Contact  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies ethnographically detail how Indigenous young people's mobility intersects with sociolinguistic transformation in an interconnected world. Drawing on a decade-long study of youth and language contact, I analyze Yup'ik young people's migration in relation to emerging language ideologies and patterns of language use in "Piniq,"…

Wyman, Leisy T.

2013-01-01

297

[Crossed testicular ectopia in indigenous child].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The crossed testicular ectopia is an extremely rare entity, characterized by migration of both testicles in the same inguinal canal, often associated with symptomatic inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism in the contralateral side. About one hundred cases have been published in the literature. We report a case of crossed testicular ectopia in brazilian indigenous boy, aged two years old, with a favorable post operative.

Teixeira RL; Mota RQ; Resende VA; Destefani E

2011-01-01

298

Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources.

Carter J; Hill G

2007-12-01

299

Indigenous Knowledge, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology  

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Full Text Available Book Review of Indigenous Knowledge, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology. Raymond Pierotti. 2011. Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), New York.  Pp. Xv + 264, Bibliography, index.  ISBN13: 978-0-415-87924-8 (hbk), 978-0-203-84711-4 (ebk).

E. N. Anderson

2011-01-01

300

Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Fermented Cereal from Indigenous Raw Materials  

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Full Text Available Fermented cereal was prepared from indigenous raw material like parboiled rice and Bengal gram. The approximate analysis, microbiology, edibility of cereal product has been done. It was found to be a high nutritive value and acceptable as a food.

Sahana Parveen; Fauzia Hafiz

2003-01-01

302

Overview and determinants of cardiovascular disease in indigenous populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cardiovascular disease (CV) is an important problem among the 400 million Indigenous Populations around the world, and has been included in the World Health Organization (WHO) "2008-2013 Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases". Our understanding of the causes of CV disease in the Indigenous populations of Australia and New Zealand will be facilitated by better understanding the causes of CV disease in Indigenous populations around the world. The opening scientific presentations of the Inaugural CSANZ Conference on Indigenous Cardiovascular Health were from two international speakers notable for their commitment to Indigenous Health as a global problem.

Kritharides L; Brown A; Brieger D; Ridell T; Zeitz C; Jeremy R; Tonkin A; Walsh W; White H

2010-05-01

303

Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

Wiwanitkit V

2010-10-01

304

Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases. PMID:15214699

Irungu, L W; Kimani, R N; Kisia, S M

2004-03-01

305

Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.

Irungu LW; Kimani RN; Kisia SM

2004-03-01

306

Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya : short communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78 %. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53 %), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33 %), Ascaridia galli (10.03 %), Strongyloides avium (9.96 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61 %), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6 %), Capillaria sp. (1.5 %), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04 %) and Syngamus trachea (0.40 %). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.

L.W. Irungu; R.N. Kimani; S.M. Kisia

2012-01-01

307

Editor in Chief Commentary: Water - Recognizing the Indigenous Perspective  

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Full Text Available Indigenous peoples have, since time immemorial, understood that water is central to the cycles of life. Yet, as many of the articles in this special issue on water in Indigenous communities point out, Indigenous peoples have real problems accessing safe water. Why?Indigenous peoples have always cared for the water and followed practices that, depending on their geography, varied by season to protect and conserve fresh safe water. They have celebrated it as witnessed by the ceremony and language used. Colonial practices have disrupted the care and knowledge passing in Indigenous communities.Cost-effective technology exists to deliver safe water to Indigenous communities. The issue is that utilization of technology and environmental sustainability rest on the social determinants of safe water. From a policy perspective, this means we have to look outside of Western technological solutions and come to listen to the other ‘story’ - the one that emanates from Indigenous Traditional Knowledge.

Jerry P. White

2012-01-01

308

Readership Pattern of Indigenous Language Newspapers Among Selected Nigerian  

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Full Text Available Indigenous language press which was the harbinger of journalism in Nigeria is suffering serious neglect. The neglect reflects in a number of ways among which is poor readership. Although, the fact of poor readership of indigenous language newspapers is a common knowledge, but it lacks empirical documentation as many researches on readership of newspapers were concentrated on newspapers written in English. This research attempt therefore examined the readership pattern of Indigenous language newspapers among selected university undergraduates and compared the pattern of readership of English and Indigenous language newspapers. The study is a survey of 150 students of Ajayi Crowther University selected through purposive sampling. Data were generated with Indigenous language Newspaper Readership Pattern Instrument (ILNRPI).The results reveal poor readership pattern of Indigenous Language newspaper with the readership pattern of English Language newspapers faring better. On the basis of the findings, useful suggestions were made.  Key words: Indigenous; Language; Readership pattern; Undergraduates

O. F. ALABI

2011-01-01

309

A brief history of indigenous health in brazil  

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Full Text Available Objective: to provide a brief history context on the indigenous struggle for rights. It was at its peak in the 1970s, until the Indigenous Health Subsystem implementation in 1999. Method: it is a bibliographic review research made through BIREME and Scielo databases, including documents and publications of FUNASA, FUNAI, and the Brazilian legislation on indigenous, from 1970s to 2000s using the term: indigenous health. Results: after a myriad of movements that fought for indigenous rights recognition, the Indian Statute was sanctioned in 1973 regulating the indigenous issues in Brazil. Thereafter the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 it took a new direction, recognizing the right for cultural and social diversity, among others. Conclusion: the indigenous people integration to the health systems happened, and is still happening, according to the SUS purpose of reduce health inequalities among the whole population.

Maria Neyrian de Fátima Fernandes, Arieli Rodrigues Nóbrega, Rosinaldo Santos Marques, Ana Michele de Farias Cabral, Clélia Albino Simpson

2010-01-01

310

INDIGENISM IN MEXICO: ANTECEDENTS AND THE PRESENT TIME  

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Full Text Available The present article turns on the indigenism in Mexico, like policy of State, which has been applied since colonial times, going through century XIX, of Mexican liberalism, and during century XX with integrationists, assimilationists, paternalists and assistentials policies, at the different moments of the national-revolutionary indigenism. At the moment we lived the stage on the neo-indigenism that it retakes old indigenists practices, like the assistentialism and the paternalism, calling it development of the indigenous towns. We concluded that in spite of the "government of the change" little it has changed the situation of the indigenous towns, in spite has arisen an own indigenism from the social actors, the indigenous towns, that make a series of reclamations and own demands, like the autonomy, before the globalization and the neo-liberalism.

Leif Korsbaek y Miguel Ángel Sámano Rentería

2007-01-01

311

Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. PMID:23790864

Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

2013-03-22

312

Belangrike faktore vir die keuse van ekotipe spesies vir veldherstelbehandeling Important factors for local ecotype selection in restoration applications  

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Full Text Available Die tipe veldherstel behandeling wat gebruik word in gedegradeerde weivelde hang van die graad van agteruitgang af. Gedegradeerde areas wat reeds verby die drumpel van natuurlike herstel is, benodig gewoonlik aktiewe ingryping. Dit sluit die versteuring van die grondoppervlak of die verwydering van ongewenste en uitheemse spesies wat kompeteer met bestaande plantegroei, in. Een van die hoofdoelwitte van veldherstel is die verhoging van weidingskapasiteit vir veeproduksie. Daar word aanbeveel dat veldherstel die hersaai van plaaslike ekotipe spesies, wat by spesi?eke grond- en klimaatstoestande aangepas is, insluit. Om saadontkieming en saailingvestiging te fasiliteer, moet ’n vorm van beskerming, soos die pak van takke of enige bedekking met organiese materiaal, ingesluit word. Die tyd van hersaai is afhanklik van die seisoenaliteit en reënval, veral in areas waar reënval onvoorspelbaar en ongereeld is. Verder is die hersaai vangroot gedegradeerde areas met spesi?eke ekotipe spesies grootliks afhanklik van die beskikbaarheid van saad. Dit is ’n belangrike beperkende faktor. Meeste saad, wat in die handel by saadmaatskappye in groot hoeveelhede beskikbaar is, word vir aangeplante weiding gebruik. Hierdie saad is gewoonlik nie van plaaslike ekotipe spesies, wat vir ’n sekere habitat aangepas is nie. Dit is gewoonlik nie koste- en arbeidseffektief om groot hoeveelhede saad van ’n spesi?eke habitat te versamel nie. Die kwaliteit, kiemkragtigheid en suiwerheid van versamelde saad is ook gewoonlik baie laag. Dit kan lei tot swak resultate. Alhoewel die ekonomiese aspek en korttermyn resultate van veldherstel beskou word as ’n bepalende faktor, kan die ekologiese belangrikheidvan die verbetering van veldkondisie nie uit die oog verloor word nie. Veldherstel moet uitgevoer word volgens ’n vooropgestelde plan en moet aspekte soos monitering en goeie bestuurspraktyke oor die langtermyn insluit.The type of restoration application in degraded natural rangelands will depend on the degree of degradation. Degraded areas that are beyond the threshold of natural recovery normally need active restoration interventions. This includes the disturbance of the soil surface or the removal of undesired and alien species to reduce the competitive effect on the existing vegetation. One of the main goals of restoration in degraded arid and semi-arid rangelands is to increase the grazing capacity for livestock production. Active restoration interventions include re-seeding or re-vegetation with local ecotype selected species, adapted to the speci?c soil and climatic conditions of the area. To facilitate seed germination and seedling establishment, the restoration practice should also include protection measures such as brush packing or any cover by other organic matter. The timing of re-seeding is dependent on the seasonality and precipitation, especially in areas where rainfall events are erratic and unpredictable. Re-seeding of large degraded areas with speci?c ecotype selected species greatly depends on the availability of seed. This is a major limiting factor as most seed available from seed merchants are used for cultivated pastures, and do not include seed of local ecotype species that are adapted to a certain environment. To collect large quantities of seed represented by a speci?c habitat is very labor intensive and often not cost effective. Furthermore, if local ecotype selected seed is used, the quality, viability and purity are often not of a high standard, leading to poor restoration results. Although the economic implication and short term results of a restoration application are often regarded as determining factors, the ecological importance and improvement in the range condition should not be underestimated. Restoration applications have to be implemented according to a predetermined plan and should include monitoring and sound long-term management principles.

Loraine van den Berg; Klaus Kellner

2010-01-01

313

Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting.

Russo M; di Sanzo R; Cefaly V; Carabetta S; Serra D; Fuda S

2013-11-01

314

Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter  

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Full Text Available digenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin) and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase) were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H) and Wenchang (W) chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C) and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C) for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

Xing Y. Chen; Run S. Jiang; Zhao Y. Geng

2011-01-01

315

Control of Leaf Spot Diseases on Ecotypes of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Produced in the Andean Region of Bolivia  

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Full Text Available The basin of Lake Titicaca is a faba bean-producing microregion of Bolivia where the crop is destined for export. The most commonly cultivated ecotypes “Gigante de Copacabana” and “Usnayo” are affected by diseases that can cause production losses. The aims of the present work were to identify the causal agents of leaf spot affecting these ecotypes, to record disease intensity levels, and to estimate their effect on production. In 2004 and 2005, leaflet, stem and pod samples were taken from faba bean plants with leaf spot growing in the Lake Titicaca area, and from plants in an experimental plot established to determine the effect of five different treatments on production and disease intensity: T1 = Control; T2 = seed treatment with Trichoderma sp. + alternate foliar spraying with benomyl and mancozeb; T3 = seed treatment with fludioxanil/metalaxyl M + alternate foliar spraying with benomyl and mancozeb; T4 = foliar spraying with Trichoderma sp.; T5 = alternate foliar spraying with cymoxanyl and mancozeb-chlorothalonil. Microscopic analysis of the samples revealed the presence of new fungal pathogens for faba beans in Bolivia (Cladosporium sp., and Lepthosphaerulina sp.) as well as emerging fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, B. fabae, Ascochyta fabae, Alternaria sp. and Cercospora sp.). None of the treatments affected the disease progression curve (DPC) for incidence, although effects were seen with respect to disease severity. The seed + foliar treatments (T2 and T3) were more effective at controlling disease than leaf treatments on their own (T4 and T5). Modelling analysis showed faba bean leaf spot disease to be moderately destructive. Compared to chemical treatments, biocontrol with Trichoderma spp. preliminary was found to provide good control of the disease. Losses due to leaf spot disease of 36% were recorded, and a strong correlation detected between yield and disease severity.

M. Coca-Morante; F. Mamani-Álvarez

2012-01-01

316

Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae) from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the exten...

Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa; Sanhueza Carolina; Cuba Marely; Zuñiga Gustavo E; Corcuera Luis J; Bravo León A

317

The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining an historical overview and first-hand account of the indigenous involvement with the UN with an analysis of global indigenous identity as a relativist and constructed term rather than a positivist definitional concept, Dahl addresses how indigenous peoples have implemented the UN achievements at home.

Dahl, Jens

2012-01-01

318

Method for braising chicken with durian  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for braising a chicken with durian, comprising the following steps of butchering a live chicken, drawing out abodominal organs, washing cleanly, cutting the chicken into several blocks, putting the chicken into a pressure cooker, adding soup and yellow wine into the pressure cooker to submerge the chicken, adding ginger, salt, rock candy and other seasonings, braising the chicken with high fire to be cooked, pouring the chicken and soup in the pressure cooker into an earthen pot, adding durian into the earthen pot, boiling the soup with rapid fire and braising for 5-6 minutes with slow fire, wherein other seasonings can be monosodium glutamate, shallot, and the like and can be put before the braising of the pressure cooker or put into the soup after the chicken is taken out of the earthen pot. The chicken braised with the durian through the steps absorbs the smell of the durian so that the special smell of the durian can be effectively reduced, and people who are unaccustomed with the original smell of the durian can eat the chicken and the durian. The prepared kitchen by using durian has the nutrition value of both durian and chicken and is delicious, thereby being a popular delicious food.

LIANGZUI JIANG

319

Early childhood caries in indigenous communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial.

2011-06-01

320

Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises) have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.  

Chris Andersen

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

1989-01-01

322

Social networks among Indigenous peoples in Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examine the extent to which social networks among indigenous peoples in Mexico have a significant effect on a variety of human capital investment and economic activities, such as school attendance and work among teenage boys and girls, and migration, welfare participation, employment status, occupation, and sector of employment among adult males and females. Using data from the 10 percent population sample of the 2000 Population and Housing Census of Mexico and the empirical strategy that Bertrand, Luttmer, and Mullainathan (2000) propose, which allows us to take into account the role of municipality and language group fixed effects, we confirm empirically that social network effects play an important role in the economic decisions of indigenous people, especially in rural areas. Our analysis also provides evidence that better access to basic services such as water and electricity increases the size and strength of network effects in rural areas.

Skoufias E; Lunde T; Patrinos HA

2010-01-01

323

Globalisation And Local Indigenous Education In Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.

Reinke, Leanne

2004-11-01

324

LIBRARIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper reviews experiences on library services to indigenous people developed in Latin America, from Argentina to Mexico. It provides a brief introduction to the reality of native communities all around the continent, and points out the outstanding projects on this issue. Since native populations are subjected to serious problems -such as discrimination, social exclusion, diseases, unemployment, loss of identity, endangered languages and cultural pressure-it argues that libraries can become an option to the recovery of culture and a way to guarantee the egalitarian access to strategic information, a resource that is vital for a balanced development and progress.KEYWORDS: Indigenous People; Latin America-Libraries; Latin America-Culture

Edgardo Civallero

2007-01-01

325

TERRITORY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current vision on territorial arrangement can be considered as a methodological manifestation, whose purpose is its own knowledge and efficient handling. Unfortunately, the application of the European model brings difficulties, since it doesn’t interpret the feel of the communities that habit the territory, especially the ethnic communities, whom fortunately occupy great part of it, as well as being considered natural reserves.For indigenous people, territorial occupation isn’t a mercantile object. Instead, it constitutes an integral way of life, where humans and the cosmos are a unity. However, this ancestral right is affected by violence, political, management and governmental strategies. Foreign intervention, globalization and the economic aperture, as well as other factors, also unbalance said unity.It is worthy to reflect upon the concept of land and territory and the interpretation of indigenous people regarding these topics, as well as its application in the territorial arrangement plans.

Gustavo Adolfo Agredo Cardona

2006-01-01

326

Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (?²) was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous) of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.

Gava C; Malacarne J; Rios DP; Sant'Anna CC; Camacho LA; Basta PC

2013-02-01

327

Indigenous Knowledge and Sea Ice Science: What Can We Learn from Indigenous Ice Users?  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on examples mostly from Iñupiaq and Yup’ik sea-ice expertise in coastal Alaska, this contribution examines how local, indigenous knowledge (LIK) can inform and guide geophysical and biological sea-ice research. Part of the relevance of LIK derives from its linkage to sea-ice use and the services coastal communities derive from the ice cover. As a result, indigenous experts keep track of a broad range of sea-ice variables at a particular location. These observations are embedded into a broader worldview that speaks to both long-term variability or change and to the system of values associated with ice use. The contribution examines eight different contexts in which LIK in study site selection and assessment of a sampling campaign in the context of inter annual variability, the identification of rare or inconspicuous phenomena or events, the contribution by indigenous experts to hazard assessment and emergency response, the record of past and present climate embedded in LIK, and the value of holistic sea-ice knowledge in detecting subtle, intertwined patterns of environmental change. The relevance of local, indigenous sea-ice expertise in helping advance adaptation and responses to climate change as well as its potential role in guiding research questions and hypotheses are also examined. The challenges that may have to be overcome in creating an interface for exchange between indigenous experts and seaice researchers are considered. Promising approaches to overcome these challenges include cross-cultural, interdisciplinary education, and the fostering of Communities of Practice.

Eicken, H.

2010-12-01

328

Correlates of preclinical cardiovascular disease in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: a case control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The high frequency of premature death from cardiovascular disease in indigenous Australians is often attributed to the high prevalence of risk factors, especially type II diabetes mellitus (DM). We evaluated the relationship of ethnicity to atherosclerotic burden, as evidenced by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), independent of risk factor status. Methods We studied 227 subjects (147 men; 50 ± 13 y): 119 indigenous subjects with (IDM, n = 54), and without DM (InDM, n = 65), 108 Caucasian subjects with (CDM, n = 52), and without DM (CnDM, n = 56). IMT was measured according to standard methods and compared with clinical data and cardiovascular risk factors. Results In subjects both with and without DM, IMT was significantly greater in indigenous subjects. There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between any of the groups, and subjects with DM showed no difference in plasma HbA1c. Cardiovascular risk factors were significantly more prevalent in indigenous subjects. Nonetheless, ethnicity (? = -0.34; p Conclusion Ethnicity appears to be an independent correlate of preclinical cardiovascular disease, even after correction for the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in indigenous Australians. Standard approaches to control currently known risk factors are vital to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, but in themselves may be insufficient to fully address the high prevalence in this population.

Haluska Brian A; Chan Lionel; Jeffriess Leanne; Shaw A Andrew; Shaw Joanne; Marwick Thomas H

2008-01-01

329

Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001).  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007). This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a) describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b) defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c) western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d) examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e) connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

Cassie Quigley

2009-01-01

330

Type 2 diabetes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and adolescents in New South Wales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2001-2006 in young people < 19 years and the characteristics of T2DM in the Indigenous group. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective population-based incidence study, New South Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Primary ascertainment was from the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group NSW Diabetes Register, with secondary ascertainment from the National Diabetes Register (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of T2DM in young people in NSW; incidence of T1DM and T2DM in Indigenous young people; characteristics at diagnosis. RESULTS: There were 128 incident cases of T2DM (62 boys, 66 girls) in the study period. The median age at diagnosis was 14.5 years (interquartile range, 13.0-16.4), and 90% were overweight or obese (body mass index > 85th percentile for age). Mean annual incidence was 2.5/100,000 person-years (95% CI, 2.1-3.0) in 10-18-year-olds. Of the ethnic groups represented, white Australian comprised 29%, Indigenous 22%, Asian 22%, North African/Middle Eastern 12% and M?ori/Polynesian/Melanesian 10%. The incidence of T2DM was significantly higher in the Indigenous than the non-Indigenous group (incidence rate ratio, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.9-9.7; P<0.001), but incidence rates of T1DM were similar (15.5 v 21.4/100,000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM accounts for 11% of incident cases of diabetes in 10-18-year-olds, and the majority are overweight or obese. The high rate among Indigenous Australian children supports screening for T2DM in this population.

Craig ME; Femia G; Broyda V; Lloyd M; Howard NJ

2007-05-01

331

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

Gwynn Josephine D; Flood Victoria M; D'Este Catherine A; Attia John R; Turner Nicole; Cochrane Janine; Louie Jimmy; Wiggers John H

2012-01-01

332

Preparation method of instant diced chicken  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a preparation method of instant diced chicken in the deep processing of chicken products. The instant diced chicken comprises the following raw materials: 50-60g of diced chicken, 30-40g of concentrated chicken soup, 1-3g of dried egg white, 1.3-1.8g of salt, 1-2g of white sugar and 0.3-0.5g of monosodium glutamate. The preparation method comprises the following steps: firstly dicing the chicken to be convenient for eating secondly, injecting 10-20 percent of compound seasoning salt water by an injector preserving for 4-6h to be tasty, placing into a cooking furnace to cook for 30-40min at a temperature of 80-90 DEG C thirdly, quickly freezing at a quick-freezing temperature below -38 DEG C for 3-5h, then packaging, and placing into a refrigerator with a temperature below -18 DEG C for storage. The product produced by adopting a scientific process and a scientific formula is convenient for eating when being eaten, the diced chicken and the chicken soup are heated and stewed by adding a small quantity of water until to be boiled so that people can eat the chicken without adding other materials the instant diced chicken has bright appearance, is soft so as to be easy to chew, is fresh in soup, rich in nutrition and special in taste.

JIQUAN DONG; LIANG SHI

333

Insulin signaling in chicken liver and muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review addresses the control exerted by insulin through its receptor on the general metabolism and gene expression in chicken liver and muscle. Compared with mammals, chickens have similar concentrations of circulating insulin, but still maintain high plasma glucose levels. This may be a consequence of the low sensitivity of the chicken to exogenous insulin. In order to determine whether this low sensitivity is the result of differences in insulin receptor signaling between mammals and birds, insulin receptors have been characterized in several chicken tissues and two insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and Shc) have been described in liver and muscle. Compared with mammals current knowledge of insulin signaling in birds is incomplete. This is particularly evident when considering the number of isoforms of the components involved in the insulin cascade (IRSs, AKT, ERK and others) many of which may have not been characterized in the chicken. Despite these shortfalls in available data, it appears that insulin signaling in chicken liver is similar to that in mammals, but is unlike that in mammals in muscle. In leg muscle, chickens differ from mammals in the early steps of the insulin signaling cascade (IR, IRS-1 and PI3K) where PI3K activity is about 30-fold greater in the chicken than in the rat. This "constitutive" hyperactivity of PI3K in chicken muscle may over-stimulate a feedback inhibitory pathway described in mammals thereby desensitizing chicken muscle to insulin. PMID:18996126

Dupont, J; Tesseraud, S; Simon, J

2008-10-22

334

Insulin signaling in chicken liver and muscle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review addresses the control exerted by insulin through its receptor on the general metabolism and gene expression in chicken liver and muscle. Compared with mammals, chickens have similar concentrations of circulating insulin, but still maintain high plasma glucose levels. This may be a consequence of the low sensitivity of the chicken to exogenous insulin. In order to determine whether this low sensitivity is the result of differences in insulin receptor signaling between mammals and birds, insulin receptors have been characterized in several chicken tissues and two insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and Shc) have been described in liver and muscle. Compared with mammals current knowledge of insulin signaling in birds is incomplete. This is particularly evident when considering the number of isoforms of the components involved in the insulin cascade (IRSs, AKT, ERK and others) many of which may have not been characterized in the chicken. Despite these shortfalls in available data, it appears that insulin signaling in chicken liver is similar to that in mammals, but is unlike that in mammals in muscle. In leg muscle, chickens differ from mammals in the early steps of the insulin signaling cascade (IR, IRS-1 and PI3K) where PI3K activity is about 30-fold greater in the chicken than in the rat. This "constitutive" hyperactivity of PI3K in chicken muscle may over-stimulate a feedback inhibitory pathway described in mammals thereby desensitizing chicken muscle to insulin.

Dupont J; Tesseraud S; Simon J

2009-09-01

335

Production method of fermentation chicken bean curd  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a production method of fermentation chicken bean curd, which is characterized in that: steamed chicken is dried to be made into chicken powder of 80 meshes, the chicken powder is added into edible alkaline water solution with the mass percent of 0.5 to 0.75 percent to be heated to 70 to 80 DEG C and to be maintained for 15 to 30 minutes, then after the mixture is cooled to the room temperature, acid water solution which is acceptable by the human body is used for adjusting the pH value of the mixture to 6.8 to 7.2 so as to obtain the chicken powder neutral solution, cane sugar or glucose with the mass being 3 to 5 percent of that of the chicken powder neutral solution and 0.01 to 0.03 percent of calcium lactate are added to be heated to 85 to 90 DEG C and to be maintained for 30 to 60 minutes, then the mixture is cooled to the room temperature to obtain the chicken powder solution to be fermented, lactobacillus which is 3 to 5 percent of the mass of the chicken powder solution to be fermented is inoculated, and the chicken powder solution is fermented for 44 to 48 hours at the fermentation temperature of 40 to 45 DEG C to prepare the fermentation chicken bean curd. By adopting the alkaline pretreatment, the solubility of the chicken protein is improved, and the lactobacillus fermentation is used for producing acid together with the fermentation process to form the chicken protein solidified chicken bean curd according to the solidification characteristics of protein acid.

HAISONG ZHANG; QIAN ZHANG

336

REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

Pablo Reed

2011-01-01

337

Asymbiotic germination response to photoperiod and nutritional media in six populations of Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus (Orchidaceae): evidence for ecotypic differentiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ecotypic differentiation has been explored in numerous plant species, but has been largely ignored in the Orchidaceae. Applying a specific germination protocol for widespread seed sources may be unreliable due to inherent physiological or genetic differences in localized populations. It is crucial to determine whether ecotypic differentiation exists for restoration and conservation programmes. Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus, a widespread terrestrial orchid of eastern North America, is a model species to explore ecotypic differences in germination requirements, as this species occupies diverse habitats spanning a wide geographical range. METHODS: Mature seeds were collected from south Florida, north central Florida, three locations in South Carolina, and the upper Michigan peninsula. Effects of three photoperiods (8/16, 12/12, 16/8 h L/D) were examined on asymbiotic in vitro seed germination and seedling development of C. tuberosus. Germination and early development was monitored for 8 weeks, while advanced development was monitored for an additional 8 weeks. In an additional experiment, asymbiotic seed germination and development was monitored for 8 weeks on six culture media (BM-1 terrestrial orchid medium, Knudson C, Malmgrem, half-strength MS, P723, and Vacin and Went). A tetrazolium test for embryo viability was performed. KEY RESULTS: Short days promoted the highest germination among Florida populations, but few differences among photoperiods in other seed sources existed. Different media had little effect on the germination of Michigan and Florida populations, but germination of South Carolina seeds was higher on media with higher calcium and magnesium. Tetrazolium testing confirmed that South Carolina seeds exhibited low viability while viability was higher in Florida seeds. Seed germination and corm formation was rapid in Michigan seeds across all treatments. Michigan seedlings allocated more biomass to corms compared with other seed sources. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid germination and corm formation may be a survival mechanism in response to a compressed growing season in northern populations. Ecotypic differentiation may be occurring based on seed germination and corm formation data.

Kauth PJ; Kane ME; Vendrame WA; Reinhardt-Adams C

2008-11-01

338

Estimación de la variabilidad genética entre ecotipos de cocoteros presentes en Cuba por ISTR/ Genetics variability estimation among coconut ecotypes in Cuba by ISTR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó la caracterización molecular entre 16 ecotipos de cocoteros pertenecientes a una población del municipio de Baracoa, provincia Guantánamo, empleando la técnica Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat (ISTR). El análisis molecular ISTR detectó un polimorfismo del 81,8%, demostrando la potencialidad de este marcador para realizar estudios de diversidad molecular en el cocotero. El porcentaje de identificación fue alto (Pi=91,2%), lo cual sugiere que las combinacio (more) nes de oligonucleótidos empleadas pudieran ser utilizada para estudios de identificación de ecotipos en poblaciones de cocotero de la zona de Baracoa mientras, que la heterocigocidad esperada fue baja (He=0,30). La evaluación de la diversidad en los diferentes ecotipos de cocoteros mediante marcadores ISTR mostró que se cuenta con un nivel de variabilidad, atendiendo a los grupos formados, lo que se corresponde con la gran variación morfológica observada en la población in situ. Además, estos resultados sugieren que la hibridación natural ha sido un factor determinante en la generación de la variabilidad encontrada entre los ecotipos, característica de las variedades de cocotero. Abstract in english The molecular characterization among 16 coconut ecotypes belonging to a population of Baracoa municipality, Guantanamo province, employing the ISTR technique (Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat) has been done. The molecular analysis ISTR detected a polymorphism of 81.8%, showing the potenciality of this marker to do studies on molecular diversity in coconut. The identification percentage was high (Pi= 91.2%) suggesting that primer combinations employed could be used to ecotyp (more) e identification studies on coconut populations of Baracoa. The heterocigocity hoped was low (He=0.30). Diversity evaluation in different coconut ecotypes by means of ISTR markers showed the variability level, according to the groups. This corresponds with the great morphologic variation observed in the population in situ. These results suggest that natural hybridization has been a determinant factor generating the variability found between the ecotypes, typical of coconut varieties.

Alonso Esquivel, Maruchi; Cueto Rodríguez, Jorge R.; Llauger Riverón, Raixa; Rodríguez, Maribel; Santos Rodríguez, Yusniel; Rohde, Wolfgang

2008-07-01

339

Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of NBS-LRR-encoding genes upon Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infection in two ecotypes of Fragaria vesca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duchesne) worldwide. The correlation between NBS-LRR genes, the largest class of known resistance genes, and strawberry anthracnose resistance has been elusive. BLAST search in NCBI identified 94 FvNBSs in the diploid genome of strawberry Fragaria vesca, with 67 of the TIR-NBS-LRR type. At least 36 FvNBSs were expressed, with 25% being non-coding genes. Two F. vesca ecotypes, HLJ and YW, showed great variations in both morphological and physiological responses upon C. gloeosporioides infection. qRT-PCR revealed that 5 of the 12 leaf-expressed FvNBSs displaying opposite transcription responses to C. gloeosporioides infection in two ecotypes. These results showed that the transcriptional responses of several FvNBSs were involved in the ecotype-specific responses to C. gloeosporioides in F. vesca. These FvNBSs hold potential in characterizing molecular components and developing novel markers associated with anthracnose resistance in strawberry.

Li J; Zhang QY; Gao ZH; Wang F; Duan K; Ye ZW; Gao QH

2013-09-01

340

Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies.

Liu D; Islam E; Li T; Yang X; Jin X; Mahmood Q

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies. PMID:17904736

Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

2007-08-15

342

Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of NBS-LRR-encoding genes upon Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infection in two ecotypes of Fragaria vesca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duchesne) worldwide. The correlation between NBS-LRR genes, the largest class of known resistance genes, and strawberry anthracnose resistance has been elusive. BLAST search in NCBI identified 94 FvNBSs in the diploid genome of strawberry Fragaria vesca, with 67 of the TIR-NBS-LRR type. At least 36 FvNBSs were expressed, with 25% being non-coding genes. Two F. vesca ecotypes, HLJ and YW, showed great variations in both morphological and physiological responses upon C. gloeosporioides infection. qRT-PCR revealed that 5 of the 12 leaf-expressed FvNBSs displaying opposite transcription responses to C. gloeosporioides infection in two ecotypes. These results showed that the transcriptional responses of several FvNBSs were involved in the ecotype-specific responses to C. gloeosporioides in F. vesca. These FvNBSs hold potential in characterizing molecular components and developing novel markers associated with anthracnose resistance in strawberry. PMID:23806759

Li, Jing; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Fei; Duan, Ke; Ye, Zheng-Wen; Gao, Qing-Hua

2013-06-24

343

Milo’s Kitchen' Voluntarily Recalls Chicken Jerky and Chicken Grillers Home-style Dog Treats  

Science.gov (United States)

Milo’s Kitchen' today announced that it is voluntarily recalling its Chicken Jerky and Chicken Grillers home-style dog treats from retailer shelves nationally. No other Milo’s Kitchen' products are affected.

344

Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L.) predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1) as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill), em diferentes meios; 2) as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3) as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT) foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após), ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após), coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI.The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.) predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1) the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pectinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill), in different media; 2) the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3) the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT) were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours), or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours), staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

Ana Maria Queijeiro López; Danielle dos Santos Tavares Pereira

2010-01-01

345

Create a new vision for indigenous development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

2009-07-01

346

DANGERS OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY AND ITS DEFENSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article postulates the existence of a permanent opposition between the community and the city, in other words between the urban and the rural worlds, the rural world is the indigenous world. The community has its own institutions, of which the best known (although not the only one) is the cargo system. In the present situation of neoliberal domination, the opposition between the two spaces has become particularly acute, and the community finds itself in a permanent situation of self-defense so that its institutions have turned into institutions of defense. Two regions, in which the cargo system is found, are presented: Mesoamerica and the Andean Region, and three institutions dedicated to defend the community are described: the Policía Comunitaria in Guerrero (and other parts) in Mexico, the Ronda Campesina, which exists in a huge number of indigenous communities in Peru, and the Guardia Tribal of the Nasa indigenous in the Cauca Valley in Southern Colombia. After a brief description of the two regions, the three institutions of defense are described with more details. The descriptions of the Ronda Campesina in Peru and of the Guardia Tribal in Colombia are products of my fieldwork there during my sabbatical year in 2007. In the brief conclusions I draw the attention to a double problem this situation constitutes, a problem which belongs to the field of anthropology of law: the necessity of understanding the state, which is formally pledged to guarantee the rights of its citizens, an obligation which it has completely forgotten, and understand these institutions of defense, that defend the community against the state, which ought to defend them.

Leif Korsbaek

2009-01-01

347

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

1990-01-01

348

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and ?-32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

1990-01-01

349

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and gamma -32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labelled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

Aramburo C; Donoghue D; Montiel JL; Berghman LR; Scanes CG

1990-01-01

350

Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and gamma -32P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32P-phosphate labelled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer. PMID:2215076

Aramburo, C; Donoghue, D; Montiel, J L; Berghman, L R; Scanes, C G

1990-01-01

351

Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

Wiwanitkit Viroj

2010-01-01

352

Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented. PMID:21430880

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2010-10-01

353

75 FR 25883 - China: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-514] China: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies...instituted investigation No. 332-514, China: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation...

2010-05-10

354

Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy): Robusta (PRR: n=54), Pepoi (PPP: n=33) and Padovana (PPD: n=20). Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998). Values of expected heterozygosity (H) and polymorphism information content (PIC) at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed), marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc.) from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.

Massino De Marchi; Chiara Targhetta; Barbara Contiero; Martino Cassandro

2003-01-01

355

Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

2013-01-01

356

Indigenous farmers rights, international agricultural trade and the WTO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peasant and family farmers’ activist groups argue that only indigenous farming practices can guarantee adequate food supplies without loss of biodiversity. Such activists argue that the international agricultural trade rules in the WTO should therefore recognise indigenous farmers’ rights to farm in...

SMITH, F

357

Implications of land rights reform for Indigenous health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In August 2006, the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Amendment Bill 2006 (Cwlth) was passed into law, introducing, among other things, a system of 99-year leases over Indigenous townships. The leasing scheme will diminish the control that traditional owners previously exercised over their lands. This is at odds with research indicating that control over land is a positive influence on Indigenous health.

Watson NL

2007-05-01

358

Culture and Wellbeing: The Case of Indigenous Australians  

Science.gov (United States)

A recurring theme in Indigenous affairs in Australia is a tension between maintenance of Indigenous culture and achievement of socio-economic "equity": essentially "self-determination" versus "assimilation". Implicit in this tension is the view that attachment to traditional cultures and lifestyles is a hindrance to achieving "mainstream" economic…

Dockery, Alfred Michael

2010-01-01

359

Indigenous cultural training for health workers in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Culturally inappropriate health services contribute to persistent health inequalities. This article reviews approaches to indigenous cultural training for health workers and assesses how effectively they have been translated into training programmes within Australia. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL PLUS, MEDLINE, Wiley InterScience, ATSIHealth and ProQuest. STUDY SELECTION: The review focuses on the conceptual and empirical literature on indigenous cultural training for health workers within selected settler-colonial countries, together with published evaluations of such training programmes in Australia. Data extraction Information on conceptual models underpinning training was extracted descriptively. Details of authors, year, area of investigation, participant group, evaluation method and relevant findings were extracted from published evaluations. RESULTS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: Six models relevant to cultural training were located and organized into a conceptual schema ('cultural competence, transcultural care, cultural safety, cultural awareness, cultural security and cultural respect'). Indigenous cultural training in Australia is most commonly based on a 'cultural awareness' model. Nine published evaluations of Australian indigenous cultural training programmes for health workers were located. Of the three studies that assessed change at multiple points in time, two found positive changes. However, the only study to include a control group found no effect. CONCLUSION: This review shows that the evidence for the effectiveness of indigenous cultural training programmes in Australia is poor. Critiques of cultural training from indigenous and non-indigenous scholars suggest that a 'cultural safety' model may offer the most potential to improve the effectiveness of health services for indigenous Australians.

Downing R; Kowal E; Paradies Y

2011-06-01

360

Exploring local immunological adaptation of two stickleback ecotypes by experimental infection and transcriptome-wide digital gene expression analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the extent of local adaptation in natural populations and the mechanisms that allow individuals to adapt to their native environment is a major avenue in molecular ecology research. Evidence for the frequent occurrence of diverging ecotypes in species that inhabit multiple ecological habitats is accumulating, but experimental approaches to understanding the biological pathways as well as the underlying genetic mechanisms are still rare. Parasites are invoked as one of the major selective forces driving evolution and are themselves dependent on the ecological conditions in a given habitat. Immunological adaptation to local parasite communities is therefore expected to be a key component of local adaptation in natural populations. Here, we use next-generation sequencing technology to compare the transcriptome-wide response of experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks from a lake and a river population, which are known to evolve under selection by distinct parasite communities. By comparing overall gene expression levels as well as the activation of functional pathways in response to parasite exposure, we identified potential differences between the two stickleback populations at several levels. Our results suggest locally adapted patterns of gene regulation in response to parasite exposure, which may reflect different local optima in the trade-off between the benefits and the disadvantages of mounting an immune response because of quantitative differences of the local parasite communities.

Lenz TL; Eizaguirre C; Rotter B; Kalbe M; Milinski M

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Exploring local immunological adaptation of two stickleback ecotypes by experimental infection and transcriptome-wide digital gene expression analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the extent of local adaptation in natural populations and the mechanisms that allow individuals to adapt to their native environment is a major avenue in molecular ecology research. Evidence for the frequent occurrence of diverging ecotypes in species that inhabit multiple ecological habitats is accumulating, but experimental approaches to understanding the biological pathways as well as the underlying genetic mechanisms are still rare. Parasites are invoked as one of the major selective forces driving evolution and are themselves dependent on the ecological conditions in a given habitat. Immunological adaptation to local parasite communities is therefore expected to be a key component of local adaptation in natural populations. Here, we use next-generation sequencing technology to compare the transcriptome-wide response of experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks from a lake and a river population, which are known to evolve under selection by distinct parasite communities. By comparing overall gene expression levels as well as the activation of functional pathways in response to parasite exposure, we identified potential differences between the two stickleback populations at several levels. Our results suggest locally adapted patterns of gene regulation in response to parasite exposure, which may reflect different local optima in the trade-off between the benefits and the disadvantages of mounting an immune response because of quantitative differences of the local parasite communities. PMID:22971109

Lenz, Tobias L; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Rotter, Björn; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

2012-09-13

362

Ecotypic differentiation in Medicago polymorpha L. along an environmental gradient in central Chile. RAPDs studies show little genetic divergence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Burr medic ( Medicago polymorpha) is distributed in a wide range of bioclimatic and edaphic conditions throughout the mediterranean-climate region of Chile. Previous studies on populations of M. polymorpha collected along this gradient revealed a remarkable ecotypic differentiation in many adaptive traits. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate genetic divergence in 36 accessions collected along the entire gradient. Three Australian commercial cultivars were also included in the study, of which two originated in Chile. The 40 RAPD primers used revealed a high degree of polymorphism and generated a total of 295 bands, of which 78% were polymorphic. Degrees of similarity, based on Nei's genetic distance, identified one group of accessions (22 of the 39 studied) with an index of similarity = 100% centered in the semiarid and arid zones of the study region. The remaining 17 accessions (from more mesic zones and one commercial cultivar) were more diverse. Only 91%similarity was found for the combined 39 accessions, indicating a low degree of genetic divergence. Biogeographical and life history strategy aspects of the results are discussed, including the notion of a suite of `arid-adapted' characteristics arising in annual legumes under arid / semiarid conditions.

Paredes M; Becerra V; Rojo C; Pozo Adel; Ovalle C; Aronson J

2002-01-01

363

Energy balance methods of the ecotypic orchard with biogas bigester as a link in mid region of China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new model and method of the energy balance of the ecotypic orchard with biogas digester as a link in mid region of China was presented,which was based on ecology?economics and energy science.The energy balance of the orchard ecosystem containing ecological sty,biogas digester,orchard,etc.was analyzed by testing and calculation.The results showed that the total energy output in the orchard ecosystem is 238964MJ/a,and 79.43% of them is the apple energy,and 14.12% of them is pork energy,and 6.36% of them was the biogas energy.The total energy inlet in the orchard ecosystem is 60197.1MJ/a(except radiation energy of the sun),and 92.91% of them is feedstuff energy,and 4.55% of them is assisted energy electricity.The total solar energy import in the orchard ecosystem is 12.76×10~(6)MJ/a,and the conversion ratio of solar energy is 0.14%.In the model of the energy balance biogas plays a role as a linkage between plantation and breeding,link the plantation and breeding together and improve each other,and forms a benign ecology cycle which can provide remarkable energy, environmental and economic benefit.

Zhang Quanguo; Shen Shengqiang; Yang Shiguang; Yang Qunfa; Li Gang

2003-01-01

364

Development of Database for Indigenous Indonesian Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the research is to create and develop a database of indigenous Indonesian microorganisms based at the University of Indonesia. Development of the database of indigenous Indonesian microorganisms was carried out in several stages, i.e. data identification, database design, programming, data entry, testing and debugging, and repairing and maintenance. Development of the database utilized the licensed software of General Public License (GPL), which include Linux RedHat 9.0 (operating system), Apache ver. 2.20 (web server), MySQL ver. 4.2 (database server), and PHP ver. 4.3 (web interface programming language). The result of this research is a database named UI Bioinfo which has the following facilities: online catalog search for UICC (University of Indonesia Culture Collection) strains collection and sequence homology search utility through BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). Integrated information on strains collection was first carried out on the yeast collection. At present, UI Bioinfo contains information for 297 strains that includes isolation data, morphological descriptions, physiology-biochemical characteristics, and images. Moreover it also contains sequence data from the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. UI Bioinfo can be accessed from the following site: http://152.118.162.250/bio/. Future development will be addition of data from the other collections in UICC.

Wellyzar Sjamsuridzal; Sitaresmi; Gatot F. Hertono; Ariyanti Oetari

2006-01-01

365

Indigenous Astronomies and Progress in Modern Astronomy  

CERN Multimedia

From an anthropological point of view, the whole concept of a "path of progress" in astronomical discovery is anathema, since it implicitly downgrades other cultural perspectives, such as the many "indigenous cosmologies" that still exist in the modern world. By doing so, one risks provoking those who hold them and-as is most obvious in places such as Hawaii where the two "world-views" come into direct contact-reating avoidable resistance to that very progress. The problem is complicated by the existence of "fringe" and "new-age" views that are increasingly confused with, and even passed off as, indigenous perceptions. In a modern world where widespread public perceptions include many that are unscientific in the broadest sense of the term, I shall argue that there are actually a range of positive benefits for progress in scientific astronomy to be derived from the mutual awareness and comprehension of "genuine" cultural world-views whose goals-in common with those of modern science-are to make sense of the c...

Ruggles, Clive

2010-01-01

366

Indigenous Students and the Learning of English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of students? proficiency in English in the Malaysian primary schools is still debatable. Approach: Unless the problem of students? proficiency is solved at the primary school level, it will fossilize and contribute toward students? anxiety in the language at the secondary and tertiary levels. Results: This research study looked into English needs of the indigenous or ?Orang Asli? students in primary schools in the district of Rompin-Endau, Pahang. These indigenous students still lag in education and with the implementation of teaching of science and mathematics in English in primary schools, they will be burdened with language difficulties. The researchers identify that the students preferred learning skill is listening to the teachers? explanation. And the task-based activity that can improve their proficiency is listening to songs and singing in English. Conclusion/Recommendations: Findings from this research could provide useful information for the curriculum developers at the Ministry of Education of Malaysia whether to revamp the present English curriculum or formulate a new curriculum to meet the English needs of the ?Orang Asli? students.

Shahrier Pawanchik; Anton A. Kamil; Fatan H. Yahaya

2010-01-01

367

A quest for indigenous truffle helper prokaryotes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuber aestivum is the most common European truffle with significant commercial exploitation. Its production originates from natural habitats and from artificially inoculated host tree plantations. Formation of Tuber ectomycorrhizae in host seedling roots is often inefficient. One possible reason is the lack of indigenous associative microbes. Here we aimed at metagenetic characterization and cultivation of indigenous prokaryotes associated with T. aestivum in a field transect cutting through the fungus colony margin. Several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed close association with the T. aestivum in the ectomycorrhizae and in the soil, but there was no overlap between the associative prokaryotes in the two different habitats. Among those positively associated with the ectomycorrhizae, we identified several bacterial genera belonging to Pseudonocardineae. Extensive isolation efforts yielded many cultures of ectomycorrhizae-associative bacteria belonging to Rhizobiales and Streptomycineae, but none belonging to the Pseudonocardineae. The specific unculturable Tuber-associated prokaryotes are likely to play important roles in the biology of these ectomycorrhizal fungi, including modulation of competition with other symbiotic and saprotrophic microbes, facilitation of root penetration and/or accessing mineral nutrients in the soil. However, the ultimate proof of this hypothesis will require isolation of the microbes for metabolic studies, using novel cultivation approaches.

Gryndler M; Soukupová L; Hršelová H; Gryndlerová H; Borovi?ka J; Streiblová E; Jansa J

2013-06-01

368

Adapting Western Research Methods to Indigenous Ways of Knowing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 16, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301157).

Simonds VW; Christopher S

2013-05-01

369

Ethical genetic research in Indigenous communities: challenges and successful approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations, in common with all populations, stand to benefit from the potential of genetic research to lead to improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic tools for a wide range of complex diseases. However, many Indigenous communities, especially ones that are isolated, are not included in genetic research efforts. This situation is largely a consequence of the challenges of ethically conducting genetic research in Indigenous communities and compounded by Indigenous peoples' negative past experiences with genetic issues. To examine ways of addressing these challenges, we review one investigation of a cancer cluster in remote Aboriginal communities in Arnhem Land, Australia. Our experiences demonstrate that genetic research can be both ethically and successfully conducted with Indigenous communities by respecting the authority of the community, involving community members, and including regular community review throughout the research process. PMID:23007173

McWhirter, Rebekah E; Mununggirritj, Djapirri; Marika, Dipililnga; Dickinson, Joanne L; Condon, John R

2012-09-21

370

Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

Barney, Katelyn

2010-01-01