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Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes in Ethiopia: Growth and Feed Utilization Potentials  

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Full Text Available Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro-ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (p<0.01 effect on overall body weight gain per bird and mean body weight gain per bird per day from day old to 12 weeks of age. The highest body weight gain per bird was recorded for Fayoumi chicks. The Fayoumi chicks were 11.9, 97.7 and 49.4% heavier than chicks from Chefe (heaviest locals at this age ecotype, Jarso (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age ecotype and mean daily gain of all local ecotypes, respectively at six weeks of age. Chefe chicks ecotypes showed 76.8% positive deviation over chicks from Jarso market sheds in terms of total body weight gain per bird at this age. The Fayoumi chicks consumed 41, 115 and 65% more feed than chicks from Chefe ecotype (highest body weight gain and feed intake among locals at this age, Jarso ecotype (lowest body weight gain and least feed intake among the locals at this age and the mean feed intake of all local ecotypes, at six weeks of age, respectively. Among the local ecotypes, Jarso and Tepi had the smaller body weight gains while Chefe and Tilili had larger weight gains. The result from the analysis of variance showed a highly significant (p<0.001 difference on body weight gain per bird, average body weight gain per bird per day, feed intake per bird, average feed intake per bird per day and feed conversion ratio (feed: gain among the different ecotypes and sex from six to 12 weeks of age. The highest body weight gain per bird and mean daily body weight gain per bird per day among the locals were recorded for Tilili growers. The Fayoumi chicks were 28, 77 and 52% heavier than chicks from Tilili ecotypes (heaviest locals at this age, Tepi ecotypes (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age and mean body weight gain of local birds, respectively. Male growers from Tilili ecotype (heaviest locals at this age, Tepi ecotype (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age and mean body weight gain of local birds, were 22, 30 and 33% heavier in body weight gain per bird over female chicken at twelve weeks of age, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was also significantly (p<0.01 affected by ecotypes. The highest feed requirement per unit gain was recorded for the Fayoumi chicks followed by chicks from Tepi and Horro chicks and the lowest feed requirement per units of gain was recorded for Tilili and Chefe chicks with feed conversion ratio of 4.95g and 5.2g feed per unit of gain, respectively.

D. Tadelle

2003-01-01

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Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52 weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks obtained for FE. Significant difference (p0.05 differences in other egg quality traits measured.

Sola-Ojo, F. E.

2013-02-01

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Indigenous Chicken Production in Kenya: A Review  

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Indigenous chickens in Kenya are about 22 million and are kept by 90% of the rural communities in small flocks of up to 30 birds mainly under free range system. The industry is flexible and does not require a lot of space. When people retire or are retrenched they easily start poultry keeping. Distinct indigenous chicken ecotypes have been identified and named. The names are phenotypic descriptions of the birds. The names used to describe the common phenotypes in Kenya are-frizzled feathered,...

Kingori, A. M.; Wachira, A. M.; Tuitoek, J. K.

2010-01-01

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Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

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Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live we...

2008-01-01

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Microsatellite DNA Loci for Population Studies in Brazilian Chicken Ecotypes  

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In poultry, the reduction in genetic variability of native chicken populations has led to the use of microsatellites in many genetic studies of chicken ecotypes. To be of maximum usefulness as a genetic marker, microsatellite primers should be amplifying the same locus other than the source of the primer sequence in different populations. Even in closely related lines or breeds microsatellite genotyping errors may be introduced from primer mismatches as a result of mutations in the primer bin...

Clementino, C. S.; Barbosa, F. J. V.; Carvalho, A. M. F.; Costa-filho, R. A. R.; Silva, G. R.; Campelo, E. G.; Britto, F. B.; Diniz, F. M.

2010-01-01

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Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información básica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P <0,01 que las del ecotipo Yoruba. Los machos también fueron mayores (P <0,01 a las hembras en la longitud de la cresta y ala, largo de la pata y ancho de pecho, mientras que el peso vivo, longitud del dedo del pie y el muslo también fueron diferentes (P <0,05 dentro de cada ecotipo. La cresta de los machos fue más prominente que las de hembras. Los coeficientes de variación fueron muy pequeños, lo que significa una condición monotípica y una similitud de oportunidades de selección para el tipo, basada en parámetros corporales. El ecotipo Fulani fue más grande que Yoruba. El significativo mayor cuerpo (P <0,05 del Fulani sugiere una salida en función entre los genotipos. El pollo Fulani parece más adecuado para la producción de huevos que el tipo Yoruba. Su potencial para el desarrollo de un stock comercial más adaptado y la mejora genética de los pollos de la región y otras implicancias del tipo función se discuten.

O. O Olawunmi

2008-12-01

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Haemolytic Complement Activity and Humoral Immune Responses to Sheep Red Blood Cells in Indigenous Chickens and in Eight German Dahlem Red Chicken Lines with Different Combinations of Major Genes (dwarf, naked neck and frizzled) of Tropical Interest  

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A total of 376 chickens from different ecotypes were immunized with the non-pathogenic multideterminant antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The ecotypes included indigenous chickens from various locations in Tanzania (n = 102), India (n = 86) and Bolivia (n = 89). In addition, eight German Dahlem Red (GDR) chicken lines with different major genes (dwarf, naked neck and frizzled) of tropical interest were also immunized with SRBC. Immune competence of the breeds was assessed by measuring com...

Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H. K.; Nieuwland, M. G. B.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

2005-01-01

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Haemolytic complement activity and humoral immune responses to sheep red blood cells in indigenous chickens and in eight German Dahlem Red chicken lines with different combinations of major genes (dwarf, naked neck and frizzled) of tropical interest  

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A total of 376 chickens from different ecotypes were immunized with the non-pathogenic multi-determinant antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The ecotypes included indigenous chickens from various locations in Tanzania (n=102), India (n=86) and Bolivia (n=89). In addition, eight German Dahlem Red (GDR) chicken lines with different major genes (dwarf, naked neck and frizzled) of tropical interest were also immunized with SRBC. Immune competence of the breeds was assessed by measuring compleme...

Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H. K.; Nieuwland, M. G. B.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

2005-01-01

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Assessing the genetic diversity of five Tanzanian chicken ecotypes using molecular tools  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of Tanzanian chicken populations through phylogenetic relationship, and to trace the history of Tanzanian indigenous chickens. Five ecotypes of Tanzanian local chickens (Ching'wekwe, Kuchi, Morogoro-medium, Pemba and Unguja) from eight regions were s [...] tudied. Diversity was assessed based on morphological measurements and 29 microsatellite markers recommended by ISAG/FAO advisory group on animal genetic diversity. A principal component analysis (PCA) of morphological measures distinguished individuals most by body sizes and body weight. Morogoro Medium, Pemba and Unguja were grouped together, while Ching'wekwe stood out because of their disproportionate short shanks and ulna bones. Kuchi formed an independent group owing to their comparably long body sizes. Microsatellite analysis revealed three clusters of Tanzanian chicken populations. These clusters encompassed i) Morogoro-medium and Ching'wekwe from Eastern and Central Zones ii) Unguja and Pemba from Zanzibar Islands and iii) Kuchi from Lake Zone regions, which formed an independent cluster. Sequence polymorphism of D-loop region was analysed to disclose the likely maternal origin of Tanzanian chickens. According to reference mtDNA haplotypes, the Tanzanian chickens that were sampled encompass two haplogroups of different genealogical origin. From haplotype network analysis, Tanzanian chickens probably originated on the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia. The majority of Kuchi chickens clustered in a single haplogroup, which was previously found in Shamo game birds sampled from Shikoku Island of Japan in the Kõchi Prefecture. Analysis of phenotypic and molecular data, as well as the linguistic similarity of the breed names, suggests a recent introduction of the Kuchi breed to Tanzania.

C.M., Lyimo; A., Weigend; U., Janßien-Tapken; P.L., Msoffe; H., Simianer; S., Weigend.

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Indigenous Chicken Production in Iran: A Review  

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One of the sources that, provide protein in developing countries, is native chicken. So, they should be taken into consideration in poultry improvement programs. Indeed, egg and meat production of indigenous chickens in Iran have been considered by different researchers. In this study, various works have been studied for different years and investigated some results regarding laying and meat production traits of Iranian indigenous chickens, as well as their crossings with exotic breeds.

Nasrollah Vali

2008-01-01

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Indigenous Chicken Production in Iran: A Review  

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Full Text Available One of the sources that, provide protein in developing countries, is native chicken. So, they should be taken into consideration in poultry improvement programs. Indeed, egg and meat production of indigenous chickens in Iran have been considered by different researchers. In this study, various works have been studied for different years and investigated some results regarding laying and meat production traits of Iranian indigenous chickens, as well as their crossings with exotic breeds.

Nasrollah Vali

2008-01-01

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Mitochondrial DNA origin of indigenous malagasy chicken.  

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We report the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) characterization of 77 indigenous chickens (fighting and meat birds) from Madagascar, using DNA sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the D-loop. Comparison with reference samples from the African continent and Asia revealed two mtDNA haplogroups, suggesting a dual geographic and genetic origin for the indigenous Malagasy chickens. The most common haplogroup was present in 65 individuals of the two types; it is likely of Indonesian origin. The second haplogroup was observed in 12 fighting birds and meat chickens; it could be of African continental origin and/or the result of recent introgression with commercial lines. We further studied a G/A single nucleotide polymorphism at nucleotide position 1892 bp of the coding sequence of the Mx gene that is reported to be one of the candidate susceptible/resistant genes to viral infection in chicken. Our results indicate the "susceptible" allele G is the most common with frequencies of 65% and 70% in Malagasy fighting and meat chickens, respectively. However, the allelic frequency difference between the two types of chickens is not significant (P > 0.05). These results are discussed in light of our current linguistic and archaeological knowledge on the origin of indigenous Malagasy chickens. PMID:19120178

Razafindraibe, Hanta; Mobegi, Victor A; Ommeh, Sheila C; Rakotondravao, M L; Bjørnstad, Gro; Hanotte, Olivier; Jianlin, Han

2008-12-01

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Effects of High Environmental Temperature on Blood Indices of Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers  

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The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of high environmental temperature on the blood indices (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC) of Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC), Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred (TICC) and broilers (BC). One kilogram of male and female TIC, TICC and BC were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2°C and 38±2°C. MCV, MCH and MCHC were investigated on days...

Aengwanich, W.

2007-01-01

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Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Percentage of Lymphocyte  

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The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of high environmental temperatures on the percentage of lymphocytes between Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC), Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred (TICC) and Broilers (BC) TIC and TICC and BC. One kilogram of male and female TIC and TICC and BC were maintained in the environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2oC. Percentage of lymphocytes was investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of an experimental period. The results ...

Aengwanich, W.

2008-01-01

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Effects of High Environmental Temperature on Blood Indices of Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of high environmental temperature on the blood indices (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC of Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred (TICC and broilers (BC. One kilogram of male and female TIC, TICC and BC were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2°C and 38±2°C. MCV, MCH and MCHC were investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of an experimental period. The results revealed the following information: On day 14 of the experimental period, MCV of the chickens maintained at 38±2°C was significantly higher than that of chickens maintained at 26±2°C (p<0.05. MCH of the chickens maintained in the environmental temperature at 38±2°C was significantly decreased during days 1-14 and then increased on day 21 of the experimental period (p<0.05. The MCH of chickens maintained at 26±2°C was significantly decreased during days 7-21 and then increased on day 28 of experimental period (p<0.05. On days 1 and 21, the MCH of chickens maintained in the environmental temperature at 38±2°C was significantly higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C (p<0.05. The MCHC of chickens maintained at 38±2°C was significantly higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C (p<0.05. Moreover, the MCHC of the TICC changed less than that of the TIC and BC (p<0.05. This experiment showed that the high environmental temperature had an effects on the chickens blood indices and more specifically, the MCHC of the TIC and BC responsed to high heat greater than TICC.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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Egg Production Performance in a Nigerian Local Chicken Ecotype Subjected to Selection  

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Full Text Available This study aims to contribute towards the genetic improvement of Nigerian local chicken ecotype through selection. Genetic parameters for body weight at first egg (BWFE, egg number (EN and egg weight (EW till first 90 days of lay were estimated for both selected and control lines. Selection was based on an index using BWFE, EN and EW as the selection criterion traits. After three generations of index selection, BWFE, EN and EW all improved significantly (P<0.05 in the selected line. The heritability estimates for all traits in the three generations for both lines were moderate to high (BWFE, 0.33-0.56; EN, 0.19-0.28; EW, 0.25-0.44. Low to high positive genetic and phenotypic correlation was observed between BWFE and EW. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between BWFE and EN, and EW and EN were generally moderate to highly negative in both lines for all generations. However, in the second generation of the selected line a positive genetic correlation (0.33 was observed between EW and EN.

Vivian Oleforuh-Okoleh

2012-04-01

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Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Heterophil/Lymphocyte Ratio  

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Full Text Available The effects of high environmental temperature on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined for a comparison of the ability to tolerate heat between Thai indigenous chickens, crossbred Thai indigenous chickens and broilers. One kilogram of the representative males and females of each of the three breeds were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2°C. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was investigated on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The results revealed the following information: For those chickens maintained in an environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C. With the environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the broilers was significantly higher than that of the Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds and Thai indigenous chickens (p<0.05, respectively. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the chickens for the environmental temperature of 38±2°C was significantly increased on day 7 and then significantly decreased to day 14 and 21 of experimental period (p<0.05. This finding indicated that when chickens were maintained in high environmental temperatures, they were under heat stress. Chickens could adapt to high environmental temperatures. Finally, Thai indigenous chickens and Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds tolerated higher environmental temperatures than the broilers.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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Measurement of Antibodies to Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Indigenous Chicken Flocks Around Maharlou Lake in Iran  

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To evaluate the seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) in indigenous chicken flocks, serum samples from 200 mature indigenous chickens in villages around Maharlou Lake in Southwest of Iran were tested for IBV antibodies using commercial IBV Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The studied indigenous chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall ELISA titer and seroprevalence of IBV antibodies revealed in this study were 142...

2011-01-01

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Measurement of Antibodies to Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Indigenous Chicken Flocks Around Maharlou Lake in Iran  

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Full Text Available To evaluate the seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV in indigenous chicken flocks, serum samples from 200 mature indigenous chickens in villages around Maharlou Lake in Southwest of Iran were tested for IBV antibodies using commercial IBV Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The studied indigenous chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall ELISA titer and seroprevalence of IBV antibodies revealed in this study were 1427 and 68%, respectively. The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of IBV in indigenous chicken flocks in Southwest of Iran and necessitate the regular vaccination programme against IB in native flocks.

M.M. Hadipour

2011-06-01

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Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Percentage of Lymphocyte  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of high environmental temperatures on the percentage of lymphocytes between Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred (TICC and Broilers (BC TIC and TICC and BC. One kilogram of male and female TIC and TICC and BC were maintained in the environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2oC. Percentage of lymphocytes was investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of an experimental period. The results revealed the following information: On days 1 and 28, the percentage of lymphocytes of male and female TIC, TICC and BC at 26±2 and 38±2oC was not significantly different (p>0.05. On days 7, 14 and 21 of the experimental period, the percentage of lymphocytes of the chickens at 26±2oC was significantly higher than that of chickens at 38±2oC (p<0.05. At 38±2oC, on day 7, the percentage of lymphocytes of the male and female TIC and TICC was significantly higher than the male BC (p<0.05. On day 14, the percentage of lymphocytes of the male TIC was significantly higher than the male BC (p<0.05 and on day 21 of the experimental period, the percentage of lymphocytes of the male and female TIC and TICC was significantly higher than that of the male BC (p<0.05. These phenomena indicated that the chickens maintained at high environmental temperatures, were under heat stress. Chickens adapted to high heat and the BC were less tolerant to the high heat than the TICC and TIC, respectively.

W. Aengwanich

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Proteome changes in Thai indigenous chicken muscle during growth period.  

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Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1), heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3). These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i) the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (pPGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period. PMID:19893640

Teltathum, Tawatchai; Mekchay, Supamit

2009-01-01

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Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana  

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Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

K. Itebeng

2012-06-01

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Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period  

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Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1, apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1, triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1, heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25 and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3. These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05, (ii the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05 and (iii the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05, whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period.

Tawatchai Teltathum, Supamit Mekchay

2009-01-01

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Blood Cell Characteristics, Hematological Values and Average Daily Gained Weight of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried at the Experimental Laboratory Unit, Division of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand in August to December 2004. Three different breeds of poultry were used, i.e., Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with three replications. The three poultry breeds were used as main plots, whilst gender (male and female and sampling periods were used as subplots. An assay on blood characteristics and blood counts of red and white blood cells were carried out. Feed intake and average daily gained weight (ADG/week were determined. The results showed that the appearances on blood cells characteristics of erythrocyte of red blood cells and white blood cells of heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, basophil and thrombocyte of the three poultry breeds were not different from one another. Hematological values of the three different breeds possessed normal blood values for normal growth and they fitted within a normal range of blood of normal chickens. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb of Thai indigenous chickens was higher than both Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. White blood cells of heterophil of Thai indigenous crossbred chickens were higher than broiler chickens, whilst white blood of lymphocyte of female was higher than female. However, the differences found on hematological values of both male and female were not statistically significant. Daily feed intake/week and average daily gained weight increased/week of broiler chickens ranked the highest followed by Thai indigenous crossbred and the lowest was with Thai indigenous chickens.

Chinrasri Orawan

2007-01-01

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Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-10-01

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Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

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Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales. PMID:22610537

Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

2012-12-01

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Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gai...

2013-01-01

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Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) in northeastern, Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females) ...

2005-01-01

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Proximate, Total Phenolic, Antioxidant Activity and Amino Acids Profile of Bali Indigenous Chicken, Spent Laying Hen and Broiler Breast Fillet  

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Fresh chicken breast fillet of Bali indigenous chicken, spent laying hen and broiler were studied for proximate, total phenolic, antioxidant activity and its amino acids profile. Broiler breast fillet contained higher moisture, fat, and ash contents (P<0.05) compared to Bali indigenous chicken as well as spent hen breast fillets, but protein content, total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were lower (P<0.05). The amino acids profile of broiler showed that only methi...

Ida Ayu Okarini; Hari Purnomo3); Aulanni`am; Liliek Eka Radiati

2013-01-01

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Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

2012-10-01

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Performance of indigenous chicken under intensive rearing with various litter materials  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to  obtain  information regarding the performance of indigenous chicken  under   intensive  rearing. The  performance criteria were the increasing body abdominal weight, fat, rectal temperature, and the indigenous chicken’s mortality within the 5-week starter phase treatment. Research was conducted using 108 Day Old Chick (DOC. Data variance was analysed  based  on  the  split  plot  design  (3  types  of cage  litter  materials,  5 weeks  of data collection,  and   4   replications   for   weight   gain   and   abdominal   fat parameters,   and completely  randomized  design  in  time  for rectal temperature. The result indicated a significant  effect  of  different  litter  materials  towards  weight  gain  (P  was  no effect  of litter material on abdominal fat percentage; there was a significant effect (P were no  interactions  between litter material with age,  on body weight  gain,  abdominal  fat,  and  rectal  temperature.  Chickens  under intensive  rearing  in rice straw floored cages were proven to have a mortality rate reduced by 3.7% in the starter phase.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.52-56 [How to cite this article: Sulistyoningsih, M., Sunarti, D., Suprijatna, E., & Isroli, I. (2013. Performance of indigenous chicken under intensive rearing with various litter materials. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, 4(2, 52-56; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.52-56

I. Isroli

2013-06-01

33

Associations between Immune Traits and MHC B-F Gene in Shandong Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available In order to find the relationship between immune traits and the Major Histocompatibility Complex B-F (MHC B-F gene, an immune traits model was established in Wenshang Barred Chicken (LH, Laiwu Black Chicken (LWH and Jining Bairi Chicken (BR. PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods were used to identified haplotypes in these three Shandong indigenous chickens. As a result, 53 (LH, 52 (LWH and 54 (BR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs were found in the 264 bp of exon 2 in chicken MHC B-F gene. The least square analysis showed that 2, 2, 3 SNPs were respectively found significant associations with antibody responses to H5, H9 and ND in LH chickens; 1, 3 and 3 SNPs were respectively found significant associations with antibody responses to H5, H9 and ND in LWH chickens but none with SRBC. In BR chickens, there was association with responses to H5 (2 SNPs, H9 (3 SNPs, ND (3 SNPs and SRBC (3 SNPs. These results indicate that the genomic region bearing exon 2 of the MHC B-F gene has significant effects on antibody responses to SRBC and vaccination against AI and ND.

S.B. Wang

2012-01-01

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Genotype-Environmental (G x E Interaction for Body Weights for Kuchi Chicken Ecotype of Tanzania Reared On-Station and On-Farm  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out with the aim of determining magnitude of G x E interaction for body weights for Kuchi chicken ecotype of Tanzania reared under intensive (on-station and extensive (free-range management systems. Body weight was assessed at 8 (Bwt8, 12 (Bwt12, 16 (Bwt16 and 20 (Bwt20 weeks of age. Results for this study indicated average performance in all body weight measurements was significantly higher under intensive management compared to extensive management (pg, G x E interaction for all body weight measurements were found to be biologically important (substantial. Value for rg was 0.745, 0.757, 0.752 and 0.753 for Bwt8, Bwt12, Bwt16 and Bwt20, respectively. Since breeding program for improving performance of the ecotype would be more feasible under intensive management and hence more likely to take place under such environment, based on results of this study, if such breeding program is to be implemented, sensitization of smallholder farmers (beneficiaries of the breeding program to shift from their current system of management (extensive management to at least semi-intensive system of management is recommended for minimizing the effect of G x E interaction.

J. Lwelamira

2012-01-01

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Molecular Characterization of Indonesian Indigenous Chickens based on Mitochondrial DNA Displacement (D-loop Sequences  

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Full Text Available The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA displacement (D-loop sequences were used to study the genetic diversity and relationship of Indonesian indigenous chickens. A total of 483 individuals belonging to 15 population breeds and 43 individuals belonging to 6 populations of jungle fowl (2 populations of Gallus gallus and 4 populations of Gallus varius were sampled. The hypervariable I (HVI segment of the D-loop was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. Sixty nine haplotypes were identified from 54 polymorphic sites with polymorphism between nucleotides 167 and 397 contributing to 94.5% of the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian indigenous chickens can be grouped into five distinct clades (clade I, II, IIIc, IIId, and IV of the previously identified seven clades (clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId, and IV in Asian indigenous chickens. Fifty haplotypes belong to clade II, seven haplotypes are in clade IV, six are in clade IIId, three are in clade I and one haploype is in clade IIIc. There was no breed-specific clade. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA based on partial D-loop sequences of Indonesian chicken indicates that 67.85% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within the population and 32.15% between populations. One of the haplotypes (represented by PLC4 was shared by all populations, suggesting that these populations may share the same maternal ancestor. These results show a high mitochondrial D-loop diversity and indicate multiple maternal origins for Indonesian indigenous chickens.

SRI SULANDARI

2008-12-01

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The Growth of Muscle Cell of Inbred Chicken and Indigeneous Chicken Embryo in The Medium of Rabbit Serum and Sheep Serum  

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An experiment on the growth embryonic muscle cell in the rabbit and sheep serum media was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The aim of this experiment was to observe the potency of the growth of embryonic muscle cell of the inbred chicken and indigeneous chicken in the medium of rabbit and sheep serum. Two kinds of embryo, the inbred and indigeneous chicken of eleven days old were used in the experiment. The rabbit and the sheep serum were prepar...

2000-01-01

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Protein Intake of Growing Indigenous Chickens on Free-Range and Their Response to Supplementation  

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Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine protein intake and the response of growing indigenous chickens to protein supplementation under free-ranging conditions. In the first experiment, data were collected from which a model was designed to estimate daily feed intake of free-ranging indigenous chicken from the Crop Contents (CC. The second experiment applied the model under on-farm conditions to estimate feed intake of free-ranging growers. Crude Protein (CP intake was calculated as the product of crude protein concentration and total intake of feed. Results indicated that the mean protein level of CC was 11.2%, Dry Matter Intake (DMI of free-ranging growers was 78.3g/grower/day and the mean Crude Protein Intake (CPI was about 8.5 g. In order to establish the response of the growers to protein supplementation in an on-farm set-up, the third experiment provided protein supplements at 0, 1.6, 3.2 and 4.8 g CP/bird/day. Daily CPI for each of the four supplementary groups was calculated to be 8.5, 10.1, 11.7 and 13.3 g/bird. Growth rate and body weight increased with increasing protein supplementation up to 3.2 g CP/bird/day. Higher levels of protein supplementation did not significantly increase growth rate or body weight. Therefore, the CP requirement for growing indigenous chickens on free-range was estimated at 11.7 g/day. Protein supplementation of 3.2 g/bird/day to a growing indigenous chicken on free-range is therefore mandatory for optimum growth.

A.M. Kingori

2007-01-01

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Helminth Parasites in the Intestinal Tract of Indigenous Chickens in Jordanian Villages  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out on sixty female adult indigenous chickens from local markets in four different villages (Omabhara, Iraqalamir, Albusah and Wadisheta zones around Amman, Jordan to determine occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Their ages ranged between 4-6 months. All specimens of chickens were examined for helminth parasites. It was found that nematodes and cestode were recovered. Nematodes were the most commonly seen parasites. Only five chickens of 60 hens were free from parasites which are infected of rate 91.6% prevalence. The main helminths found in the intestines were Nematodes and Cestode. Nematodes were higher than Cestode by about 20 percent in duodenum, ileum and colon respectively. In conclusion, Parasitism could be big constraint to production in the study area and we recommend a sustainable control strategy. This study found high prevalence of end parasites among village chickens within the survey period and ecological zone. Based on the known of pathological effects of these parasites, the results of this study highlight both the eminent and potential constraints of these parasites to the overall village chicken production. We therefore recommend the institution of a programmed control measure for improved harnessing of the potentials of village chicken production in the region.

Hamad H. Al-Jamaien

2013-01-01

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Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in China using microsatellite markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds was evaluated with 25 microsatellite markers. Polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity with the estimator of genetic differentiation F ST and Nei's genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these four prot [...] ected local chicken populations showed high levels of diversity. The proportion of inter-population subdivision among the four protected local chicken populations was 16.0%. The average heterozygosity was 0.514, 0.581, 0.567 and 0.589 in Dongan, Xuefeng black-bone, Xianghuang and Taoyuan chickens, respectively, while the average PIC estimates were 0.455, 0.581, 0.557 and 0.576. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using genetic distance and the neighbour-joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local breeds estimated by microsatellite analysis may be useful as an initial guide for the effective conservation of chicken genetic diversity and developing conservation strategies.

Lin, Wei; Bin, Chen; Xiao-ying, Li; Sheng-gui, Liu; Jing-jing, Wang.

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Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand  

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Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/?l, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/?l, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous chickens (P<0.05, lymphocyte counts of the females were significantly higher than the males (P<0.05. From serum biochemical values, potassium, sodium, total protein and uric acid of female indigenous birds were significantly higher than males (P<0.05.

Suchint Simaraks

2005-05-01

 
 
 
 
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A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

T. Hove

2012-05-01

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Expression profiles of Toll-like receptors 1, 2 and 5 in selected organs of commercial and indigenous chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the cellular receptors that constitute a major component of the evolutionary conserved pattern recognition system (PRR). TLRs are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types. In this study we compared the expression profiles of the chicken TLR1, TLR2 and TLR5 genes in a range of organs (lung, ovary, liver, thymus, duodenum, spleen and large intestine) in commercial Hy-Line (HL) and indigenous Green-legged Partridgelike (GP) chickens. The level of mRNA was determined with RT-qPCR using the TaqMan probes for target and reference (ACTB) genes. We determined that the tissue profiles differed with respect to each TLR and they were ranked as follows: spleen, lungs, large intestine (TLR1), large intestine, lungs, thymus/ovary (TLR2) and lungs, thymus, liver (TLR5). A differential expression between HL and GP chickens was determined for TLR1 and TLR5 genes in large intestine and thymus of HL (P?chickens. We conclude that the commercial chickens expressed higher levels of TLR1 mRNA in large intestine and TLR5 mRNA in thymus than indigenous chickens. PMID:23873159

S?awi?ska, Anna; D'Andrea, Mariasilvia; Pilla, Fabio; Bednarczyk, Marek; Siwek, Maria

2013-11-01

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Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens. PMID:17166322

Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

2007-04-01

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Meat Quality of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing system on meat quality of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1 day old chicks were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: indoor treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 or outdoor access treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2 from 8 weeks of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16th weeks of age, 24 birds per treatment were slaughtered to evaluate the quality of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that there was no difference in nutrient composition of breast meat among treatments (p>0.05. However, thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had higher protein content than that of indoor treatment (p0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had a higher shear force value (p = 0.05 than from indoor treatment. Thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was higher in soluble, insoluble and total collagen contents compared with indoor treatment (p<0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was less red (a*; p<0.05 and more yellow (b*; p<0.05 than those from indoor treatment. Breast skin from outdoor access treatment had more yellow than that of indoor treatment (p<0.05. The data indicated that Thai indigenous chickens raised with outdoor access could significantly increase shear value and collagen content in meat and increase yellow color in breast skin.

Wittawat Molee

2012-01-01

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Breed selection practices and traits of economic importance for indigenous chicken in Kenya  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was conducted with an aim to generate essential information on breed selection practices and traits of economic importance of indigenous chicken (IC) farmers in Kenya. The study was carried out in six counties of Kenya with highest population of IC, namely; Siaya, Kakamega, Bomet, Narok, West Pokot and Turkana. A total of 594 farmers, 468 marketers and 546 consumers were interviewed using three sets of pre-tested structured questionnaires. The questionnaire was designed to capture information on selection criteria of farmers, genotypes raised, their attributes and traits of economic importance. Data on traits that farmers, marketers and consumers perceived as of primary economic importance were analyzed through computation of indices. Farmers were found to select breeding stock based on growth rate (GR), body size (BS), egg number (EN), disease resistance (DR), hatchability (HA) and mothering ability (MA). Normal feathered, giant, crested-head and necked-neck were the dominant chicken genotypes raised because of their superiority in EN, BS, MA, GR and broodiness (BRD) compared to other genotypes. The traits that farmers, marketers and consumers perceived as of economic importance were GR, DR, EN, BS, fertility, egg size and egg shell colour which were in line with farmers selection criteria. There is therefore a need consider these traits when developing breeding objectives for IC.

Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, A K

2011-01-01

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Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Egg Production, Hatchability and Post-Hatch Offspring Performance of Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available Indigenous chickens in Kenya are estimated to be 21.5 million and are found in all the ecological zones in the country. They are 75% of the poultry population and produce 46 and 58% of the egg and meat, respectively. These levels of production are comparatively low compared to their numbers. The low productivity of indigenous chickens in Kenya and other parts of the world is partly attributed to poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper healthcare, poor nutrition and housing. This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary protein levels on egg production, hatchability and post-hatch offspring feed intake, feed efficiency and growth rate of indigenous chickens. Seventy two hens averaging 46 weeks in age, were offered four diets formulated from similar ingredients but differing in protein levels: 100, 120, 140 and 170 g CP/kg DM. Diets were randomly allocated to hens such that each diet had nine replicates each consisting of two hens. The hens were housed in battery cages and diets offered ad-libitum. Laying percentage, egg weight and feed intake were measured over an 8-week period. There was an increase (p0.05 at 120 and 140 g CP/kg DM. The laying percentage of hens offered 170 g CP/kg DM was lower (p0.05 on offspring feed intake (51-56 g, live weight gain (6.5 -8.5 g / day and feed conversion efficiency (0.13-0.15. It is, therefore, concluded that the dietary crude protein requirement for laying indigenous hens is about 120 g CP/kg and maternal dietary protein level has no effect on hatchability and post-hatch offspring feed intake, feed efficiency and growth rate. The findings will help in the formulation of indigenous chicken layer diet with the appropriate protein content.

H.K. Muiruri

2010-01-01

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Production Performance of Dual Purpose Crosses of Two Indigenous with Two Exotic Chicken Breeds in Sub-tropical Environment  

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Full Text Available An ongoing crossbreeding experiment is being conducted with the objective of producing dual purpose synthetic chicken for village poultry production in Ethiopia. The two exotic chicken breeds used were the Fayoumi (F and Rhode Island Red (R as dam line, whereas the two indigenous chicken breeds used were the Naked neck (N and local Netch (W; a white feathered chicken. The indigenous breeds were used as sire line to produce the hybrids FN (F? X N? and RW (R? X W?. Growth and egg production performance of the crosses were compared with each other and with the exotic pure line performance. Both body and egg weight of FN was improved while body weight of RW was reduced and age at first egg was significantly reduced, compared to their respective dam line. Egg production for the crosses was lower than for their maternal lines. Although FN cross chicks weighed more and grew faster than RW chicks during the brooding period, the difference became insignificant as they grew older. However, the higher overall average body weight gain of RW crosses that was observed was mainly due to higher weight gain for the RW cocks. No significant differences were observed in overall egg production and quality traits between the two crosses, but significant age effect within crosses was found. Mortality in the FN cross was lower than in the RW cross. These F1 crosses will be used as parents to produce a 4-way synthetic crossbred chicken.

H.M. Gjoen

2010-01-01

48

Participatory research approaches in the development of improved management practices in indigenous chickens production systems with smallholder farmers in Kenya  

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This thesis is concerned with development of improved management practices in indigenous chicken production systems in a research process that includes participatory approaches with smallholder farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya. The research process involved a wide range of activities that included on-station experiments, field surveys, stakeholder consultations in workshops, seminars and visits, and on-farm farmer participatory research to evaluate the effect of some improved managemen...

Ndegwa, Joseph Mutitu

2012-01-01

49

Expression Profile of Toll-Like Receptor mRNA in an Indigenous Aseel Breed of Chicken in India  

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Full Text Available Expression profile of chicken six Toll-like Receptor (TLR mRNAs were analyzed in the heterophils, lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum, caecal tonsils and kidneys of 12-weeks old indigenous village chicken in India, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. TLR 2 type 1 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum and caecal tonsils. TLR2 type 2 mRNA was expressed only in the lungs. TLR 3 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen and caecal tonsils. TLR 4 mRNA was expressed only in lungs, liver and spleen. TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs were expressed in all the tissues examined. With respect to tissues, heterophils and lungs expressed all the TLR mRNAs examined while kidneys expressed only TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs. All the TLR amplified PCR products were partially sequenced and showed high homologies with the available chicken (commercial TLR gene sequences. There could be a possibility of correlation between TLR mRNA expressions with higher levels of innate immunity seen in indigenous village breeds of chickens.

G. Dhinakar Raj

2009-01-01

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Genomic DNA fingerprinting of indigenous chicken breeds with molecular markers designed on interspersed repeats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy more than fifty different local breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus L.) are known to have been present in the past. The overall situation is now critical since most of these breeds are becoming extinct or threatened and only a few are subject of conservation plans. The use of molecular markers for the analysis of chicken populations could help in characterizing their genetic variation and preserving them from genetic erosion. valuable and irreplaceable sources of chicken germplasm from indigenous populations of the veneto region were analyzed by means of DNA fingerprinting with molecular markers designed on interspersed mini- and microsatellite repeats. The identification of either among-breed discriminant or breed-specific markers was based on the S-SAP and M-AFLP systems derived from the AFLP technology. Genomic DNA fingerprints were generated in 84 individuals belonging to six local breeds (Ermellinata, Padovana, Pépoi, Polverara, Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata) and one commercial line used as reference standard. A number of variation statistics were computed to assess the genetic variability within and relatedness among breeds: the effective number of alleles per locus (n(e)= 1.570), total and single-breed genetic diversity (H(T)= 0.366 and H(S)= 0.209, respectively) and the fixation index (G(ST)= 0.429). The mean genetic similarity coefficients within and between local breeds were 0.769 and 0.628, respectively. Markers useful for the genetic traceability of breeds revealed significant sequence similarities with either genic or intergenic regions of known chromosome position. Sequence tagged site primers were designed for the most discriminant markers in order to develop multiplex non-radioactive genomic PCR assays. Analysis of the population structure along with individual assignment tests successfully identified all breed clusters and subclusters. The vast majority of animals were correctly allocated to their breed of origin, demonstrating the suitability and reliability of the chosen AFLP-derived marker systems for detecting population structure and tracing individual breeds. The local breeds have been preliminarily identified according to sequence-specific SNPs and haplotypes and the polymorphism information content of genomic AFLP-derived markers is reported and critically discussed. PMID:19891738

Soattin, M; Barcaccia, Gianni; Dalvit, C; Cassandro, M; Bittante, G

2009-10-01

51

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Genetic Distance Between Twelve Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds Based on Microsatellite Markers  

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Full Text Available A total of 720 individuals of 12 indigenous chicken populations, geographically localized in Southern China were genotyped for 30 microsatellite markers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR to evaluate the genetic variation and genetic distance between populations. All microsatellites were found to be polymorphic. Heterozygosity was calculated to determine the genetic variation. Of the 30 microsatellite loci, number of alleles per locus (Na and effective number of alleles per locus (Ne ranged from 4 to 11 and 2.157 to 8.019, respectively. The average expected heterozygosity (HE was 0.669, while the average observed heterozygosity (HO was 0.764. The polymorphism information content (PIC has values between 0.560 and 0.641. Using Nei`s standard distance, genetic distance (DA calculated ranged between 0.088 (Guanxi Sanhuang vs. Nandan Yao and 0.495 (Huiyang Beard vs. Zhangzhou Game. The topology of phylogenetic trees constructed showed general patterns of relationship and genetic differentiation among the indigenous populations studied, however, both trees from Neighbor-Joining method and Unweighted Pair Group method showed a similar topology. The results provided evidence of the applicability of microsatellite to determining the genetic relatedness among different Chinese indigenous chicken populations and evaluating of genetic variations.

Yu Ya-Bo

2006-01-01

52

Effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Leaves Meal Incorporation in Diets on Growth Performances, Carcass Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens  

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The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Ninety six (96) indigenous Senegal chicks of 5 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 24 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 12 birds, corresponded to each of the four...

Ayssiwede, S. B.; Dieng, A.; Bello, H.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Hane, M. B.; Mankor, A.; Dahouda, M.; Houinato, M. R.; Hornick, J. L.; Missohou, A.

2011-01-01

53

A Study on the Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content in Common Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised by Natural Farming in Nakhon Phanom Province  

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This research studied the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in common Thai indigenous chickens (5 months old) raised by natural farming in Nakhon Phanom province. One hundred and ten chickens (55 females and 55 males) with an average weight of 955 g and 1,050 g for females and males respectively were selected for the experiment. The chickens were randomly selected and meat samples were collected to determine the fatty acid profile and CLA content. The resu...

2010-01-01

54

Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds. PMID:24136156

Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

2014-02-01

55

Characteristics and Destinations of Indigenous Chickens Marketed in Guera Region, East-Central Chad  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess zooeconomic parameters like age, weight, price and destinations of produced chickens that are sold on three main markets of Guera, east-central Chad. Data were collected over six months on the market places of Mongo and Mangalme and four months on the market place of Bitkine. The transversal and retrospective survey was coupled with direct observations and weightings. For 1549 marketed chickens, the males made up 57% and the females 43%. The average values per chicken were found to be 16.29.9 months for age, 1082.4371.2 g for weight and 1607.8FCFA 414.6 for price. Average age and weight of sold chickens were significantly higher (p<0.001 on Mangalme market, with an average price significantly lower (p<0.001. On the whole, 52% of surveyed chickens were intended for sale in the capital NDjamena, 39% in Mongo city, 7% in Bitkine and 2% in Mangalme. According to the final destinations declared by buyers, average age and weight of the sold chickens to be consumed in Bitkine were significantly lower (p<0.001 but with an average price significantly higher (p<0.001. The Mangalme sellers sold mainly old chickens in order to earn more money. The pressure exerted by NDjamena traders to purchase chickens in Bitkine increases prices.

El Hadji Fallou Gueye

2011-01-01

56

Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and two sexes. The Naked-Neckchickens had lower breast (Pectoralis major, fillet (Pectoralis minor (P0.05 in drip loss and cooking loss values. The shear value of cooked breast and thigh muscles of Naked-Neck chickens was significantly lower (P0.05, redness (a* (P0.05 in moisture, protein, fat and ash contents. The Naked-Neck chicken contained higher (P0.05 between breeds in soluble collagen percentage of both types of muscles. For the fatty acid composition ofNaked-Neck and indigenous chickens, both breast and thigh muscles contained more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

Songsang, A.

2007-03-01

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Characteristics and Destinations of Indigenous Chickens Marketed in Guera Region, East-Central Chad  

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The objective of the study was to assess zooeconomic parameters like age, weight, price and destinations of produced chickens that are sold on three main markets of Guera, east-central Chad. Data were collected over six months on the market places of Mongo and Mangalme and four months on the market place of Bitkine. The transversal and retrospective survey was coupled with direct observations and weightings. For 1549 marketed chickens, the males made up 57% and the females 43%. The average va...

Mopate Logtene Youssouf; Ndjimtoloum Nadjissara; El Hadji Fallou Gueye

2011-01-01

58

Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous chicken egg  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 % egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For bacteriological isolation a piece of liver, lung and yolk sac contents were collected from 25 nos. of dead in shell embryos and send to the Department of Microbiology for further examination.Results: A total of 241 (42.42 % egg were recorded as dead-in-shell embryos out of 568 eggs which were fail to pip out. The percentage of dead-in-shell was higher on 21st day (61.34% than 18th day (38.66 % of incubation. Out of 241 nos. of dead in shell embryos, 47 (19.50% cases showed malpositions,19 (7.88% malformation, 6 (2.49% adhesion,4 (1.66% dehydra-tion, 67 (27.80% pathological condition and 98 (40.66% cases showed no definite abnormalities and 327 (57.57% numbers of egg were found as infertile.Conclusion: The dead in shell embryo may be due to genetic factor, breed, some pathological condition, frequent power failure, lack of proper hygiene etc.

N. Kalita,

2013-08-01

59

Evaluation of an indigenous source of rock phosphate as a supplement for broiler chickens.  

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This study investigated the effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) with Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The purpose was to determine the maximum level of F that could be well tolerated. The HRP (13.16% P and 2.98% F) was incorporated into a standard corn- and soybean meal-based diet by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of DCP based on P. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens of 10 chicks each. The Ca and nonphytate P contents of all diets were maintained constant at 1.0 and 0.45%, respectively. Replacing 25% DCP with HRP significantly increased average BW gain. Substituting 100% HRP (562 mg of F/kg) decreased (P DCP:HRP) using a quadratic relationship: BW gain (g) = 1,128.6 + 2.6848 × HRP - 0.0368 × HRP(2). Increasing the level of HRP decreased feed intake: feed intake (g) = 1,987.4 + 2.775 × HRP - 0.0515 × HRP(2). The effect of HRP was not pronounced (significant at P DCP was replaced by HRP. Feed intake decreased by an average 3.77 g with each 1.0% increase in the levels of HRP beyond 27% HRP substitution. Replacing DCP with HRP up to 50% caused a significant increase in hot carcass weights. The Ca content of tibia was a quadratic function of HRP and was predicted to be highest at 56% HRP substitution. However, increasing HRP in the diet gradually decreased tibia P content (linear function). Serum Ca was increased by substituting HRP for DCP (linear effect). Increasing HRP in the diet decreased the P content of the serum and was predicted to be lowest (P DCP as P supplements. Using a multiple range test, it was concluded that between 25 and 50% DCP with HRP replacement (141 and 281 mg of F/kg, respectively) could be used safely without significantly decreasing the growth performance of broiler chickens. PMID:21844264

Tahir, M; Lughmani, A B; Pesti, G M

2011-09-01

60

Low-Input Intervention for Traditional Free-Range Indigenous Chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives of the study were to determine the effects on productivity, flock dynamics and bird offtake of 3 low input interventions were evaluated in 4 locations in western Kenya representing different agro ecological zones (Butula (LM1); Malava (LM2); Uranga (LM3) and Sabatia (UM1)). These interventions were: (1) daytime confinement of chicks using a coop or pen while feeding them most of the day (CONF); (2) supplementation using locally available feed resources above scavenging levels for the rest of the flock (SUPP), and (3) vaccination against Newcastle disease (VACC) significantly improved survival rates by more than 60%, egg production improved by 48.3% and weekly losses of birds in flocks were reduced. Growth rates however were not affected. Intervention CONF significantly (p<0.05) improved survival rates; egg production per hen per year, growth rates and it reduced annual general losses of birds. The intervention SUPP in addition to CONF further improved productivity of village flocks.S Results confirm the general statement of that NCD is the number one killer in scavenging chicken production systems. Farmers observed that VACC had a negative effect on young chicks less than 3 weeks old, suggesting that vaccination of chickens should be carried at latter ages. Results further indicated that the existing village feed resource base limited growth rates, survival rates, and egg production in a scavenging system. It also suggests that there was a quantitative deficit of the village feed resource base in scavenging system. NCD vaccination had the highest average returns to labour (Ksh. 280 per man per day) with other interventions having less than Ksh. 280 pere man-day. The perception of farmers seen in proportion of farmers interested in the intervention showed that VACC was preferred more than other interventions because it delt with the most serious problem and results were immediately obvious. Subsequent choice of feeding and housing interventions further improved local poultry production. VACC was the best intervention in terms of survival rates, return to labour and acceptability by farmers because it was cheap and effective. Subsequent cash requiring interventions in the free-range system should be introduced as farmers moved from subsistence to semi-commercial production

2002-11-11

 
 
 
 
61

Comparison of the Egg Characteristics of Different Sudanese Indigenous Chicken Types  

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Full Text Available Three local types of Sudanese indigenous fowls, large Baladi (LB, Bare-neck (BN and Betwil (BT were studied for detection of maturity live weight and egg characteristics. The (BN average live weight (1547.2±274.5 gm was heavier than either (LB (1494.4±349.8 gm or (BT (1198.3±257.5 gm, The Betwil average live weight is significantly (P< 0.05 lighter than those of other two local types. The weekly hen-day egg production means were 3.7, 3.2 and 3.9 for (BN, (BT and (LB respectively, while the corresponding hen-housed egg production means were 3.3, 2.7 and 3.4. The rate of egg production during the laying period (36 weeks was 47.14, 38.57 and 48.57 for (BN, (BT and (LB respectively. There were significant differences (P< 0.05 in average egg-shell thickness among local types. The means of egg-shell thickness for (BT and (BN, 36.2±4.2 and 36.2±4.0?respectively were similar and both significantly thicker than that of (LB, 34.3±3.6?

Mekki Dafaalla Mohammed

2005-01-01

62

ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS  

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Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

2005-04-01

63

Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.  

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1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74?g average daily gain and 57·96?g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme. PMID:23444855

Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

2013-01-01

64

Digestibility and Metabolic Utilization and Nutritional Value of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Leaves Meal Incorporated in the Diets of Indigenous Senegal Chickens  

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Full Text Available In the prospect of the Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal using as a protein ingredient source for indigenous Senegal chickens diets, a study was carried out to determine their nutrient utilization and nutritional value when incorporated at various levels in the diets. Twenty adult indigenous chickens with an average body weight of 1.22 kg were conducted in metabolic cages and allocated in four groups of five birds each. The groups were corresponded to four dietary treatments (LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21 containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal. During the trial, birds were weighed at the beginning and at the end. Feed offered and refused, collected fresh excreta were weighed daily and the droppings were oven-dried at 60oC and ground per bird for six days. The ingredients and experimental diets used and collected excreta were subjected to chemical analyses. Results showed that the Leuceana leaves were relatively rich in protein (24.9% DM, ether extract (6.4% DM, crude fiber (14.2% DM and Neutral detergent fiber (22.4% DM. It contained respectively 43.1% and 11.4% DM of nitrogen free extract and ash, particularly calcium (1.8% and potassium (1.1% DM and 2573.8 kcal/kg DM of metabolizable energy. The results of the trial showed that the inclusion of L. leucocephala leaves meal in the diet at 21% level, has no significant adverse effect on feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrients utilization (except ether extract of adult indigenous Senegal chickens. It has significantly (p7.

W. Ossebi

2010-01-01

65

A Study on the Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA Content in Common Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised by Natural Farming in Nakhon Phanom Province  

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Full Text Available This research studied the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in common Thai indigenous chickens (5 months old raised by natural farming in Nakhon Phanom province. One hundred and ten chickens (55 females and 55 males with an average weight of 955 g and 1,050 g for females and males respectively were selected for the experiment. The chickens were randomly selected and meat samples were collected to determine the fatty acid profile and CLA content. The results showed that the saturated fatty acids (SFA in males were composed mainly of C16:0, C14:0 and C15:0 while in females they were composed of C22:0, C15:0 and C16:0. The most common monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in males and females were C24:1 and C15:1 respectively. The most common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA for both males and females was C20:3n3. The highest CLA profile was found in chicken meat cis9trans11 in males and females. The total fatty acid profile in breast meat showed that males had higher amounts of MUFA than females (p p p > 0.05.

Tanom TATHONG

2010-06-01

66

Growth Performances, Carcass and Organs Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) Leaves Meal  

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The aim of this study carried out from September to December 2010 was to evaluate the effects of Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal inclusion in the diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. One hundred and four (104) indigenous Senegal chicks of 4 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 26 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 13 birds, correspo...

Ayssiwede, S. B.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Zanmenou, J. C.; Dieng, A.; Houinato, M. R.; Dahouda, M.; Akpo, Y.; Hornick, J. L.; Missohou, A.

2011-01-01

67

Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10 unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata, cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea to 94.9% (C. vulgaris. The Crude Protein (CP content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea to 61.9% (cockroaches meal, with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%. Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9% Ether Extract (EE values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%, Moringa (9.8%, Leuceana (6.4% and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%, while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera to 16.8% (C. tora while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea to 19% (Citrullus seeds. A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%, followed by Cassia (15.2%, Moringa (13.6%, Leuceana (11.4% and Sesbania leaves (7.1%, while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera. Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%, followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%, Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%, whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

J.L. Hornick

2011-01-01

68

Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Naked Neck and Normally Feathered Nigerian Indigenous Chickens in a Sub Humid Tropical Environment  

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Full Text Available Haematological and serum biochemical indices of Nigerian indigenous chickens of two genetic groups were evaluated. One hundred and twenty (120 cocks with average weight of 1.10kg, corresponding to sixty (60 naked neck (NaNa and sixty (60 normally feathered (nana were utilized in the study. On the basis of feather colour, the normal plumage cocks were subdivided into two equal phenotypic groups. Each genetic group was divided into four replicates of fifteen birds each in a completely randomized design. There were no significant (P>0.05 differences between the genotypes in the mean values of white blood cells(WBC, mean corpuscular volume(MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration(MCHC. However, naked neck cocks were significantly superior in packed cell volume (PCV haemoglobin (Hb and red blood cells(RBC compared with their normally feathered counterparts(41.00 vs 35.90%; 13.68 vs 11.60 g/dl; 4.84 vs 4.21x106/ml; p>0.05. With the exception of PCV which was significantly (p>0.05 higher in brown cocks than white coloured cocks (38.30 vs 33.50%, plumage colour had no significant effect on the variables estimated. No significant differences were observed in total protein, albumin, urea, glucose, cholesterol, serum alanine amino transaminase (SALT and serum aspartate amino transferase (SAST of the genetic groups. The normally feathered cocks, however had significantly (P<0.05 higher globulin content (1.53 vs 1.15 g/dl and lower creatinine value (0.88 vs 0.95 mg/dl compared to the naked neck cocks. Plumage colour did not significantly (P>0.05 affect serum biochemical parameters suggesting that the two colour variants might not be true representation of genetically distinct subpopulations. The present result on blood parameters of both naked neck and normally feathered cocks could serve as a baseline data, which could be exploited in the improvement of local stock.

A.O. Ladokun

2008-01-01

69

Environmental descriptors influencing performance of the Nguni ecotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nguni is an indigenous breed of cattle in Southern Africa, specifically found in Swaziland, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Due to the ten years of civil war, cattle numbers in Mozambique was reduced from 1.6 million head in 1976 to approximately 200,000 in 1992. After 1996, large numbers of Nguni cattle were imported from South Africa into Mozambique as part of the livestock restocking program. A nucleus herd of Nguni cattle was established at the breeding station, Posto de Fomento do Impaputo (PFI), near Maputo and next to the Swaziland border. PFI has also a separate breeding nucleus of the Landim cattle. Both these ecotypes are registered at the Nguni Breed's Society of South Africa. This study whose results are reported here aims to determine the environmental descriptors that influence the performance of the Nguni and the Landim cattle ecotypes in Mozambique. Results from the analysed data will help to provide information for sustainable country level utilization and conservation programs in the region. Reproductive and productive data, between 1997 and 2008, were analysed for the two ecotypes using PROC GLM from SAS (1999). Variation sources such as type of breed, place of origin of foundation herd, parity, season and year of calving were taken into consideration in preliminary runs. Results of the preliminary runs on PFI herds indicate that the age at first calving (AFC) was 1089.2 ± 193 d and the calving interval (CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for both ecotypes. For AFC there were interactions between the year and season of calving (Nguni or Landim; P < 0.05) and place of birth (Chobela, RSA or Impaputo; P < 0.01) for both ecotypes. CI decreased as the number of parities increased. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) was found on CI for the place of herd's birth, parity and interaction between the year and season of calving (dry and rainy seasons). It is concluded that there is sufficient data to demonstrate within and between population variations in the different ecotypes in terms of reproductive performance. A more complete analysis, which includes information from both ecotypes and data from South Africa as well as other similar environments, should be done. These results can thus be used for the design and implementation of breeding and sustainable conservation programs for the Nguni and the Landim ecotypes under Mozambique and South Africa as well as similar environments. (author)

2009-06-08

70

Semen Characteristics of the Brown Ecotype of Sahel Goats in the Semi-arid Zone of Nigeria  

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A study was undertaken to determine the semen characteristics of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection from two to twelve months of age. It was observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased over-age (months) and that at three months of age, there were significant levels of semen characteristic values. In conclusion, the spermiogram of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks was studied with a view to document the semen profile of indigenous...

2006-01-01

71

Semen Characteristics of the Brown Ecotype of Sahel Goats in the Semi-arid Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the semen characteristics of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection from two to twelve months of age. It was observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased over-age (months and that at three months of age, there were significant levels of semen characteristic values. In conclusion, the spermiogram of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks was studied with a view to document the semen profile of indigenous and possibly evolving ecotypes of sahal bucks for future studies of improved breeding and selection.

V.A. Maina

2006-01-01

72

Comparative study on productive performance, egg quality, egg geometry and hatching traits of three age groups of indigenous Peshawari Aseel chickens  

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Full Text Available The aim of study was to compare three production cycles of different age groups of indigenous Peshawari Aseel chicken at Indigenous Chicken Genetic Resource Center (ICGRC, UVAS Ravi Campus Pattoki for the duration of 4 weeks. For this Purpose 24 birds of 3 different production cycles (1, 2 and 3 at the age of 35, 65 and 95 were used. Eight birds in each category comprising 7 females and 1 male were placed in each replicate.  The data was collected regarding production performance, egg quality and egg geometry and analyzed through Completely Randomized Design (CRD using analysis of variance (ANOVA techniques. Means were compared using Fisher’s LSD (Least significant Difference Test by the help of SAS (Statistical Analysis System. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05 were observed in cumulative feed intake at the start of experiment week 1, week 3 and week 4. The birds in 2nd production cycle remained the highest feed consumer throughout the experimental period followed by 1st and 3rd production cycles along with same trend in calories, protein, Ca, P, Lysine and Methionine intake throughout the experimental period. The birds in 2nd production cycle remained significantly higher egg producer along with production of higher egg mass and better FCR. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05 were observed in the egg shell % of 1st, 2nd and 3rd production cycles. The birds of 3rd production cycle remained the highest in the Haugh unit score and yolk index throughout the experimental period followed by 1st and 2nd production cycle. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05 were observed in shape index, egg surface area and egg volume in all the three production cycles. The birds of 3rd production cycle remained significantly higher in shape index throughout the experimental period followed by the 1st and 2nd production cycle.

A. Sohail

2013-02-01

73

Serological Status for Newcastle Disease Virus in Unvaccinated Indigenous Chickens in Yewa Division of Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A sero-epidemiological survey of antibody to Newcastle disease (ND virus was conducted in the unvaccinated local chickens in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria using haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. All the 180 sera samples collected tested positive for ND antibody. The range of HI antibody titre was 23 to 27. Out of the 180 chicks tested, 44 (24.4% had HI antibody titre of 23; the remaining birds (75.6% had higher titres of up to 27. The results showed the high endemicity of the disease among the local chicken population in the survey area in Nigeria.

M.A. Oyekunle

2006-01-01

74

Serological Status for Newcastle Disease Virus in Unvaccinated Indigenous Chickens in Yewa Division of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A sero-epidemiological survey of antibody to Newcastle disease (ND) virus was conducted in the unvaccinated local chickens in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. All the 180 sera samples collected tested positive for ND antibody. The range of HI antibody titre was 23 to 27. Out of the 180 chicks tested, 44 (24.4%) had HI antibody titre of 23; the remaining birds (75.6%) had higher titres of up to 27

Oyekunle, M. A.; Talabi, A. O.; Okeowo, A. O.

2006-01-01

75

MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida orAscaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance Udgivelsesdato: 15. May

Schou, T W; Labouriau, R

2010-01-01

76

Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308

Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

2007-06-01

77

Effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam. Leaves Meal Incorporation in Diets on Growth Performances, Carcass Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study carried out from July to October 2010 was to assess the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves meal inclusion in diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. Ninety six (96 indigenous Senegal chicks of 5 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 24 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 12 birds, corresponded to each of the four (4 dietary treatments MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 containing respectively 0, 8, 16 and 24% of Moringa leaves meal in substitution of groundnut cake meal. During the experiment (6-17th week old, zootechnical parameters of birds and economical data were recorded and analyzed per dietary treatment. At the end of the 12 weeks trial, the final Live Body Weights (LBW were 721.60 g, 911.70 g, 812.85 g and 720.05 g/bird, the average daily weight gain (ADWG were 6.49 g, 8.77 g, 7.61 g and 6.50 g/day, the Daily Feed Intake (DFI of 39.10 g, 39.76 g, 36.28 g and 34.24 g/bird and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR of 7.58, 5.75, 6.11 et 7.24 respectively for birds fed MO0, MO8, MO16 and MO24 diets. The Moringa leaves meal inclusion in the diets up to 24% had not caused any adverse impact on LBW, ADWG, FCR, mortality, carcass and organs characteristics in birds compared to their controls. Except the significantly decrease of DFI obtained in birds of MO16 and MO24 treatments, significantly better growth performances, feed costs and economic margins were recorded in birds fed MO8 and MO16 diets. Thus these two dietary treatments were the only most economically profitable (respectively 357 and 206 FCFA/kg carcass of additional profit compared to the control.

M. Dahouda

2011-01-01

78

Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers’ choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a pa...

Mullu, N. D.; Waaij, L. H.; Dessie, T.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2010-01-01

79

Nodulation and Root Traits in Four Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus Ecotypes under Root-Zone Temperatures  

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Full Text Available In order to study the effect of four Root-Zone Temperatures (RZT (5, 10, 15 and 25°C on nodulation and nitrogen percent of four grasspea ecotypes (ardabil, zanjan, mashhad and sharkord, an experiment was conducted in a controlled-environmental chamber in 2005. There were differences (p<0.01 among ecotypes, RZT and ecotypes*RZT for root length, forage dry matter, root dry matter, nodule dry weight, nodule number, nodule cluster number, nodule cluster diameter, nodule diameter, nodule distribution (root length that has nodule and plant nitrogen percent. Mashad and ardabil ecotypes produced the most and least nodule number at 25 and 5°C, respectively. The maximum and minimum nodule cluster number were observed in ardabil ecotype under 25 and 5°C RZT, respectively. Root distribution was the most and the least in mashhad and ardabil ecotypes under 25 and 5°C RZT, respectively. Ardabil produced the highest dry nodule weight at 25°C RZT. The least dry nodule weight was belonged to ardabil ecotype under 5°C RZT. Plant nitrogen percent was the highest in ardabile ecotype at 15°C RZT and the lowest in mashhad ecotype under 5°C RZT. This experiment showed that at low RZT (i.e., 5 and 10°C none of ecotypes had preferred on other ecotypes in point of view measured traits except nodule diameter. Ardabile and mashhad ecotypes were better than other ecotypes at 15 and 25°C RZT respectively for most traits.

B. Mahdavi Mahdavi

2007-01-01

80

Genetic Improvement of Local Chickens by Crossing with the Label Rouge (T55XSA51: Growth Performances and Heterosis Effects  

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Full Text Available The study of Genetic improvement of local chickens by crossing with the Label Rouge was carried out on the Experimentation Farm of the Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, from August 2007 to may 2008. At the hatching, 6 lots of chicks were made up: the lot MnFl, composed of 47 chicks resulting from the crossing between females Label Rouge and males of North ecotype; the lot MlFn, composed of 58 chicks resulting from the crossing between North females and males Label Rouge; the lot MsFl, composed of 36 chicks resulting from the crossing between Label Rouge females and males of the South ecotype; the lot of north local chickens composed of 112 chicks; the lot of South local chickens composed of 128 chicks and the lot of Label Rouge composed of 204 chicks. Label Rouge have an age-type weight significantly higher than the cross ones (p<0.05 and those have also an age-type weight more significant than the local chickens (p<0.01. The Label Rouge had more important feed intake than the local chickens and the crossbreeds had a feed intake intermediate between the ones of the Label Rouge and the local chickens. Among the chickens resulting from a parent of North ecotype, the hens resulting from a cock of North ecotype had a weak feed efficiency compared to the one resulting from females of North ecotype. The weight average heterosis was 21.95, 14.47 and 27.69%, respectively for the cross MnFl, MlFn and MsFl. Those of the female were 1.17; 23.2 and 4.62%, respectively for the cross MnFl, MlFn and MsFl. A negative heterosis effect was obtained for the feed intake and the feed efficiency of the various crossbreeds.

I.A.K. Youssao

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Genetic Improvement of Local Chickens by Crossing with the Label Rouge (T55*SA51: Carcass Characteristic, Organoleptic Qualities and Heterosis Effects  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristic and the organoleptic qualities of Label Rouge, North and South Local Chicken and their crossbreed MnFl (females Label Rouge x males of North ecotype, MlFn (North females ecotype x males Label Rouge and MsFl (Label Rouge females x males of the South ecotype. This study was carried out on the Experimentation Farm of the Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi, from August 2007 to may 2008. Ten chicken of each genotype were slaughtered at 24 weeks age. The local chickens of the North ecotype had a live weight at the slaughter significantly higher than that of the Southern ecotype and lower compared to the cross and the Label Rouge; the same tendency was observed for the noble carcass cuts. The carcass yield was similar for the six genetic types. The meats of Label Rouge chickens, the local chickens and the Cross MsFl were less tender (p<0.05 than those of North chickens and the Cross containing the “North blood” (MnFl and MlFn. No significant differences were observed in other hand on the juiciness and the flavor for the six genetic types. For each type of crossing, the heterosis effect of the live weight, the hot carcass weight and the wet carcass weight had a close values. In general, the different heterosis rates of the crossing male of North ecotype x female Label was superior than those of the other crossings.

I.A.K. Youssao

2009-01-01

82

An ex situ study on body characteristics and effect of plumage color on body weight of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Bangladesh / Investigação ex situ sobre as características do corpo e os efeitos da cor das penas no peso corporal de frangos indígenas (Gallus domesticus) em Bangladesh  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo foi conduzido no Instituto de Pesquisa Animal (BLRI) em Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, para comparar as características corporais e o peso corporal de três genótipos de frangos indígenas, Common Desi, Hilly e Naked Neck. A proporção dos genótipos Common Desi, Naked Neck e Hilly foi respectivamen [...] te 49,49, 24,95 e 25,56% num total de 489 aves analisadas. A cor predominante das penas foi preto avermelhado com 33.13%. Foram observados os quarto tipos de cores mais frequentes das pernas: branca (39,87%), amarela (37,22%), preta (20,04%) e mista (2,87%). A cor das orelhas era geralmente branca avermelhada (44,79%), seguida por branca (29,24%) e vermelha (25,97%). A cor da pele mais predominante era branca (92,22%). A maioria das aves tinha uma só cresta (96,12%). As aves Hilly eram mais pesadas do que os outros grupos de aves indígenas (p Abstract in english The study was conducted at the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh with the objectives of comparing the body characteristics and body weight of three Indigenous chicken genotypes namely Common Desi, Hilly and Naked Neck. Of the four hundred and eighty nine birds [...] analyzed the proportion of Common Desi, Naked Neck and Hilly chicken were 49.49, 24.95 and 25.56% respectively. The most predominant plumage color was reddish black (33.13%). Four types of shank colors were most frequently observed, i.e. white (39.87%), yellow (37.22%), black (20.04%) and mixed (2.87%). The earlobes were mainly reddish white (44.79%) followed by white (29.24%) and red (25.97%). The most predominant skin color was white (92.22%). Most birds had a single comb (96.12%). Hilly birds were heavier than the other Indigenous chicken groups (p

Sarker, Nipa Rani; Hoque, Azharul; Faruque, Shakila; Islam, Nazrul; Bhuiyan, Fazlul Haque.

83

Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens  

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Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

Zemanová V.

2013-04-01

84

Ecotypic variation in recruitment of reintroduced bighorn sheep: implications for translocation  

Science.gov (United States)

European settlement led to extirpation of native Audubon's bighorn sheep (formerly Ovis canadensis auduboni) from North Dakota during the early 20th century. The North Dakota Game and Fish Department subsequently introduced California bighorn sheep (formerly O. c. californiana) that were indigenous to the Williams Lake region of British Columbia, Canada, and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis) that were indigenous to the Sun River region of Montana. Although California bighorn sheep are no longer recognized as a distinct subspecies, they are smaller and adapted to a milder climate than either the native bighorn sheep of North Dakota or introduced bighorn sheep from Montana. Because reintroductions still play a key role in the management of bighorn sheep and because local adaptation may have substantial demographic consequences, we evaluated causes of variation in recruitment of bighorn sheep reintroduced in North Dakota. During 2006–2011, Montana stock recruited 0.54 juveniles/adult female (n?=?113), whereas British Columbia stock recruited 0.24 juveniles/adult female (n?=?562). Our most plausible mixed-effects logistic regression model (53% of model weight) attributed variation in recruitment to differences between source populations (odds ratio?=?4.5; 90% CI?=?1.5, 15.3). Greater recruitment of Montana stock (fitted mean?=?0.56 juveniles/adult female; 90% CI?=?0.41, 0.70) contributed to a net gain in abundance (r?=?0.15), whereas abundance of British Columbia stock declined (fitted mean?=?0.24 juveniles/adult female; 90% CI?=?0.09, 0.41; r?=???0.04). Translocations have been the primary tool used to augment and restore populations of wild sheep but often have failed to achieve objectives. Our results show that ecotypic differences among source stocks may have long-term implications for recruitment and demographic performance of reintroduced populations.

Wiedmann, Brett P.; Sargeant, Glen A.

2014-01-01

85

Yield Components, Morphology and Forage Quality of Native Alfalfa Ecotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twelve native alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) land races material from Van provinces in Turkey for 10-30 years in the same field in Turkey were investigated in this study. Seed used in this experiment are Adiguzel-2, Ahlat-3, Alakoy, Cayirbasi , Dilburnu, Ercis-3, Gulgoren, Gulsinberk, Hidirkoy-2, Kasumoglu-2, Mahmudiye, Otluca ecotypes and Kayseri population (as a check). Seeds planted in September 1999 and greenhouse for shoots measurements before flowering period. Plants harvested earl...

Suleyman Sengul

2002-01-01

86

The adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in two ecotypes of a marine gastropod  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Few surveys have concentrated on studying the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity within genetically-distinct conspecific ecotypes. Here, we conduct a test to assess the adaptive value that partial phenotypic plasticity may have for survival in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis. This species has evolved canalized ecotypes but, nevertheless, the ecotypes show some phenotypic plasticity for the traits under divergent selection between wav...

Hollander Johan; Butlin Roger K

2010-01-01

87

Genetic Diversity of Echinohloa Crus-galli Var. Crus-galli (L.) Beauv (Barnyardgrass: Poaceae) Ecotypes in Malaysia and Indonesia as Revealed by Rapd Markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourty ecotypes of Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli (Barnyardgrass: Poaceae) collected from Malaysian (26 ecotypes) and Indonesian (14 ecotypes) rice fields were studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The ecotypes were collected randomly from 11 locations in Malaysia and 6 locations in Indonesia. Individual ecotypes from all the sites were clearly distinguished from each other by RAPD-PCR polymorphisms. The 26 individual ecotypes of E. crus-galli...

Arifin Tasrif; Abdul ShukorJuraimi; Jugah Kadir; Sastroutomo, Soetikno S.; Suhaimi Napis

2004-01-01

88

Genetic Diversity of Echinohloa Crus-galli Var. Crus-galli (L. Beauv (Barnyardgrass: Poaceae Ecotypes in Malaysia and Indonesia as Revealed by Rapd Markers  

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Full Text Available Fourty ecotypes of Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli (Barnyardgrass: Poaceae collected from Malaysian (26 ecotypes and Indonesian (14 ecotypes rice fields were studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The ecotypes were collected randomly from 11 locations in Malaysia and 6 locations in Indonesia. Individual ecotypes from all the sites were clearly distinguished from each other by RAPD-PCR polymorphisms. The 26 individual ecotypes of E. crus-galli var. crus-galli were clustered into four groups at a similarity level of 60% in UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages. Four groups were identified of the 14 barnyardgrass ecotypes from Indonesia with similarity level of 64%. Six groups have been classified among Malaysian and Indonesian ecotypes of barnyardgrass. Group one had the highest number in the phylogenetic majority, while group 4 and 6 had one ecotype, respectively. The results showed that the Malaysian ecotypes were more variable than Indonesia ecotypes. Three Malaysian ecotypes (in group five and six formed different clusters. Two Malaysia ecotypes had genetic relationship with 4 Indonesia ecotypes (group two, while the rest of the ecotypes correlated with the geographic distribution. RAPD-PCR markers revealed relatively low genetic variation between barnyardgrass ecotypes. Thus, the genetic diversity observed might be attributed to the diversity among individual ecotypes from divergent locations that may affect weed management systems especially herbicide application. The genetic differences within and among barnyardgrass ecotypes were not sufficient enough for biocontrol implications.

Arifin Tasrif

2004-01-01

89

Chicken coup  

fermentation process could be a cost-competitive alternative to soya- based \\protein and ... Energy. Chicken coup. • New process could lead to global \\production of 3 million tonnes of high-grade ... important vitamins and other \\micronutrients.”.

90

The ecotype concept to measure bovine adaptability under tropical climatic conditions: reproductive performance in dairy cattle breed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data was collected from 2663 registers from 657 cows of the breed Lucerna. The ecotypes were selected on basis of color and uniformity of coat, length of hair besides skin and mucous color. Tests analysis shown statistical difference among ecotypes in reference to the mean of the days open (p < 0.05) and Calving periods (p<0.01). No statistical difference between ecotypes in dry period. Lucerna ecotypes show good reproductive performance and adaptability under tropical climatic conditions

2000-01-01

91

The growth, flowering and chemical composition of leaves of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L.  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the Botanical Garden of UMCS in Lublin. A collection of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L. from Dukla, Roztocze Region and Bieszczady mountain range, were the subject of our study. The aim of the study was to compare the biometrical features and chemical composition of garlic leaves. There were substantial differences both in growth characteristics and flowering characteristics of the ecotypes of Allium ursinum. The Dukla ecotype formed the longest leaves, whereas the shortest ones were found in the Roztocze ecotype. The Bieszczady ecotype was characterized by the widest leaf blades, the longest leaf stalk and flowering stems as well as the largest diameter of inflorescence. The Roztocze ecotype had the largest number of flowers in an inflorescence, while the Dukla ecotype had the shortest flowering stems and the fewest flowers in an inflorescence. The largest concentration of dry mass in leaves was detected in A. ursinum from Roztocze. The largest concentration of proteins was detected in the leaves of A. ursinum from Bieszczady. The most flavonoids were assayed in the leaves of the Roztocze ecotype of A. ursinum, the fewest in the Dukla one. Phenolic acids were at their highest concentration in the leaves of bear's garlic from Dukla, while the lowest concentration was recorded in the leaves of the ecotype from Bieszczady. The garlic leaves from Dukla had also the highest content of essential oil, while the Roztocze ones had the lowest oil content. The ecotypes of Allium ursinum differed substantially when it comes to the number of components of their essential oils and the amount of selected components.

Marzena B?a?ewicz-Wo?niak

2011-12-01

92

Adaptations between ecotypes and along environmental gradients in Panicum virgatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the patterns and mechanisms of natural selection in the wild is of fundamental importance to understanding the differentiation of populations and the evolution of new species. However, it is often unknown the extent to which adaptive genetic variation is distributed among ecotypes between distinct habitats versus along large-scale geographic environmental gradients, such as those that track latitude. Classic studies of selection in the wild in switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, tested for adaptation at both of these levels of natural variation. Here we review what these field experiments and modern agronomic field trials have taught us about natural variation and selection at both the ecotype and environmental gradient levels in P. virgatum. With recent genome sequencing efforts in P. virgatum, it is poised to become an excellent system for understanding the adaptation of grassland species across the eastern half of North America. The identification of genetic loci involved in different types of adaptations will help to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of diversification within P. virgatum and provide useful information for the breeding of high-yielding cultivars for different ecoregions. PMID:24739200

Lowry, David B; Behrman, Kathrine D; Grabowski, Paul; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kiniry, James R; Juenger, Thomas E

2014-05-01

93

Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?water release (WR) and fat release (FR) was lowest in BC. Significantly (P?meat protein matrix and heat induced gel/protein matrix. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference between three treatments for colour, flavour, texture and acceptability scores. Thus, food processor and indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

2014-03-01

94

[Quality variation and ecotype division of Panax quinquefolium in China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality variation and ecotype classification of Chinese herbal medicine are important scientific problems in Daodi herbal medicine research. The diversity of natural environmental conditions has led to form unique multi-Daodi, multi-product areas that produce particular Chinese herbal medicine. China is one of three big American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) producing areas worldwide, with over 300 years of application and 40 years of cultivation history. Long-term production practice has led to the formation of three big advocate produce areas in China: Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong. P. quinquefolium L. grown under certain environmental conditions will develop long-term adaptations that will lead to more stable strains (different ecotypes). P. quinquefolium L., can vary greatly in quality; however, the ecological mechanisms causing this variation are still unclear. Root samples were collected from four-year-old cultivated P. quinquefolium L. plants in the three major genuine (Daodi) American ginseng-producing areas of Northeast province, Beijing and Shandong province, China. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the contents of eight ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg2). Data for nine ecological factors, including temperature, moisture and sunlight, were obtained from the ecological database of Geographic Information System for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Soil samples from the sampling sites were collected. Effective boron and iron, available nitrogen and potassium, as well as other trace elements and soil nutrients, were determined by conventional soil physicochemical property assay methods. Analytical methods of biostatistics and numerical taxonomy were used to divide ecotypes of the three main Panax quinquefolium L. producing areas in China based on ginsenoside content, climate, soil and other ecological factors. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ecological division of P. quinquefolium L. producing areas in China has ever been conducted. The results show that there are two chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. in China: ginsenoside Rb1-Re from outside Shanhaiguan, and ginsenoside Rg2-Rd from inside Shanhaiguan. Similarly, there are two types of climatic characteristics: inside Shanhaiguan (Beijing, Shandong) and outside Shanhaiguan (Northeast). This suggests that the formation and differentiation of chemoecotypes of P. quinquefolium L. is closely related to variability of the climatic and geographical environment. Additionally, ecological variation of the three main producing areas, characteristics of two climatic ecotypes, and soil characteristics are also discussed and summarized. These results provide experimental scientific evidence of the quality variation and ecological adaptation of P. quinquefolium L. from different producing areas. They also deepen our understanding of the biological nature of Daodi P. quinquefolium L. formation, and offer novel research models for other multi-origin, multi-Daodi Chinese herbal medicines ecotypes. In addition, the results demonstrate the critical need for improving quality, appropriate ecological regionalization and promoting industrialized development of P. quinquefolium L. PMID:23833949

Huang, Lin-Fang; Suo, Feng-Mei; Song, Jing-Yuan; Wen, Mei-Jia; Jia, Guang-Lin; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Lin

2013-04-01

95

Effect of Water Deficit on Physiological Behavior of Some Collected Tunisian Barley Ecotypes  

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Full Text Available In Tunisia, the post-anthesis water deficit for cereals takes place almost every year. The identification of tolerant barley ecotypes to this stress is of great importance for crop improvement and yield stability. To fulfill this objective, we evaluated the response of 6 barley ecotypes to moderate and severe stress (one week and three weeks of withholding irrigation. After 7 days of water stress, Souihli, Sidi Bouzid and Tozeur 1 ecotypes maintained higher leaf water potential allowing them to keep hydrated tissue cells, a significant accumulation of proline and a high peroxidases activity which allowed them to withstand the effect of oxidative stress and preserve their chlorophyll content. However, the other ecotypes showed lower water potentials. Although the peroxidases activity decreased for Sidi Bouzid and Souihli ecotypes and remained moderate for Tozeur 1 under severe stress compared to what was registered after moderate stress, it remained important compared to their control. This must be due to an acclimatation of these ecotypes to water stress. However, for Northern ecotypes, we recorded a high reduction of leaf water potential and chlorophyll content which was associated with lower accumulation of proline content and moderate or significant peroxidases activity related to stress intensity showing their lack of tolerance to water stress.

Abdellaoui Raoudha

2007-01-01

96

Comparative Analyses of Stomatal Size and Density among Ecotypes of Aster hispidus (Asteraceae  

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Full Text Available To determine the size and the density of stomata among different environments, we conducted anatomical analyses using Aster hispidus var. hispidus (open field, As. hispidus var. leptocladus (serpentine soil, and As. hispidus var. insularis (coastal. The stomatal size was not significantly different among these ecotypes but the density of stomata in the serpentine and coastal ecotypes was significantly lower than that of As. hispidus var. hispidus, which suggests that these ecotypes have experienced selection that reduced the density of stomata for adaptation to the dry conditions of serpentine and coastal areas.

Tatsuya Fukuda

2013-03-01

97

Indigenous Existentialism and the Body  

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Full Text Available This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive, detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined only in relation to an imagined authentic past, indigenous existentialism is inhibited because indigenous people lack a conscious awareness of cultural immediacy. There is nothing more immediate than the body and, thus, I began to theorise indigenous existentialism through an analyses of the indigenous body, its genealogy, and its immediacy. To help me process this theorisation I engage with current Cultural Studies debates surrounding the analyses of the body. I conclude that an indigenous existentialism will recognise that the power of the body is still unknown.

Brendan Hokowhitu

2011-04-01

98

Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The natural diversity of honey bees in Europe is eroding fast. A multitude of reasons lead to a loss of both genetic diversity and specific adaptations to local conditions. To preserve locally adapted bees through breeding efforts and to maintain regional strains in conservation areas, these valuable populations need to be identified. In this paper, we give an overview of methods that are currently available and used for recognition of honey bee subspecies and ecotypes, or that can be utilised to verify the genetic origin of colonies for breeding purposes. Beyond summarising details of morphometric, allozyme and DNA methods currently in use, we report recommendations with regard to strategies for sampling, and suggest methods for statistical data analysis. In particular, we emphasise the importance of reference data and consistency of methods between laboratories to yield comparable results.

Meixner, Marina D.; Pinto, Maria Alice

2013-01-01

99

Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution  

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We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The ‘recurrent evolution’ (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a ‘straying’ form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations betw...

Wood, Chris C.; Bickham, John W.; John Nelson, R.; Foote, Chris J.; Patton, John C.

2008-01-01

100

Karyotype Analysis of several Ecotypes of Capsicum annuum L. in Iran  

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Capsicum (pepper) is a member of the Solanaceae family and this genus has a great economic importance in food, drug, spices and industry. In this study, seeds of ten ecotypes of Capsicum spp. were obtained from the plant gene bank of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. The standard karyotype was prepared for the ecotypes and the characteristics of the chromosomes including long arm, short arm, total length (TL), arm ratio and centromeric index were calculated and chromosome t...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Transcript profiling of different Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in response to Tobacco etch potyvirus infection  

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Full Text Available The use of high-throughput transcript profiling techniques has opened the possibility of identifying, in a single experiment, multiple putative viral targets on infected host. Several studies have used this approach to analyze the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to the infection of different RNA and DNA viruses. However, the possible differences in response of genetically heterogeneous ecotypes of the plant to the same virus have never been addressed before. Here we have used a strain of Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV experimentally adapted to A. thaliana ecotype Ler-0 and a set of seven plant ecotypes to tackle this question. Each ecotype was inoculated with the same amount of the virus and the outcome of infection characterized phenotypically (i.e., virus infectivity and accumulation and symptoms development. Using commercial microarrays containing probes for more than 43000 plant transcripts, we explored the effect of viral infection in the plant transcriptome. In general, we found that ecotypes differ in the way they perceive and respond to the virus. While some showed strong symptoms and accumulated large amounts of viral genomes, others only developed mild symptoms and accumulated fewer viruses. At the transcriptomic level, ecotypes could be classified into two groups according to the particular genes whose expression was altered upon infection. Moreover, a functional enrichment analyses showed that the two groups differed in the nature of the altered biological processes. While the group constituted by ecotypes developing milder symptoms and allowing for lower virus accumulation tend to over-express genes involved in abiotic stresses and in the construction of new tissues, those ecotypes for which infection was severer and allowed for more viral accumulation, defense genes tend to be over-expressed, deviating the necessary resources from building new tissues.

SantiagoFElena

2012-06-01

102

Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  

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The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions) and southern (9 accessions) regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differ...

Majid Shokrpour; Mohammad Moghaddam; Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Ziai; Aziz Javanshir

2007-01-01

103

Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits  

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Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, ?Seyah-Roud?, ?Ahar-Hourand?, ?Oskou?, ?Malekan? and ?Sefida-Khan? were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and ?Sefida-Khan? had comparatively less sodium contents than ?Oskou?, ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes ?Malekan?, Ahar- Hourand and ?Oskou? were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes ?Malekan? and ?Ahar-Hourand? were better.

Hassan MONIRIFAR

2009-12-01

104

Tissue and Blood Amino Acids Composition of an Ecotype Cichlid ‘Wesafu’, Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis niloticus Using Paper Chromatography  

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Full Text Available Wesafu is an indigenous ecotype cichlid and a very important part of the fisheries of Epe lagoon in Lagos Nigeria. Investigation of the amino acids composition of tissue and blood samples of Wesafu, T. zillii and O. niloticus using paper chromatography (Ranjna, 1999 was conducted. Only 14 amino acids (Alanine, Cysteine, Asphatic acid, Phenylalanine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Leucine, Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Tryptophan, Glutamic acid were analyzed. In the muscles, 11 amino acids were identified with alanine, guanine and methionine absent in all three fish tissue sampled. Phenylalanine, isoleucine and valine were absent in O. niloticus but present in Wesafu and T. zillii while Tryptophan and Glutamic acid were present in O. niloticus but absent in the tissues of Wesafu and T. zillii. However, all 14 AA assayed were present in different proportions in the blood samples of the three species. This report further suggests that the Wesafu is different from either of the two species and warrant species identification at a level of molecular biology.

O.O. Fajana

2010-01-01

105

Assessment of Milk Thistle Ecotypes for Drought Resistance in a Hydroponic System  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate drought resistance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at seedling stage. The experiment was designed as a split plot in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were combination of drought stress levels as main plots and different milk thistle ecotypes as subplot layouts replicated 3 times and run in a hydroponic system. Root length, root volume, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and dry weight of root were measured for assessing the ecotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences between the measured traits at 1% level. Significant interaction between stress and ecotypes, indicated that the ecotypes had different trends over stress levels. Mean comparison of ecotypes suggested that decreased chlorophyll, root tolerance index, root volume and dry weight and increased electrolyte leakage were related to the increased stress intensity. Values of root tolerance index and electrolyte leakage suggested Ghaemieh as a drought tolerant ecotype. Correlation among root characteristics and root tolerance index showed that root volume and dry weight are more efficient criteria, compared to root length, for evaluation of drought tolerance in milk thistle genotypes.

R. Deliri

2010-06-01

106

Nodulation and Root Traits in Four Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) Ecotypes under Root-Zone Temperatures  

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In order to study the effect of four Root-Zone Temperatures (RZT) (5, 10, 15 and 25°C) on nodulation and nitrogen percent of four grasspea ecotypes (ardabil, zanjan, mashhad and sharkord), an experiment was conducted in a controlled-environmental chamber in 2005. There were differences (p<0.01) among ecotypes, RZT and ecotypes*RZT for root length, forage dry matter, root dry matter, nodule dry weight, nodule number, nodule cluster number, nodule cluster diameter, nodule diameter, nodule d...

Mahdavi Mahdavi, B.; Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy; Majid Aghaalikhani

2007-01-01

107

Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia  

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Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

Elena S. Jones

2007-04-01

108

Selection of lactobacilli for chicken probiotic adjuncts.  

Science.gov (United States)

During inhibitory activity screening of 296 strains of lactic acid bacteria from the gastro-intestinal tract of chicks, 77 strains showed inhibition against enteric indicator strains (Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli). Eight different strains identified as Lactobacillus salivarius were selected for the following attributes: their ability to inhibit all the indicator strains; a high adhesion efficiency to the epithelial cells of chickens and also their resistance to a number of antibiotics, monensin, bile salts and pH 3.0. The inhibitory action was not affected by the addition of catalase and no inhibition was detected after neutralizing the supernatant culture fluid. The competitiveness of the most promising strains, Lact. salivarius CTC2183 and CTC2197, was assessed in chicken feed mixture and in vivo. It was concluded that both strains were capable of becoming predominant over the indigenous flora in the incubated chicken feed mixture. In vivo tests showed that Lact. salivarius CTC2197 was able to colonize and overcome Lact. salivarius CTC2183 and the indigenous flora in the crop and caecum of the inoculated chicks. PMID:15244067

Garriga, M; Pascual, M; Monfort, J M; Hugas, M

1998-01-01

109

Ecotypic variation of summer dormancy relaxation associated with rainfall gradient in the geophytic grass Poa bulbosa  

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Background and Aims Summer dormancy is an adaptive trait in geophytes inhabiting regions with a Mediterranean climate, allowing their survival through the hot and dry summers. Summer dormancy in Poa bulbosa is induced by increasing day-length and temperature and decreasing water availability during spring. Populations from arid habitats became dormant earlier than those from mesic habitats. Relaxation of dormancy was promoted by the hot, dry summer conditions. Here we test the hypothesis that dormancy relaxation is also delayed in ecotypes of P. bulbosa inhabiting arid regions, as a cautious strategy related to the greater unpredictability of autumn rains associated with decreasing precipitation. Methods Ecotypes collected across a precipitation gradient (100–1200 mm year?1) in the Mediterranean climate region were grown under similar conditions in a net-house in Israel. Differences among ecotypes in dormancy induction and dormancy relaxation were determined by measuring time to dormancy onset in spring, and time to sprouting after the first effective rain in autumn. Seasonal and ecotype variation in dormancy relaxation were assessed by measuring time to sprouting initiation, rate of sprouting and maximal sprouting of resting dry bulbs sampled in the net-house during late spring, and mid- and late summer, and planted in a wet substrate at temperatures promoting (10 °C) or limiting (20 °C) sprouting. Key Results Earlier dormancy in the spring and delayed sprouting in autumn were correlated with decreasing mean annual rainfall at the site of ecotype origin. Seasonal and ecotype differences in dormancy relaxation were expressed in bulbs planted at 20 °C. During the summer, time to sprouting decreased while rate of sprouting and maximal sprouting increased, indicating dormancy relaxation. Ecotypes from more arid sites across the rainfall gradient showed delayed onset of sprouting and lower maximal sprouting, but did not differ in rate of sprouting. Planting at 10 °C promoted sprouting and cancelled differences among ecotypes in dormancy relaxation. Conclusions Both the induction and the relaxation of summer dormancy in P. bulbosa are correlated with mean annual precipitation at the site of population origin. Ecotypes from arid habitats have earlier dormancy induction and delayed dormancy relaxation, compared with those from mesic habitats.

Ofir, Micha; Kigel, Jaime

2010-01-01

110

Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977â??2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can be related to fish ecotypes. Broadly speaking, there were steady increases in abundance of species that were either Lusitanian, small-bodied, or low-/mid-trophic-level ecotypes, and generally declining or only marginally increasing trends of most Boreal, large-bodied, or high-trophic-level ecotypes or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure.

Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.

2011-01-01

111

A Study of Genetic Diversity in Sardari Wheat Ecotypes Using AFLP Markers and Agronomic Traits  

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Full Text Available Studying genetic diversity is important because a decrease in genetic variability might result in a reduction of the plasticity of the crops to respond to changes in climate, pathogen populations, or agricultural practices. In this study, 72 Sardari wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ecotypes were analyzed by AFLP markers and 17 phenotypic characters. Three pairs of EcoRI/MseI primer combinations produced 1582 polymorphic bands (with mean percentage of polymorphic 73.92%. Cluster analysis using Jaccard coefficient and the entire AFLP data divided all ecotypes into eight major groups. Mean, coefficient of variation, phenotypic, genotypic and environment variance were calculated in each quantitative character. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance through the quantitative characters divided all ecotypes into six major groups. Comparison of genetic distances obtained from AFLP and agronomic data showed low correlation between the two diversity measurements (0.02. The results showed a high degree of genetic diversity between the Sardari ecotypes, suggesting that Sardari is not a single cultivar, but it is the mass of ecotypes and could be introduced in the gene bank.

A Siosemardeh

2009-04-01

112

Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…

Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

2005-01-01

113

Abiotic ecotypes in south-central Spanish rivers: Reference conditions and pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical water quality in five of Spain's main rivers was assessed during the years 2001-2003. A previous physiographical river typology was carried out by applying System B of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) which distinguished four main river ecotypes: calcareous headwaters, siliceous rivers, plain rivers, and large rivers. The physiographical classification into river ecotypes also corresponded to distinct hydrochemical types. Reference values of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate fitted for local river ecotypes surpassed only slightly Natural and background levels established by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 2003). Half of the sampled sites were above the limits established as reference conditions. Additionally, concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to agriculture and less to forest land. - Agriculture by means of nutrient surpluses and water diversion for irrigation, along with poor sewage treatment of urban wastes are the main environmental problems in Spanish rivers

2006-10-01

114

Callose plug deposition patterns vary in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and tomato species  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollen grain contains the male gametophyte that extends a pollen tube that grows through female tissues in order to deliver sperm to the embryo sac for double fertilization. Growing pollen tubes form periodic callose plugs that are thought to block off the older parts of the tube and maintain the cytoplasm near the growing tip. The morphology of callose plugs and the patterns of their deposition were previously shown to vary among species, but variation within a species had not been examined. We therefore systematically examined callose plug deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, tested for heritability using reciprocal crosses between ecotypes that had differing deposition patterns, and investigated the relationship between callose plugs and pollen tube growth rate. We also surveyed callose plug deposition patterns in different species of tomato. Results We used in vitro grown pollen tubes of 14 different A. thaliana ecotypes and measured the distance from the pollen grain pore to the first callose plug (termed first interval. This distance varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in some cases even within an ecotype. Pollen tubes without a callose plug were shorter than those with a callose plug, and tubes with a callose plug near the grain were, on average, longer than those with the first callose plug farther from the grain. Variations in the first callose plug position were also observed between different species of tomato. Conclusions We showed that the position of the first callose plug varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in tomato species, and that callose plug deposition patterns were heritable. These findings lay a foundation for mapping genes that regulate callose plug deposition or that determine pollen tube length or growth rate.

Qin Peng

2012-10-01

115

Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. RESULTS: In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p <0.01) in 10 ecotypes, including 498 transcription factors and 315 transposable elements. The majority of the transcripts (75%) showed ecotype specific expression pattern. By using sequence data available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. CONCLUSIONS: A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted regulatory network model was able to identify new ecotype specific transcription factors and their regulatory interactions, which might be crucial for their local geographic adaptation to cold temperature. Additionally, since the approach presented here is general, it could be adapted to study networks regulating biological process in any biological systems.

Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni

2013-01-01

116

Transcriptomics Research in Chicken  

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The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...

Yang, D. Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L. Q.; Tang, L. G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

2012-01-01

117

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

2011-01-01

118

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

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Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

Michael Engel

2011-10-01

119

Analysis of T-DNA alleles of flavonoid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The flavonoid pathway is a long-standing and important tool for plant genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. Numerous flavonoid mutants have been identified in Arabidopsis over the past several decades in a variety of ecotypes. Here we present an analysis of Arabidopsis lines of ecotype Columbia carrying T-DNA insertions in genes encoding enzymes of the central flavonoid pathway. We also provide a comprehensive summary of various mutant alleles for these structural genes that have been described in the literature to date in a wide variety of ecotypes. Findings The confirmed knockout lines present easily-scorable phenotypes due to altered pigmentation of the seed coat (or testa. Knockouts for seven alleles for six flavonoid biosynthetic genes were confirmed by PCR and characterized by UPLC for altered flavonol content. Conclusion Seven mutant lines for six genes of the central flavonoid pathway were characterized in ecotype, Columbia. These lines represent a useful resource for integrating biochemical and physiological studies with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data, much of which has been, and continues to be, generated in the Columbia background.

Bowerman Peter A

2012-09-01

120

Sensitivity of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis Thaliana (Cvi and Te) towards UV-B irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana towards the detrimental effect of UV-B irradiation was investigated using two ecotypes, Cvi and Te. The effect of UV-B treatment on primary photosynthetic reactions - energy interaction between the main pigment-protein complexes and oxygen evolution, was evaluated at low (40C) and at room (220C) temperature. UV-B-induced alterations of investigated photosynthetic reactions are better expressed at 220C than at 40C for Cvi. For Te ecotype the energy interaction was suppressed to higher extent at 220C, while oxygen evolving activity was affected similarly at both temperatures. At low and room temperature, the energy interaction in the complex PSII-core antenna is affected stronger by UV-B treatment than the energy distribution between both photosystems, as revealed by fluorescence ratios of 77 K spectra. The results presented indicate that the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi (Cape Verde Islands) is less affected by UV-B irradiation in respect to the investigated primary photosynthetic reactions than the ecotype Te (Finland)

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Host ecotype generates evolutionary and epidemiological divergence across a pathogen metapopulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent and speed at which pathogens adapt to host resistance varies considerably. This presents a challenge for predicting when-and where-pathogen evolution may occur. While gene flow and spatially heterogeneous environments are recognized to be critical for the evolutionary potential of pathogen populations, we lack an understanding of how the two jointly shape coevolutionary trajectories between hosts and pathogens. The rust pathogen Melampsora lini infects two ecotypes of its host plant Linum marginale that occur in close proximity yet in distinct populations and habitats. In this study, we found that within-population epidemics were different between the two habitats. We then tested for pathogen local adaptation at host population and ecotype level in a reciprocal inoculation study. Even after controlling for the effect of spatial structure on infection outcome, we found strong evidence of pathogen adaptation at the host ecotype level. Moreover, sequence analysis of two pathogen infectivity loci revealed strong genetic differentiation by host ecotype but not by distance. Hence, environmental variation can be a key determinant of pathogen population genetic structure and coevolutionary dynamics and can generate strong asymmetry in infection risks through space. PMID:24870042

Laine, Anna-Liisa; Burdon, Jeremy J; Nemri, Adnane; Thrall, Peter H

2014-07-22

122

DELLA activity is required for successful pollen development in the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive gibberellin (GA) signalling, mediated through the DELLA proteins, has a negative impact on plant fertility. Loss of DELLA activity in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa) causes complete male sterility, but not in the dicot model Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler), in which DELLA function has been studied most extensively, leading to the assumption that DELLA activity is not essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. A novel DELLA fertility phenotype was identified in the Columbia (Col-0) ecotype that necessitates re-evaluation of the general conclusions drawn from Ler. Fertility phenotypes were compared between the Col-0 and Ler ecotypes under conditions of chemical and genetic GA overdose, including mutants in both ecotypes lacking the DELLA paralogues REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI). Ler displays a less severe fertility phenotype than Col-0 under GA treatment. Col-0 rga gai mutants, in contrast with the equivalent Ler phenotype, were entirely male sterile, caused by post-meiotic defects in pollen development, which were rescued by the reintroduction of DELLA into either the tapetum or developing pollen. We conclude that DELLA activity is essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. Differences between the fertility responses of Col-0 and Ler might be caused by differences in downstream signalling pathways or altered DELLA expression. PMID:24400898

Plackett, Andrew R G; Ferguson, Alison C; Powers, Stephen J; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Phillips, Andrew L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

2014-02-01

123

Mitogenome sequence variation in migratory and stationary ecotypes of North-east Atlantic cod.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sequencing of mitochondrial gene fragments from specimens representing a wide range of geographical locations has indicated limited population structuring in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). We recently performed whole genome analysis based on next-generation sequencing of two pooled ecotype samples representing offshore migratory and inshore stationary cod from the North-east Atlantic Ocean. Here we report molecular features and variability of the 16.7kb mitogenome component that was collected from the datasets. These sequences represented more than 25 times coverage of each individual and more than 1100 times coverage of each ecotype sample. We estimated the mitogenome to have evolved 14 times more rapidly than the nuclear genome. Among the 365 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites identified, 121 were shared between ecotypes, and 151 and 93 were private within the migratory and stationary cod, respectively. We found 323 SNPs to be located in protein coding genes, of which 29 were non-synonymous. One synonymous site in ND2 was likely to be under positive selection. FST measurements indicated weak differentiation in ND1 and ND2 between ecotypes. We conclude that the Atlantic cod mitogenome and the nuclear genome apparently evolved by distinct evolutionary constraints, and that the reproductive isolation observed from whole genome analysis was not visible in the mtDNA sequences. PMID:24456931

Karlsen, Bård O; Emblem, Ase; Jørgensen, Tor E; Klingan, Kevin A; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar D

2014-06-01

124

Growth responses of Betula pendula ecotypes to red and far-red light  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of Red light (R), Far-red light (FR) and R/FR combinations on shoot growth of latitudinal ecotypes of B. pendula was studied using special diodes that emit monochromatic lights. When a 12 hrs PAR (110 µmol m-2 s-1) was extended with R, FR or R/FR ratios, lower intensities of monochromatic [...] lights could not prevent growth cessation. At 25 µmol m-2 s-1, FR compared to R enhanced stem elongation in all ecotypes. This was due to the inhibitive effect of R on internode elongation. When day-length was extended by R/FR at various ratios, there was continuous shoot elongation, but was found to be declining with increasing ratios. The more the R, the shorter were the internodes of each plant. B. pendula ecotypes produced branches when PAR light during the day was extended by incandescent light, but did not do so when the light extensions were made by monochromatic R or FR or their combination. Branching increased with decreasing latitude of the ecotype

Berhanu A., Tsegay; Leidulf, Lund; Jarle, Nilsen; Jorunn E., Olsen; Jorgen M., Molmann; Arild, Ernsten; Olavi, Juntttila.

2005-04-15

125

Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

126

Indigenization of Urban Mobility  

CERN Document Server

Uncovering urban mobility patterns is crucial for further predicting and controlling spatially embedded events. In this article, we analyze millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a Chinese leading location-based social networking service, Jiepang.com, which contains demographical information and thus allows the group-specific studies. We found distinguishable mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities under consideration, and by assigning different algorithms onto natives and non-natives, the accuracy of location prediction can be largely improved compared with pure algorithms. We further propose the so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify to which extent an individual behaves like a native, which depend only on check-in behaviors, instead of any demographical information. To our surprise, a hybrid algorithm weighted by the indigenization coefficients outperforms the mixed algorithm accounting for additional demographical information.

Yang, Zimo; Xie, Xing; Lian, Defu; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

2014-01-01

127

Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species-climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep dines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed to inform restoration and management planning. We propose four transfer zones in blackbrush that correspond to areas currently dominated by cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes in each of the two ecoregions. PMID:24689151

Richardson, Bryce A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Pendleton, Rosemary L; Pendleton, Burton K; Germino, Matthew J; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Meyer, Susan E

2014-03-01

128

Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub  

Science.gov (United States)

Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species–climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep clines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed to inform restoration and management planning. We propose four transfer zones in blackbrush that correspond to areas currently dominated by cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes in each of the two ecoregions.

Richardson, Bryce A.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Germino, Matthew J.; Rehfeldt, Gerald E.; Meyer, Susan E.

2014-01-01

129

Age standardisation – an indigenous standard?  

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Abstract The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous M?ori population has a substantially younger age structure than the non-indigenous population making it necessary to account for age differences when comparing population health outcomes. An age-standardised rate is a summary measure of a rate that a population would have if it had a standard age s...

2007-01-01

130

Australia's seizure divide - indigenous versus non-indigenous seizure hospitalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous Australians suffer the highest mortality and morbidity rates of any ethnic minority in the developed world. To determine if the health outcome gulf between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians also applied to seizures, we conducted a retrospective analysis of seizure hospitalization (1998-2004) based on ethnicity (indigenous (I) and non-indigenous (NI)) for four Australian jurisdictions - Northern Territory (NT), Queensland (Qld), South Australia (SA), and Western Australia (WA). Total admissions were converted to age-standardized rates (ASR) and I/NI ASR ratios (I/NIRR) and compared across multiple variables. The summed admission (combined jurisdictions over six years) was 71,185 (I=11,593 and NI=59,592). Seizure hospitalization rate was always higher in the indigenous population (six-year I/NIRR - NT=5.6, Qld=4.0, SA=6.4, and WA=10.9; combined jurisdictions=5.6). Disparity was greatest for ages 40-64years (13.8) and 15-39years (7.0) and for indigenous males (7.4). As socioeconomic status rose, non-indigenous admission rates fell (ASR=1.7 to 1.1), yet indigenous admission rates rose (ASR=7.9 to 14.0). Indigenous emergency to elective admission ratios were higher (I=27 and NI=8), as were readmissions (1.5-2 fold), self-discharge separations (I=9.4% and NI=1.4%), bed days (I/NIRR=5.1), and admissions with an additional diagnosis (I/NIRR=3.3) or procedure (I/NIRR=3.4). Indigenous Australians maintained disproportionately high rates of emergency seizure hospitalization; from 1998 to 2004, the combined jurisdiction rate was more than five times the mean non-indigenous rate. Indigenous males aged 15-64years were overrepresented. Indigenous patients had lengthier admissions but higher self-discharge and readmission rates. The socioeconomic data raise the concern that social disadvantage restricts access to hospital-based seizure care for indigenous patients. PMID:24210462

Plummer, Chris; Cook, Mark J; Anderson, Ian; D'Souza, Wendyl J

2014-02-01

131

The influence of genetic background versus commercial breeding programs on chicken immunocompetence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunocompetence of livestock plays an important role in farm profitability because it directly affects health maintenance. Genetics significantly influences the immune system, and the genotypic structure of modern fast-growing chickens has been changed, particularly after decades of breeding for higher production. Therefore, this study was designed to help determine if intensive breeding programs have adversely affected immunocompetence or whether the immune response profiles are controlled to greater extent by genetic background. Thus, 3 indigenous chicken populations from different genetic backgrounds and 2 globally available modern broiler strains, Ross 308 and Cobb 500, were evaluated for various aspects of immune response. These included antibody responses against sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus antigen, as well as some aspects of cell-mediated immunocompetence by toe web swelling test and in vitro blood mononuclear cell proliferation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in antibody responses to both antigens and cellular proliferation were observed among populations but not consistently between modern commercial strains versus the indigenous populations. In fact, the immune response profiles of Cobb 500 were similar to the indigenous populations, but varied compared with the other commercial strain. In addition, considerable variation was recorded between indigenous populations for all responses measured in this study. The results of this study suggest that the variation observed in immune responses between these strains of chickens is most likely due to differences in the genetic background between each strain of chicken rather than by commercial selection programs for high production. PMID:24570426

Emam, Mehdi; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Barjesteh, Neda; Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Charkhkar, Saeid; Mallard, Bonnie

2014-01-01

132

[Relationships among immune traits and MHC B-LBII genetic variation in three chicken breeds].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have assessed the relationships between immune trait (antibody titers of Sheep red blood cell, SRBC; Avian influenza, AI; Newcastle disease, ND) and varieties of MHC B-LBHII Gene in local chicken breeds (Wenshang Barred chicken, LH; Laiwu Black chicken, LWH; and Jining Bairi chicken, BR). We selected 300 chickens randomly from the three indigenous chicken populations. The variations of MHC B-L BII gene were detected by directly DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). The results indicated that there were about 19-22 nucleotide mutations in the three local breeds, which could affect 16-18 amino acid variations. Another results indicated that there was significantly relationship between seven to eight SNPs of the MHC B-LBII region and some immune traits (P SRBC, ND and AI antibody titers (P SRBC antibody titers (P < 0.05) in LWH chicken, and with H9 antibody titers (P < 0.05) in LH chicken. Furthermore, locus T138A was significantly associated with H9 antibody titers in BR and LH chickens (P < 0.05). All those results suggest relationships among the different varieties of MHC B-LBII and immune traits in the three local breeds. PMID:24195357

Li, Fuwei; Li, Shuqing; Lu, Yan; Lei, Qiuxia; Han, Haixia; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Bin; Cao, Dingguo

2013-07-01

133

Transcriptome-wide comparison of sequence variation in divergent ecotypes of kokanee salmon  

Science.gov (United States)

Background High throughput next-generation sequencing technology has enabled the collection of genome-wide sequence data and revolutionized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in a broad range of species. When analyzed within a population genomics framework, SNP-based genotypic data may be used to investigate questions of evolutionary, ecological, and conservation significance in natural populations of non-model organisms. Kokanee salmon are recently diverged freshwater populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that exhibit reproductive ecotypes (stream-spawning and shore-spawning) in lakes throughout western North America and northeast Asia. Current conservation and management strategies may treat these ecotypes as discrete stocks, however their recent divergence and low levels of gene flow make in-season genetic stock identification a challenge. The development of genome-wide SNP markers is an essential step towards fine-scale stock identification, and may enable a direct investigation of the genetic basis of ecotype divergence. Results We used pooled cDNA samples from both ecotypes of kokanee to generate 750 million base pairs of transcriptome sequence data. These raw data were assembled into 11,074 high coverage contigs from which we identified 32,699 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms. A subset of these putative SNPs was validated using high-resolution melt analysis and Sanger resequencing to genotype independent samples of kokanee and anadromous sockeye salmon. We also identified a number of contigs that were composed entirely of reads from a single ecotype, which may indicate regions of differential gene expression between the two reproductive ecotypes. In addition, we found some evidence for greater pathogen load among the kokanee sampled in stream-spawning habitats, suggesting a possible evolutionary advantage to shore-spawning that warrants further study. Conclusions This study provides novel genomic resources to support population genetic and genomic studies of both kokanee and anadromous sockeye salmon, and has the potential to produce markers capable of fine-scale stock assessment. While this RNAseq approach was successful at identifying a large number of new SNP loci, we found that the frequency of alleles present in the pooled transcriptome data was not an accurate predictor of population allele frequencies.

2013-01-01

134

Comparison of two ecotypes of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL) at the transcriptional level  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates differences in gene expression among the two Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes La Calamine (LC) and Lellingen (LE) that have been shown to differ in metal tolerance and metal uptake. LC originates from a metalliferous soil and tolerates higher metal concentrations than LE which originates from a non-metalliferous soil. The two ecotypes were treated with different levels of zinc in solution culture, and differences in gene expression were assessed through application of a c...

Plessl, M.; Rigola, D.; Hassinen, V. H.; Tervahauta, A.; Karenlampi, S.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M. G. M.; Ernst, D.

2010-01-01

135

Variability of the physico-mechanical properties of the ecotypes of nut fruits (Juglans regia L.) in Slovakia  

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At the present time among the endangered species of plants, there exists elements of flora which can be found in Slovakia. Within the framework of the program "Protection of Endangered Genebank Plants in Slovakia" is the processing, existence and description of individual king nut ecotypes (Juglans Regia L.). Several agrophysical methods were applied for evaluating and grouping advantageous ecotypes in genebanks. This work presents the results obtained of the dimension and weight char...

Rataj V.; Brindza J.

1999-01-01

136

Analysis of Morphological Traits of Geographically Separated Population of Indigenous Muscovy Duck (Cairina Moschata)  

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Inter and intra specific variation among muscovy duck ecotypes from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were studied The work evaluate the morphological variation of three ecotypes ( rainforest ecotypes, humid or guinea savanna and dry savanna ecotypes) covering southern or coastal region, central and northern part of Nigeria. Twelve morphological traits including weight were considered. Significant (p<0.05) variation exist within and between ecotypes using population coefficient of vari...

Ogah, D. M.

2009-01-01

137

Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbour porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of 10 microsatellite loci and a 5085 base-pair portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the Black Sea (BS), the European continental shelf waters, and a previously overlooked ecotype in the upwelling zones of Iberia and Mauritania. Historical demographic inferences using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) suggest that these ecotypes diverged during the last glacial maximum (c. 23-19 kilo-years ago, kyrbp). ABC supports the hypothesis that the BS and upwelling ecotypes share a more recent common ancestor (c. 14 kyrbp) than either does with the European continental shelf ecotype (c. 28 kyrbp), suggesting they probably descended from the extinct populations that once inhabited the Mediterranean during the glacial and post-glacial period. We showed that the two Atlantic ecotypes established a narrow admixture zone in the Bay of Biscay during the last millennium, with highly asymmetric gene flow. This study highlights the impacts that climate change may have on the distribution and speciation process in pelagic predators and shows that allopatric divergence can occur in these highly mobile species and be a source of genetic diversity. PMID:24888550

Fontaine, Michaël C; Roland, Kathleen; Calves, Isabelle; Austerlitz, Frederic; Palstra, Friso P; Tolley, Krystal A; Ryan, Sean; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Oztürk, Bayram; Oztürk, Ayaka A; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Borrell, Asunción; Michaux, Johan R; Aguilar, Alex

2014-07-01

138

A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania  

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A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study re...

2012-01-01

139

New long-season ecotype of Morchella rufobrunnea from northern Israel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available True morel (Morchella spp. ascocarps commonly appear in the spring for only a few weeks in many regions worldwide. There has only been one report of a M. esculenta population from Israel, presumably mycorrhizal, persisting for several months at one site. The present study describes another species, presumably saprophytic, fruiting in northern Israel from early November to late May (winter and spring. This new long-season ecotype was identified as M. rufobrunnea (MS5-IL1 by sequencing of its nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. It is reported for the first time in Israel, and for the first time outside of the American continent. Its productivity decline from 2001 to 2007 was correlated with concurrently collected rainfall and temperature data. Our data suggested that the number of morel species and ecotypes displaying long seasonality is greater than previously thought.

D. Goldberg

2009-01-01

140

Distinct, ecotype-specific genome and proteome signatures in the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus  

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Abstract Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus, having multiple ecotypes of distinct genotypic/phenotypic traits and being the first documented example of genome shrinkage in free-living organisms, offers an ideal system for studying niche-driven molecular micro-diversity in closely related microbes. The present study, through an extensive comparative analysis of various genomic/proteomic features of 6 high light (HL) and 6 low light (LL) adapt...

Paul Sandip; Dutta Anirban; Bag Sumit K; Das Sabyasachi; Dutta Chitra

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Genetic and Ecotypic Differentiation in a Californian Plant Polyploid Complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

Moore, Abigail J.; Moore, William L.; Baldwin, Bruce G.

2014-01-01

142

Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. PMID:24755840

Moore, Abigail J; Moore, William L; Baldwin, Bruce G

2014-01-01

143

Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ecotypes  

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The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India) to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels) and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain len...

Sanghera, Gulzar Singh; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Parray, Ghulam A.

2013-01-01

144

Genomic Diversity of “Deep Ecotype” Alteromonas macleodii Isolates: Evidence for Pan-Mediterranean Clonal Frames  

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We have compared genomes of Alteromonas macleodii “deep ecotype” isolates from two deep Mediterranean sites and two surface samples from the Aegean and the English Channel. A total of nine different genomes were analyzed. They belong to five clonal frames (CFs) that differ among them by approximately 30,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over their core genomes. Two of the CFs contain three strains each with nearly identical genomes (?100 SNPs over the core genome). One of the C...

Lo?pez-pe?rez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Rodriguez-valera, Francisco

2013-01-01

145

Different Resistance Mechanisms of Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Against the Rust Fungus Uromyces striatus  

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A pathosystem consisting of the model plant Medicago truncatula and the rust fungus Uromyces striatus was characterized. From a collection of 113 mostly European accessions of M. truncatula, the vast majority were found to be susceptible to U. striatus, whereas 5 accessions showed strong resistance reactions. Stomatal surface characteristics, even if partly occluded, did not interfere with the ability of U. striatus germ tubes to infect. After penetration, the resistant ecotypes reacted with ...

Kemen, Eric; Hahn, Matthias; Mendgen, Kurt; Struck, Christine

2004-01-01

146

Out of the Pacific and back again: the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.  

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Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two...

Foote, Andrew David; Morin, Pa; Jw, Durban; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

2011-01-01

147

Growth of whitefish ecotypes : A comparison of individual growth rates in monomorphic and polymorphic populations  

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In resource polymorphism, ecological opportunity and selective predatory pressure can be considered key factors in phenotypic divergence. In post-glacial lakes of Scandinavia, the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) is a common species and has repeatedly diverged along the benthic - pelagic resource axis. Recent studies suggest that predation by northern pike (Esox lucius L.) induces rapid divergence in whitefish, leading to two reproductively isolated ecotypes: a dwarf planktivore an...

2013-01-01

148

Ecotypes of wild rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm. F) Dahlg., Fabaceae) are ecologically distinct  

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Aspalathus linearis (Burm. F) Dahlg., Fabaceae is cultivated by small- and large-scale commercial farmers of the Cederberg and Bokkeveld Plateau in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, for the production of an herbal beverage called ‘rooibos’ or ‘rooibos tea’. Small-scale farmers also harvest A. linearis from the wild and market the tea as an organic and fair-trade certified product. However, little is known about the apparent ecotypes of wild A. linearis. We hypothesiz...

Hawkins, H. J.; Malgas, R.; Bienabe, E.

2011-01-01

149

Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: patterns of plasticity and the emergence of ecotypes  

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Phenotypic plasticity itself evolves, as does any other quantitative trait. A very different question is whether phenotypic plasticity causes evolution or is a major evolutionary mechanism. Existing models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity cover many of the proposals in the literature about the role of phenotypic plasticity in evolution. I will extend existing models to cover adaptation to a novel environment, the appearance of ecotypes and possible covariation between ...

Jong, G.

2005-01-01

150

The Biological Responses of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. in Diverse Ecotypes of Sichuan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loquats (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. have formed different ecological types in various zones during the long course of their cultivation and acclimatization. The data of biological responses and ecological suitability was very important for loquat plantation in different eco-zones. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development characters, flowering and fruiting habits and fruit quality of loquat in three diverse ecotypes of Sichuan by field survey. The results showed that in mid-subtropical damp and heat ecotype, the loquat trees grew vigorously and young shoots sprouted four times annually. The flower buds were mainly originated from the Summer shoots and the flowering stage most centered from September to December. In addition, a rapid growth stage of fruits was observed from March to April and fruit quality was fine in May. In Southern subtropical dry and hot eco-zone, young shoots might be developed four or five times annually. Flowering and fruiting could occur several times a year as the development differences of Spring and Summer shoots with flower buds differentiation without trees treatments. In the valley of Southern temperate warm and dry ecotype, the phenophase of loquat were late about 20 to 30 days. The loquat fruits were mainly originated from Summer flowerings and mature at June with more than 15% soluble solids, super quality and nice appearance. These results obtained from comprehensive investigation would provide valuable information for techniques of cultivation in distinctive ecotypes and facilitated the economic plantation for loquats in the diverse eco-zones of the world.

H.J. Xie

2010-01-01

151

A molecular basis for the physiological variation in shade avoidance responses: A tale of two ecotypes  

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Using two ecotypes of Stellaria longipes with contrasting responses to shade, we found that plants can differ in their responses to similar light cues, reflecting adaptations to their natural habitat. It was also observed that the plants could distinguish between distinct shade signals. Furthermore, the activity of wall modifying proteins, expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase(s) (XTHs) was regulated during these responses. However, only expansin activity and gene expression...

2009-01-01

152

Behavioural defenses of the honey bee ecotype from Sjenica–Pešter against Varroa destructor  

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Two behaviours of honey bees, hygienic and grooming, are mechanisms of defense against brood diseases and parasitic mites, including Varroa destructor. Apis mellifera colonies remove the worker brood infested with Varroa destructor mites from the nest (hygienic behaviour), and groom the mites off other adult bees (grooming behaviour). In this study hygienic and grooming behaviours of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype were analysed in 440 honey bee colonies from 11 localities in the regio...

Z?, Stanimirovic? Zoran; Stevanovi? Jevrosima B.; ?irkovi? D.

2005-01-01

153

Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".  

Science.gov (United States)

Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region. PMID:24283538

Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

2014-06-01

154

Conversion of switchgrass to ethanol using dilute ammonium hydroxide pretreatment: influence of ecotype and harvest maturity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass that is being developed as a bioenergy crop because it has high production yields and suitable agronomic traits. Five switchgrass biomass samples from upland and lowland switchgrass ecotypes harvested at different stages or maturity were used in this study. Switchgrass samples contained 317.0-385.0 g glucans/kg switchgrass dry basis (db) and 579.3-660.2 g total structural carbohydrates/kg switchgrass, db. Carbohydrate contents were greater for the upland ecotype versus lowland ecotype and increased with harvest maturity. Pretreatment of switchgrass with dilute ammonium hydroxide (8% w/w ammonium loading) at 170 degrees C for 20 min was determined to be effective for preparing switchgrass for enzymatic conversion to monosaccharides; glucose recoveries were 66.9-90.5% and xylose recoveries 60.1-84.2% of maximum and decreased with increased maturity at harvest. Subsequently, pretreated switchgrass samples were converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using engineered xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YRH400. Ethanol yields were 176.2-202.01/Mg of switchgrass (db) and followed a similar trend as observed for enzymatic sugar yields. PMID:24350437

Dien, Bruce S; O'Bryan, Patricia J; Hector, Ronald E; Iten, Loren B; Mitchell, Robert B; Qureshi, Nasib; Sarath, Gautum; Vogel, Kenneth P; Cotta, Michael A

2013-01-01

155

Counteracting selective regimes and host preference evolution in ecotypes of two species of walking-sticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of ecological specialization has been a central topic in ecology because specialized adaptations to divergent environments can result in reproductive isolation and facilitate speciation. However, the order in which different aspects of habitat adaptation and habitat preference evolve is unclear. Timema walking-stick insects feed and mate on the host plants on which they rest. Previous studies of T. cristinae ecotypes have documented divergent, host-specific selection from visual predators and the evolution of divergent host and mate preferences between populations using different host-plant species (Ceanothus or Adenostoma). Here we present new data that show that T. podura, a nonsister species of T. cristinae, has also formed ecotypes on these host genera and that in both species these ecotypes exhibit adaptive divergence in color-pattern and host preference. Color-pattern morphs exhibit survival trade-offs on different hosts due to differential predation. In contrast, fecundity trade-offs on different hosts do not occur in either species. Thus, host preference in both species has evolved before divergent physiological adaptation but in concert with morphological adaptations. Our results shed light onto which traits are involved in the initial stages of ecological specialization and ecologically based reproductive isolation. PMID:16396181

Sandoval, C P; Nosil, P

2005-11-01

156

More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous

Bunten, Alexis Celeste

2010-01-01

157

Transcriptomics Research in Chicken  

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Full Text Available The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat. The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For example, compared to mammals, the use of a Z/W sex determination system is a special aspect of the avian genome where the female is the heterogametic sex (ZW and the male is the homogametic (ZZ sex. A comparison of the genomic sequences of platypus, chicken and human showed that sex chromosomes evolved separately in birds and mammals.

Ligang Tang

2012-01-01

158

Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

Lumby, Bronwyn

2010-01-01

159

Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silene vulgaris possesses ecotype-specific tolerance to high levels of copper in the soil. Although this was reported a few decades ago, little is known about this trait on a molecular level. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription response to elevated copper concentrations in two S. vulgaris ecotypes originating from copper-contrasting soil types - copper-tolerant Lubietova and copper-sensitive Stranska skala. To reveal if plants are transcriptionally affected, we first analyzed the HMA7 gene, a known key player in copper metabolism. Based on BAC library screening, we identified a BAC clone containing a SvHMA7 sequence with all the structural properties specific for plant copper-transporting ATPases. The functionality of the gene was tested using heterologous complementation in yeast mutants. Analyses of SvHMA7 transcription patterns showed that both ecotypes studied up-regulated SvHMA7 transcription after the copper treatment. Our data are supported by analysis of appropriate reference genes based on RNA-Seq databases. To identify genes specifically involved in copper response in the studied ecotypes, we analyzed transcription profiles of genes coding Cu-transporting proteins and genes involved in the prevention of copper-induced oxidative stress in both ecotypes. Our data show that three genes (APx, POD and COPT5) differ in their transcription pattern between the ecotypes with constitutively increased transcription in Lubietova. Taken together, we have identified transcription differences between metallifferous and non-metalliferous ecotypes of S. vulgaris, and we have suggested candidate genes participating in metal tolerance in this species. PMID:24973591

Baloun, Jiri; Nevrtalova, Eva; Kovacova, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

2014-08-15

160

Indigenous knowledge and science revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.

Aikenhead, Glen S.; Ogawa, Masakata

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS)  

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This study examines the concept, features, sources and function of African Indigenous knowledge systems and its relevance in the present digital age against the background of ICT technologies. Since knowledge refers to what one knows and understands and is sometimes categorized as unstructured, structured, explicit or tacit, African Indigenous Knowledge systems falls into categorized structures that bear its traditional stamp and yet remains effective. The study concludes that Afric...

Ngozi Blessing Ossai

2011-01-01

162

Trade-offs drive resource specialization and the gradual establishment of ecotypes  

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Background Speciation is driven by many different factors. Among those are trade-offs between different ways an organism utilizes resources, and these trade-offs can constrain the manner in which selection can optimize traits. Limited migration among allopatric populations and species interactions can also drive speciation, but here we ask if trade-offs alone are sufficient to drive speciation in the absence of other factors. Results We present a model to study the effects of trade-offs on specialization and adaptive radiation in asexual organisms based solely on competition for limiting resources, where trade-offs are stronger the greater an organism’s ability to utilize resources. In this model resources are perfectly substitutable, and fitness is derived from the consumption of these resources. The model contains no spatial parameters, and is therefore strictly sympatric. We quantify the degree of specialization by the number of ecotypes evolved and the niche breadth of the population, and observe that these are sensitive to resource influx and trade-offs. Resource influx has a strong effect on the degree of specialization, with a clear transition between minimal diversification at high influx and multiple species evolving at low resource influx. At low resource influx the degree of specialization further depends on the strength of the trade-offs, with more ecotypes evolving the stronger trade-offs are. The specialized organisms persist through negative frequency-dependent selection. In addition, by analyzing one of the evolutionary radiations in greater detail we demonstrate that a single mutation alone is not enough to establish a new ecotype, even though phylogenetic reconstruction identifies that mutation as the branching point. Instead, it takes a series of additional mutations to ensure the stable coexistence of the new ecotype in the background of the existing ones. Conclusions Trade-offs are sufficient to drive the evolution of specialization in sympatric asexual populations. Without trade-offs to restrain traits, generalists evolve and diversity decreases. The observation that several mutations are required to complete speciation, even when a single mutation creates the new species, highlights the gradual nature of speciation and the importance of phyletic evolution.

2014-01-01

163

Honeybee (Apis mellifera Races, Ecotypes and Their General Charecterisctisc in Turkey  

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Full Text Available The present studies carried out before the development of migratory beekeeping on the identification of the Anatolian honeybee population showed that the honeybee population could be a valuable genetic potential for breeding and also preservation. Since these initial studies, many research have been carried out to identify races, ecotypes; morphological, physiological and behavioural characteristics of honeybees inhabited in Turkey. According to the behavioural and ecological data of Ruttner (1, there are three different honeybee races in Turkey, Apis mellifera anatoliaca, Apis mellifera caucasica, Apis mellifera meda.

Duran Ozkok

2006-01-01

164

Genetic Relationship among Chicken Populations of India Based on SNP Markers of Myostatin Gene (GDF 8)  

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The data on ten SNP markers of Myostatin gene (GDF-8) was generated on nine breeds/populations of indigenous poultry and Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). The SNPs were five in promoter region, one each in intron 1 and 2 and three in exon 1. The data was analyzed to find out the genetic relationship among the indigenous chicken populations. PCR-RFLP was carried out to genotype the populations at seven SNPs while three were genotyped by SNaPshot method using automated DNA sequencer as no restricti...

Bharani Kumar, S. T.; Neeraj Dilbaghi; Ahlawat, S. P. S.; Bina Mishra; Tantia, M. S.; Vijh, R. K.

2007-01-01

165

Variability of the physico-mechanical properties of the ecotypes of nut fruits (Juglans regia L. in Slovakia  

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Full Text Available At the present time among the endangered species of plants, there exists elements of flora which can be found in Slovakia. Within the framework of the program "Protection of Endangered Genebank Plants in Slovakia" is the processing, existence and description of individual king nut ecotypes (Juglans Regia L.. Several agrophysical methods were applied for evaluating and grouping advantageous ecotypes in genebanks. This work presents the results obtained of the dimension and weight characteristics of fruits and shells, together with the determined necessary force for cracking nutfruits. The research was done on 16 selected samples obtained from 11 localities of southern Slovakia.

Brindza J.

1999-09-01

166

MORPHO-BIOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO LOCAL CHICKEN BREEDS IN VIETNAM  

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In Vietnam, 84% of the 188 million chickens are indigenous. The following local breeds are recorded: Ri, Mia, Te, Tau Vang, Ac, Oke, H’mong, Tre, Choi, Phu Lu Te, To, Dan Khao, Ho, Dong Tao and Van Phu. Mia, Ho and Dong Tao are reported as endangered or critical, while the Van Phu breed could have been lost during the last years. The phenotypes of the Mia and Ri breeds are described as quite close. The objective of this study is to characterize phenotypically Ri and Mia chickens. The morpho...

Do Duc, Luc; Moula, Nassim; Antoine-moussiaux, Nicolas; Nguyen Chi, Thanh; Dang Vu, Binh; Leroy, Pascal; Farnir, Fre?de?ric; Vu Dinh, Ton

2012-01-01

167

Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens  

Science.gov (United States)

Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

2014-01-01

168

Health of Indigenous people in Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our paper is part of a series focusing on Indigenous peoples' health in different world regions. Indigenous peoples worldwide are subject to marginalisation and discrimination, systematically experiencing poorer health than do majority groups. In Africa, poor health in the general population is widely recognised, but the consistently lower health position and social status of Indigenous peoples are rarely noted. Disputed conceptual understandings of indigeneity, a history of discriminatory colonial and post-colonial policies, and non-recognition of Indigenous groups by some governments complicate the situation. We discuss two case studies, of the central African Pygmy peoples and the San of southern Africa, to illustrate recurring issues in Indigenous health in the continent. We make recommendations for the recognition of Indigenous peoples in Africa and improvements needed in the collection of health data and the provision of services. Finally, we argue that wider changes are needed to address the social determinants of Indigenous peoples' health. PMID:16765763

Ohenjo, Nyang'ori; Willis, Ruth; Jackson, Dorothy; Nettleton, Clive; Good, Kenneth; Mugarura, Benon

2006-06-10

169

Indigenous peoples of Russia as political actors  

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There are over 65 indigenous ethnic groups in the Russian Federation, and some 40 live in the North and the Arctic portion of the country, representing about 200,000 people. Indigenous peoples in Russia are understood to mean primarily not only indigenous, but also small populations. This is because larger populations, made out of nomadic tribes which migrated to Russia in more recent times, have also laid a claim to being indigenous and are actually recognized as such by the United Nations. ...

Novik, Natalie

2010-01-01

170

Karyotype Analysis of several Ecotypes of Capsicum annuum L. in Iran  

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Full Text Available Capsicum (pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and this genus has a great economic importance in food, drug, spices and industry. In this study, seeds of ten ecotypes of Capsicum spp. were obtained from the plant gene bank of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. The standard karyotype was prepared for the ecotypes and the characteristics of the chromosomes including long arm, short arm, total length (TL, arm ratio and centromeric index were calculated and chromosome types were determined. The number of chromosomes in somatic cells of all genotypes was 24 (2n=2x=24. All genotypes had a pair of satellite chromosome. The first 2 principal component analysis (PCA justified over 99% of the total variations determined for cytological parameters. The highest total haploid length (51.65 ?m was detected in G7 while G8 demonstrated the least (43.46 ?m. Cluster analysis was carried out for chromosomal parameters, classifying genotypes in three classes.

Nafiseh DARANDEH

2010-12-01

171

Identification of Italian ecotypes of Juglans regia L. by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers  

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Full Text Available Juglans regia L. is a multipurpose species important for quality wood and fruit production. In order to contrast the erosion and to properly conserve, manage and revaluate the genetic resources of Italian walnut, possible ecotypes, naturally adapted and still present in Italy have been researched. Leaves and fruits have been sampled in Campania region, localities of Montella, Cervinara, Fisciano, and in Abruzzo region, localities of Sulmona, Pescasseroli, Villetta Barrea, and Civitella Alfedena. The sites are located at different altitudes and climatic conditions. Materials have been collected on a total of 276 plants. Molecular, morphological and preliminary biochemical analyses have been carried out on this germplasm and on material belonging to 80 plants of 4 famous Italian walnut varieties (Bleggiana and Feltrina, North Italy; Sorrento and Malizia, Southern Italy, in order to have a comparison model. 134 ISSR, morphological and biochemical data have shown peculiar characters for Montella and Pescasseroli in comparison with the other accessions. Because of the peculiar environmental conditions of their locations, the effect of the temperature on the fruit development and fatty acid contents, it is possible to suppose that Montella and Pescasseroli are ecotypes which could be utilised as essential fat acid source and as material for afforestation of mountain zones.

Pollegioni P

2006-01-01

172

Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L. Ecotypes  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain length:breadth (L:B ratio and panicle density. High heritability accompanied by high to moderate genetic advance for panicle density, days to 50% flowering, plant height, grain number indicated the predominance of additive gene action for the expression of these characters. Grain yield was found to be positively and significantly correlated with number of tiller per plant, panicle density m-2 and number of grain per panicle at both genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating the importance of these characters for yield improvement in this material. The results of genotypic path analysis revealed that panicle density had the highest positive direct effect followed by plant height and days to flower. The overall results indicated that selection favouring higher panicle density, test weight and panicle weight and medium plant height with a reasonable balance for moderate grain number would help to achieve higher grain yield in this population of red rice ecotypes.

Ghulam A. PARRAY

2013-08-01

173

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

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Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

Andere Cecilia

2002-01-01

174

A test of the chromosomal theory of ecotypic speciation in Anopheles gambiae  

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The role of chromosomal inversions in speciation has long been of interest to evolutionists. Recent quantitative modeling has stimulated reconsideration of previous conceptual models for chromosomal speciation. Anopheles gambiae, the most important vector of human malaria, carries abundant chromosomal inversion polymorphism nonrandomly associated with ecotypes that mate assortatively. Here, we consider the potential role of paracentric inversions in promoting speciation in A. gambiae via “ecotypification,” a term that refers to differentiation arising from local adaptation. In particular, we focus on the Bamako form, an ecotype characterized by low inversion polymorphism and fixation of an inversion, 2Rj, that is very rare or absent in all other forms of A. gambiae. The Bamako form has a restricted distribution by the upper Niger River and its tributaries that is associated with a distinctive type of larval habitat, laterite rock pools, hypothesized to be its optimal breeding site. We first present computer simulations to investigate whether the population dynamics of A. gambiae are consistent with chromosomal speciation by ecotypification. The models are parameterized using field observations on the various forms of A. gambiae that exist in Mali, West Africa. We then report on the distribution of larvae of this species collected from rock pools and more characteristic breeding sites nearby. Both the simulations and field observations support the thesis that speciation by ecotypification is occurring, or has occurred, prompting consideration of Bamako as an independent species.

Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Powell, Jeffrey R.; Toure, Mahamoudou B.; Sacko, Adama; Edillo, Frances E.; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traore, Sekou F.; Taylor, Charles E.; Besansky, Nora J.

2008-01-01

175

Divergent host plant adaptation and reproductive isolation between ecotypes of Timema cristinae walking sticks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theoretical and empirical studies have demonstrated that divergent natural selection can promote the evolution of reproductive isolation. Three unresolved questions concern the types of reproductive barriers involved, the role of geography, and the factors determining the extent of progress toward complete speciation. Here I synthesize studies of Timema cristinae host plant ecotypes to address these issues. The approach is to compare the magnitude of multiple reproductive barriers among different ecological and geographic scenarios, where pairs of populations within each scenario are the unit of replication. Application of this approach to T. cristinae revealed that divergent host adaptation can promote the evolution of diverse reproductive barriers, including those that are not inherently ecological. Gene flow in parapatry tended to constrain divergence, with the notable exception of the reinforcement of sexual isolation. Thus, geography affected progress toward speciation but did not influence all reproductive barriers in the same way. Studies of any single pair of taxa often capture only certain stages of the speciation process. For example, reproductive isolation between T. cristinae ecotypes is incomplete, and so only the stages before the completion of speciation have been examined. Studies of more divergent taxa within the genus are required to determine the factors that complete speciation. PMID:17211800

Nosil, Patrik

2007-02-01

176

Indigenous Writing: Relating Practice Led Research to Indigenous Postgraduate Opportunities  

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Full Text Available The methodology of this paper continues the work I have done writing the ‘subjective academic narrative’ for publication within refereed academic journals. Storytelling is a basic human activity and the academy since the mid 20th century has begun to see its value rather than use it as the non-academic side of the dichotomy between thought and reason and feeling and emotion that the Enlightenment left as its residue of academic thought and knowledge. I use this methodology to enter into the privileged academic discussion and to add to it regarding the  relationship of Indigenous knowledge to the academy that remains a challenge in Australian Universities in this postmodern and postcolonial moment. This paper recognises the need to open discussion about how Indigenous people might be facilitated within the academy to bring their knowledge-models into the university and its traditional dominant knowledge systems. This paper looks at Practice Led Research (PLR as a possible pathway for supporting the transition of Indigenous community scholars into university postgraduate courses. It explores how PLR contributes to an appropriate entry point into postgraduate studies for some Indigenous students who have significant life experiences and narratives and/or productions of artefacts that act to replace the breadth of undergraduate credentials. This paper identifies and explicates a nexus between Practice Led Research and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL and Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC. In doing so, it provides a reference point for University protocols and practices regarding RPL and RCC.  

Josie Jacqueline Arnold

2012-11-01

177

Conversations, collaborations and contestations: Building a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians  

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Full Text Available This paper explores the ways collaborative research offers ethnomusicologists a “dialogic alternative: speaking with rather than for” Indigenous people (Fielding 305. Drawing on my research experiences collaborating with Indigenous Australian women, I consider the difficulties, dilemmas, ethics and the benefits of cross-cultural collaborative research. I focus on two collaborative projects and incorporate interviews with my co-researchers and theoretical perspectives on collaborative research, to examine the complexities of including Indigenous people as “co-researchers”, the implication of knowledge production with and for Indigenous people, and the importance of a dialogic approach to collaborative research. I discuss my perspective as a non-Indigenous ethnomusicologist and my shared lived experiences with Indigenous researchers. Ultimately, I consider how collaborative research can allow Indigenous and non-Indigenous ethnomusicologists to engage in dialogue, have equal voices in projects, and facilitate relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Katelyn Barney

2012-11-01

178

The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2014-06-01

179

Health research and indigenous health  

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In 2002 Australia, Canada, and New Zealand signed a tripartite memorandum of understanding on health research for indigenous health for the purpose of sharing expertise on the “purchase” of health research. Later this year the agreement will be augmented at a meeting to be held in Townsville, Australia

Cunningham, Chris; Reading, Jeff; Eades, Sandra

2003-01-01

180

Characterisation of chicken ZAP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging pathogenic viruses, such as avian influenza (AI), represent a serious threat to the poultry industry and human health. The development of novel therapeutics to protect against these viruses is critical and necessitates understanding the host immune mechanisms to find new pathways for protection against virus infection. Interferon (IFN) is a major antiviral arm of the immune system and is generally the first line of defence against virus. The multiple genes orchestrated by IFN upregulation are not well characterised in chickens due to a lack of reagents and research efforts. Here we have identified chicken ZAP (chZAP), an IFN stimulated gene (ISG), that has antiviral properties in human models, and show that chZAP is upregulated in response to PAMPs. Moreover, we show that chZAP is upregulated in vivo following particular viral infections. This data will benefit further studies that aim to understand antiviral response pathways in the chicken. PMID:24877657

Goossens, Kate E; Karpala, Adam J; Ward, Alistair; Bean, Andrew G D

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

A Study of Agronomic and Morphological Variations in Certain Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes of the Cold Region of Iran  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and classify the genetic diversity among alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ecotypes collected from the cold regions of Iran, based on some agro-morphological traits. Twenty one alfalfa ecotypes were collected and planted in a Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD with three replications in April 1998 at Nyshabour Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty three above ground agro-morphological characters were recorded during the growing seasons of 1999-2001. The variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics and multivariate statistical procedures to discriminate differences among genotypes and determine groups based on their similarities. Factor analysis was performed for all agro-morphological traits and reduced them down to 6 common factors which accounted for 80.45% of total variations among the genotypes studied. The twenty one ecotypes were classified in to 4 clusters by cluster analysis. Each group had at least one trait which made it different from the other groups (group 1: No. of pods per raceme and 100-seed weight; group 2: forage yield, dry matter yield, regrowth rate and stem dry matter yield; group 3: leaf-stem ratio, leaf dry matter yield and group 4: seed yield. These results suggest the presence of variation among alfalfa ecotypes available in cold regions in Iran, which could be considered for further breeding strategies and studies.

M. Basafa

2009-01-01

182

Possibilities of chicken radicidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study on the redicidation of chickens is described. The data on the radiosensitivity of two Salmonella species used to contaminate chicken meat showed that the bacteriostatic effect of gamma radiation is species-dependent. After irradiation with the dose of 400 krad, the numbers of S.galinarum fell sharply to remain at a hygienically safe level for 15 days at 00C. S.anatum was much more resistant, and much larger doses were required to keep its numbers at a safe level. It is concluded that radicidation is a promising method of treating poultry meat. (E.T.)

1973-10-15

183

Welfare of broiler chickens  

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Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for ...

Adele Meluzzi; Federico Sirri

2010-01-01

184

Investigating the Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Weed Management on Forage and Seed Yield of Alfalfa Ecotypes (Medicago sativa L.  

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Full Text Available In order to investigate fertilizing and weed management effects on forage and seed yield of alfalfa ecotypes, a field trial was conducted during 2008-2009 growing season at Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Alfalfa ecotypes including (Ghareghozlo, Hoakmabad, Malekkandi, Kozre, Faminin, Galebani, Rahnani, Shorkat, Chaleshtar, Ghareaghaj, Gharoghlogh, Ordobad, Sedighan, Silvana, Sahandava, Ghahavand, Mohajerankaraj and Mashhad were allocated to main plots; sub plots consisted of two levels of none fertilizing and fertilization treatments using simultaneous application of potassium sulphate and phosphate triple at rates of 150 and 350 K/ha, respectively and sub-sub plots were allocated to weeding and none weeding treatments based on a complete randomized block design in a splitsplit- plot scheme with three replicates. Results showed that the effect of ecotype on forage yield was not significant. Gharoghlogh and Silvana produced the highest (18270 kg/ha and the lowest (14630 kg/ha green forage yield, respectively at both cuttings (first and second cuts. The interaction of fertilization and weeding on forage yield was significant (p<0.01. On the other hand, with application of fertilizer, forage yield 11.74% was increased and it was enhanced 26.93% by manual weeding. Furthermore, results revealed that ecotype fertilizer interaction was significant (p<0.05 for weed dry weight. Ecotype weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per pod and seed weight (p<0.01. In addition, fertilizer weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per plant. Among the treatments, highest number of seed per plant was produced by fertilizer and weeding treatment (2734 and the lowest one was obtained by non-fertilizer and non-weeding treatment (559.5.

Ali Reza Heidarian

2012-09-01

185

Chickens and Eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

Learners read or listen to the book "Chickens Arenât the Only Ones" to discover multiple animals whose babies hatch from eggs. In a developmentally appropriate activity, learners build clay models of hatchlings and explore characteristics of different animals. Includes extensions for suggested further study.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

186

Considerations on the relationship between chromosome constitution and biochemical phenotype in five ecotypes of seabuckthorn  

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Full Text Available Seabuckthorn is a small tree showing pronounced morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic variability, high ecological plasticity and large limits of resistance to unfavourable factors and to phytopathogens. It is largely exploited in biotechnological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical purposes, cosmetics domain and in environmental protective field. The possibility that some karyotype traits of five seabuckthorn ecotypes to be used as markers in relation with some specific biochemical features was discussed in this paper. There is intraspecific chromosome variability; the formula of haploid complement is different concerning the preponderance of chromosome morphotypes. Also a marked chemical heterogeneity was evidenced. At this research stage, the results not allow us to establish a direct relationship between some chromosome characteristics and certain morphological and biochemical parameters.

Elena Truta

2010-06-01

187

Spermiogram of the White Ecotype of Sahel Bucks in Maiduguri Metropolis  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to document the spermiogram of the white ecotype of Sahel bucks in Maiduguri from peripubertal, pubertal to post pubertal age. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection for a period of ten months. Their body weights and scrotal circumference were also measured from three to twelve months of age, while semen characteristics were analysed from two to twelve months of age. The high significant correlation values obtained between the semen characteristics with body weight and scrotal circumference showed that as one semen characteristic value was increasing, the body weights and scrotal circumference were also increasing. It was also observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased systematically over the months in the period of study. It was concluded that significant levels of semen characteristics at three months indicate that male Sahel goats could begin producing semen with viable spermatozoa by then as other early maturity breeds.

V.A. Maina

2006-01-01

188

Prevalence, Characteristics and Antibiogram Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Chickens in Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Escherichia coli known to cause food-borne illnesses worldwide that are closely associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. This study was undertaken for cultural, biochemical and antibiotic sensitivity analyses of E. coli recovered from apparently healthy chickens. Cloacal samples (n=350 were aseptically collected from layers (n=150, broilers (n=150 and indigenous chickens (n=50. The samples were enriched in nutrient broth and streaked onto eosin methylene blue (EMB agar, MacConkey (MC agar, blood agar, salmonella-shigella (SS agar and brilliant green agar (BGA for cultural characterization of the E. coli isolates. Culture-positive samples yielded characteristic colonies of E. coli with metallic sheen on EMB agar, bright pink or red colonies on MC agar, hemolysis on blood agar, slight pink smooth colonies on SS agar and green color colonies on BGA media. The E. coli isolates produced acid and gas by fermenting sugars (dextrose, sucrose, lactose, maltose and mannitol and gave positive reaction to indole, methyl red (MR and catalase tests, but were negative to Voges-Proskauer (VP test. The prevalence of E. coli in layers, broilers and indigenous chickens were 78.67, 82 and 70%, respectively. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern demonstrated that E. coli isolates were mostly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and cephalexin, and resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin and nalidixic acid. Data of this study suggested that intestine of chicken could be a major reservoir of antibiotic resistant E. coli.

ATM Jakaria

2012-06-01

189

Welfare of broiler chickens  

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Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

Federico Sirri

2010-01-01

190

Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA.  

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Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic "dormancy-repressing" and "dormancy-promoting" routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here. PMID:23754415

Vaistij, Fabián E; Gan, Yinbo; Penfield, Steven; Gilday, Alison D; Dave, Anuja; He, Zhesi; Josse, Eve-Marie; Choi, Giltsu; Halliday, Karen J; Graham, Ian A

2013-06-25

191

Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA  

Science.gov (United States)

Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic “dormancy-repressing” and “dormancy-promoting” routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here.

Vaistij, Fabian E.; Gan, Yinbo; Penfield, Steven; Gilday, Alison D.; Dave, Anuja; He, Zhesi; Josse, Eve-Marie; Choi, Giltsu; Halliday, Karen J.; Graham, Ian A.

2013-01-01

192

Regulation of Summer Dormancy by Water Deficit and ABA in Poa bulbosa Ecotypes  

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Background and Aims Survival of many herbaceous species in Mediterranean habitats during the dry, hot summer depends on the induction of summer dormancy by changes in environmental conditions during the transition between the winter (growth) season to the summer (resting) season, i.e. longer days, increasing temperature and drought. In Poa bulbosa, a perennial geophytic grass, summer dormancy is induced by long days, and the induction is enhanced by high temperature. Here the induction of summer dormancy in a Mediterranean perennial grass by water deficit under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions is reported for the first time. Methods Plants grown under 22/16 °C and non-inductive short-day (9 h, SD) were subjected to water deficit (WD), applied as cycles of reduced irrigation, or sprayed with ABA solutions. They were compared with plants in which dormancy was induced by transfer from SD to inductive long-day (16 h, LD). Responses of two contrasting ecotypes, from arid and mesic habitats were compared. Dormancy relaxation in bulbs from these ecotypes and treatments was studied by comparing sprouting capacity in a wet substrate at 10 °C of freshly harvested bulbs to that of dry-stored bulbs at 40 °C. Endogenous ABA in the bulbs was determined by monoclonal immunoassay analysis. Key Results Dormancy was induced by WD and by ABA application in plants growing under non-inductive SD. Dormancy induction by WD was associated with increased levels of ABA. Bulbs were initially deeply dormant and their sprouting capacity was very low, as in plants in which dormancy was induced by LD. Dormancy was released after 2 months dry storage at 40 °C in all treatments. ABA levels were not affected by dormancy relaxation. Conclusions Summer dormancy in P. bulbosa can be induced by two alternative and probably additive pathways: (1) photoperiodic induction by long-days, and (2) water deficit. Increased levels of endogenous ABA are involved in both pathways.

Ofir, Micha; Kigel, Jaime

2007-01-01

193

Architecture indigenous to extreme climates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term `extreme` climates suggests that some climates have exaggerated characteristics in comparison with others that are more neutral and less extreme. By reducing the number of global climate zones to less than ten, a discipline of climatic description is forced that emphasizes their distinctive differences. Reviewed are the Arctic and Subarctic, and the maritime climatic zones. Simultaneously, indigenous architecture is examined as an indicator or telltale of climatic uniqueness, parallel to the use of vegetation types to define and distinguish biological climate. The snow igloo of the Inuit is examined in detail as both a constructive and operational environmental system. In comparison the Lapp winter hut or kata is also described. Although nominally examples of the temperate or maritime climate, the New England Cape Cod cottage is contrasted with the Hungarian village and house. A series of conclusions identify lessons from indigenous architecture appropriate to sustainability in industrial and post-industrial cultures. (orig.)

Cook, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Architecture

1996-03-01

194

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics  

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This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-...

Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

2012-01-01

195

Control of Leaf Spot Diseases on Ecotypes of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Produced in the Andean Region of Bolivia  

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The basin of Lake Titicaca is a faba bean-producing microregion of Bolivia where the crop is destined for export. The most commonly cultivated ecotypes “Gigante de Copacabana” and “Usnayo” are affected by diseases that can cause production losses. The aims of the present work were to identify the causal agents of leaf spot affecting these ecotypes, to record disease intensity levels, and to estimate their effect on production. In 2004 and 2005, leaflet, stem and pod samples were taken...

Coca-morante, M.; Mamani-a?lvarez, F.

2012-01-01

196

Evaluation of the Impacts of Fall Sowing Dates on Different Ecotypes of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum, Apiaceae L. Productivity in Northeast of Iran  

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Full Text Available Locally adapted plants can be considered as an alternative to commercial crops for cultivation in harsh environments within semi-arid regions. Nowadays, exploring these plants industrial benefits has motivated many farmers around the world to extend their cultivation. However, agronomic characters of these forgotten plants are still unknown. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fall sowing dates on yield and yield components of different Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., Apiaceae ecotypes in the semi-arid region of Khorasan Iran. An experiment of two years duration was performed using a split-plot randomized complete block design, employing sowing dates as main-plot factor, and cumin ecotypes as sub-plot factor in three replicates. Three levels of sowing dates included the following: mid October, mid November and mid December. Additonally, sub-plot treatments consisted of four local ecotypes of cumin from different regions of the Khorasan province (Gayen, Torbat, Sabzevar and Khaf. The plants? survival percentage in field conditions, number of umbels m-2, number of seeds per umbel, thousand seed weight, biological, and seed yield were measured in this experiment. The results showed that all study parameters were influenced by different sowing dates except thousand seed weight. The third sowing date resulted in the highest biological (110 g m-2 and 94 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007 and seed yield (50 g m-2 and 55 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007. There was a significant positive correlation between average minimum temperature and biological yield of cumin across all ecotypes and years. The results showed significant difference in productivity of different ecotypes of cumin from various parts of northeast of Iran. The Gayen and Khaf ecotypes showed the highest plant survival percentage, biological and seed yield across study ecotypes under the third sowing date. In conclusion, delayed fall sowing date and appropriate cumin ecotypes are able to increase yield of this plant in northeast of Iran.

Ahmad NEZAMI

2011-11-01

197

A Study of Agronomic and Morphological Variations in Certain Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Ecotypes of the Cold Region of Iran  

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The objective of this study was to characterize and classify the genetic diversity among alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ecotypes collected from the cold regions of Iran, based on some agro-morphological traits. Twenty one alfalfa ecotypes were collected and planted in a Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) with three replications in April 1998 at Nyshabour Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty three above ground agro-morphological character...

Basafa, M.; Taherian, M.

2009-01-01

198

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE ECOTYPES OF Echinochloa crus-galli var crus-galli (L. Beauv (Barnyard grass: Poaceae IN MALAYSIA and INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the morphological traits of barnyard grass ecotypes from diverse geographic origin. Seeds (caryops is were collected from 17 locations of rice fields throughout Malaysia (11 states and Indonesia (six provinces and were grown in pots each containing 10 kg of paddy field soil. The experiments were arranged using completely randomized design (CRD with five replicates. Mean separation was calculated using Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA was performed to determine the individual relationship within ecotype s of barnyard grass. Twelve morphological traits such as culm, panicle, leaf, and spikelet traits were measured. The growth characters such as emer gence date, heading time, and growth duration were also evaluated. The average of emergence date, heading time, and growth duration of barnyard grass collected from Perils, Kedah, Penang, and Johor were relatively earlier th an other ecotypes. Six groups were classi fied based on the cluster analysis of Malaysian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Principal component indicated that group six was found to be highly variable compared to others. While three groups were identified in Indonesian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Group one was observed to be highly variable. Results demonstr ated that morphological variation among ecotypes of barnyard grass showing differences between the two regions illustrate the role of geographic variation.

SUHAIMI NAPIS

2004-01-01

199

THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS  

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Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

Mártin César Tempass

2008-12-01

200

Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens  

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Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…

Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

2012-01-01

202

A Comparative Analysis of Indigenous Research Guidelines to Inform Genomic Research in Indigenous Communities  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous peoples, are ideal for genetic studies. While Indigenous communities remain the focal point of many genomic studies, some result in harm and unethical practice. Unfortunately, the harms of poorly formulated and unethical research involving Indigenous people have created barriers to participation that prevent critical and lifesaving research. These harms have led a number of Indigenous communities to develop guidelines for engaging with researchers to assist in safely bridging the gap between genetic research and Indigenous peoples.SPECIFIC AIMS: The specific aims of this study were: (1 to conduct an international review and comparison of Indigenous research guidelines that highlight topics regarding genetics and use of biological samples and identify commonalities and differences among ethical principles of concern to Indigenous peoples; and (2 develop policy recommendations for Indigenous populations interested in creating formal policies around the use of genetic information and protection of biological samples using data from specific aim 1.METHODS: A comparative analysis was performed to identify best research practices and recommendations for Indigenous groups from four countries: Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. The analysis examined commonalities in political relationships, which support self-determination among these Indigenous communities to control their data. Current international Indigenous guidelines were analyzed to review processes of how genetic research is conducted and the use of biological samples is handled with Indigenous peoples.RESULTS: Results suggest the need for genetic and genomic research policies for the world’s Indigenous people. Indigenous groups are most vulnerable to research exploitation and harm; therefore, identifying principles that work for Indigenous people will lead to best practices for all populations.CONCLUSIONS: Development and implementation of best practices informed by research guidelines in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the U.S. may be helpful to advise Indigenous leaders, policy makers, and researchers to the proper conduction of genetic research within Indigenous communities. Comparative analyses are a useful tool for identifying areas for further work in developing genetic research policy for Indigenous communities.OUTCOME: The outcomes of this analysis are relevant and useful to Indigenous communities and inform the development of community-based genetic research guidelines. The recommendations can be used in designing appropriate policies for future genomic research with Indigenous peoples.

Jay Maddock

2012-05-01

203

Out of the Pacific and Back Again: Insights into the Matrilineal History of Pacific Killer Whale Ecotypes  

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Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two...

Foote, Andrew D.; Morin, Phillip A.; Durban, John W.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

2011-01-01

204

The Biological Responses of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) in Diverse Ecotypes of Sichuan  

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Loquats (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) have formed different ecological types in various zones during the long course of their cultivation and acclimatization. The data of biological responses and ecological suitability was very important for loquat plantation in different eco-zones. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development characters, flowering and fruiting habits and fruit quality of loquat in three diverse ecotypes of Sichuan by field survey. The results showed that in m...

Jiang, G. L.; Zhang, G. L.; Sun, S. X.; Li, J.; Xie, H. J.; Chen, D.; Tu, M. Y.

2010-01-01

205

A Comparison of the Functional Traits of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Northern China: Aquatic vs. Terrestrial Ecotypes  

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Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions).

Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O.; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

2014-01-01

206

A comparison of the functional traits of common reed (Phragmites australis) in northern China: aquatic vs. terrestrial ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions). PMID:24586505

Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

2014-01-01

207

Indigenous statement condemns REDD - Climate &  

... Gloria Ishigua, President Ashiñwaka - Association of  Sápara Women Ecuador Marlon Santi Sarayaku Runa Ecuador Jesus Smith, President Fundacion para la Promocion del Conocimiento Indigena Panama Kaylena Bray Seneca Interational USA Jose Proaño Land is Life Ecuador Alejandro Argumedo, Coordinator Indigenous Peoples’ Bioucltural Climate Change Assessment initiative Asociacion ANDES Peru Kunjam Pandu Dora Adivasi Aikya Vedika India Nadempalli Madhusudhan Anthra - Yakshi India Jadder Mendoza Universidad de las Regiones Autonomas de la Costa Caribe de Nicaragua Nicaragua Fiu Mataese Elisara O’le Siosiomaga Society Inc. S’amoa Share: Facebook Reddit Twitter Email More Digg Press This ...

208

Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

Dyall, Lorna

2010-01-01

209

Double Power: English Literacy and Indigenous Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection of essays on the relationship between English literacy and indigenous education, particularly in the Australian context, includes: "Double Power" (Mandawuy Yunupingu); "History, Cultural Diversity & English Language Teaching" (Martin Nakata); "Scaffolding Reading and Writing for Indigenous Children in School" (David Rose, Brian…

Wignell, Peter, Ed.

210

Indigenizing Teacher Education: An Action Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…

Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg

2013-01-01

211

The Contribution of Geography to Disparities in Preventable Hospitalisations between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Main outcome measures Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. Results PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Conclusions Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.

Harrold, Timothy C.; Randall, Deborah A.; Falster, Michael O.; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R.

2014-01-01

212

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

2004-06-07

213

Genetic and Ecotypic Characterization of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is one of the most important forest tree species inPoland and it covers 5.2% of forest area. Present genetic structure of beech populations has beenformed within the last few thousand years and influenced by many different factors, not only ofenvironmental (postglacial and genetic origin, but also by anthropogenic ones. In Poland, beechattains its north-eastern limit of natural range, and is limited by continental climate, wintertemperatures, air humidity and soil conditions. The growth of beech stands outside the natural beechlimit indicates that the species possesses a potentially wider range.Based on their phytosociological characteristics, nine beech experimental plots of one hectare areawere established in selected seed stands, representing the typical plant associations and the most importantbeech provenance (seed regions. The genetic analyses were performed using isoenzymeelectrophoresis for seven loci (GOT, LAP, MDH, MNR, PGM, PGI, SKDH and DNA markers usingRAPD primers. The following genetic parameters were calculated: average number of alleles perlocus, percentage of polymorphic loci and heterozygosity (on the basis of isoenzyme analysis.Dendrograms based on genetic distances were constructed.There is a slight decrease of genetic variation of beech populations towards the north of Poland,which can be explained by migration paths and selection after the glacial period. The geneticdifferentiation of beech in Poland does not allow distinguishing provenance regions. The data show amosaic character of species differentiation and an ecotypic variation.

SU?KOWSKA, Ma?gorzata

2010-01-01

214

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0-80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS. PMID:23892171

Begum, Parvin; Fugetsu, Bunshi

2013-09-15

215

Genomic divergence between the migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atlantic cod displays a range of phenotypic and genotypic variations, which includes the differentiation into coastal stationary and offshore migratory types of cod that co-occur in several parts of its distribution range and are often sympatric on the spawning grounds. Differentiation of these ecotypes may involve both historical separation and adaptation to ecologically distinct environments, the genetic basis of which is now beginning to be unravelled. Genomic analyses based on recent sequencing advances are able to document genomic divergence in more detail and may facilitate the exploration of causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. We examined genomic divergence between the stationary and migratory types of cod in the Northeast Atlantic, using next-generation sequencing of pooled DNA from each of two population samples. Sequence data was mapped to the published cod genome sequence, arranged in more than 6000 scaffolds (611 Mb). We identified 25 divergent scaffolds (26 Mb) with a higher than average gene density, against a backdrop of overall moderate genomic differentiation. Previous findings of localized genomic divergence in three linkage groups were confirmed, including a large (15 Mb) genomic region, which seems to be uniquely involved in the divergence of migratory and stationary cod. The results of the pooled sequencing approach support and extend recent findings based on single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and suggest a high degree of reproductive isolation between stationary and migratory cod in the North-east Atlantic. PMID:23998762

Karlsen, Bård O; Klingan, Kevin; Emblem, Åse; Jørgensen, Tor E; Jueterbock, Alexander; Furmanek, Tomasz; Hoarau, Galice; Johansen, Steinar D; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls

2013-10-01

216

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS.

Begum, Parvin, E-mail: parvinchy@ees.hokudai.ac.jp; Fugetsu, Bunshi

2013-09-15

217

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defens [...] ive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p

Cecilia, Andere; M.A., Palacio; E.M., Rodriguez; E., Figini; M.T., Dominguez; E., Bedascarrasbure.

218

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS

2013-09-15

219

Analysis of Morphological Traits of Geographically Separated Population of Indigenous Muscovy Duck (Cairina Moschata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter and intra specific variation among muscovy duck ecotypes from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were studied The work evaluate the morphological variation of three ecotypes ( rainforest ecotypes, humid or guinea savanna and dry savanna ecotypes covering southern or coastal region, central and northern part of Nigeria. Twelve morphological traits including weight were considered. Significant (p<0.05 variation exist within and between ecotypes using population coefficient of variation (ANOVA bill height had the highest coefficient of variation 79.52 while body length recorded the least variation. There are marked differences in body morphology between sexes in all the ecotypes indicating significant sexual dimorphism. Correlation between the traits were low to high. The inter specific variations in bill structure and body morphology are indication of adaptation to the environment and influence of ecological condition

D.M. Ogah

2009-01-01

220

Research ethics and indigenous communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Belcourt, Cheryl; Belcourt, Gordon

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Planetary surface reactor shielding using indigenous materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The exploration and development of Mars will require abundant surface power. Nuclear reactors are a low-cost, low-mass means of providing that power. A significant fraction of the nuclear power system mass is radiation shielding necessary for protecting humans and/or equipment from radiation emitted by the reactor. For planetary surface missions, it may be desirable to provide some or all of the required shielding from indigenous materials. This paper examines shielding options that utilize either purely indigenous materials or a combination of indigenous and nonindigenous materials.

Houts, Michael G.; Poston, David I.; Trellue, Holly R.; Baca, Justin A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

1999-01-01

222

Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to enhance scientific and adaptive capacity in Tribal communities in the United States around climate change. The first is the American Indian Alaska Native Climate Change Working Group, led out of Haskell Indian Nations University. The second is a newly funded effort led by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges that will use NASA resources to explore climate change on the great planes. Finally, we will present an effort led by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) that seeks to develop an undergraduate course introducing climate change to tribal college students. Our presentation will also describe how a geoscience research facility, in this case the National Center for Atmospheric Research, can support efforts led by indigenous communities.

Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

2009-12-01

223

The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC) in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in t...

Doolittle Amity

2010-01-01

224

“Health divide” between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: Population based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N?=?1660 men and women, 18–96?years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI?2

2012-01-01

225

[Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].  

Science.gov (United States)

A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities. PMID:19886510

Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

2009-09-01

226

Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

Zhao Y. Geng

2011-01-01

227

Natural disasters and indigenous displacement in Bolivia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Those seeking to understand and address the reasons for growing numbers of displaced indigenous people in Bolivia should consider the relationship between traditional knowledge and the impacts of climate change.

Ludvik Girard

2012-12-01

228

Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

Leszek Trz?ski

1996-06-01

229

Avaliação de germinação e dormência de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho Seed germination and dormancy of red rice ecotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relativos à germinação e dormência de 16 ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os ecótipos foram estudados e comparados com os cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em condições de casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram realizados durante o ano agrícola 2001/02, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Foram avaliadas em laboratório a biometria e a massa de mil grãos, além de testes de germinação e dormência aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita dos genótipos. Os resultados evidenciaram grande variabilidade nas características morfofisiológicas dos ecótipos estudados. Os ecótipos de arroz-vermelho avaliados, procedentes de lavouras de arroz irrigado do RS e SC, apresentaram alta variabilidade quanto às características das sementes e à intensidade e duração da dormência. Alguns ecótipos avaliados apresentaram sementes com período de dormência maior que 150 dias após a colheita. Os resultados deste trabalho confirmam também que o êxito no manejo do arroz-vermelho em lavouras infestadas depende da recomendação e adoção por parte dos produtores não de medidas isoladas, mas de um grupo de medidas complementares que, quando adotadas conjuntamente, permitem minimizar os problemas com o arroz-vermelho.The objective of this work was to evaluate aspects related to the phenotypic characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The ecotypes were studied and compared to the commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. In the laboratory experiment, seed biometry, 1000 seed-weight and seed germination and dormancy 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after harvesting were evaluated. The red rice ecotypes from the rice fields evaluated showed wide variability in seed characteristics and dormancy intensity and duration. Some ecotypes showed dormancy period above 150 days after harvesting. The results of this study confirm that red rice populations infesting rice fields are quite diverse, and appropriate control of red rice is only achieved when growers adopt not only isolated control measures, but also several management practices to reduce red rice yield losses.

A.M.L. Schwanke

2008-01-01

230

Pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis, and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically important berry crop that contains many phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. In this study, important pomological features, including nutrient content and antioxidant properties, of a domesticated and 3 wild (Yayla, Yavuzlar, and Yedigöl) raspberry fruits were evaluated. Also, the amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs) and quercetin equivalents (QE). The highest phenolic compounds were found in wild Yayla ecotype (26.66 ± 3.26 GAE/mg extract). Whilst, the highest flavonoids were determined in wild Yedigöl ecotype (6.09 ± 1.21 QA/mg extract). The antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were investigated as trolox equivalents using different in vitro assays including DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), DMPD(•+), and O(•-)(2) radical scavenging activities, H(2)O(2) scavenging activity, ferric (Fe(3+)) and cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing abilities, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, ?-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results clearly show that p-coumaric acid is the main phenolic acid responsible for the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits. PMID:22417339

Gülçin, Ilhami; Topal, Fevzi; Çakmakç?, Ramazan; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet C; Erdogan, Ummugulsum

2011-05-01

231

Indigenous family violence: a statistical challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of family violence and sexual abuse in Indigenous communities across Australia has attracted much attention throughout 2007, including significant intervention by the federal government into communities deemed to be in crisis. This paper critically examines the reporting and recording of Indigenous violence in Australia and reflects on what 'statistics' can offer as we grapple with how to respond appropriately to a problem defined as a 'national emergency'. PMID:19130914

Cripps, Kyllie

2008-12-01

232

Indigenous rights entwined with nature conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heightened public awareness of the ever increasing loss of biodiversity has led to louder calls for effective nature conservation efforts. Most remaining biodiversity-rich areas are inhabited or used by indigenous peoples and local communities. In recent years a new ‘paradigm’ of ‘nature conservation with respect for the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities’ has emerged. Two questions arise: What exactly does this policy shift mean in terms of international human rights ...

Desmet, Ellen

2011-01-01

233

Decolonial goals and pedagogies for Indigenous studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores decolonial priorities in Indigenous Studies, raises questions about the pedagogical approach, and challenges the primary educational goal for students, arguing that Indigenous Studies has become fixated on a simplistic decolonisation of Western knowledge and practices. We put forward a case to prioritise the development of learning dispositions in students that encourage openness to further inquiry and productive ways of thinking in and through complex and contested k...

Martin Nakata; Victoria Nakata; Sarah Keech; Reuben Bolt

2012-01-01

234

Variability of Carcass Traits of Local Poultry Populations of Gallus gallus Species of Benin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The local poultry population of Benin is composed of various ecotypes including chickens Holli, Sahoue, Fulani, North and South. To better characterize them, our study aims to assess their carcass traits according to genetic type, breeding system and slaughter age. Thus, 260 chickens of which 52 chickens of each ecotype were divided in two lots and reared respectively under traditional and improved breeding system. For each breeding system, 26 cockerels of each ecotype were slaughtered at 20, 24 and 28 weeks old for carcass traits study. The results show that the live weight, the carcass weight, the weight of the cuts of thigh-drumsticks and wings of Holli chickens were the highest (p0.05. The breast weight of Holli and Fulani were similar (p>0.05 but heavier (p<0.001 than the one of Sahoue, North and South ecotypes. The live weight and the carcass weight of chickens reared under improved breeding system were higher than those of traditional system (p<0.01. The carcass drip loss was more important in chickens bred under traditional system (p<0.001. The live weight and the carcass cuts value were significantly affected by slaughter age (p<0.001. The best carcass yields were recorded at 24 weeks (p<0.001 for both rearing systems. Therefore, the ideal slaughter age of indigenous chickens of Benin is 24 weeks.

U.P. Tougan

2013-01-01

235

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project 'Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics' that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies. PMID:23990811

Shenderov, Boris Arkadievich

2012-01-01

236

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

237

Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

Sakellariou, Chris

2008-01-01

238

[Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].  

Science.gov (United States)

During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods. PMID:21090273

Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

2010-03-01

239

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil / Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dific [...] ultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX). Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis ( Abstract in english Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US [...] states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (

J.A., Noldin; J.M., Chandler; G.N., McCauley.

240

Out of the Pacific and back again: insights into the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous. PMID:21949818

Foote, Andrew D; Morin, Phillip A; Durban, John W; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic; Gilbert, M Thomas P

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be addressed in the science classroom. We conclude by presenting instructional strategies that can help all science learners negotiate border crossings between Western modern science and indigenous science.

Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

2001-01-01

242

The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

Kesselmeier, J.

2012-12-01

243

The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations  

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Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

Doolittle Amity

2010-01-01

244

Cytokine gene polymorphism among Indigenous Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health profile of Indigenous Australians is characterised by high rates of classic 'lifestyle' diseases. Potential roles of inflammation in pathophysiology of these diseases requires investigation. It is not clear if genetic regulation of inflammation in Indigenous Australians is similar to other populations. This study characterised frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for eight cytokine genes for 100 individuals from a remote Indigenous Australian community and assessed novel genetic variants in four cytokine genes. We used a commercially-available allelic discrimination assay for SNP genotyping; re-sequencing was undertaken by standard Sanger sequencing methodologies for 26 samples. Frequencies of cytokine gene SNPs differed significantly from the Caucasian population (P?Indigenous Australians did not consistently resemble reported HapMap frequencies in Northern and Western European populations, Yoruba Nigerian or Han Chinese. Our findings indicate Indigenous Australians might have an inherited propensity for strong inflammatory responses. Preliminary evidence of novel genetic variants highlights the need to catalogue the extent of genetic variation in specific population groups. Improved understanding of differences in genetic variation between specific population groups could assist in assessment of risk for lifestyle diseases. PMID:23940076

Cox, Amanda J; Moscovis, Sophia M; Blackwell, C Caroline; Scott, Rodney J

2014-01-01

245

Targeting spatiotemporal dynamics of planktonic SAGMGC-1 and segregation of ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeota ecotypes by newly designed primers and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual dynamics of three different ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) ecotypes (amoA gene) and of the SAGMGC-1 (Nitrosotalea-like aquatic Thaumarchaeota) group (16S rRNA gene) were studied by newly designed specific primers and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in a deep oligotrophic high mountain lake (Lake Redon, Limnological Observatory of the Pyrenees, Spain). We observed segregated distributions of the main AOA populations, peaking separately in time and space, and under different ammonia concentrations and irradiance conditions. Strong positive correlation in gene abundances was found along the annual survey between 16S rRNA SAGMAGC-1 and one of the amoA ecotypes suggesting the potential for ammonia oxidation in the freshwater SAGMAGC-1 clade. We also observed dominance of Nitrosotalea-like ecotypes over Nitrosopumilus-like (Marine Group 1.1a) and not the same annual dynamics for the two thaumarchaeotal clades. The fine scale segregation in space and time of the different AOA ecotypes indicated the presence of phylogenetically close but ecologically segregated AOA species specifically adapted to specific environmental conditions. It remains to be elucidated what would be such environmental drivers. PMID:23848190

Restrepo-Ortiz, Claudia X; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Casamayor, Emilio O

2014-03-01

246

PHYTOTOXICITY AND FIELD EFFICACY OF EXSEROHILUM LONGIROSTRA JC/MIN THE CONTROL OF BARNYARDGRASS ECOTYPES (ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI VAR. CRUS-GALLI(L. BEAUV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five selected ecotypes of bamyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-gatti from several rice growing areas in Malaysia and Indonesia were tested for their susceptibility to the potentia l bioherbicide (Exserohilum longirostratum. Bamyardgrass seedlings at the 2-3-lcaf stage were treated with 2.5xl07 conidia/ml from E. longirostratum at different application frequencies (single, double and triple. In addition, aqueous extract assays were ev aluated for the presence of a phytotoxic compound responsible for the virulence of the bioherbicide. Results of the study showed that disease severity significantly increased 20 days after treatment and resulted in mortality of the seedlin gs. Ecotypes from Perak and Lampung were most susceptible to the bioherbicide upon triple applications. Percentage dry weight reductions were 86.34 and 83.14%, respectively. Other ecotypes (Melaka, Banten and South Sulawesi were observed to have a relatively similar response. Moreover, aqueous extracts of E. longirostratum increased mortality up to 92.50% of bamyardgrass seedlings. These findings suggest that regular (double and triple applications of E. longirostratum at a concentration of 2.5xl07 conidia/ml significantly increased mortality among bamyardgrass ecotypes. Mortality of the seedlings was attributed to the presence of a secondary phytotoxic metabolite.

SUHAIMI NAPIS

2005-01-01

247

Characterization of the uranium (VI) complexes formed by the cells of three A. ferrooxidans eco-types using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TRLFS was used to study the properties of the uranium complexes formed by the cells of the three recently described eco-types of A. ferrooxidans /1/. The results demonstrate that the lifetimes of the complexes are type-specific and are increasing in the same order as the capability of the bacterial strains to accumulate uranium. (orig.)

Merroun, M.; Geipel, G.; Selenska-Pobell, S.

2002-05-01

248

Indigenous teacher training within an intercultural perspective  

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Full Text Available Current analysis discusses indigenous teacher training foregrounded on the activities that involve teachers, Kaingang chiefs and government officials responsible for this policy in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Specialization Course in Professional Education integrated to Fundamental Education, within the modality Education for Young People and Adults – A differentiated proposal for Amerindians, is the main objective of current study. The course is run by the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and funded by the Secretary for Professional Education and Technology of the Brazilian Ministry of Education. Studies related to the research ‘Amerindian Education and Interculturality’ underlie the above-mentioned specialization course within a wider context of the formation of indigenous teachers and indigene school education.

Maria Aparecida Bergamaschi

2012-12-01

249

The Coolangatta Statement on Indigenous Rights in Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents the 1996 revised Coolangatta Statement on Indigenous Rights in Education, a framework for discussing indigenous educational rights and self-determination, generated by an international task force. Lists task force members and fundamental principles for further discussion. (SV)

Journal of American Indian Education, 1999

1999-01-01

250

Decolonial goals and pedagogies for Indigenous studies  

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Full Text Available This article explores decolonial priorities in Indigenous Studies, raises questions about the pedagogical approach, and challenges the primary educational goal for students, arguing that Indigenous Studies has become fixated on a simplistic decolonisation of Western knowledge and practices. We put forward a case to prioritise the development of learning dispositions in students that encourage openness to further inquiry and productive ways of thinking in and through complex and contested knowledge terrains. We argue that this pedagogical approach adds a critical dimension to the decolonial task.

Martin Nakata

2012-09-01

251

ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)

1996-01-01

252

"I Give You Back": Indigenous Women Writing to Survive  

Science.gov (United States)

This article corrects the assumption that "indigenous women and feminist issues remain undertheorized," by demonstrating that they do theorize their lives, but that they theorize differently, meaning, indigenous women do not rely solely on Western tools, worldviews, or epistemologies as methods of interpretation. One tool indigenous women use to…

Archuleta, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

253

Transcript: Indigenous Australian Perspectives in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

A personal account of life experiences and research in relation to the concepts of respect, identity, relatedness and education offered by an Indigenous Australian woman reared by a non-Indigenous family in a non-Indigenous community. Western education philosophies--the goal of becoming the "self-realised individual": the independent self who…

Townsend-CrossGnibi, Marcelle

2004-01-01

254

Empowering Identity Reconstruction of Indigenous College Students through Transformative Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity…

Chen, Peiying

2012-01-01

255

Effect of Dwarfism on Reproductive and Meat Yield Parameters of Crossbred Chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty four indigenous autosomal dwarf hens were selected and divided equally into 3 groups. Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn and Fayoumi Cocks, 2 for each were placed to each group respectively for breeding. Sixty eggs were selected from each group and hatched in a forced draft incubator. Among those, 36 healthy day-old chicks from each group were selected and reared up to 20 weeks of age. The chicks were identified as normal and dwarf genetic groups at 8 weeks of age. The aim of this study was to observe the reproductive parameters of crosses and parameters related to the meat yield of normal and dwarf genetic group of crossbred chicken under farm condition. Fertility, hatchability on total eggs and hatchability on fertile eggs of cross B (95.57; 68.71; 72.41 were higher (p<0.01 than cross A (93.44;63.44;67.62 and cross C (90.92;60.89;67.19. Dead-in-germ and dead-in-shell were statistically higher (p<0.01 in cross C than cross A&B. Reduced adult body size, improved feed conversion and higher livability were found in all genetic groups of dwarf crossbred. Among those, White Leghorn was found as the best one also considering its different dressing yields. Advantages of adw gene in terms of a good scavenger could better be exploited by introgressing in exotic smaller breeds like White Leghorn from indigenous dwarf chicken.

M.A. Rashid

2005-01-01

256

AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME COWPEA ECOTYPES (VIGNA UNGUILATA L. GROWN IN TURKEY; VEGETATION TIME, SEED AND POD CHARACTERISTICS  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to observe the yield and yield components of cowpea cultivars available and cowpea lines, which are grown in nine local areas in Turkey. The study including two cultivars and nine ecotypes, was carried out with randomizes block design with three replications in 1996-1997. Significant differences were observed between the cultivars as in the seed yield, biological yield and vegetation time, according to the two years' combined results. The data indicate great variation within the cowpea, regarding all characters. Factor analysis based principal component (PCA showed two factors, representing 99.13 % of the total variation. PC1 explaining 98.69 % of the total variance is highly correlated with seed and pod size factors. PC2 may be considered as the time of vegetation time and yield per plant. Eleven examined cultivars were separated in two groups by factor analysis and cluster analysis.

H. VURAL

2007-08-01

257

The Chicken and Egg Project  

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Full Text Available This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children’s work.

Ivette Alkon

2004-01-01

258

Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones  

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Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an interculturalperspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artistLucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expressesexistential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and arttheory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

Eleonore Wildburger

2009-01-01

259

Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle  

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Full Text Available Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

Saha Abhijeet

2010-01-01

260

Beyond South Africa's 'indigenous knowledge - science' wars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, the paradoxes and difficulties attending the notion of indigenous knowledge in South Africa are reviewed and an alternative dialogue about intellectual heritage is proposed. Beginning with a survey of debates on 'indigenous knowledge' and sciences in India, Australia and Latin America [...] , the discussion draws attention to differences in regional discussions on the subject of knowledge diversity. Turning to the South African context, the paper foregrounds contradictions in the debate on traditional medicines and the sciences in relation to HIV. The bifurcation of 'indigenous knowledge' and 'science' is argued against. Debates on both indigenous knowledge and science within the critical humanities in South Africa have been characterised by denunciation: an approach which does not facilitate the important discussions needed on intellectual heritage, or on the relationship between sciences and coloniality. In dialogue with current research on the anthropology of knowledge, strategies are proposed to broaden the possibilities for scholarship on knowledge, sciences, and different ways of understanding the world.

Green, Lesley J.F..

 
 
 
 
261

Burden of anemia among indigenous populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international perspective of the magnitude of anemia in indigenous peoples is currently lacking. The present systematic review was performed to characterize the global prevalence, severity, and etiology of anemia in indigenous peoples by conducting a systematic search of original research published in English from 1996 to February 2010 using PubMed, Medline, and Embase. A total of 50 studies, representing the following 13 countries, met the inclusion criteria: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, the United States, and Venezuela. Results indicate major deficiencies in the coverage and quality of anemia monitoring data for indigenous populations worldwide. The burden of anemia is overwhelmingly higher among indigenous groups compared to the general population and represents a moderate (20-39.9%) to severe (?40%) public health problem. For the most part, the etiology of anemia is preventable and includes inadequate diet, poor living conditions, and high infection rates (i.e., malaria and intestinal parasites). A concerted global effort is needed to reduce the worldwide burden of anemia in these marginalized populations. PMID:22133195

Khambalia, Amina Z; Aimone, Ashley M; Zlotkin, Stanley H

2011-12-01

262

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

Hitzman, D.O.; stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

2003-02-11

263

Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

1993-01-01

264

Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

2006-01-01

265

Fermented Cereal from Indigenous Raw Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented cereal was prepared from indigenous raw material like parboiled rice and Bengal gram. The approximate analysis, microbiology, edibility of cereal product has been done. It was found to be a high nutritive value and acceptable as a food.

Sahana Parveen

2003-01-01

266

Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil business  

...Activists from four Indigenous nations in Canada will attend Shell Oil's annual meeting to demand an end to its massive human and ecological rights ... Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil business Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book ...MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2012 / May / 17 / Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil Posted on May 17,...Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil On May 18th in London, the Indigenous Environmental Network in partnership with Athabasca ...

267

Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter  

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Full Text Available digenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

Xing Y. Chen

2011-02-01

268

A brief history of indigenous health in brazil  

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Full Text Available Objective: to provide a brief history context on the indigenous struggle for rights. It was at its peak in the 1970s, until the Indigenous Health Subsystem implementation in 1999. Method: it is a bibliographic review research made through BIREME and Scielo databases, including documents and publications of FUNASA, FUNAI, and the Brazilian legislation on indigenous, from 1970s to 2000s using the term: indigenous health. Results: after a myriad of movements that fought for indigenous rights recognition, the Indian Statute was sanctioned in 1973 regulating the indigenous issues in Brazil. Thereafter the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 it took a new direction, recognizing the right for cultural and social diversity, among others. Conclusion: the indigenous people integration to the health systems happened, and is still happening, according to the SUS purpose of reduce health inequalities among the whole population.

Maria Neyrian de Fátima Fernandes, Arieli Rodrigues Nóbrega, Rosinaldo Santos Marques, Ana Michele de Farias Cabral, Clélia Albino Simpson

2010-10-01

269

The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media  

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Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

Melissa J. Stoneham

2014-04-01

270

Indigenous participation and representation in Venezuelan electoral processes  

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Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.

Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ

2012-06-01

271

Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nati...

Cunningham Joan

2010-01-01

272

Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P < 0.05). The KNC meat lost significant amounts of all bioactive compounds during cooking (P < 0.05). Leg meat had high retention percentages of carnosine and anserine after cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. PMID:24812230

Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

2014-07-01

273

Comparison of Plasma Amino Acid Levels of Two Breeds of Japanese Native Chicken and a Commercial Layer Line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to conduct amino acid profiling of two Japanese indigenous hens (Tosa-jidori; TJI and Ukokkei; UKO and compared with a commercial hen (JL. Asparagine, leucine and proline levels in commercial layers were higher than those in both native Japanese chickens. Lysine and glutamate in UKO were higher than those in others and taurine was also higher than in JL. Serine in UKO was lower than those in others and methionine and cysteine were also lower than in JL. Arginine in TJI was lower than those in JL and UKO. No significant differences between breed/line were observed in histidine, threonine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. These results suggest that levels of dietary amino acid requirements might be different between native Japanese chickens.

Takao Oka

2013-01-01

274

A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or 'Gumboro disease' seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level i [...] nformation was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90) of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (?2= 16.1, P

E S, Swai; M J, Kessy; P N, Sanka; P F, Mtui.

275

Intrageneric phylogenetics based on mitochondrial DNA variation among fifteen harpactorine assassin bugs with four ecotypes and three morphs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Available mitochondrial DNA sequences viz., 16S, Cyt b, Cyt c oxidase subunit - I, and Cyt c subunit-like - I gene of Rhynocoris (Kolenati) species were subjected to phylogenetic analysis to understand the intrageneric and intraspecific variations and the role of geographical isolation on speciation; using CLUSTAL W in MEGA version 5.1. This analysis includes fifteen species and four ecotypes of R. kumarii Ambrose and Livingstone and three morphs of R. marginatus (Fabricius) from four countries viz., Canada, China, Korea, and South Africa. The pairwise genetic distances were calculated and phylograms were constructed using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Neighbor-Joining methods. These preliminary analyses not only demarcated the fifteen species of Rhynocoris, the four ecotypes of R. kumarii, and the three morphs of R. marginatus, but also revealed phylogenetic relationships and the role of geographical isolation and polymorphism on speciation. PMID:24871749

Ambrose, Dunston P; Lenin, E Arockia; Kiruba, D Angeline

2014-01-01

276

Serological Survey on the Prevalence of Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks in Northern Jordan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus (CIAV) is a resistant and ubiquitous virus causing disease in young chickens and immunosuppression in all birds. CIAV infection in broiler chicken flocks has been described in most countries with a developed chicken industry and can result in economically important losses either clinical or subclinical form of the disease in broiler chickens. In this study 414 sera samples from 32 commercial broiler chickens flocks located in Northern Jordan, were tested...

Roussan, Dergham A.

2006-01-01

277

Response to long-term NaHCO3-derived alkalinity in model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: transcriptomic profiling and physiological characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search for common and distinct tolerance mechanisms to long-term alkaline stress response in plants. PMID:24835559

Babuin, María Florencia; Campestre, María Paula; Rocco, Rubén; Bordenave, Cesar D; Escaray, Francisco J; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo; Gárriz, Andrés; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A; Menendez, Ana B

2014-01-01

278

Response to Long-Term NaHCO3-Derived Alkalinity in Model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: Transcriptomic Profiling and Physiological Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search for common and distinct tolerance mechanisms to long-term alkaline stress response in plants.

Rocco, Ruben; Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo; Garriz, Andres; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Menendez, Ana B.

2014-01-01

279

Globalisation And Local Indigenous Education In Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.

Reinke, Leanne

2004-11-01

280

Are Supernovae Recorded in Indigenous Astronomical Traditions?  

CERN Multimedia

Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.

Hamacher, Duane W

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.  

Chris Andersen

2011-04-01

282

Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

2010-01-01

283

Recognition, Reconciliation and Resentment in Indigenous Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dr. Glen Coulthard is an assistant professor in the First Nations Studies Program and the Department of Political Science. Glen has written and published numerous articles and chapters in the areas of contemporary political theory, indigenous thought and politics, and radical social and political thought (marxism, anarchism, post-colonialism). His most recent work on Frantz Fanon and the politics of recognition won Contemporary Political Theory’s Annual Award for Best Article of the Year in...

Coulthard, Glen

2011-01-01

284

Indigenous Students and the Learning of English  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The problem of students? proficiency in English in the Malaysian primary schools is still debatable. Approach: Unless the problem of students? proficiency is solved at the primary school level, it will fossilize and contribute toward students? anxiety in the language at the secondary and tertiary levels. Results: This research study looked into English needs of the indigenous or ?Orang Asli? students in primary schools in the di...

Shahrier Pawanchik; Kamil, Anton A.; Yahaya, Fatan H.

2010-01-01

285

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

2003-02-11

286

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

287

Correlates of Homeless Episodes among Indigenous People  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individ...

Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner

2012-01-01

288

Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies. PMID:17904736

Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

2008-05-01

289

Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha / Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L.) predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1) as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por [...] isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill), em diferentes meios; 2) as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3) as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT) foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após), ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após), coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI. Abstract in english The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.) predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1) the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pec [...] tinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill), in different media; 2) the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3) the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT) were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours), or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours), staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

Ana Maria Queijeiro, López; Danielle dos Santos Tavares, Pereira.

290

Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L. predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1 as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill, em diferentes meios; 2 as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3 as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após, ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após, coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI.The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L. predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1 the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pectinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill, in different media; 2 the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3 the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours, or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours, staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

Ana Maria Queijeiro López

2010-01-01

291

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dificultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX. Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis (<1%. No entanto, quando as sementes foram enterradas em maior profundidade (25 cm, nove ecótipos tinham sementes viáveis após 2 anos. Trinta e seis meses após o enterrio, cinco ecótipos apresentavam sementes com alguma viabilidade, mas todos inferiores a 1%. Sementes de arroz-vermelho produzidas e enterradas em College Station na profundidade de 12 cm, um dia após a colheita, apresentaram maior longevidade que aquelas mantidas na superfície do solo. Após 17 meses, um dos ecótipos de arroz-preto (TX 4, enterrado a 12 cm, foi o que apresentou maior percentual de viabilidade (2%. Nos dois experimentos, observou-se que os cultivares comerciais, Lemont e Mars, não apresentaram sementes viáveis após cinco meses, independentemente da localização no solo. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que em áreas com arroz-vermelho deve-se evitar o preparo do solo logo após a colheita, favorecendo assim a germinação ou a perda da viabilidade das sementes. O enterrio das sementes de arroz-vermelho, através de operações de preparo do solo, contribui para aumentar o banco de sementes e a longevidade no solo.

J.A. Noldin

2006-12-01

292

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

Science.gov (United States)

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-04-01

293

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

Science.gov (United States)

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-01-01

294

Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

Cassie Quigley

2009-02-01

295

Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Thai Inheritance Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inheritance chickens are important in the developing countries, because of their meat quality. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic background of Baetong, Black-boned, and Praduhangdum chickens. 30 chickens each and 4 replications of the chicken breeds were reared for 14 weeks. 10 chickens of each replication were sampled and analyzed, including carcass characteristics and meat quality as well as Shear’s value, water holding capacity, and color of their meat. No different marketable weight and hot carcass weight was found (P>0.05. Baetong chickens were lower hot carcass yield than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Conversely, Baetong chickens were higher structural frame than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens were edible portion, and wing yield than Baetong chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Baetong chickens have more leg yield than Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. While, Praduhangdum chickens have more breast yield than the other chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more Shear’s force and Shear’s energy than Baetong breast meat and Praduhangdum breast meat (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat and skin was darken than Baetong and Praduhangdum breast meat and skin (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more drip losses than the others (P<0.05, while being lower cooking losses than the others (P<0.05. At the typical marketable weight, Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens have better meat quality compared with the carcass from Baetong chickens.

Nakarin Pripwai

2014-01-01

296

Contested Territories: Water Rights and the Struggles over Indigenous Livelihoods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by developing large-scale water infrastructure. Three cases illustrate the encroachment process. In Colombia, the Embera Katio people’s water territory is colonized by a large-scale hydropower development ...

2012-01-01

297

Political participation in the indigenous communities of Guatemala  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates political participation in the indigenous communities of Guatemala. The aim is to find out and explain the individual and societal motivations that indigenous people have for deciding to participate or not to participate in local level politics. More precisely, this thesis tries to discover what are the main factors that influence local level political participation of the indigenous Maya people in Guatemala. In addition, the study aims to find out what kind of partic...

Bradshaw, Elinor

2006-01-01

298

Multinational companies and indigenous development : an empirical analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an empirical study of the effect of foreign multinational companies on the development of indigenous firms in the host country, using data for the Irish manufacturing sector. Our starting point is a recent paper by Markusen and Venables (1999) that shows formally that multinationals, through the creation of linkages with indigenous suppliers, can exert positive effects on the development of indigenous firms. Based on the literature on entry in industrial organisation theor...

Go?rg, Holger; Strobl, Eric

2000-01-01

299

Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in The Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overview is presented of non-indigenous marine and estuarine plant and animal species recorded from The Netherlands. In this list both exotic species from outside NW Europe and non-indigenous species from elsewhere in NW Europe are enumerated. Species that have been suggested to be non-indigenous in The Netherlands but for which insufficient evidence could be found are discussed shortly as well. The list is based mainly on literature data supplemented by own observations of the author. At ...

2005-01-01

300

Beyond Hollywood Formulas: Evolv?ng Indigenous Yoruba Film Aesthetics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Home video scholarship is an emerging aspect of theatre studies in Nigeria. While previous studies have been merely critical of Nigerian film practitioners’ inability to evolve an indigenous form, they have failed in prescribing necessary strategies for achieving this. This study, therefore, fills this gap by proposing devices for evolving an indigenous meta-language for the Nigerian film industry. It concludes, amongst others, that Nigerian film industry should evolve an indigenous film la...

Abiodun Olayiwola

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens

1987-01-01

302

Molecular Techniques for Analyzing Chicken Microbiota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Molecular techniques those have been applied for analyzing chicken microbiota have been summarized here. Since, the knowledge of molecular analysis of chicken microbiota as well as intestinal ecosystem is still limited, this review will encourage animal scientists/microbiologists to apply various types of molecular techniques for monitoring intestinal microbes.

Abu Sadeque Md. Selim

2006-01-01

303

Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

Biswas, Paritosh K.; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S. U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S. M. S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Debnath, Nitish C.

2008-01-01

304

Editors’ Commentary: The Challenges in Improving Indigenous Educational Attainment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education has been called the “new buffalo” for its potential to contribute to the economic, social, and political well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada (Stonechild, 2006. Despite gains in education among Aboriginal peoples in Canada, there continues to be gaps in educational attainment. This editors' introduction explores some of the realities underlying educational trends among Indigenous peoples in order to set the stage for the articles in this special edition of the International Indigenous Policy Journal examining educational pathways among Indigenous learners.

Jerry P. White

2013-11-01

305

REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

Pablo Reed

2011-04-01

306

Heterogeneous genomic differentiation between walking-stick ecotypes: "isolation by adaptation" and multiple roles for divergent selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic differentiation can be highly variable across the genome. For example, loci under divergent selection and those tightly linked to them may exhibit elevated differentiation compared to neutral regions. These represent "outlier loci" whose differentiation exceeds neutral expectations. Adaptive divergence can also increase genome-wide differentiation by promoting general barriers to neutral gene flow, thereby facilitating genomic divergence via genetic drift. This latter process can yield a positive correlation between adaptive phenotypic divergence and neutral genetic differentiation (described here as "isolation-by-adaptation"). Here, we examine both these processes by combining an AFLP genome scan of two host plant ecotypes of Timema cristinae walking-sticks with existing data on adaptive phenotypic divergence and ecological speciation in these insects. We found that about 8% of loci are outliers in multiple population comparisons. Replicated comparisons between population-pairs using the same versus different host species revealed that 1-2% of loci are subject to host-related selection specifically. Locus-specific analyses revealed that up to 10% of putatively neutral (nonoutlier) AFLP loci exhibit significant isolation-by-adaptation. Our results suggest that selection may affect differentiation directly, via linkage, or by facilitating genetic drift. They thus illustrate the varied and sometimes nonintuitive contributions of selection to heterogeneous genomic differentiation. PMID:17999721

Nosil, Patrik; Egan, Scott P; Funk, Daniel J

2008-02-01

307

The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

Thi Dieu, Nguyen

1996-01-01

308

Interpreting indigenous art in university collections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Debates on the representation of indigenous cultures in museums have come to the fore in the past thirty years. This paper examines the context for the opening of Waipapa Marae at the University of Auckland in 1988. It outlines a history of M?ori meeting houses used for teaching and learning in a specifically M?ori context in the New Zealand tertiary sector. The challenge for the university curator with a marae as part of the collection is how to interpret it for the 21st century. Facilitat...

Tyler, Linda

2012-01-01

309

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

310

Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG) and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures wi...

Martin Kliment; Mária Angelovi?ová

2012-01-01

311

Indigenous Knowledges and the Story of the Bean  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy and Emma Maughn explore epistemic tensions within an Indigenous teacher preparation program where students question Western systems for creating, producing, reproducing, and valuing knowledge. Grounding their argument in a rich understanding of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, the authors advocate for an…

Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones; Maughn, Emma

2009-01-01

312

Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

2012-01-01

313

Indigenous Wellbeing Frameworks in Australia and the Quest for Quantification  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an emerging global recognition of the inadequacies of conventional socio-economic and demographic data in being able to reflect the relative wellbeing of Indigenous peoples. This paper emerges out of a recent desktop study commissioned by an Australian Indigenous organization who identified a need to enhance local literacies in data…

Prout, Sarah

2012-01-01

314

Uranium mining and indigenous social impact issues - Kakadu Region, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on indigenous social impact issues in the Kakadu/Alligators Rivers region of Australia. It briefly outlines the social history of the region, reflects on local, national and international attention being given to the impact of regional development on local indigenous (bininj) people, notes how social impact issues are being addressed and suggests some lessons learnt. (author)

2002-04-01

315

Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…

Thondhlana, Juliet

316

The Languages of Indigenous Peoples in Chukotka and the Media.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first half of the 20th century, the social functions of the indigenous languages in Chukotka, in northeast Asia, increased due to the development of written languages, local press, and broadcasting on radio and television. From 1933 to 1989, the local press of indigenous peoples in Chukotka was used for Communist Party propaganda. However,…

Diatchkova, Galina

317

Pathways for Indigenous Education in the Australian Curriculum Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reflects on pathways for Indigenous education in the developing agenda of the Australian Curriculum, the cross-curriculum priorities, the general capability area of intercultural understanding, and the positioning of Indigenous learners within the diversity of learners with English as an additional language or dialect (EALD).

Nakata, Martin

2011-01-01

318

Effective Practices in Teaching Indigenous Students with Conductive Hearing Loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Hearing impairment due to conductive hearing loss can have a devastating effect on children's language development, and consequently educational outcomes, especially for Indigenous students, for whom there may be the additional issue of being educated in their second or third language. With appropriate interventions, however, Indigenous students…

Partington, Gary; Galloway, Ann

2005-01-01

319

Career Development for Young Indigenous People: A Project Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

A range of career challenges and employment barriers confronting Indigenous people in Australia have been identified by census data and government reports. This paper describes a project that involved national consultation to determine the type of career programs and resources being used with Indigenous populations. Information was gathered with…

Lichtenberg, Anna; Smith, Helen

2009-01-01

320

Indigenous Astronomies and Progress in Modern Astronomy  

CERN Document Server

From an anthropological point of view, the whole concept of a "path of progress" in astronomical discovery is anathema, since it implicitly downgrades other cultural perspectives, such as the many "indigenous cosmologies" that still exist in the modern world. By doing so, one risks provoking those who hold them and-as is most obvious in places such as Hawaii where the two "world-views" come into direct contact-reating avoidable resistance to that very progress. The problem is complicated by the existence of "fringe" and "new-age" views that are increasingly confused with, and even passed off as, indigenous perceptions. In a modern world where widespread public perceptions include many that are unscientific in the broadest sense of the term, I shall argue that there are actually a range of positive benefits for progress in scientific astronomy to be derived from the mutual awareness and comprehension of "genuine" cultural world-views whose goals-in common with those of modern science-are to make sense of the c...

Ruggles, Clive

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Manufacture and performance of indigenous nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Along with the formulation of nuclear power programme, it was envisaged that nuclear fuel fabrication including design, development and production had to be arranged as governmental activity of Department of Atomic Energy (India). Fabrication of fuel has been initiated on a firm basis with initial commitment to supply half the core of fuel element for 40 MWt CIRUS reactor at Trombay. Based on the experience gained on the development of natural uranium oxide fuel, commitment was undertaken to fabricate half the initial core loading and standby fuel for RAPP-1. Later, to meet the fuel bundle requirements for continued operation of RAPP type reactors and enriched fuel bundle requirements for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the Nuclear Fuel Complex (Hyderabad)--an integrated nuclear fuel and related components fabrication facilities -- was set up. To date, a large number of natural uranium metal fuel rods for CIRUS, natural uranium oxide fuel bundles for RAPS and enriched uranium oxide fuel bundles for TAPS have been fabricated and delivered. Performance data on all these different types of fuels indigenously fabricated are considered to be satisfactory, proving thereby, the trust placed on the indigenous development/fabrication has been well deserved. Salient features for the various manufacturing and quality control steps and fuel behaviour are discussed. (auth.)

1977-02-09

322

Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.  

Science.gov (United States)

When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. PMID:24528101

Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

2014-06-01

323

Nuclear fuel fabrication - developing indigenous capability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early 70's for production of fuel for PHWRs and BWRs in India, has made several improvements in different areas of fuel manufacturing. Starting with wire-wrap type of fuel bundles, NFC had switched over to split spacer type fuel bundle production in mid 80's. On the upstream side slurry extraction was introduced to prepare the pure uranyl nitrate solution directly from the MDU cake. Applying a thin layer of graphite to the inside of the tube was another modification. The Complex has developed cost effective and innovative techniques for these processes, especially for resistance welding of appendages on the fuel elements which has been a unique feature of the Indian PHWR fuel assemblies. Initially, the fuel fabrication plants were set-up with imported process equipment for most of the pelletisation and assembly operations. Gradually with design and development of indigenous equipment both for production and quality control, NFC has demonstrated total self reliance in fuel production by getting these special purpose machines manufactured indigenously. With the expertise gained in different areas of process development and equipment manufacturing, today NFC is in a position to offer know-how and process equipment at very attractive prices. The paper discusses some of the new processes that are developed/introduced in this field and describes different features of a few PLC based automatic equipment developed. Salient features of innovative techniques being adopted in the area Of UO_2 powder production are also briefly indicated. (author)

1997-09-21

324

Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

Katelyn Barney

2010-03-01

325

Chondroitin sulphate distribution in broiler chicken carcasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract 1. The content of chondroitin sulphate (CS), known as a nutraceutical, was estimated in broiler chicken carcasses by analysing sulphated glycosaminoglycan uronic acid in posterior sternum (keel) cartilage and bones from 4 parts (wing, leg, front and hind) of carcasses. 2. The results of the present study suggested that approximately 0.63 g CS uronic acid (or 1.9 g as CS) can be extracted from a 1.66 kg whole broiler chicken carcass. The amount of extractable CS from keel cartilage, which has been reported as a valuable source of CS in broiler chicken carcasses, was surprisingly low (<10% of total CS). PMID:24392803

Nakano, T; Ozimek, L

2014-02-01

326

Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.

Woods John A

2012-11-01

327

Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

2004-04-01

328

Caracterização morfológica de ecótipos de arroz daninho (Oryza sativa provenientes de áreas de arroz irrigado Morphological characterization of red rice (Oryza Sativa ecotypes derived from irrigated rice areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a caracterização fenotípica de 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, quando comparados aos cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em casa de vegetação. Foram semeados 16 ecótipos de arroz daninho e os quatro cultivares de arroz irrigado. O cultivo foi realizado em vasos plásticos com capacidade para 9 litros, contendo solo, utilizando-se cinco repetições por genótipo. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: coloração das folhas, pilosidade, afilhamento efetivo, graus-dia biológico para completar o florescimento, degrane, número de afilhos férteis, área foliar da folha-bandeira, altura de planta, número de sementes por panícula e produção por planta. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam grande variabilidade morfológica entre os ecótipos estudados.Aspects related to the phenotypical characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina were studied and compared to those of commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. The sixteen red rice ecotypes plus four rice cultivars were sown with five replications in plastic pails filled with 9 liters of soil. The genotypes were described according to the traits proposed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, 1980. The following plant and seed parameters were evaluated: leaf color and hairiness, effective tillering, biological day-degrees to complete the flowering period, seed shattering, number of fertile tillers, flag leaf area, plant height, number of seeds per panicle and seed production. The results showed a great morphological variability among the red rice ecotypes.

A.M.L. Schwanke

2008-06-01

329

The chicken gene nomenclature committee report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Comparative genomics is an essential component of the post-genomic era. The chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced and it will serve as a model for other avian species. Moreover, due to its unique evolutionary niche, the chicken genome can be used to understand evolution of functional elements and gene regulation in mammalian species. However comparative biology both within avian species and within amniotes is hampered due to the difficulty of recognising ...

Burt David W; Carrë Wilfrid; Fell Mark; Law Andy S; Antin Parker B; Maglott Donna R; Weber Janet A; Schmidt Carl J; Burgess Shane C; McCarthy Fiona M

2009-01-01

330

Gene finding in the chicken genome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome...

2005-01-01

331

Effects of dietary cypermethrin on chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the following study effects of dietary cypermethrin in chickens were observed. Chickens were administered cypermethrin in the feed in nominal concentrations of 150, 300 and 600 ppm (mean measured concentrations: 130, 285 and 655 mg/kg feed) for a period of 28 days. The following parameters were monitored: clinical symptoms and mortality, feed consumption and body weight gain, liver weight, plasma ChE activity, hematological and biochemical effects. Any accumulation of cypermethrin in...

Neškovi? N.; Gaši? Slavica; Brki? Dragica; Pavlovski Zlatica; Cmiljani? R.

2013-01-01

332

The chicken gene nomenclature committee report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative genomics is an essential component of the post-genomic era. The chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced and it will serve as a model for other avian species. Moreover, due to its unique evolutionary niche, the chicken genome can be used to understand evolution of functional elements and gene regulation in mammalian species. However comparative biology both within avian species and within amniotes is hampered due to the difficulty of recognising functional ortholog...

Burt, David W.; Carre?, Wilfrid; Fell, Mark; Law, Andy S.; Antin, Parker B.; Maglott, Donna R.; Weber, Janet A.; Schmidt, Carl J.; Burgess, Shane C.; Mccarthy, Fiona M.

2009-01-01

333

LIQUORICE IN CHICKEN-BROILERS FEEDING ?????? ? ????????? ??????-?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different liquorice’s dosage as additive to main diet influence on chicken-broilers quality and productivity is studied in the article. According to the results, it was established that liquorice addition use in chicken-broilers’ fattening diet during 42 days provided chick-en-broilers gain increase and fodder consumption decrease per 1 kg of the gain increasing, therefore, production economic efficiency

Struk V. N.

2013-04-01

334

Indigenous knowledge on the nutritional quality of urban and peri-urban livestock feed resources in Kampala, Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identified the indigenous criteria used by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala to assess the nutritional quality of available feed resources. Focus group discussions and questionnaire interviews (with a total of 120 livestock farming households) were conducted. The findings showed that banana peels, leftover food and own-mixed feeds were the most commonly used feed resources for cattle, pigs and chickens, respectively. Farmers use several indigenous criteria to judge the nutritional quality of the available feed resources. These included perceived effects on disease resistance, feed intake, growth/body condition, hair coat appearance, faecal output, faecal texture and level of production, among others. According to farmers, animals offered with a feed resource of good nutritional quality are more resistant to diseases, ingest much of the feed, gain weight with well-filled bodies, have smooth hair coats, produce large quantities of faeces that are not too firm or watery and exhibit good performance (lactating cows produce more milk, sows produce piglets of good body size, hens lay more eggs of normal size, etc.). Although this indigenous knowledge exists, farmers put more importance on availability and cost as opposed to nutritional quality when choosing feed resources. This explains why banana peels were among the feed resources perceived to be of low nutritional quality but, at the same time, were found to be the most commonly used. Hence, there is a need to sensitise farmers on the importance of nutritional quality in ensuring better and efficient utilisation of the available feed resources. PMID:23568618

Lumu, Richard; Katongole, Constantine Bakyusa; Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Bareeba, Felix; Presto, Magdalena; Ivarsson, Emma; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2013-10-01

335

Contested Territories: Water Rights and the Struggles over Indigenous Livelihoods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by developing large-scale water infrastructure. Three cases illustrate the encroachment process. In Colombia, the Embera Katio people’s water territory is colonized by a large-scale hydropower development project. In Ecuador, large-scale drinking water development for megacities aims the water belonging to the Oyacachi community’s indigenous highland territory. In Peru, communal water rights of the Colca Valley indigenous peasantry are under threat because of large-scale irrigation development. As the cases show, Indigenous peoples and communities actively contest the undermining and subordination of their water and territorial rights through a myriad of multi-scalar livelihood defense strategies. The challenges that indigenous peoples face to defend their water-based livelihoods are, however, enormous and growing every day.

Rutgerd Boelens

2012-11-01

336

Readership Pattern of Indigenous Language Newspapers Among Selected Nigerian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous language press which was the harbinger of journalism in Nigeria is suffering serious neglect. The neglect reflects in a number of ways among which is poor readership. Although, the fact of poor readership of indigenous language newspapers is a common knowledge, but it lacks empirical documentation as many researches on readership of newspapers were concentrated on newspapers written in English. This research attempt therefore examined the readership pattern of Indigenous language newspapers among selected university undergraduates and compared the pattern of readership of English and Indigenous language newspapers. The study is a survey of 150 students of Ajayi Crowther University selected through purposive sampling. Data were generated with Indigenous language Newspaper Readership Pattern Instrument (ILNRPI.The results reveal poor readership pattern of Indigenous Language newspaper with the readership pattern of English Language newspapers faring better. On the basis of the findings, useful suggestions were made. 
Key words: Indigenous; Language; Readership pattern; Undergraduates

O. F. ALABI

2011-11-01

337

Correlates of Homeless Episodes among Indigenous People  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individuals with a history of homeless episodes had significantly more individual and family health, mental health, and substance abuse problems. Periods of homelessness also were associated with financial problems. Among the female caretakers who experienced episodes of homelessness over the course of the study, the majority had been homeless at least once prior to the start of the study and approximately one–fifth met criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence, drug abuse, or major depression. Family adversity during childhood was also common for women experiencing homelessness during the study.

Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner

2011-01-01

338

Indigenous technology development of speciality glasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata pioneered the Specialty Glass development in India and has the distinction of running facilities for limited scale production of a few varieties of glasses for catering to the needs of civil and strategic sectors. The two important varieties of glass on which the Institute had embarked upon in the recent past in view of critical requirement of the glasses by Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are high density Radiation Shielding Window (RSW) glass and Neodymium doped phosphate laser glass. Dedicated facilities have been established for this purpose. While the Institute has successfully achieved the milestone of developing the indigenous technology of producing RSW glass to make the country self-reliant in this important strategic area, initial success has also been achieved in developing laser glass. The details of the activities pursued for making the above two varieties of glass are explained in this presentation. (author)

2012-10-01

339

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

2003-03-31

340

Interpreting indigenous art in university collections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Debates on the representation of indigenous cultures in museums have come to the fore in the past thirty years. This paper examines the context for the opening of Waipapa Marae at the University of Auckland in 1988. It outlines a history of M?ori meeting houses used for teaching and learning in a specifically M?ori context in the New Zealand tertiary sector. The challenge for the university curator with a marae as part of the collection is how to interpret it for the 21st century. Facilitating a student-led process can make present those who have been traditionally absent in ethnographic exhibitions – the culture group who produced the objects.

Linda Tyler

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Mapping Medievalism: An Indigenous Political Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of Kathryn Brush (ed., Mapping Medievalism at the Canadian Frontier, London Ontario Canada: Museum London and the McIntosh Gallery, 2010. Mapping Medievalism, a collection of essays written by a professor and nine graduate students, is an examination of the role of settlers’ imagination of Europe’s middle ages in the development of Canadian culture. The project aims to be inclusive of Aboriginal histories, and some authors grapple with the colonial implications of the settlers’ imagining of the medieval. This review provides an indigenous political perspective on the book, and argues that some essays provide useful insight into colonial processes. However, some essays approach colonialism in a non-productive fashion and, ultimately, the publication falls short of its aim to be inclusive to Aboriginal histories.

Vanessa Dion Fletcher

2011-12-01

342

Nuclear fuel fabrication - developing indigenous capability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early 70's for production of fuel for PHWRs and BWRs in India, has made several improvements in different areas of fuel manufacturing. Starting with wire-wrap type of fuel bundles, NFC had switched over to split spacer type fuel bundle production in mid 80's. On the upstream side slurry extraction was introduced to prepare the pure uranyl nitrate solution directly from the MDU cake. Applying a thin layer of graphite to the inside of the tube was another modification. The Complex has developed cost effective and innovative techniques for these processes, especially for resistance welding of appendages on the fuel elements which has been a unique feature of the Indian PHWR fuel assemblies. Initially, the fuel fabrication plants were set-up with imported process equipment for most of the pelletisation and assembly operations. Gradually with design and development of indigenous equipment both for production and quality control, NFC has demonstrated total self reliance in fuel production by getting these special purpose machines manufactured indigenously. With the expertise gained in different areas of process development and equipment manufacturing, today NFC is in a position to offer know-how and process equipment at very attractive prices. The paper discusses some of the new processes that are developed/introduced in this field and describes different features of a few PLC based automatic equipment developed. Salient features of innovative techniques being adopted in the area Of UO{sub 2} powder production are also briefly indicated. (author)

Gupta, U.C.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Meena, R.; Sastry, V.S.; Radhakrishna, C.; Rao, S.M.; Sinha, K.K. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy (India)

1997-07-01

343

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous

Breen, Helen M.

2012-01-01

344

Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers  

Science.gov (United States)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

2011-01-01

345

Molecular evidence of very virulent infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important immunosuppressive pathogen of chickens worldwide. The introduction and evolution of IBDV in most African countries, especially in Ethiopia, remains unclear. We have investigated IBDV isolates obtained from commercial broilers, indigenous chickens, and pullets. The hypervariable region of the virus protein (VP) 2 and the 5' two-thirds of VP1 of 11 IBDV isolates were characterized by RT-PCR and further sequencing. All isolates were identified as very virulent (vv) IBDV based on the predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of the VP2 protein. Interestingly, the sequence analysis of the 5' two-thirds of VP1 indicated that the Ethiopian IBDV strains have aa residues typical for vvIBDV and for attenuated IBDV strains. Among all IBDV strains included in this study for phylogenetic comparison of VP2 nucleotide sequences, Ethiopian strains form a cluster within the vvIBDV lineage. We have also shown that Ethiopian IBDV strains have mutations in the VP1 region. Their roles in IBDV virulence may require further in vivo studies. As depicted in this study, the nucleotide and aa sequence analysis of VP1 in addition to VP2 is necessary to obtain a clear picture of the molecular evolution of IBDV. PMID:23050483

Negash, Tamiru; Gelaye, Esayas; Petersen, Henning; Grummer, Beatrice; Rautenschlein, Silke

2012-09-01

346

Indigenous Research on Chinese Management : What and How  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue. Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research.

Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok

2012-01-01

347

Indigenous Technology and Agricultural Production: The Case of Poultry Incubator  

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Full Text Available Most poultry equipments available in Nigeria are imported and the expensive nature of these equipment, the difficulties encountered in purchasing them, coupled with the problem of lack of fund has made large-scale production of poultry very difficult in Nigeria. This paper therefore, discusses the concept of indigenous technology and the relevance of indigenous technology to the economy of Nigeria. The paper further highlighted the food production problems in the country and finally explained the construction of poultry incubator using indigenous knowledge with the aid of local materials.

Stephen J. Ibitoye

2011-01-01

348

Mobile Technologies for Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Communities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within the digitalization process under the limitations and capabilities of the tools. We believe that a continuation of local appropriation and co-design of tools will lead to an integrated, intuitive and non-intrusive indigenous knowledge preservation process within the local communities.

Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq

2013-01-01

349

[Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction].  

Science.gov (United States)

This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State. PMID:24896059

Welch, James R

2014-04-01

350

Indigenous Peoples of North America: Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Justice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice.

2012-01-01

351

Building Indigenous Social Capital in an Online World  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the nexus between social relations of mutual benefit, information communication technology (ICT access and social inclusion. More specifically, a case study methodology is used to examine the role of ICT in facilitating the social capital of Indigenous communities. A remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory (NT is the focus of the paper. Whilst the potential of social capital to affect positive outcomes across a diverse range of areas is well researched, Indigenous disadvantage is well documented and the role of ICT in facilitating social and economic development is well established, although little is known about the ICT social capital nexus in an Indigenous context. The paper commences with a review of the social capital literature. A description of the methodology employed in the data collection phase of the project is followed by the case study. The paper concludes with a summary of the findings and recommendations for further research.

Susan Bandias

2010-01-01

352

Indigenous AIDS Organizing and the Anthropology of Activist Knowledge  

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Full Text Available Indigenous AIDS activists join AIDS activists worldwide today in theorizing the AIDS pandemic as a construct of social relations of power. Their anti-colonial and transnational activism holds scholars accountable to studying how power structures the production of knowledge about AIDS. This essay first examines how Indigenous AIDS activists theorize the colonial and transnational conditions of AIDS, and challenge states and international agencies to respect the sovereignty of Indigenous communities and knowledges. The essay then cites Indigenous activist knowledge as inspiration for revisiting critiques of coloniality in anthropology, and their implications for the anthropology of AIDS. Anthropologists studying AIDS can respond to AIDS activists by addressing how colonial legacies shape the processes and products of research and writing. By working within intersubjective and reflexive relationships with people and communities affected by AIDS, anthropologists can enter accountable dialogue with AIDS activists and on that basis produce anti-colonial and transnational knowledge about AIDS.

Scott L. Morgensen

2009-04-01

353

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservior Constituents. October 2002.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...

D. O. Hitzman A. K. Stepp D. D. Dennis L. R. Graumann

2002-01-01

354

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents. April 2002.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...

D. O. Hitzman A. K. Stepp D. M. Dennis L. R. Graumann

2002-01-01

355

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents. June 2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...

D. O. Hitzman S. A. Bailey A. K. Stepp

2000-01-01

356

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents. January 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...

D. O. Hitzman A. K. Stepp

2001-01-01

357

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents. Ocotber 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic pr...

D. O. Hitzman A. K. Stepp D. M. Dennis L. R. Graumann

2001-01-01

358

Annex E: Implementation of the meat chicken Directive ...  

Batch number or load number (optional) – In the situation that chickens from a ... \\Daily mortality rate – the Directive defines this as “the number of chickens which \\have died in a house on the same day including those that have been.

359

Teletherapy sources with imported and indigenous 60Co activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, a unit of the Department of Atomic Energy, fabricates and supplies radioactive sources for medical, industrial, agriculture and research applications. High specific activity cobalt-60, required for teletherapy is normally imported. There was a proposal for manufacturing high specific activity sources indigenously. A study was carried out to observe the feasibility of mixing imported and indigenous cobalt-60 pellets to fabricate teletherapy source cap...

2009-01-01

360

Indigenously developed monoclonal antibody specific for human blood group B  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The quality blood grouping reagents is clearly an important factor for blood transfusion and diagnostics and many international standard Anti-B reagents are available for blood grouping in India and there is a need of indigenously developed, cost effective potent Anti-B secreting monoclonal antibody which can be used as a standard blood grouping reagent. To develop indigenous, cost effective standard Anti-B reagent which can be used in the scale up sys...

Ajay vinayak Abhyankar

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cultural contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans following their arrival in the New World. In this article the authors explore local responses to European arrival in Cuba, through analysis of metalwork found in indigenous graves. These studies demonstrate that the local communities valued particular metals quite differently from the Europeans, as the imported materials were incorporated into pre-existing symbolic systems relating to sacred power.

Marcos Martinón-Torres

2007-09-01

362

[Re]claiming Indigenous Knowledge: Challenges, Resistance, and Opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In May 1994, I arrived in Kenya to carry out my research on Africa and, more specifically, rural Kenyan women’s Indigenous ways of knowing.  My interest in this research was sparked by the lack of textual knowledge of African Indigenous knowledges during my tenure in three North American universities. As a young scholar,  I “ran” away from Kenya because, all through my education, there was a great emphasis on western education, lifestyle, and culture.  I longed for...

Njoki Nathani Wane

2013-01-01

363

Indigenous participation in Australian economies : Historical and anthropological perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This volume seeks to contribute to the body of anthropological and historical studies of Indigenous participation in the Australian colonial and post colonial economy. It arises out of a panel on this topic at the annual conference of the Australian Anthropological Society, held jointly with the British and New Zealand anthropological associations in Auckland in December 2008. The panel was organised in conjunction with an Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Grant project on Indigenous ...

Keen, Ian

2010-01-01

364

Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community and resource user support has often been declared as essential to achieving globally agreed targets for marine protection. Given that indigenous people in Canada have resource use rights, we engaged two indigenous communities in British Columbia for their views on marine planning and protected areas. We developed a three-phased approach for executing our research: building research partnerships, carrying out individual interviews, and holding community discussion sessions. Participa...

Ban, Natalie C.; Chris Picard; Vincent, Amanda C. J.

2008-01-01

365

Indigenous Peoples Protest Exclusion from Bali Talks - Climate &  

...highest level body in the United Nations that addresses indigenous peoples rights,” stated Hubertus Samangun, the Focal Point of the Indigenous Peoples delegation ...more that 5 million words of UNFCCC documents,” argued Alfred Ilenre of the Edo People of Nigeria. This is occurring despite the fact that ...their responsibilities to cut emissions and pushing the responsibilit onto developing countries,” stated Fiu Mata’ese Elisara- Laula, of the O Le Siosiomaga Society ...

366

Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Ci...

Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C

2012-01-01

367

Power, Culture, Economy (CAEPR 30) : Indigenous Australians and Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research over the past decade in health, employment, life expectancy, child mortality, and household income has confirmed that Indigenous Australians are still Australia’s most disadvantaged group. Those residing in communities in regional and remote Australia are further disadvantaged because of the limited formal economic opportunities there. In these areas mining developments may be the major—and sometimes the only—contributors to regional economic development. However Indigenous com...

Altman, Jon; Martin, David

2009-01-01

368

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

2009-06-08

369

Identification of a new intestinal spirochete with pathogenicity for chickens.  

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Two intestinal spirochete isolates obtained from chickens with diarrhea were examined by electron microscopy, biochemical tests, rRNA gene restriction pattern analysis, and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. One isolate (strain 91-1207/C1) was pathogenicity tested in vivo in chickens. The chicken spirochetes were morphologically indistinguishable from Serpulina innocens and Serpulina hyodysenteriae and phenotypically similar to S. innocens. However, the chicken spirochetes could be distinguis...

Swayne, D. E.; Eaton, K. A.; Stoutenburg, J.; Trott, D. J.; Hampson, D. J.; Jensen, N. S.

1995-01-01

370

Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.

Cunningham Joan

2010-08-01

371

Socioeconomic disparities in self-reported cardiovascular disease for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults: analysis of national survey data  

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Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Indigenous Australians, or whether any such relationship is similar to that in non-Indigenous Australians. Methods Weighted data on self-reported CVD and several SES measures were analyzed for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the A...

Cunningham Joan

2010-01-01

372

Parasitic diseases of remote Indigenous communities in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians. PMID:20412810

Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R

2010-08-15

373

From the ‘Quiet Revolution’ to ‘Crisis’ in Australian Indigenous Affairs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the space of one year the Australian federal political leadership transformed its own account of its achievements in Indigenous affairs from that of a ‘quiet revolution’ to a state of ‘crisis’. This article takes this idea that there is a ‘crisis’ taking place across remote Aboriginal communities as its starting point. However, in contrast to most assessments of this ‘crisis’ I argue that claims about ‘crisis’ do not derive naturally from accounts of the critical circumstances of daily life in remote indigenous communities. Rather, the idea of crisis can be understood as a process of narration, one that the federal political leadership has brought into existence through narrative and discourse. As I show, this narrative of crisis has had a very particular strategic effect. It has enabled the federal government to transform its failure to change the fundamentals of indigenous welfare (its ‘quiet revolution’ into a widespread, general crisis. In this way, this narrative of crisis thus marks a turning point: one at which the discourse of government responsibility for citizens has been overtaken and replaced by that of citizen responsibility to government – namely that indigenous people and communities themselves must now be held responsible for (governmental failure in indigenous affairs. Seen in these terms, the critical circumstances of daily life in many remote Indigenous communities far from providing testimony of governmental failure provide something of an alibi, making the idea of crisis seems utterly feasible.

Virginia Watson

2011-04-01

374

Identifying Useful Approaches to the Governance of Indigenous Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Questions of data governance occur in all contexts. Arguably, they become especially pressing for data concerning Indigenous people. Long-standing colonial relationships, experiences of vulnerability to decision-makers, claims of jurisdiction, and concerns about collective privacy become significant in considering how and by whom data concerning Indigenous people should be governed. Also significant is the on going need on the part of governments to access and use such data to plan, monitor, and account for programs involving Indigenous people. This exploratory policy article seeks to inform efforts to improve the governance of data between governments and Indigenous organizations and communities – especially the federal government and First Nations in Canada. It describes a spectrum of models arising from the growing literature on data governance in the corporate and public sectors as well as overarching approaches articulated by Indigenous organizations. After outlining certain practical considerations in negotiating data sharing agreements, the article presents a selection of promising initiatives in indigenous data governance undertaken in Canada, the United States, and Australia.

Jodi Bruhn

2014-04-01

375

An indigenously designed apparatus for measuring orthodontic force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: An indigenous apparatus is designed to measure the orthodontic force delivered from elastomeric chains and compare this force with values obtained from the Instron universal testing machine. Material and Methods: An indigenously designed apparatus is developed to evaluate forces delivered by various orthodontic auxiliaries. The apparatus consists of a flat steel platform, movable arm, and a mounted screw gauge arm. Orthodontic brackets can be attached to these arms. An electric circuit is connected, to the movable arm, which will estimate the forces exerted between brackets with elastomeric chain. The circuit is connected to the signal conditioner which will display the reading. Elastomeric chain with four links is attached to the arms. The movable arm is adjusted to create orthodontic forces and calibrated on the digital displayer. Twenty Elastomeric chains are used and forces are calibrated with the indigenously designed apparatus. The values of the force is compared with the forces calibrated with Instron universal testing machine to compare the efficacy of the indigenous apparatus. Results: The force values obtained from activation of elastomeric chain segments, in the Instron universal testing machine and the indigenous apparatus were in the range of 100 to 150 grams, initially at 1mm activation then, took a steep rise to 300 to 350 grams at 5mm activation and then, had a gradual increase for the remaining 5mm activation, reaching 400 to 450 grams. Conclusion: The Indigenous apparatus can be considered efficient in measuring tensile force generated by orthodontic auxiliaries. PMID:24392423

Dinesh, S P Saravana; Arun, A V; Sundari, K K Shantha; Samantha, Christine; Ambika, K

2013-11-01

376

Effects of dietary cypermethrin on chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the following study effects of dietary cypermethrin in chickens were observed. Chickens were administered cypermethrin in the feed in nominal concentrations of 150, 300 and 600 ppm (mean measured concentrations: 130, 285 and 655 mg/kg feed for a period of 28 days. The following parameters were monitored: clinical symptoms and mortality, feed consumption and body weight gain, liver weight, plasma ChE activity, hematological and biochemical effects. Any accumulation of cypermethrin in the liver, peritoneal fat, breast and leg muscle was monitored, as well. The results obtained showed that cypermethrin added to the chickens feed did not significantly affect feed intake, body weight gain and liver weight. Also, cypermethrin did not adversely affect the activity of plasma ChE and ALT in the serum. Serum AST activity was significantly increased in the treated chickens, in males at 300 and 600 ppm and in females at all three tested doses. ALP activity was significantly decreased in comparison with the control, in males at doses 300 and 600 ppm, but in females only at the dose of 600 ppm. Hematological data showed that cypermethrin induced a statistically significant increase only in PLT number (both sexes, all three doses tested. The obtained results also showed that cypermethrin did not accumulate in organs and tissues of chickens. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46008

Neškovi? N.

2013-01-01

377

Deep Sequencing of Chicken microRNAs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of new, deep sequencing technologies has greatly accelerated microRNA discovery. We have applied this approach to the identification of chicken microRNAs and to the comparison of microRNAs in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV to those present in uninfected CEF. Results We obtained 125,463 high quality reads that showed an exact match to the chicken genome. The majority of the reads corresponded to previously annotated chicken microRNAs; however, the sequences of many potential novel microsRNAs were obtained. A comparison of the reads obtained in MDV-infected and uninfected CEF indicates that infection does not significantly perturb the expression profile of microRNAs. Frequently sequenced microRNAs include miR-221/222, which are thought to play a role in growth and proliferation. A number of microRNAs (e.g., let-7, miR-199a-1, 26a are expressed at lower levels in MDV-induced tumors, highlighting the potential importance of this class of molecules in tumorigenesis. Conclusion Deep sequencing technology is highly suited for small RNA discovery. This approach is independent of comparative sequence analysis, which has been the primary method used to identify chicken microRNAs. Our results have confirmed the expression of many microRNAs identified by sequence similarity and identified a pool of candidate novel microRNAs.

Isaacs Grace

2008-04-01

378

“Health divide” between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: Population based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N?=?1660 men and women, 18–96?years. Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI?2, anaemia, goitre, suspected tuberculosis and hypertension was compared across forward castes, other backward classes and tribal populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Results Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%, anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5% and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6% compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4% and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%. Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7% and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7% than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18–30?y (27.1%. Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18–30?y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%. The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap between tribes and non-tribes for underweight and goitre, respectively. Conclusions Policies and programmes designed to benefit the Scheduled Tribes need to promote their well-being in general but also target the specific needs of the most vulnerable indigenous groups. There is a need to enhance the capacity of the disadvantaged to equally take advantage of health opportunities.

Haddad Slim

2012-05-01

379

Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology of disease, are used to place the various seafood products in risk categories and to identify areas of concern. It is concluded that the presence of pathogens in molluscs and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products are hazards which are presently not under control. In order to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum when products are stored at abuse temperature, it is recommended that additional barriers to growth are included in lightly preserved (e.g. cold smoked salmon) and low-heat treated (e.g REPFEDS) products. It is finally pointed out that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is the preferred strategy in most quality assurance programmes and it is recommended that microbiological criteria are applied only as guidelines in the verification of the HACCP-system - and not for official control purposes. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

Huss, Hans Henrik

1997-01-01

380

Thermoluminescence dating of Brazilian indigenous ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two indigenous ceramics fragments, one from Lagoa Queimada (LQ) and another from Barra dos Negros (BN), both sites located on Bahia state (Brazil), were dated by thermoluminescence (TL) method. Each fragment was physically prepared and divided into two fractions, one was used for TL measurement and the other for annual dose determination. The TL fraction was chemically treated, divided in sub samples and irradiated with several doses. The plot extrapolation from TL intensities as function of radiation dose enabled the determination of the accumulated dose (Dac), 3.99 Gy and 1.88 Gy for LQ and BN, respectively. The annual dose was obtained through the uranium, thorium and potassium determination by ICP-MS. The annual doses (D an) obtained were 2.86 and 2.26 mGy/year. The estimated ages were ?1375 and 709 y for BN and LQ ceramics, respectively. The ages agreed with the archaeologists' estimation for the Aratu and Tupi tradition periods, respectively. (authors)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective  

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Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

Richardson Katya L

2012-12-01

382

Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS

1990-04-01

383

INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

2003-09-01

384

INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery.This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery. Research has begun on the program and experimental laboratory work is underway. Polymer-producing cultures have been isolated from produced water samples and initially characterized. Concurrently, a microcosm scale sand-packed column has been designed and developed for testing cultures of interest, including polymer-producing strains. In research that is planned to begin in future work, comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents will be conducted in sand pack and cores with synthetic and natural field waters at concentrations, flooding rates, and with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs.

D.O. Hitzman; S.A. Bailey

2000-01-01

385

Chronic disease and hospitalisation for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Western Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous and non-indigenous Western Australians with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (pH1N1) infection were compared for risk factors, influenza vaccination history, symptoms, use of antiviral medications, and hospitalisation. Data were collected systematically on 856 notified cases with laboratory confirmed pH1N1 infection during the first 10 weeks of pH1N1 virus transmission in Western Australia in 2009. Indigenous people with pH1N1 were approximately 3 times more likely to be hospitalised and were more likely to have a range of underlying medical conditions and be smokers, compared with non-Indigenous cases. Age (P < 0.001) and the presence of two or more co-morbidities (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of hospitalisation, while Indigenous status was not, indicating that higher pH1N1 hospitalisation rates in Indigenous Australians during the 2009 winter season were attributable to the higher prevalence of underlying chronic disease. These results underscore the need to ensure that influenza vaccination is delivered as widely as possible among those with chronic health conditions. PMID:22010511

Goggin, Leigh S; Carcione, Dale; Mak, Donna B; Dowse, Gary K; Giele, Carolien M; Smith, David W; Effler, Paul V

2011-06-01

386

[Spatial and temporal distribution of tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous of Rondônia State, Western Amazon, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of crude and adjusted rates of incidence of tuberculosis (TB) between 1997 and 2006, identifying areas of greatest risk to the indigenous and non-indigenous population of Rondônia State, Brazil. An ecological study was conducted analyzing municipalities and Indian reserves, using the local empirical Bayesian method. The crude average rate of incidence of TB among the non-indigenous population was 35.6/100,000 inhabitants, while for the indigenous population it was 415.0/100,000. Rates greater than 600/100,000 were reported in the Karipuna, Sete de Setembro, Igarapé, Ribeirão and Karitiana reserves. We observed a greater number of cases in under 15 year-olds with little schooling in contrast to the situation in the non-indigenous population. After making adjustments, the rates in some Indian reserves exceeded 240/100,000 inhabitants, while in coinciding municipalities incidence was between the range of 61-120/100,000. The Bayesian method led to decreased overall heterogeneity in rates. Evidence suggests that the indigenous population is more vulnerable to contracting TB and highlighted areas that require further attention to ensure the adequate control of TB in Rondônia. PMID:22331153

Melo, Tatiana Eustáquia Magalhães de Pinho; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Basta, Paulo Cesar

2012-02-01

387

Aetheroleum and fat oxidation of chicken meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1024x768 The quality of meat changges during storage. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens COBB 500. Chickens were fed by feed mixture with   aetheroleum. Premix of aetheroleum  contained  aetheroleum from Origanum vulgare L. (30 g, Thymus vulgaris L. (10 g and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (10 g. The carcass was stored at -18 °C in a freezer box. Acid number of fat in chicken meat was ranged from 4.74 to 14.57 mg KOH/g fat after 9 months and after 12 months was ranged from 5.75 to 9.11 mg KOH/g fat.doi:10.5219/267   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

Jana Tká?ová

2013-03-01

388

The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry. PMID:22853945

Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

2012-06-01

389

Endogenous retroviruses of the chicken genome  

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Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed the chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence to search for previously uncharacterized endogenous retrovirus (ERV sequences using ab initio and combined evidence approaches. We discovered 11 novel families of ERVs that occupy more than 21 million base pairs, approximately 2%, of the chicken genome. These novel families include a number of recently active full-length elements possessing identical long terminal repeats (LTRs as well as intact gag and pol open reading frames. The abundance and diversity of chicken ERVs we discovered underscore the utility of an approach that combines multiple methods for the identification of interspersed repeats in vertebrate genomes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Igor Zhulin and Itai Yanai.

Jordan I King

2008-03-01

390

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

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Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

391

Actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae) / Leishmanicidal activity of methanolic extract from four ecotypes of Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El tratamiento clásico de la leishmaniosis cutánea consiste en la inyección de 15-20 ampollas de Glucantine lo que ocasiona efectos secundarios, este hecho justifica la búsqueda de nuevos medicamentos motivando la presente investigación. El objetivo fue evaluar in vitro la actividad leishmanicida de [...] los extractos metanólicos (EM) de los ecotipos blanco, rojo, morado y negro de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (también conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp.), sobre el crecimiento de Leishmania braziliensis peruviana. Los promastigotes alcanzaron la fase de crecimiento exponencial al quinto día de cultivo a 27 ºC en el medio bifásico Columbia, suplementado con 15% de sangre desfibrinada de carnero, en ese momento se enfrentaron, por separado, con los EM a concentraciones de 50, 100, 200 y 400 ?g/ml. Los recuentos se hicieron diariamente con cámara Neubauer. La máxima disminución de promastigotes se produjo al segundo día de enfrentamiento para el ecotipo morado (17,41% de viabilidad) empleando 400 mg/ml. El efecto leishmanicida estaría relacionado con los alcaloides imidazólicos presentes en el EM. Se concluye que al segundo día de enfrentamiento con el EM, el ecotipo morado presenta la mayor actividad leishmanicida seguido del ecotipo blanco. Abstract in english The classic treatment of the cutaneous leishmaniosis consists on the injection of 15-20 ampoule of Glucantine what causes serious secondary effects. This fact justifies the search of new medications what motivated the present investigation. The objective was to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity o [...] f the methanolic extracts (ME) of the white, red, purple and black ecotypes of Lepidium peruvianum Chacón (at present Lepidium meyenii Walp.) about the growth of Leishmania braziliensis peruviana in vitro. The promastigotes reached the logarithmic phase to the fifth day of cultivation at 27 ºC in the two-phase Columbia medium with 15% of defibrinated sheep blood and they faced, for separate, with the ME to concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ?g/ml. The recounts were made daily with camera Neubauer. The maximum decrease of promastigotes (17.41% of viability) took place to the second day for the purple ecotype with the concentration of 400 mg/ml. The leishmanicidal effect would be related with the imidazolic alkaloids, glucosinolates, flavonoids, tannins and saponines present in the ME. The conclusion is that only ME of the white and purple ecotypes presents leishmanicidal activity, at second day of culture.

Alzamora, Libertad; Solís, Hilda; Rojas, Marisol; Calderón, Marisela; Fajardo, Narda; Quispe, Jenny; Alvarez, Evelyn; Colona, Erasmo; Torres, Dina.

392

A seroprevalence investigation of chicken astrovirus infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Two genetically different isolates of chicken astrovirus (CAstV), named CAstV612 and CAstV11672, which share low levels of antigenic relatedness in cross-indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests, have been identified recently. In this study, separate IIF tests for detecting antibodies to the CAstV612 and CAstV11672 isolates have been used to determine the seroprevalences of CAstV infections in 4 generations of flocks involved in broiler chicken production. CAstV antibodie...

2009-01-01

393

Optimum market age and weight of Betong chicken  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Randomized complete block design was used to study the optimum market age and weight of Betong chicken. Ninety male and ninety female Betong chickens were raised and grouped into 6 groups (15 males and 15 females in each group). Each group was weighted and slaughtered separately between sex at 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks old.It was found that male Betong chicken had higher weights than female chicken. Live weights of male chicken at 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 weeks old were 1,403.7, 1,637...

2006-01-01

394

Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chi