WorldWideScience
1

Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria / Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información bás [...] ica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P Abstract in english Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani an [...] d Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P

O. O, Olawunmi; A. E, Salako; A. A, Afuwape.

2008-12-01

2

Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria Diferenciación Morfométrica y Evaluación de la Función de Ecotipos de Pollos Nativos Fulani y Yoruba de Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 Fulani and 101 Yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: Ilorin in the middle belt and Ibadan in the southwest región of Nigeria, respectively. The aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of Fulani and Yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. Results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the Fulani ecotype were generally higher (P Los datos sobre peso corporal y 11 mediciones corporales se hicieron en 51 pollos ecotipo Fulani y 101 pollos ecotipo Yoruba de dos mercados centrales de aves de corral: de Llorin en el Centro y de Ibadan en la región Sudoeste de Nigeria, respectivamente. El objetivo fue proporcionar información básica sobre las características de tamaño de los pollos ecotipos Fulani y Yoruba, diferenciar entre los tipos y el uso de variables morfométricas para una evaluación preliminar del tipo y función. Los resultados mostraron que las medias de peso vivo, longitud de ala y patas, cuerpo, muslos y pies, largo del pico y ancho del pecho del ecotipo Fulani fueron en general mayores (P <0,01 que las del ecotipo Yoruba. Los machos también fueron mayores (P <0,01 a las hembras en la longitud de la cresta y ala, largo de la pata y ancho de pecho, mientras que el peso vivo, longitud del dedo del pie y el muslo también fueron diferentes (P <0,05 dentro de cada ecotipo. La cresta de los machos fue más prominente que las de hembras. Los coeficientes de variación fueron muy pequeños, lo que significa una condición monotípica y una similitud de oportunidades de selección para el tipo, basada en parámetros corporales. El ecotipo Fulani fue más grande que Yoruba. El significativo mayor cuerpo (P <0,05 del Fulani sugiere una salida en función entre los genotipos. El pollo Fulani parece más adecuado para la producción de huevos que el tipo Yoruba. Su potencial para el desarrollo de un stock comercial más adaptado y la mejora genética de los pollos de la región y otras implicancias del tipo función se discuten.

O. O Olawunmi

2008-12-01

3

Assessing the genetic diversity of five Tanzanian chicken ecotypes using molecular tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of Tanzanian chicken populations through phylogenetic relationship, and to trace the history of Tanzanian indigenous chickens. Five ecotypes of Tanzanian local chickens (Ching'wekwe, Kuchi, Morogoro-medium, Pemba and Unguja) from eight regions were s [...] tudied. Diversity was assessed based on morphological measurements and 29 microsatellite markers recommended by ISAG/FAO advisory group on animal genetic diversity. A principal component analysis (PCA) of morphological measures distinguished individuals most by body sizes and body weight. Morogoro Medium, Pemba and Unguja were grouped together, while Ching'wekwe stood out because of their disproportionate short shanks and ulna bones. Kuchi formed an independent group owing to their comparably long body sizes. Microsatellite analysis revealed three clusters of Tanzanian chicken populations. These clusters encompassed i) Morogoro-medium and Ching'wekwe from Eastern and Central Zones ii) Unguja and Pemba from Zanzibar Islands and iii) Kuchi from Lake Zone regions, which formed an independent cluster. Sequence polymorphism of D-loop region was analysed to disclose the likely maternal origin of Tanzanian chickens. According to reference mtDNA haplotypes, the Tanzanian chickens that were sampled encompass two haplogroups of different genealogical origin. From haplotype network analysis, Tanzanian chickens probably originated on the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia. The majority of Kuchi chickens clustered in a single haplogroup, which was previously found in Shamo game birds sampled from Shikoku Island of Japan in the Kõchi Prefecture. Analysis of phenotypic and molecular data, as well as the linguistic similarity of the breed names, suggests a recent introduction of the Kuchi breed to Tanzania.

C.M., Lyimo; A., Weigend; U., Janßien-Tapken; P.L., Msoffe; H., Simianer; S., Weigend.

4

Effects of High Environmental Temperature on Blood Indices of Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of high environmental temperature on the blood indices (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC) of Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC), Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred (TICC) and broilers (BC). One kilogram of male and female TIC, TICC and BC were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2°C and 38±2°C. MCV, MCH and MCHC were investigated on days...

Aengwanich, W.

2007-01-01

5

Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Percentage of Lymphocyte  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of high environmental temperatures on the percentage of lymphocytes between Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC), Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred (TICC) and Broilers (BC) TIC and TICC and BC. One kilogram of male and female TIC and TICC and BC were maintained in the environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2oC. Percentage of lymphocytes was investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of an experimental period. The results revealed th...

Aengwanich, W.

2008-01-01

6

ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

E. Kusdiyantini

2012-06-01

7

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pchickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-10-01

8

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pchickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

9

Effects of High Environmental Temperatures on the Electrolyte Status of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of high environmental temperatures on the electrolyte status of three breeds of chickens: Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC), Thai Indigenous Crossbred Chickens (TICC) and Broiler Chickens (BC). Male and female TIC, TICC and BC were maintained at the environmental temperature ranges of 26±2°C and cyclic 38±2°C. Sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl¯) and potassium (K+) were investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The r...

Aengwanich, W.

2007-01-01

10

Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity. PMID:21805308

Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2012-03-01

11

Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1, apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1, triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1, heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25 and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3. These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05, (ii the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05 and (iii the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05, whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period.

Tawatchai Teltathum, Supamit Mekchay

2009-01-01

12

Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Heterophil/Lymphocyte Ratio  

OpenAIRE

The effects of high environmental temperature on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined for a comparison of the ability to tolerate heat between Thai indigenous chickens, crossbred Thai indigenous chickens and broilers. One kilogram of the representative males and females of each of the three breeds were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2°C. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was investigated on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The result...

Aengwanich, W.

2007-01-01

13

Bio-Economic Model to Support Breeding of Indigenous Chicken in Different Production Systems  

OpenAIRE

A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to support breeding of indigenous chicken and used to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterise indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production systems in Kenya. The systems were defined on the basis of the feeding regime, level of confinement and healthcare provided and included; confined full ration system, where the chicken are confined all the time and provided with commercial feed and proper healthcare; semi-int...

Menge, E. O.; Kahi, A. K.; Kosgey, I. S.

2005-01-01

14

Blood Cell Characteristics, Hematological Values and Average Daily Gained Weight of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This investigation was carried at the Experimental Laboratory Unit, Division of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand in August to December 2004. Three different breeds of poultry were used, i.e., Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with three replications. The three poultry breeds were used as main plots, whilst gender (male and female and sampling periods were used as subplots. An assay on blood characteristics and blood counts of red and white blood cells were carried out. Feed intake and average daily gained weight (ADG/week were determined. The results showed that the appearances on blood cells characteristics of erythrocyte of red blood cells and white blood cells of heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, basophil and thrombocyte of the three poultry breeds were not different from one another. Hematological values of the three different breeds possessed normal blood values for normal growth and they fitted within a normal range of blood of normal chickens. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb of Thai indigenous chickens was higher than both Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. White blood cells of heterophil of Thai indigenous crossbred chickens were higher than broiler chickens, whilst white blood of lymphocyte of female was higher than female. However, the differences found on hematological values of both male and female were not statistically significant. Daily feed intake/week and average daily gained weight increased/week of broiler chickens ranked the highest followed by Thai indigenous crossbred and the lowest was with Thai indigenous chickens.

Chinrasri Orawan

2007-01-01

15

Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using six marker combinations were applied to detect genetic variation and phylo genetic relationships among 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds and a Recessive White chicken breed introduced from France. The DNA was pooled for each group. Polymorphic b [...] ands, breed-specific bands and genetic similarity coefficients of 13 chicken breeds were derived from the AFLP data. A total of 280 polymorphic bands was generated from which nine specific bands were observed for the Shouguang and the Dongxiang Dark chicken. One specific band was observed in the pooled DNA of the Jiuyuan Dark chicken, the Xingyi Bantam chicken and the Recessive White chicken. The genetic similarity coefficients among the 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds varied between 0.635 - 0.860, and 0.188 - 0.360 between the Recessive White and the indigenous Chinese chicken breeds. The UPGMA based tree yielded two clusters for the 13 chicken breeds, with the Recessive White chickens forming a distinct cluster. In summary, the genetic similarity coefficients and the UPGMA tree of the 13 chicken breeds were consistent with their breeding history and geographical distribution. These results provide useful data with regard to the genetic diversity, genetic relationships and identification of chicken breeds in China.

Yushi, Gao; Yunjie, Tu; Haibin, Tong; Kehua, Wang; Xiujun, Tang; Kuanwei, Chen.

2008-03-01

16

A Comparative Study of Growth Performance and Feed Efficiency in Dominant Black Strain, Fulani Ecotype Chicken and Progeny from their Reciprocal Crosses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the relative performance of a local chicken (Fulani Ecotype or FExFE, an exotic chicken (Dominant Black or DBxDB, and their reciprocal crosses (DBxFE and FExDB was undertaken. A total of three hundred and thirty (330 chickens comprising 100 DBxDB, 80 DBxFE, 80 FExDB and 70 FExFE were studied. All animals were raised from day old to 21 weeks age contemporaneously under identical housing, feeding and management procedures during which growth parameters were measured. Significant (p DBxFE 1346.80±3.05 > DBxDB 1314.40±3.61 over the 21 week experimental period. FExFE had significantly (p FExFE 67.50±0.02 over the same period. Low mortality (? 2% occurred across genotypes with FExFE having the least mortality. The results indicated that reciprocal crossing of pure local Fulani Ecotype with exotic Dominant Black strain produces chickens with indistinguishable Feed Efficiency from the highly improved Dominant Black, and superior to the pure Fulani. Cross breeding of the type reported here may therefore serve as a tool for improving efficiency of Fulani Ecotype local poultry whilst retaining elements of their valued characteristics which include meat value. Further studies will evaluate the hybrids (F1 of FE and DB for retention of desirable characteristics of local breeds.

Sola-Ojo, F. E.

2012-06-01

17

Influence of Energy Intake on Egg Production and Weight in Indigenous Chickens of Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous chickens are widespread within the rural areas of Kenya where they contribute more than 50% of the domestic egg requirement. Although they contribute a significant proportion of egg requirements, the productivity is low. Poor nutrition is one of the reasons for the low productivity of indigenous chickens. They depend primarily on the scavenging feed resource base for nutrients. Scavenging is an uncertain method of feeding because the scavenged rations may be inadequate in nutrient ...

Kingori, A. M.; Wachira, A. M.; Tuitoek, J. K.

2014-01-01

18

Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous) Chickens  

OpenAIRE

The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous) chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtaine...

Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha

2012-01-01

19

Comparative Egg Production and Mortality of Two Commercial Egg Strains, Indigenous Chicken and Their Inbred Progenies  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to compare the monthly hen day egg production (HDEP %), egg weights, total egg mass and mortality of two commercial egg strains and the indigenous chicken with their inbred progenies. The results indicate significant (P<0.05, 0.01) inbreeding depression in the HDEP %, egg weight and total egg mass of the two commercial strains but not in the indigenous chicken. Brooding mortality was higher in the parents compared to their inbred progenies. The inbred progenies re...

Udeh, I.; Ogbu, C. C.; Oleforuh-okoleh, V. U.

2013-01-01

20

Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

Ochieng Justus

2013-08-01

21

Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

2012-10-01

22

Production Performance of Dual Purpose Crosses of Two Indigenous with Two Exotic Chicken Breeds in Sub-tropical Environment  

OpenAIRE

An ongoing crossbreeding experiment is being conducted with the objective of producing dual purpose synthetic chicken for village poultry production in Ethiopia. The two exotic chicken breeds used were the Fayoumi (F) and Rhode Island Red (R) as dam line, whereas the two indigenous chicken breeds used were the Naked neck (N) and local Netch (W); a white feathered chicken. The indigenous breeds were used as sire line to produce the hybrids FN (F? X N?) and RW (R? X W?). Growth and egg ...

Gjoen, H. M.; Adnoy, T.; Fassill Bekele; Kathle, J.; Girma Abebe

2010-01-01

23

The Influence of Energy Intake on Egg Production of Indigenous chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted on indigenous chicken to determine the influence of energy intake on egg production, egg and hen weight. Two summit diets were formulated containing 17 and 30% crude protein (CP). The diets were randomly allocated to 120 indigenous hens' aged 34 weeks, such that each diet was offered to the hens such that they had similar CP, Vitamin and mineral intake varying energy intake. Egg production increased (p0.05). Hen weight increased (p0.05) when energy intake increased from 524 to 915 kj/d

24

Relationships between cock semen viability and the fertility of artificially inseminated South African indigenous chicken breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available One hundred and sixty hens and 32 cocks of four different South African indigenous chicken breeds (Naked Neck (NN), Ovambo (OVB), Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) and Venda (VD) were used in this study. Reproductive performance tests as determined by the number of ejaculations per five minutes of abdomina [...] l sexual massage (5ASM) were used to select 16 high performing (HP) and 16 low performing (LP) cocks from a population of 80 cocks. Cocks with >2 ejaculates/60 min or

J.T., Molekwa; D.O., Umesiobi.

25

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

Hove, T.; Mukaratirwa, S.

2012-01-01

26

Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in China using microsatellite markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds was evaluated with 25 microsatellite markers. Polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity with the estimator of genetic differentiation F ST and Nei's genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these four prot [...] ected local chicken populations showed high levels of diversity. The proportion of inter-population subdivision among the four protected local chicken populations was 16.0%. The average heterozygosity was 0.514, 0.581, 0.567 and 0.589 in Dongan, Xuefeng black-bone, Xianghuang and Taoyuan chickens, respectively, while the average PIC estimates were 0.455, 0.581, 0.557 and 0.576. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using genetic distance and the neighbour-joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local breeds estimated by microsatellite analysis may be useful as an initial guide for the effective conservation of chicken genetic diversity and developing conservation strategies.

Lin, Wei; Bin, Chen; Xiao-ying, Li; Sheng-gui, Liu; Jing-jing, Wang.

27

Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/?l, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/?l, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous chickens (P<0.05, lymphocyte counts of the females were significantly higher than the males (P<0.05. From serum biochemical values, potassium, sodium, total protein and uric acid of female indigenous birds were significantly higher than males (P<0.05.

Suchint Simaraks

2005-05-01

28

The Influence of Energy Intake on Egg Production of Indigenous Chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted on indigenous chicken to determine the influence of energy intake on egg production and hen weight. Two summit diets were formulated containing 17 and 30% crude protein (CP). They were blended in various ratios to obtain three other diets containing 20, 24 and 27% CP. The diets were randomly allocated to 120 indigenous hen's aged 34 weeks, such that each diet was replicated eight times. The hen's were housed in battery cages and diets were offered to the hens such that they had similar CP, vitamin and mineral intake with varying energy intake. Egg production, egg and hen weight were measured over a seven week period. Egg production increased (P0.05) as the energy intake increased from 455 to 524kJ/d and was similar(P>0.05) when energy intake increased from 524 to 915 kJ/d

29

Chick Mortality in Indigenous Chickens (Gallus domesticus under Free-range Management in Sebele, Gaborone, Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 125 out of 307 (41% chicks belonging to the indigenous breed of chickens under free-range management died in the first three months of life with most chicks being lost in the first month. The main cause of chick mortality was predation mostly by dogs but also as a result of inclement weather especially during the cold weather season. It is imperative that brooding should be provided to curb these chick losses and adequate housing should be provided for the hens so as to protect the young chicks from predation.

B. Seipone

2005-01-01

30

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (f [...] leas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %), followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

S, Mukaratirwa; T, Hove.

31

A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

T. Hove

2012-05-01

32

Seroprofile of Antibodies to Fowl Poxvirus in Commercial and Indigenous Chickens in Southwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of Fowl Poxvirus (FPV antibodies in both local and exotic poultry in some states of south western, Nigeria using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA technique. A total of 552 serum samples from farms in 4 states of southwestern Nigeria, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo and Lagos states as well as 184 sera of indigenous chicken from various households were obtained for the study. Of this, 248 samples from 3 farms were from vaccinated flocks while 304 samples from 3 other farms were from non-vaccinated flocks against Fowl Pox (FP. An overall prevalence of 80% was obtained for the non-vaccinated chickens. Of this, the local chicken showed 89% prevalence, growers, 10% layers, 75 and 80% in breeders, a prevalence of 95 -97% in layers and 100% was observed in layers and breeders, respectively in the vaccinated flocks. Within the states where samples were collected, 80% prevalence was observed in Lagos state and 75% in Oyo state. There were no significant differences between the prevalences in the groups except for the grower type that was significantly lower than the others. The mean standard deviation of the positive sera was higher in local chicken (1.350+134 when compared to all the other groups including the vaccinated birds (p< 0.001. There was no significant difference (p< 0.05 between the titres obtained in the vaccinated layers and breeders and between the non vaccinated layers and breeders. The vaccinated breeders, however, had significantly higher mean titres (p< 0.005 than the non-vaccinated breeders. The result showed that fowl pox is endemic in both exotic and indigenous poultry in southwestern Nigeria. The results also showed that there was a significantly higher response in the local breeds to FPV infection than in the exotic breeds, as has been observed with other disease agent.

R.O. Adeyemi

2007-01-01

33

Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Egg Production, Hatchability and Post-Hatch Offspring Performance of Indigenous Chickens  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous chickens in Kenya are estimated to be 21.5 million and are found in all the ecological zones in the country. They are 75% of the poultry population and produce 46 and 58% of the egg and meat, respectively. These levels of production are comparatively low compared to their numbers. The low productivity of indigenous chickens in Kenya and other parts of the world is partly attributed to poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper healthcare, poor nutrition and housing...

Muiruri, H. K.; Tuitoek, J. K.; Kingori, A. M.; Wachira, A. M.

2010-01-01

34

Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to northern Thailand (Black-boned and Thai native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island red).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of 4 genotypes of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indigenous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chicken breeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The animals were fed until 16 wk of age. Breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles were studied in detail. Chickens of the imported breeds were heavier at slaughter than indigenous strains, especially Black-boned chickens. Proportions of retail cuts with bones were similar among genotypes, whereas deboned breast meat and lean:bone ratio were lowest in the layer breed (Rhode). The meat of the Black-boned chickens was darker than that of the other genotypes. Thai and Rhode chickens had a particularly yellow skin. The ratio of red and intermediate to white fibers was higher in the thigh muscle, and the diameter of all muscle fiber types in both muscles was smaller in the indigenous compared with the imported breeds. The meat of the 2 indigenous Thai strains had lower contents of fat and cholesterol compared with that of the imported breeds, especially relative to the Rhode chickens (thigh meat). The meat of the indigenous origins, especially of the Thai chickens, was higher in shear force and collagen content (thigh only) than meat of the imported breeds. The meat lipids of the Thai chickens had particularly high proportions of n-3 fatty acids and a favorably low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio compared with the other genotypes. In conclusion, meat of indigenous chickens has some unique features and seems to have more advantages over imported breeds than disadvantages, especially when determined for a niche market serving consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat. PMID:18079466

Jaturasitha, S; Srikanchai, T; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

2008-01-01

35

Changes in the Cytokine and Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression Following Infection of Indigenous and Commercial Chickens With Infectious bursal disease virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study of cytokine and toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA expression in 3 weeks old indigenous and commercial chickens infected with a very virulent strain of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was performed using a custom-made microarray chip. In uninfected indigenous chickens, the basal levels of interleukin (IL) 15 were lower and IL 16 was higher than their commercial counterparts. In the IBDV infected indigenous chickens, only IL16 gene expression was down regulated, while TLR3 expression was up regulated significantly. In the IBDV infected commercial chickens IL15, IL16 and TLR3 were down regulated. But, IL1-?, IL2, IL8, IL12, IL17, interferon (IFN)-? and ? were significantly increased compared with the control. In IBDV infected indigenous chickens, IL15, IFN-?, beta-defensin and TLR3 were up regulated compared to virus-infected commercial chickens. The results suggested that up regulation of TLR3, a ligand for double-stranded (ds) RNA probably could account for the possible clinical resistance in these birds. There was a 5.2 fold difference by quantitative real-time RT-PCR between indigenous and commercial chickens in TLR3 mRNA expression. Therefore, TLR3, a receptor for dsRNA could be a putative molecule that could play a role in differential innate and adaptive immune responses to IBDV in commercial and indigenous chickens. PMID:23637518

Raj, G Dhinakar; Rajanathan, T M Chozhavel; Kumanan, K; Elankumaran, S

2011-12-01

36

Meat Quality of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing system on meat quality of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1 day old chicks were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: indoor treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 or outdoor access treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2 from 8 weeks of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16th weeks of age, 24 birds per treatment were slaughtered to evaluate the quality of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that there was no difference in nutrient composition of breast meat among treatments (p>0.05. However, thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had higher protein content than that of indoor treatment (p0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had a higher shear force value (p = 0.05 than from indoor treatment. Thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was higher in soluble, insoluble and total collagen contents compared with indoor treatment (p<0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was less red (a*; p<0.05 and more yellow (b*; p<0.05 than those from indoor treatment. Breast skin from outdoor access treatment had more yellow than that of indoor treatment (p<0.05. The data indicated that Thai indigenous chickens raised with outdoor access could significantly increase shear value and collagen content in meat and increase yellow color in breast skin.

Wittawat Molee

2012-01-01

37

Effect of transient prepubertal hypothyroidism on serum testosterone level and seminal characteristics of Iranian indigenous chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Forty 6-week-old male Iranian indigenous chickens were randomly assigned into two equal groups, designated as control or propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated group. The goitrogen, PTU, was administered at a level of 0.1% (w:w) to the diet of PTU-treated group between the weeks 7 and 13 of age. From the week 13 to 26, both groups were fed with a PTU-free diet. The lighting schedule was 14 h-light:10 h-darkness. Blood sampling started at week 7 of age, and repeated every other week until the week 19 as well as body weighing simultaneously. Chicks were trained by the abdominal massage method and semen samples were collected from the week 21 and repeated once a week for seven weeks. Proc Mixed of SAS (6.03 edn.) was used to data analysis and body weight was considered as covariate in statistical model. The effect of PTU treatment on serum thyroxine (T4) levels (P 0.05). The effect of age on all parameters, including body weight (P 0.05); but the interaction was significant for body weight (P 0.05). No significant correlation observed between testosterone and T4 levels in both groups. (author)

38

Influence of major genes for crested-head, frizzle-feather and naked-neck on body weights and growth patterns of indigenous chickens reared intensively in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of major genes for crested-head (Cr), frizzle-feather (Fr) and naked-neck (Na) on body weights and growth patterns of indigenous chickens reared intensively was investigated and compared with normal-feather (na) gene. Birds were individually weighed at hatch and every two weeks up to 30 weeks of age. Growth patterns were modelled using the Gompertz-Laird function. The genes influenced body weights and growth patterns at various ages. The Cr gene had significant (P Nana genotypes are not ideal for cool environments in Kenya and indigenous chicken genotypes have varied growth potentials and patterns that can be improved to increase production. PMID:19579054

Magothe, Thomas M; Muhuyi, William B; Kahi, Alexander K

2010-02-01

39

Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds. PMID:24136156

Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

2014-02-01

40

Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and two sexes. The Naked-Neckchickens had lower breast (Pectoralis major, fillet (Pectoralis minor (P0.05 in drip loss and cooking loss values. The shear value of cooked breast and thigh muscles of Naked-Neck chickens was significantly lower (P0.05, redness (a* (P0.05 in moisture, protein, fat and ash contents. The Naked-Neck chicken contained higher (P0.05 between breeds in soluble collagen percentage of both types of muscles. For the fatty acid composition ofNaked-Neck and indigenous chickens, both breast and thigh muscles contained more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

Songsang, A.

2007-03-01

41

Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenous chickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenous chicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions. PMID:20512411

Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M

2010-10-01

42

Digestibility and digestive organ development in indigenous and improved chickens and ducks fed diets with increasing inclusion levels of cassava leaf meal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing indigenous Cambodian chickens and ducks, and broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were fed diets containing 0%, 7%, 14% and 20% of cassava leaf meal (CLM) to study the effects of CLM level on diet digestibility and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and organ development. The coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter (DM) and intake of digestible DM decreased with increased dietary CLM. DM and digestible DM intake was higher for local breeds than for the corresponding exotic breeds, and higher for ducks than for chickens (p 0.05). Weight of small intestine, caeca, gizzard and pancreas, expressed as per kg body weight, increased with increased CLM in the diet (p < 0.001). There was no consistent diet effect on liver weight. Length of small intestine and caeca, expressed on a mass-specific basis, increased with dietary CLM content (p < 0.001). When expressed as per kg body weight small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas and liver weights, and small intestine length, were higher in ducks than in chickens (p < 0.001), and were higher in the indigenous than in the improved breeds (p < 0.01), except for small intestine weights, which were similar. However chickens had higher weight of caeca (p < 0.001) and colon (p < 0.01) in absolute units and per kg body weight. PMID:16684144

Borin, K; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, R B

2006-06-01

43

Mitochondrial DNA-based Analysis of Genetic Variation and Relatedness among Sri Lankan Indigenous Chickens and the Ceylon Junglefowl (Gallus lafayetti)  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous chickens (IC) in developing countries provide a useful resource to detect novel genes in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here, we investigated the nature and level of genetic diversity in IC from five distinct regions of Sri Lanka using a PCR-based resequencing method. Additionally, we investigated the relatedness of IC to different species of junglefowls including Ceylon (CJF; Gallus lafayetti), a subspecies that is endemic to Sri Lanka, green (Gallus varius), grey (Gallus sonn...

Silva, Pradeepa; Guan, Xiaojing; Ho-shing, Olivia; Jones, Jess; Xu, Jun; Hui, Deng; Notter, David; Smith, Edward

2008-01-01

44

Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider the sources available for accurately apprehending those different varieties of IK and then raise three issues of procedure that the Hewson and Ogunniyi approach seems largely to overlook: the varying meanings and styles of argumentation in African culture; the relevance of more participatory and discovery-based modes of inquiry to their topic; and the critical importance of grasping the socio-political terrain on which IK must operate. I conclude that, while their initiative opens valuable new paths of inquiry and practice, the proposed methodology would benefit from more solid grounding in discovery learning, African styles of debate and a clear mapping of stakes and stakeholders.

Easton, Peter B.

2011-09-01

45

Productivity and Egg Quality Characteristics of Free Range Naked Neck and Normal Feathered Nigerian Indigenous Chickens  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to determine the productivity and egg quality traits of free range naked neck and full-feathered chickens. A total of one hundred and two smallholder farmers were randomly selected. Information was obtained on average eggs per clutch, hatchability and mortality, while hen`s body weight was measured directly on the day of egg collection. One hundred and two freshly laid eggs (51 eggs from each genotype) were used to evaluate extern...

Yakubu, A.; Ogah, D. M.; Barde, R. E.

2008-01-01

46

An evaluation of ratios as a measure of carcass traits using mature indigenous chickens in Limpopo Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Live weight and weight of body parts of 60 mature indigenous chickens were collected to investigate whether the use of ratios in poultry science may cause misinterpretation of data and misleading conclusions. Three villages from Mukula Tribal land in Thulamela municipality from Vhembe District in Li [...] mpopo Province of South Africa were identified for the purpose of this study. Five mature chickens were bought from each village, weighed, killed, dressed and cut to get the body parts using the standard procedures. This was done across the four distinct seasons from March 2005 to March 2006. The data was collected using a weighing scale with variables of interest being the sex, season and village. Summary statistics were computed and data was analyzed in two separate ways using the Statistical Analysis Software Packages as follows: Firstly each individual body part was expressed as ratio of body weight and data analyzed using a simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Secondly, live body weight was used a covariate in the analysis of other body parts using the ANCOVA procedures. Ratios suggested differences gizzard, liver, head and feet and body length due to sex and in gizzard, liver and body length due to village which were not apparent with ANCOVA. The results from this study suggested that ratios did not remove the variation due to differences in sex and village and may lead us to wrong conclusions. From this study, one can draw conclusions that use of ANCOVA gives us the exceptional method for interpreting the data correctly.

N.J., Tshovhote; A.E., Nesamvuni; K.A., Nephawe; I., Groenewald.

47

Low-Input Intervention for Traditional Free-Range Indigenous Chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives of the study were to determine the effects on productivity, flock dynamics and bird offtake of 3 low input interventions were evaluated in 4 locations in western Kenya representing different agro ecological zones (Butula (LM1); Malava (LM2); Uranga (LM3) and Sabatia (UM1)). These interventions were: (1) daytime confinement of chicks using a coop or pen while feeding them most of the day (CONF); (2) supplementation using locally available feed resources above scavenging levels for the rest of the flock (SUPP), and (3) vaccination against Newcastle disease (VACC) significantly improved survival rates by more than 60%, egg production improved by 48.3% and weekly losses of birds in flocks were reduced. Growth rates however were not affected. Intervention CONF significantly (p<0.05) improved survival rates; egg production per hen per year, growth rates and it reduced annual general losses of birds. The intervention SUPP in addition to CONF further improved productivity of village flocks.S Results confirm the general statement of that NCD is the number one killer in scavenging chicken production systems. Farmers observed that VACC had a negative effect on young chicks less than 3 weeks old, suggesting that vaccination of chickens should be carried at latter ages. Results further indicated that the existing village feed resource base limited growth rates, survival rates, and egg production in a scavenging system. It also suggests that there was a quantitative defiuggests that there was a quantitative deficit of the village feed resource base in scavenging system. NCD vaccination had the highest average returns to labour (Ksh. 280 per man per day) with other interventions having less than Ksh. 280 pere man-day. The perception of farmers seen in proportion of farmers interested in the intervention showed that VACC was preferred more than other interventions because it delt with the most serious problem and results were immediately obvious. Subsequent choice of feeding and housing interventions further improved local poultry production. VACC was the best intervention in terms of survival rates, return to labour and acceptability by farmers because it was cheap and effective. Subsequent cash requiring interventions in the free-range system should be introduced as farmers moved from subsistence to semi-commercial production

48

Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

2012-01-01

49

Mitochondrial DNA-based analysis of genetic variation and relatedness among Sri Lankan indigenous chickens and the Ceylon junglefowl (Gallus lafayetti).  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous chickens (IC) in developing countries provide a useful resource to detect novel genes in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here, we investigated the level of genetic diversity in IC from five distinct regions of Sri Lanka using a PCR-based resequencing method. In addition, we investigated the relatedness of IC to different species of junglefowls including Ceylon (CJF; Gallus lafayetti), a subspecies that is endemic to Sri Lanka, green (Gallus varius), grey (Gallus sonneratii) and red (Gallus gallus) junglefowls. A total of 140 birds including eight CJF were used to screen the control region of the mitochondrial DNA sequence for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other variants. We detected and validated 44 SNPs, which formed 42 haplotypes and six haplogroups in IC. The SNPs observed in the CJF were distinct and the D-loop appeared to be missing a 62-bp segment found in IC and the red junglefowl. Among the six haplogroups of IC, only one was region-specific. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.901 to 0.965 and from 0.011 to 0.013 respectively, and genetic divergence was generally low. Further, variation among individuals within regions accounted for 92% of the total molecular variation among birds. The Sri Lankan IC were more closely related to red and grey junglefowls than to CJF, indicating multiple origins. The molecular information on genetic diversity revealed in our study may be useful in developing genetic improvement and conservation strategies to better utilize indigenous Sri Lankan chicken resources. PMID:18945292

Silva, P; Guan, X; Ho-Shing, O; Jones, J; Xu, J; Hui, D; Notter, D; Smith, E

2009-02-01

50

Genetic characterization of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Thai indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus), and two commercial lines using selective functional genes compared to microsatellite markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic characterization among Red Junglefowl (GS, Gallus gallus spadiceus), Thai indigenous chicken (TIC, Gallus domesticus) and commercial lines has been widely used for studies of genealogical origin, genetic diversity, and effects of selection. We compared the efficiency of genetic characterization of chicken populations that had been under different intensities of selection using selective functional gene versus microsatellite marker analyses. We genotyped 151 chickens from five populations: Red Junglefowl, TIC and commercial lines (BR, broiler and WL, White Leghorn). Genetic structure analyses using six loci of five functional genes - corresponding to heat tolerance (heat shock protein 70, HSP70/C, HSP70/M), broodiness (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1, VIPR-1), egg production-[24-bp indel (insertion or deletion) prolactin, 24bpPRL], ovulation rate (growth hormone receptor, GHR), and growth (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1) - were compared with 18 microsatellite markers. PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR were used for functional gene typing. A neighbor-joining tree from Nei's genetic distance was constructed to show genetic relationships. A similar pattern was found with both functional genes and microsatellites. Three groups consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG were formed. A principal component plot based on individual similarity using Dice's coefficient was also constructed to confirm the relationship. Different patterns were found when using functional genes versus microsatellites. A principal component plot with functional genes also gave three clusters consisting of BR, WL and TIC-GS-GG. A principal component plot using microsatellites gave four clusters, consisting of WL, GG, TIC, and BR-GS. Characterization of BR and GS differs from previous studies. We concluded that genetic characterization with appropriate functional genes is more accurate when differences in genetic make-up among populations are known. Genetic characterization using functional gene data was consistent in neighbor joining and principal component plot analyses, while genetic characterization using microsatellite data gave varied results depending on the analysis methodology. PMID:22869543

Akaboot, P; Duangjinda, M; Phasuk, Y; Kaenchan, C; Chinchiyanond, W

2012-01-01

51

Factors influencing reproductive performance of cows from different Nguni ecotypes in southern Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the reproductive performance of two Nguni ecotypes (Nguni and Landim) raised in a subtropical environment to enhance strategies for livestock development and restocking programmes within the southern African region. Reproduction data collected between 1996 and 2009 from 365 cows of the Landim and Nguni ecotypes were analysed. From the results, ecotype, place of birth, year and season of birth/calving had significant effects on age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI). Overall means for AFC and CI were 1,071?±?166 days and 432?±?85 days, respectively, while average calving rate was 88.0?±?4.7%. Heifers born in the dry season had lower AFC than heifers born in the wet season. Heifers born at Impaputo Breeding Center were the youngest at first calving, followed by the South African born ones. Heifers of the Landim ecotype also calved younger than heifers of the Nguni ecotype. CI was shorter in wet seasons (main breeding seasons) than in dry seasons. Interaction between ecotype and year-season (p?Landim. This study demonstrates for the first time a possible genotype-by-environment interaction between Nguni ecotypes. This might aid future cattle development and restocking programmes in southern Africa taking into consideration the adaptation of indigenous genotypes and climate change. PMID:21773680

Maciel, Sonia Maria Ataide; Amimo, Joshua; Martins, Manuel; Mwai, Ally Okeyo; Scholtz, Michiel Matthys; Neser, Frederick Wilhelm Cornelius

2012-03-01

52

Environmental descriptors influencing performance of the Nguni ecotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nguni is an indigenous breed of cattle in Southern Africa, specifically found in Swaziland, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Due to the ten years of civil war, cattle numbers in Mozambique was reduced from 1.6 million head in 1976 to approximately 200,000 in 1992. After 1996, large numbers of Nguni cattle were imported from South Africa into Mozambique as part of the livestock restocking program. A nucleus herd of Nguni cattle was established at the breeding station, Posto de Fomento do Impaputo (PFI), near Maputo and next to the Swaziland border. PFI has also a separate breeding nucleus of the Landim cattle. Both these ecotypes are registered at the Nguni Breed's Society of South Africa. This study whose results are reported here aims to determine the environmental descriptors that influence the performance of the Nguni and the Landim cattle ecotypes in Mozambique. Results from the analysed data will help to provide information for sustainable country level utilization and conservation programs in the region. Reproductive and productive data, between 1997 and 2008, were analysed for the two ecotypes using PROC GLM from SAS (1999). Variation sources such as type of breed, place of origin of foundation herd, parity, season and year of calving were taken into consideration in preliminary runs. Results of the preliminary runs on PFI herds indicate that the age at first calving (AFC) was 1089.2 ± 193 d and the calving interval (CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for b(CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for both ecotypes. For AFC there were interactions between the year and season of calving (Nguni or Landim; P < 0.05) and place of birth (Chobela, RSA or Impaputo; P < 0.01) for both ecotypes. CI decreased as the number of parities increased. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) was found on CI for the place of herd's birth, parity and interaction between the year and season of calving (dry and rainy seasons). It is concluded that there is sufficient data to demonstrate within and between population variations in the different ecotypes in terms of reproductive performance. A more complete analysis, which includes information from both ecotypes and data from South Africa as well as other similar environments, should be done. These results can thus be used for the design and implementation of breeding and sustainable conservation programs for the Nguni and the Landim ecotypes under Mozambique and South Africa as well as similar environments. (author)

53

MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida orAscaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance Udgivelsesdato: 15. May

Schou, T W; Labouriau, R

2010-01-01

54

Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308

Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

2007-06-01

55

Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

Wongwiwat, P.

2007-11-01

56

The effects of polymorphisms in IL-2, IFN-?, TGF-?2, IgL, TLR-4, MD-2, and iNOS genes on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis in indigenous chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella Enteritidis is a major cause of food poisoning worldwide, and poultry products are the main source of S. Enteritidis contamination for humans. Among the numerous strategies for disease control, improving genetic resistance to S. Enteritidis has been the most effective approach. We investigated the association between S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum, spleen, and liver of young indigenous chickens and seven candidate genes, selected on the basis of their critical roles in immunological functions. The genes included those encoding interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon-? (IFN-?), transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF-?2), immunoglobulin light chain (IgL), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Two Malaysian indigenous chicken breeds were used as sustainable genetic sources of alleles that are resistant to salmonellosis. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism technique was used to genotype the candidate genes. Three different genotypes were observed in all of the candidate genes, except for MD-2. All of the candidate genes showed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two populations. The IL-2-MnlI polymorphism was associated with S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum and spleen. The TGF-?2-RsaI, TLR-4-Sau 96I, and iNOS-AluI polymorphisms were associated with the caecum S. Enteritidis load. The other candidate genes were not associated with S. Enteritidis load in any organ. The results indicate that the IL-2, TGF-?2, TLR-4, and iNOS genes are potential candidates for use in selection programmes for increasing genetic resistance against S. Enteritidis in Malaysian indigenous chickens. PMID:23237374

Tohidi, Reza; Idris, Ismail Bin; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Bejo, Mohd Hair

2012-12-01

57

Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources  

OpenAIRE

To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers’ choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a pa...

Mullu, N. D.; Waaij, L. H.; Dessie, T.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2010-01-01

58

Tissue and Blood Amino Acids Composition of an Ecotype Cichlid ‘Wesafu’, Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis niloticus Using Paper Chromatography  

OpenAIRE

Wesafu is an indigenous ecotype cichlid and a very important part of the fisheries of Epe lagoon in Lagos Nigeria. Investigation of the amino acids composition of tissue and blood samples of Wesafu, T. zillii and O. niloticus using paper chromatography (Ranjna, 1999) was conducted. Only 14 amino acids (Alanine, Cysteine, Asphatic acid, Phenylalanine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Leucine, Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Tryptophan, Glutamic acid) were analyzed. In the muscles, 11 ami...

Fajana, O. O.; Fashina-bombata, H. A.; Hammed, A. M.

2010-01-01

59

Indigenous Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.

60

Spatial Distribution of Rhodopseudomonas palustris Ecotypes on a Local Scale  

OpenAIRE

The number, spatial distribution, and significance of genetically distinguishable ecotypes of prokaryotes in the environment are poorly understood. Oda et al. (Y. Oda, B. Star, L. A. Huisman, J. C. Gottschal, and L. J. Forney, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:xxx-xxx, 2003) have shown that Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes were lognormally distributed along a 10-m transect and that multiple strains of the species could coexist in 0.5-g sediment samples. To extend these observations, we investig...

Bent, S. J.; Gucker, C. L.; Oda, Y.; Forney, L. J.

2003-01-01

61

Comparison of the immune responses against Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum infection between naked neck chickens and a commercial chicken line.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immune responses of indigenous naked neck (NaNa and Nana) and normally feathered (nana) chickens against a Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) infection were evaluated and compared with those of a commercial line (B-380). Groups of 28-day-old chickens (NaNa, Nana, nana, and B-380) were immunized orally and subcutaneously with 50 microg of SG antigens. Control non-immunized animals were inoculated with sterile saline solution. All chickens were challenged with 1 LD(50) of SG and mortality was recorded daily for 20 days. Antibodies to SG were measured in sera before immunization, before the challenge, 10 days after the challenge, and at sacrifice. Peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed using concanavalin A and SG antigens. Results showed that non-immunized Nana chickens exhibited the best natural resistance to Salmonella infection, since only 30% of them died. In contrast, all control B-380 chickens died by the 13th day. Immunization with SG induced immunity in chickens of all genotypes. Indigenous naked neck and normally feathered chickens showed a higher survival rate when compared with B-380 chickens. Immunized Nana chickens showed the highest antibody titres (PNana chickens are the most resistant to SG infection and the best responders to vaccination with SG antigens. PMID:12745372

Alvarez, María Teresa; Ledesma, Nestor; Téllez, Guillermo; Molinari, José Luis; Tato, Patricia

2003-04-01

62

Chicken eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

Eggs are the means through which chickens reproduce. Hens lay the eggs and incubate them so they will grow. The egg has all of the nutrients the chicken embryo needs to develop into a baby chick and helps protect it as it matures.

Peter N/A (None; )

2005-09-11

63

Chicken Art  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

Bickett, Marianne

2009-01-01

64

Efficient system for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chicken: concurrent storage of primordial germ cells and live animals from early embryos of a rare indigenous fowl (Gifujidori).  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique accessibility of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) during early development provides the opportunity to combine the reproduction of live animals with genetic conservation. Male and female Gifujidori fowl (GJ) PGCs were collected from the blood of early embryos, and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for >6 months until transfer. Manipulated GJ embryos were cultured until hatching; fertility tests indicated that they had normal reproductive abilities. Embryos from two lines of White Leghorn (24HS, ST) were used as recipients for chimera production following blood removal. The concentration of PGCs in the early embryonic blood of 24HS was significantly higher than in ST (P cryogenic preservation of PGCs from early chicken embryos was combined with the conservation of live animals. PMID:20883649

Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Usui, Fumitake; Miyahara, Daichi; Mori, Takafumi; Ono, Tamao; Takeda, Kumiko; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

2010-01-01

65

Variability of External Genetic Characteristic of Kokok Balenggek Chicken in West Sumatera, Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

Kokok Balenggek chicken is one of the rare indigenous chickens in Indonesia. They are unique as they produce a melodious song like crow. They have syllabic diversity, as each portion of the call can be composed with different pitches and vocalizations. The identification and characterizations of local adorn chicken is very important for animal conservation. A research was conducted in west Sumatera to identify the genetic variability of the external genetic characteristic of Kokok Balenggek c...

Firda Arlina; Hafl Abbas; Sarbaini Anwar; Jamsari

2014-01-01

66

Accumulation and tolerance of lead in two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dianthus carthusianorum is one of the dominant plant species colonising the Zn-Pb waste deposits in Boles?aw, Southern Poland. It differs in terms of morphology and genetics from ecotypes inhabiting non-metal-polluted areas. The response of waste-heap (metallicolous, M) and reference (nonmetallicolous, NM) ecotypes of D. carthusianorum to Pb in hydroponics was investigated and compared in this study. The plants of the M ecotype were more tolerant to Pb than these of the NM ecotype in spite of accumulation of higher concentrations of Pb. In both ecotypes, about 70-78% of Pb was retained in roots. In non Pb-treated plants, a higher glutathione (GSH) level was found in the M ecotype. After the Pb exposure, the GSH level decreased and was similar in both ecotypes. Lead treatment induced synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) only in the plant roots, with significantly higher concentrations thereof detected in the NM ecotype. Malate and citrate concentrations were higher in the M ecotype; however, they did not change significantly upon any Pb treatment in either ecotype. The results indicated that neither PCs nor organic acids were responsible for the enhanced Pb tolerance of the waste-heap plants. PMID:24512840

Wójcik, Ma?gorzata; Tukiendorf, Anna

2014-04-01

67

Accuracy and efficiency of algorithms for the demarcation of bacterial ecotypes from DNA sequence data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of closely related, ecologically distinct populations of bacteria would benefit microbiologists working in many fields including systematics, epidemiology and biotechnology. Several laboratories have recently developed algorithms aimed at demarcating such 'ecotypes'. We examine the ability of four of these algorithms to correctly identify ecotypes from sequence data. We tested the algorithms on synthetic sequences, with known history and habitat associations, generated under the stable ecotype model and on data from Bacillus strains isolated from Death Valley where previous work has confirmed the existence of multiple ecotypes. We found that one of the algorithms (ecotype simulation) performs significantly better than the others (AdaptML, GMYC, BAPS) in both instances. Unfortunately, it was also shown to be the least efficient of the four. While ecotype simulation is the most accurate, it is by a large margin the slowest of the algorithms tested. Attempts at improving its efficiency are underway. PMID:24989860

Francisco, Juan Carlos; Cohan, Frederick M; Krizanc, Danny

2014-01-01

68

Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe  

OpenAIRE

Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonotic potential and transmission dynamics has only incompletely been resolved. Methods. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in more than 6000 ixodid ticks collected from the vegetatio...

Jahfari, S.; Coipan, E. C.; Fonville, M.; Leeuwen, A. D.; Hengeveld, P.; Heylen, D.; Heyman, P.; Maanen, C.; Butler, C. M.; Foldvari, G.; Szekeres, S.; Duijvendijk, L. A. G.; Tack, W.; Rijks, J. M.; Giessen, J.

2014-01-01

69

Yield Components, Morphology and Forage Quality of Native Alfalfa Ecotypes  

OpenAIRE

Twelve native alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) land races material from Van provinces in Turkey for 10-30 years in the same field in Turkey were investigated in this study. Seed used in this experiment are Adiguzel-2, Ahlat-3, Alakoy, Cayirbasi , Dilburnu, Ercis-3, Gulgoren, Gulsinberk, Hidirkoy-2, Kasumoglu-2, Mahmudiye, Otluca ecotypes and Kayseri population (as a check). Seeds planted in September 1999 and greenhouse for shoots measurements before flowering period. Plants harvested early flowe...

Suleyman Sengul

2002-01-01

70

A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome?wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced. Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate genomic patterns of diversity and population differentiation in a natural system characterized by high gene flow and large effective population sizes, properties which theoretically could restrict divergence in local genomic regions. We identify a genomic region of strong population differentiation, extending over approximately 20 cM, between pairs of migratory and stationary ecotypes examined at two different localities. Furthermore, the region is characterized by markedly reduced levels of genetic diversity in migratory ecotype samples. The results highlight the genomic region, or ‘genomic island’, as potentially associated with ecological divergence and suggest the involvement of a selective sweep. Finally, we also confirm earlier findings of localized genomic differentiation in three other linkage groups associated with divergence among eastern Atlantic populations. Thus, although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, the results suggest that ‘genomic mosaics’ of differentiation may even be found under high levels of gene flow and that marine fishes may provide insightful model systems for studying and identifying initial targets of selection during ecological divergence.

Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Nielsen, Mads Einar

2013-01-01

71

Distribution and diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Red Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photosynthetic prokaryotes of the genus Prochlorococcus play a major role in global primary production in the world's oligotrophic oceans. A recent study on pelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern and central Red Sea indicated that the predominant cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence types were from Prochlorococcus cells belonging to a high-light-adapted ecotype (HL II). In this study, we analyzed microdiversity of Prochlorococcus sp. at multiple depths within and below the euphotic zone in the northern, central, and southern regions of the Red Sea, as well as in surface waters in the same locations, but in a different season. Prochlorococcus dominated the communities in clone libraries of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Almost no differences were found between samples from coastal or open-water sites, but a high diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes was detected at 100-meter depth in the water column. In addition, an unusual dominance of HL II-related sequences was observed in deeper waters. Our results indicate that the Red Sea harbors diverse Prochlorococcus lineages, but no novel ecotypes, despite its unusual physicochemical properties. PMID:24888561

Shibl, Ahmed A; Thompson, Luke R; Ngugi, David K; Stingl, Ulrich

2014-07-01

72

Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600?bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens...

Wani, Charles E.; Yousief, Ibrahim A.; Ibrahim, Muntasir E.; Musa, Hassan H.

2014-01-01

73

The genetics of divergence and reproductive isolation between ecotypes of Panicum hallii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of plant speciation often involves the evolution of divergent ecotypes in response to differences in soil water availability between habitats. While the same set of traits is frequently associated with xeric/mesic ecotype divergence, it is unknown whether those traits evolve independently or if they evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization either by pleiotropy or genetic linkage. The self-fertilizing C4 grass species Panicum hallii includes two major ecotypes found in xeric (var. hallii) or mesic (var. filipes) habitats. We constructed the first linkage map for P. hallii by genotyping a reduced representation genomic library of an F2 population derived from an intercross of var. hallii and filipes. We then evaluated the genetic architecture of divergence between these ecotypes through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Overall, we mapped QTLs for nine morphological traits that are involved in the divergence between the ecotypes. QTLs for five key ecotype-differentiating traits all colocalized to the same region of linkage group five. Leaf physiological traits were less divergent between ecotypes, but we still mapped five physiological QTLs. We also discovered a two-locus Dobzhansky-Muller hybrid incompatibility. Our study suggests that ecotype-differentiating traits may evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization. PMID:25252269

Lowry, David B; Hernandez, Kyle; Taylor, Samuel H; Meyer, Eli; Logan, Tierney L; Barry, Kerrie W; Chapman, Jarrod A; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy; Juenger, Thomas E

2015-01-01

74

Indigenous tropical ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two major works on the ecology of Sumatra and Sulawesi two of the world's great tropical islands, have appeared relatively recently. These volumes represent the rarest of genres in tropical ecology: works of indigenous origin with an indigenous audience in mind. An examination of these exciting books prompts us to examine a wider literature on tropical ecology. PMID:21227324

Kitching, R; Clarke, C

1989-03-01

75

Spatial distribution of Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes on a local scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number, spatial distribution, and significance of genetically distinguishable ecotypes of prokaryotes in the environment are poorly understood. Oda et al. (Y. Oda, B. Star, L. A. Huisman, J. C. Gottschal, and L. J. Forney, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:xxx-xxx, 2003) have shown that Rhodopseudomonas palustris ecotypes were lognormally distributed along a 10-m transect and that multiple strains of the species could coexist in 0.5-g sediment samples. To extend these observations, we investigated the clonal diversity of R. palustris in 0.5-g samples taken from the corners and center of a 1-m square. A total of 35 or 36 clones were recovered by direct plating from each sample and were characterized by BOX A1R repetitive element-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting. Isolates with fingerprint images that were >/=80% similar to each other were defined as the same genotype. Among the 178 isolates studied, 32 genotypes were identified, and each genotype contained between 1 and 40 isolates. These clusters were consistent with minor variations found in 16S rRNA gene sequences. The Shannon indices of the genotypic diversity within each location ranged from 1.08 (5 genotypes) to 2.18 (13 genotypes). Comparison of the rank abundance of genotypes found in pairs of locations showed that strains from three locations were similar to each other, with Morisita-Horn similarity coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.71. All comparisons involving the remaining two locations resulted in coefficients between 0 and 0.12. From these results we inferred that the patterns of ecotype diversity at the sampling site are patchy at a 1-m scale and postulated that factors such as mixing, competitive interactions, and microhabitat variability are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the similarities between some locations and the differences between others. PMID:12957901

Bent, S J; Gucker, C L; Oda, Y; Forney, L J

2003-09-01

76

Adaptations between ecotypes and along environmental gradients in Panicum virgatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the patterns and mechanisms of natural selection in the wild is of fundamental importance to understanding the differentiation of populations and the evolution of new species. However, it is often unknown the extent to which adaptive genetic variation is distributed among ecotypes between distinct habitats versus along large-scale geographic environmental gradients, such as those that track latitude. Classic studies of selection in the wild in switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, tested for adaptation at both of these levels of natural variation. Here we review what these field experiments and modern agronomic field trials have taught us about natural variation and selection at both the ecotype and environmental gradient levels in P. virgatum. With recent genome sequencing efforts in P. virgatum, it is poised to become an excellent system for understanding the adaptation of grassland species across the eastern half of North America. The identification of genetic loci involved in different types of adaptations will help to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of diversification within P. virgatum and provide useful information for the breeding of high-yielding cultivars for different ecoregions. PMID:24739200

Lowry, David B; Behrman, Kathrine D; Grabowski, Paul; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kiniry, James R; Juenger, Thomas E

2014-05-01

77

Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions and southern (9 accessions regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differences for most of the traits in the northern ecotypes (first collection while for southern ecotypes no significant differences were obtained for the studied traits except seed yield. Among and within ecotypes genotypic coefficient of variation indicated higher level of variation among ecotypes than within ecotypes. In both of the experiments, there was a large genetic variation for silybin and silymarin quality and quantity. Cluster analysis of 34 accessions was performed for morphological traits and silymarin and silybin characteristics, separately. The resulting dendrogram based on silybin and silymarin characteristics revealed that the native accessions such as Dezfoul, Fereydounkenar and Nour, had highest flavonolignans and they were better than the foreign varieties. Also, there was no clear relationship between clustering based on morphological traits and flavonolignan compounds.

Majid Shokrpour

2007-01-01

78

Reproductive, morphological, and phytochemical responses of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to enhanced UV-B radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, collected from Libya and Norway, were grown in the greenhouse under. UV-B doses of 0 and 10.5 kJ m[sup [minus]2] UV-B[sub BE]. The high UV-B dose simulated midsummer ambient conditions over Libya and a 40% reduction in stratospheric ozone over Norway. The Libyan ectotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is high, showed no UV-B induced damage to plant growth. However the Norwegian ecotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is low, showed a significant reduction in plant height, inflorescence weight, and rosette weight in response to enhanced UV-B. Although fruit and seed number for both ecotypes were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation the germination success of the seeds harvested from the irradiated Norwegian plants were significantly reduced. The two ecotypes also differed with respect to their accumulation of kaempferol, a putative UV-B protective filter. The Libyan ecotype increased kaempferol concentration by 38% over the 0 kJ treatment whereas the Norwegian ecotype increased by only 15%. These data suggest that, for these ecotypes, variation in UV-B sensitivity may be explained by the differential induction of UV-absorbing leaf pigments.

Trumbull, V.L.; McCloud, E.S.; Paige, K.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

1994-06-01

79

Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.  

Science.gov (United States)

To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of Prochlorococcus populations, and how these populations co-vary with the physical environment, we followed monthly changes in the abundance of five ecotypes-two high-light adapted and three low-light adapted-over a 5-year period in coordination with the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programs. Ecotype abundance displayed weak seasonal fluctuations at HOT and strong seasonal fluctuations at BATS. Furthermore, stable 'layered' depth distributions, where different Prochlorococcus ecotypes reached maximum abundance at different depths, were maintained consistently for 5 years at HOT. Layered distributions were also observed at BATS, although winter deep mixing events disrupted these patterns each year and produced large variations in ecotype abundance. Interestingly, the layered ecotype distributions were regularly reestablished each year after deep mixing subsided at BATS. In addition, Prochlorococcus ecotypes each responded differently to the strong seasonal changes in light, temperature and mixing at BATS, resulting in a reproducible annual succession of ecotype blooms. Patterns of ecotype abundance, in combination with physiological assays of cultured isolates, confirmed that the low-light adapted eNATL could be distinguished from other low-light adapted ecotypes based on its ability to withstand temporary exposure to high-intensity light, a characteristic stress of the surface mixed layer. Finally, total Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus dynamics were compared with similar time series data collected a decade earlier at each location. The two data sets were remarkably similar-testimony to the resilience of these complex dynamic systems on decadal time scales. PMID:20463762

Malmstrom, Rex R; Coe, Allison; Kettler, Gregory C; Martiny, Adam C; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Zinser, Erik R; Chisholm, Sallie W

2010-10-01

80

Semen Quality Traits of Seven Strain of Chickens Raised in the Humid Tropics  

OpenAIRE

This research was conducted to investigate variation in semen quality traits of seven chicken strains. A total of 42 cocks belonging to 7 sire strains comprising of 3 Nigerian indigenous (Naked-neck, Frizzle and Normal feathered) cocks, 3 Exotic cocks (Nera Black, White Leghorn and Giriraja) and an improved indigenous crossbred (Alpha) cock developed at the Poultry Breeding Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, University of Agriculture, A...

Peters, S. O.; Shoyebo, O. D.; Ilori, B. M.; Ozoje, M. O.; Ikeobi, C. O. N.; Adebambo, O. A.

2008-01-01

81

Identification of Genes Related to Beak Deformity of Chickens Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling  

OpenAIRE

Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in thi...

Bai, Hao; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

2014-01-01

82

Prevalence, Characteristics and Antibiogram Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Chickens in Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Escherichia coli known to cause food-borne illnesses worldwide that are closely associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry and egg products. This study was undertaken for cultural, biochemical and antibiotic sensitivity analyses of E. coli recovered from apparently healthy chickens. Cloacal samples (n=350) were aseptically collected from layers (n=150), broilers (n=150) and indigenous chickens (n=50). The samples were enriched in nutrient broth and streaked onto eosin methylene b...

Atm, Jakaria; Md. Ariful Islam; Mst. Minara Khatun

2012-01-01

83

Temporal dynamics of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans  

OpenAIRE

To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of Prochlorococcus populations, and how these populations co-vary with the physical environment, we followed monthly changes in the abundance of five ecotypes—two high-light adapted and three low-light adapted—over a 5-year period in coordination with the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programs. Ecotype abundance displayed weak seasonal fluctuations at HOT and strong seasonal fluctuations at BAT...

Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coe, Allison; Kettler, Gregory Carl; Martiny, Adam C.; Frias-lopez, Jorge; Zinser, Erik R.; Chisholm, Sallie

2010-01-01

84

Transcript profiling of different Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in response to Tobacco etch potyvirus infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of high-throughput transcript profiling techniques has opened the possibility of identifying, in a single experiment, multiple putative viral targets on infected host. Several studies have used this approach to analyze the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to the infection of different RNA and DNA viruses. However, the possible differences in response of genetically heterogeneous ecotypes of the plant to the same virus have never been addressed before. Here we have used a strain of Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV experimentally adapted to A. thaliana ecotype Ler-0 and a set of seven plant ecotypes to tackle this question. Each ecotype was inoculated with the same amount of the virus and the outcome of infection characterized phenotypically (i.e., virus infectivity and accumulation and symptoms development. Using commercial microarrays containing probes for more than 43000 plant transcripts, we explored the effect of viral infection in the plant transcriptome. In general, we found that ecotypes differ in the way they perceive and respond to the virus. While some showed strong symptoms and accumulated large amounts of viral genomes, others only developed mild symptoms and accumulated fewer viruses. At the transcriptomic level, ecotypes could be classified into two groups according to the particular genes whose expression was altered upon infection. Moreover, a functional enrichment analyses showed that the two groups differed in the nature of the altered biological processes. While the group constituted by ecotypes developing milder symptoms and allowing for lower virus accumulation tend to over-express genes involved in abiotic stresses and in the construction of new tissues, those ecotypes for which infection was severer and allowed for more viral accumulation, defense genes tend to be over-expressed, deviating the necessary resources from building new tissues.

SantiagoFElena

2012-06-01

85

Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution  

OpenAIRE

We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The ‘recurrent evolution’ (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a ‘straying’ form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations betw...

Wood, Chris C.; Bickham, John W.; John Nelson, R.; Foote, Chris J.; Patton, John C.

2008-01-01

86

Prochlorococcus Ecotype Abundances in the North Atlantic Ocean As Revealed by an Improved Quantitative PCR Method†  

OpenAIRE

The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus numerically dominates the photosynthetic community in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world's oceans. Six evolutionary lineages of Prochlorococcus have been described, and their distinctive physiologies and genomes indicate that these lineages are “ecotypes” and should have different oceanic distributions. Two methods recently developed to quantify these ecotypes in the field, probe hybridization and quantitative PCR (QPCR), have shown that t...

Zinser, Erik R.; Coe, Allison; Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.; Fuller, Nicholas J.; Scanlan, David J.; Chisholm, Sallie W.

2006-01-01

87

Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  

OpenAIRE

The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions) and southern (9 accessions) regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differ...

Majid Shokrpour; Mohammad Moghaddam; Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Ziai; Aziz Javanshir

2007-01-01

88

Natural Variation in Stomatal Responses to Environmental Changes among Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stomata are small pores surrounded by guard cells that regulate gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Guard cells integrate multiple environmental signals and control the aperture width to ensure appropriate stomatal function for plant survival. Leaf temperature can be used as an indirect indicator of stomatal conductance to environmental signals. In this study, leaf thermal imaging of 374 Arabidopsis ecotypes was performed to assess their stomatal responses to changes in environmental CO2 concentrations. We identified three ecotypes, Köln (Kl-4), Gabelstein (Ga-0), and Chisdra (Chi-1), that have particularly low responsiveness to changes in CO2 concentrations. We next investigated stomatal responses to other environmental signals in these selected ecotypes, with Col-0 as the reference. The stomatal responses to light were also reduced in the three selected ecotypes when compared with Col-0. In contrast, their stomatal responses to changes in humidity were similar to those of Col-0. Of note, the responses to abscisic acid, a plant hormone involved in the adaptation of plants to reduced water availability, were not entirely consistent with the responses to humidity. This study demonstrates that the stomatal responses to CO2 and light share closely associated signaling mechanisms that are not generally correlated with humidity signaling pathways in these ecotypes. The results might reflect differences between ecotypes in intrinsic response mechanisms to environmental signals. PMID:25706630

Takahashi, Sho; Monda, Keina; Negi, Juntaro; Konishi, Fumitaka; Ishikawa, Shinobu; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Goto, Nobuharu; Iba, Koh

2015-01-01

89

Assessment of Milk Thistle Ecotypes for Drought Resistance in a Hydroponic System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate drought resistance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at seedling stage. The experiment was designed as a split plot in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were combination of drought stress levels as main plots and different milk thistle ecotypes as subplot layouts replicated 3 times and run in a hydroponic system. Root length, root volume, chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and dry weight of root were measured for assessing the ecotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences between the measured traits at 1% level. Significant interaction between stress and ecotypes, indicated that the ecotypes had different trends over stress levels. Mean comparison of ecotypes suggested that decreased chlorophyll, root tolerance index, root volume and dry weight and increased electrolyte leakage were related to the increased stress intensity. Values of root tolerance index and electrolyte leakage suggested Ghaemieh as a drought tolerant ecotype. Correlation among root characteristics and root tolerance index showed that root volume and dry weight are more efficient criteria, compared to root length, for evaluation of drought tolerance in milk thistle genotypes.

R. Deliri

2010-06-01

90

Influence of light and temperature on Prochlorococcus ecotype distributions in the Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

In a focused analysis of Prochlorococcus population structure in the western North Atlantic, we found that the relative abundances of ecotypes varied significantly with depth and, at seasonally stratified locations, with degree of vertical mixing. More limited regional variation was observed (e.g., Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, continental slope, and equatorial current), and local patchiness was minimal. Modeling of a combined North and South Atlantic data set revealed significant, independent effects of light and temperature on ecotype abundances, suggesting that they are key ecological determinants that establish the different habitat ranges of the physiologically and genetically distinct ecotypes. This was in sharp contrast with the genus Synechococcus, whose total abundance was related to light but did not vary in a predictable way with temperature. Comparisons of field abundances with growth characteristics of cultured isolates of Prochlorococcus suggested the presence of ecotype-specific thermal and light adaptations that could be responsible for the distinct distribution patterns of the four dominant ecotypes. Significantly, we discovered that one "low-light-adapted" ecotype, eNATL2A, can thrive in deeply mixed surface layers, whereas another, eMIT9313, cannot, even though they have the same growth optimum for (low) light. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Zinser, E.R.; Johnson, Z.I.; Coe, A.; Karaca, E.; Veneziano, D.; Chisholm, S.W.

2007-01-01

91

Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metallothioneins (MTs) were identified as important players in metal metabolism. MT3 gene presents a key metallothionein controlling copper homeostasis in plants. We have selected one cupricolous and one non-cupricolous ecotype to isolate and analyse the MT3 gene in Silene vulgaris. For expression data comparison, we have also included other metal-tolerant ecotypes. Based on a S. vulgaris BAC library screening, we have identified and sequenced a genomic clone containing MT3 gene (SvMT3). We found that SvMT3 gene has been locally duplicated in a tandem arrangement. Expression analysis and complementation studies using yeast mutants showed that both copies of the SvMT3 gene were functional. Moreover, we examined the expression of MT3 gene(s) in selected ecotypes under different copper treatments to show the tissue-specific expression response to copper stress. We demonstrated that higher copper concentrations specifically affected MT3 expression among ecotypes. Our analysis shows that MT3a has similar expression pattern in cupricolous ecotypes while MT3b has common expression features shared by all metallophyte S. vulgaris ecotypes. Our data indicate that down-regulation of MT3b root expression in higher copper concentrations is associated with copper stress. We propose that there might be a specific regulation of SvMT3s transcription depending on the type of heavy metal tolerance. PMID:24748066

Nevrtalova, Eva; Baloun, Jiri; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Safar, Jan; Milde, David; Hobza, Roman

2014-11-01

92

Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada  

OpenAIRE

In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years) in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education ...

Gordon, Catherine E.; White, Jerry P.

2014-01-01

93

Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization  

Science.gov (United States)

Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

2012-01-01

94

Rapid divergence of ecotypes of an invasive plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive species demonstrate rapid evolution within a very short period of time allowing one to understand the underlying mechanism(s). Lantana camara, a highly invasive plant of the tropics and subtropics, has expanded its range and successfully established itself almost throughout India. In order to uncover the processes governing the invasion dynamics, 218 individuals from various locations across India were characterized with six microsatellites. By integrating genetic data with niche modelling, we examined the effect of drift and environmental selection on genetic divergence. We found multiple genetic clusters that were non-randomly distributed across space. Spatial autocorrelation revealed a strong fine-scale structure, i.e. isolation by distance. In addition, we obtained evidence of inhibitory effects of selection on gene flow, i.e. isolation by environmental distance. Perhaps, local adaptation in response to selection is offsetting gene flow and causing the populations to diverge. Niche models suggested that temperature and precipitation play a major role in the observed spatial distribution of this plant. Based on a non-random distribution of clusters, unequal gene flow among them and different bioclimatic niche requirements, we concluded that the emergence of ecotypes represented by two genetic clusters is underway. They may be locally adapted to specific climatic conditions, and perhaps at the very early stages of ecological divergence. PMID:25165061

Ray, Avik; Ray, Rajasri

2014-01-01

95

Genome scale transcriptional response diversity among ten ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana during heat stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the scenario of global warming and climate change, heat stress is a serious threat to crop production worldwide. Being sessile, plants cannot escape from heat. Plants have developed various adaptive mechanisms to survive heat stress. Several studies have focused on diversity of heat tolerance levels in divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, but comprehensive genome scale understanding of heat stress response in plants is still lacking. Here we report the genome scale transcript responses to heat stress of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes (Col, Ler, C24, Cvi, Kas1, An1, Sha, Kyo2, Eri, and Kond) originated from different geographical locations. During the experiment, A. thaliana plants were subjected to heat stress (38°C) and transcript responses were monitored using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. The responses of A. thaliana ecotypes exhibited considerable variation in the transcript abundance levels. In total, 3644 transcripts were significantly heat regulated (p < 0.01) in the 10 ecotypes, including 244 transcription factors and 203 transposable elements. By employing a systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA), we have constructed an in silico transcript regulatory network model for 35 heat responsive transcription factors during cellular responses to heat stress in A. thaliana. The computed activities of the 35 transcription factors showed ecotype specific responses to the heat treatment. PMID:24409190

Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh D; Mundy, John; Bones, Atle M

2013-01-01

96

Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can be related to fish ecotypes. Broadly speaking, there were steady increases in abundance of species that were either Lusitanian, small-bodied, or low-/mid-trophic-level ecotypes, and generally declining or only marginally increasing trends of most Boreal, large-bodied, or high-trophic-level ecotypes or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure.

Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.

2011-01-01

97

The expanded diversity of methylophilaceae from Lake Washington through cultivation and genomic sequencing of novel ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe five novel Methylophilaceae ecotypes from a single ecological niche in Lake Washington, USA, and compare them to three previously described ecotypes, in terms of their phenotype and genome sequence divergence. Two of the ecotypes appear to represent novel genera within the Methylophilaceae. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction highlights metabolic versatility of Methylophilaceae with respect to methylotrophy and nitrogen metabolism, different ecotypes possessing different combinations of primary substrate oxidation systems (MxaFI-type methanol dehydrogenase versus XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase; methylamine dehydrogenase versus N-methylglutamate pathway) and different potentials for denitrification (assimilatory versus respiratory nitrate reduction). By comparing pairs of closely related genomes, we uncover that site-specific recombination is the main means of genomic evolution and strain divergence, including lateral transfers of genes from both closely- and distantly related taxa. The new ecotypes and the new genomes contribute significantly to our understanding of the extent of genomic and metabolic diversity among organisms of the same family inhabiting the same ecological niche. These organisms also provide novel experimental models for studying the complexity and the function of the microbial communities active in methylotrophy. PMID:25058595

Beck, David A C; McTaggart, Tami L; Setboonsarng, Usanisa; Vorobev, Alexey; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Ivanova, Natalia; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Lidstrom, Mary E; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

2014-01-01

98

Morphological and Anatomical Variations in Rheophytic Ecotype of Violet, Viola mandshurica var. ikedaeana (Violaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compared the leaf morphology and anatomy of the putative rheophytic ecotype of Viola mandshurica W. Becker var. ikedaeana (W. Becker ex Taken. F. Maek. and its closely related variety, V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. We showed that the leaf of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana was narrower than that of V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. Moreover, the leaf thickness and guard cell size of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana were significantly larger than those of V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. We further showed that leaves of the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana contained fewer cells than did those of V. mandshurica var. mandshurica. Our results suggest that the narrower leaves of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana are caused by a decrease in the number of cells. A narrower leaf may enable the rheophytic ecotype of V. mandshurica var. ikedaeana to resist the strong flow of water that occurs after heavy rainfall, while a thicker leaf may enhance tolerance to desiccation and high- intensity light.

Ryosuke Matsui

2013-04-01

99

Indigenization of Urban Mobility  

CERN Document Server

Uncovering urban mobility patterns is crucial for further predicting and controlling spatially embedded events. In this article, we analyze millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a Chinese leading location-based social networking service, Jiepang.com, which contains demographical information and thus allows the group-specific studies. We found distinguishable mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities under consideration, and by assigning different algorithms onto natives and non-natives, the accuracy of location prediction can be largely improved compared with pure algorithms. We further propose the so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify to which extent an individual behaves like a native, which depend only on check-in behaviors, instead of any demographical information. To our surprise, a hybrid algorithm weighted by the indigenization coefficients outperforms the mixed algorithm accounting for additional demographical information.

Yang, Zimo; Xie, Xing; Lian, Defu; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

2014-01-01

100

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

Michael Engel

2011-10-01

101

The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

2011-01-01

102

Indigenous Biography and Autobiography  

OpenAIRE

In this absorbing collection of papers Aboriginal, Maori, Dalit and western scholars discuss and analyse the difficulties they have faced in writing Indigenous biographies and autobiographies. The issues range from balancing the demands of western and non-western scholarship, through writing about a family that refuses to acknowledge its identity, to considering a community demand not to write anything at all. The collection also presents some state-of-the-art issues in teaching Indigenou...

Read, Peter; Peters-little, Frances; Haebich, Anna

2008-01-01

103

Abiotic ecotypes in south-central Spanish rivers: Reference conditions and pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical water quality in five of Spain's main rivers was assessed during the years 2001-2003. A previous physiographical river typology was carried out by applying System B of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) which distinguished four main river ecotypes: calcareous headwaters, siliceous rivers, plain rivers, and large rivers. The physiographical classification into river ecotypes also corresponded to distinct hydrochemical types. Reference values of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate fitted for local river ecotypes surpassed only slightly Natural and background levels established by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 2003). Half of the sampled sites were above the limits established as reference conditions. Additionally, concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to agriculture and less to forest land. - Agriculture by means of nutrient surpluses and water diversion for irrigation, along with poor sewage treatment of urban wastes are the main environmental problems in Spanish rivers

104

Closing the indigenous health gap.  

Science.gov (United States)

On 24 March 2008, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, the leader of the Federal Opposition, and health sector leaders signed a pledge to close the indigenous health gap by 2030 and the equity gap in health service provision by 2018. This is a big challenge - Indigenous Australians have a life expectancy 17 years less than non-Indigenous Australians and a burden of disease 2.5 times higher. PMID:19142268

Anderson, Ian P S

2008-12-01

105

Callose plug deposition patterns vary in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and tomato species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollen grain contains the male gametophyte that extends a pollen tube that grows through female tissues in order to deliver sperm to the embryo sac for double fertilization. Growing pollen tubes form periodic callose plugs that are thought to block off the older parts of the tube and maintain the cytoplasm near the growing tip. The morphology of callose plugs and the patterns of their deposition were previously shown to vary among species, but variation within a species had not been examined. We therefore systematically examined callose plug deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, tested for heritability using reciprocal crosses between ecotypes that had differing deposition patterns, and investigated the relationship between callose plugs and pollen tube growth rate. We also surveyed callose plug deposition patterns in different species of tomato. Results We used in vitro grown pollen tubes of 14 different A. thaliana ecotypes and measured the distance from the pollen grain pore to the first callose plug (termed first interval. This distance varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in some cases even within an ecotype. Pollen tubes without a callose plug were shorter than those with a callose plug, and tubes with a callose plug near the grain were, on average, longer than those with the first callose plug farther from the grain. Variations in the first callose plug position were also observed between different species of tomato. Conclusions We showed that the position of the first callose plug varied among Arabidopsis ecotypes and in tomato species, and that callose plug deposition patterns were heritable. These findings lay a foundation for mapping genes that regulate callose plug deposition or that determine pollen tube length or growth rate.

Qin Peng

2012-10-01

106

INDIGENOUS MEDICINE AND MENTAL HEALTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The different medical alternatives used today by humanity enrich the prophylaxis as well as the diagnoses and the treatment of diseases when these are tackled within a multicausal framework. In this paper two of these alternatives are considered: Western medicine and indigenous medicine. It focuses on the concept of health developed by these two approaches, emphasizes the need to reassess indigenous medicine, and examines in general how mental health disorders are regarded from the point of view of indigenous medicine. The author stresses that in order to understand this conception it is necessary to get acquainted with the cosmogony and cosmology characteristics of indigenous people

Vallejo Samudio, Álvaro Roberto

2006-12-01

107

Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. RESULTS: In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p <0.01) in 10 ecotypes, including 498 transcription factors and 315 transposable elements. The majority of the transcripts (75%) showed ecotype specific expression pattern. By using sequence data available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. CONCLUSIONS: A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted regulatory network model was able to identify new ecotype specific transcription factors and their regulatory interactions, which might be crucial for their local geographic adaptation to cold temperature. Additionally, since the approach presented here is general, it could be adapted to study networks regulating biological process in any biological systems.

Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni

2013-01-01

108

Chicken life cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

A female chicken is called a hen and a male chicken is called a rooster. Hens lay eggs as a way to reproduce. The egg then hatches into a baby chick and the chick matures into an adult hen or rooster.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

109

Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

Reyhner, Jon

2010-01-01

110

Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

2010-01-01

111

Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

Barnhardt, R.

2010-12-01

112

Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to co [...] llect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998) management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers.

Zandra, Balbinot; Luciano, Minghini; Rafael, Borim-de-Souza.

2012-12-01

113

Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

Zandra Balbinot

2012-12-01

114

Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species together with strong resource specializations, understanding the process of differentiation will require an understanding of the relative importance of both genetic drift and local adaptation. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis based on nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphic markers and inference about differentiation at both neutral loci and those potentially under selection. We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry. Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion). The pattern of differentiation for one ecotype in the North Pacific suggests local adaptation and shows some fixed differences among sympatric ecotypes. We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift. PMID:25244680

Moura, Andre E; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy; Hughes, Margaret A; J Welch, Andreanna; Reisinger, Ryan R; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hall, Neil; Hoelzel, A Rus

2014-11-01

115

Conversion of switchgrass to ethanol using dilute ammonium hydroxide pretreatment: influence of ecotype and harvest maturity  

Science.gov (United States)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass that is being developed as a bioenergy crop because it has high production yields and suitable agronomic traits. Five SG samples were included in this study that varied in ecotype and maturity. SG samples contained 317 – 385.0 g glucans / k...

116

Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

117

Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species-climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep dines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed to inform restoration and management planning. We propose four transfer zones in blackbrush that correspond to areas currently dominated by cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes in each of the two ecoregions. PMID:24689151

Richardson, Bryce A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Pendleton, Rosemary L; Pendleton, Burton K; Germino, Matthew J; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Meyer, Susan E

2014-03-01

118

Genetic diversity of local Yunnan chicken breeds and their relationships with Red Junglefowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yunnan is situated in the Southwest China and encompasses regions having high biodiversity, including habitats for several ancestral species of domestic animals such as chicken. Domestic chickens in Yunnan were kept by peoples of varied ethnic and economic backgrounds living in highly varied geographic environments. To identify the genetic background of Yunnan domestic chickens and their relationships with Red Junglefowl, we applied 28 widely used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype 340 birds from 7 chicken breeds and Red Junglefowl indigenous to Yunnan. Among a total of 342 alleles identified, 121 (35.4%) were breed specific, with Red Junglefowl harboring most microsatellite alleles (23). High levels of heterozygosity were observed within populations indicated by a mean unbiased HE value of 0.663, which was higher than the reported for most populations elsewhere. The FIS value of domestic populations ranged from -0.098-0.005, indicating a lack of inbreeding among these populations. A high proportion of significant departures (89) from the 224 HWE tests for each locus in each population reflected an excess of heterozygosity and population substructure. Individual assignment tests, high FST values (0.1757-0.3015), and Nei's DA genetic distances (0.4232-0.6950) indicated clear differentiation among these populations. These observations, along with the close genetic distance between indigenous domestic populations and Red Junglefowl, were consistent with the primitive and ancestral state of Yunnan indigenous chickens. Protecting the unique variants of these indigenous poultry varieties from contamination with commercial breeds might provide values for improving modern agricultural livestock and breeding programs. Thus, the current study may benefit breeding management and conservation efforts. PMID:24841782

Huo, J L; Wu, G S; Chen, T; Huo, H L; Yuan, F; Liu, L X; Ge, C R; Miao, Y W

2014-01-01

119

Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Garth Nettheim

2009-09-01

120

Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

Catherine E. Gordon

2014-06-01

121

Bioactivities of chicken essence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. PMID:22432477

Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

2012-04-01

122

African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the concept, features, sources and function of African Indigenous knowledge systems and its relevance in the present digital age against the background of ICT technologies. Since knowledge refers to what one knows and understands and is sometimes categorized as unstructured, structured, explicit or tacit, African Indigenous Knowledge systems falls into categorized structures that bear its traditional stamp and yet remains effective. The study concludes that African indigenous knowledge system can and is adaptable to other forms of knowledge in the current ICT age.

Ngozi Blessing Ossai

2011-04-01

123

Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600?bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm = 4.622). PMID:25535590

Wani, Charles E.; Yousif, Ibrahim A.; Ibrahim, Muntasir E.; Musa, Hassan H.

2014-01-01

124

Genetic diversity of Forest and Savannah chicken populations of Ghana as estimated by microsatellite markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of indigenous animal genetic resources is a requisite step in providing needed information for the conservation of useful genotypes against future needs. Thus, in this study, 22 microsatellite markers were used to genotype 114 local chickens from the Forest (n = 59) and Savannah (n = 55) eco-zones of Ghana and the results compared to those of the ancestral red junglefowl (n = 15) and two European commercial chicken populations--a broiler (n = 25) and white leghorn (n = 25). A total of 171 alleles were observed, with an average of 7.8 alleles per locus. The local Ghanaian chickens showed higher diversity in terms of the observed number of alleles per locus (6.6) and observed heterozygosity (0.568) compared with the combined control populations (6.0 and 0.458, respectively). However, Wright's F-statistics revealed negligible genetic differentiation (F(ST)) in local Ghanaian chicken populations. In addition, 65% of the Savannah chickens were inferred to be more likely from the Forest, suggesting a south-north dispersal of chickens from their probable original location in the Forest zone to the Savannah areas. It is concluded that the Forest and Savannah chickens of Ghana are a single, randomly mating unselected population, characterized by high genetic diversity and constitute a valuable resource for conservation and improvement. PMID:20597885

Osei-Amponsah, Richard; Kayang, Boniface B; Naazie, Augustine; Osei, Yaa D; Youssao, Issaka A K; Yapi-Gnaore, Valentine C; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Rognon, Xavier

2010-06-01

125

Indigenous knowledge and science revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.

Aikenhead, Glen S.; Ogawa, Masakata

2007-07-01

126

Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples  

OpenAIRE

The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to id...

Garth Nettheim

2009-01-01

127

Neoliberal Multiculturalism and Indigenous Movements  

OpenAIRE

Más que un indio (More Than an Indian): Racial Ambivalence and Neoliberal Multiculturalism in Guatemala. By Charles R. Hale. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 2006. Pp. xii + 292. $34.05 paper. The Stroessner Regime and Indigenous Resistance in Paraguay. By René D. Harder Horst. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007. Pp. xi + 224. $50.05 cloth. Who Defines Indigenous? Identities, Development, Intellectuals, and the State in Northern Mexico. By Carmen Martínez ...

Jackson, Jean E.

2009-01-01

128

Morphological Traits of Lotus japonicus (Regal Ecotypes Collected in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty-seven wild accessions of Lotus japonicus Regal (Japanese trefoil indigenous to Japan were investigated for nine morphological characters. Average temperature and annual precipitation were negatively correlated with stem color and seed weight. On the other hand, latitude was positively correlated with these traits. Consequently, accessions from sites at higher latitudes with low temperatures and precipitation tend to have dark red stems and heavy seeds. Cluster analysis based on nine morphological characters classified 47 wild accessions into six major groups. Cluster I included four accessions of tall and erect plants. These plants are phenotypically similar to commercial variety ‘Empire’. Cluster II consisted of three accessions of creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster III contained 24 accessions that had average values for all morphological characters evaluated. Cluster IV included two accessions of erect plants with rounded leaflets and dark red stems. Cluster V included four accessions of small, creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster VI included seven accessions of small and erect plants, a phenotype that also applies to ‘Gifu B-129’, which is used as experimental strain worldwide. These data were deposited into LegumeBase, an online database (http://www.legumebase.brc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp/ supported by the National BioResource Project (NBRP in Japan.

Ryo Akashi

2011-02-01

129

Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbour porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of 10 microsatellite loci and a 5085 base-pair portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the Black Sea (BS), the European continental shelf waters, and a previously overlooked ecotype in the upwelling zones of Iberia and Mauritania. Historical demographic inferences using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) suggest that these ecotypes diverged during the last glacial maximum (c. 23-19 kilo-years ago, kyrbp). ABC supports the hypothesis that the BS and upwelling ecotypes share a more recent common ancestor (c. 14 kyrbp) than either does with the European continental shelf ecotype (c. 28 kyrbp), suggesting they probably descended from the extinct populations that once inhabited the Mediterranean during the glacial and post-glacial period. We showed that the two Atlantic ecotypes established a narrow admixture zone in the Bay of Biscay during the last millennium, with highly asymmetric gene flow. This study highlights the impacts that climate change may have on the distribution and speciation process in pelagic predators and shows that allopatric divergence can occur in these highly mobile species and be a source of genetic diversity. PMID:24888550

Fontaine, Michaël C; Roland, Kathleen; Calves, Isabelle; Austerlitz, Frederic; Palstra, Friso P; Tolley, Krystal A; Ryan, Sean; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Öztürk, Bayram; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Borrell, Asunción; Michaux, Johan R; Aguilar, Alex

2014-07-01

130

Effect of Seasons on the Reproductive Performance of Bovan Nera and Isa Brown Parent-stock Chickens in a Hot Humid Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seasons play an important role in the performance of breeder chickens, but lack of adequate records on its specific effects in specific seasons could influence the efforts of breeders to improve on local ecotypes of chicken for standardization into breeds. This is why Nigeria still depends mainly on imported breeds of chicken for commercial production of chicken. In this study, the influence of Early Wet (EW, Late Wet (LW and Early Dry (ED and Late Dry (LD seasons on reproductive parameters of Bovan Nera (BN and Isa Brown (IB parent-stock chickens were studied in the humid South-West Nigeria. Ten-year data on both genotypes were obtained from Ajanla Farms Hatchery Ibadan and analysed for Eggs Set (ES, Egg Fertility (EF, Egg Hatchability (EH, Pullet Day-old Chicks (PDC and Hatching Rejects (HR to study the effect of seasons on these parameters. ANOVA (p<0.05 showed that seasons have significant influence on EF, EH and HR in BN; and ES, EH and HR in IB. Late wet season gave the best results on reproduction thus making it potentially the most favorable season for hatching activities in both genotypes, and therefore may signal good fortune in commercial chicks production enterprises of breeder chickens in hot humid regions.

O.M.A. Jesuyon

2014-12-01

131

IDENTIFICATION OF CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. ECOTYPES THROUGH MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SELECTED REGIONS OF THE WESTERN GHATS OF KARNATAKA, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Castor (Ricinus communis L. being a perennial crop widely grown for oil seed production in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.  Nevertheless, the leaf of castor serves as a primary food for the eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Boisduval. Eri silkworm being a polyvoltine requires leaf throughout the year for its survival and cocoon production. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to identify (through molecular characterization the best castor ecotype(s found in different regions of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India for leaf production. The ecotypes were processed through DNA sequencing using ITS4 and ITS5 primers. The sequence results were authenticated through National Centre for Biotechnology Information by way of obtaining accession numbers (phylogenetic tree. Further, leaf samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE to know the variations existed among the ecotypes in protein profile. The results revealed that, ecotypes of different regions exhibits close relation among them and some marginal variations were evident in phylogenetic tree as well as in dendrogram. However, phylogenetic relationship of ecotypes in the major clade II and cluster III showed similar in both phylogeny and dendrogram for eight among 12 ecotypes representing different agro-ecological regions of Western Ghats of Karnataka.  Further, five ecotypes showed close relationship in both phylogenetic as well as in cluster dendrogram, but in clades I and III, bootstrap values showed minor variation among the ecotypes representing different regions of the Western Ghats. Whereas, in protein profile clusters I and II showed similarities between the ecotypes having genetic distance of 0.57. The maximum of 18 protein bands were found in KJ130046 ecotype, accordingly, minimum bands (10 were noticed in both KJ000404 and KJ000405 ecotypes.

KG Manjunath and B Sannappa*

2014-10-01

132

New long-season ecotype of Morchella rufobrunnea from northern Israel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available True morel (Morchella spp. ascocarps commonly appear in the spring for only a few weeks in many regions worldwide. There has only been one report of a M. esculenta population from Israel, presumably mycorrhizal, persisting for several months at one site. The present study describes another species, presumably saprophytic, fruiting in northern Israel from early November to late May (winter and spring. This new long-season ecotype was identified as M. rufobrunnea (MS5-IL1 by sequencing of its nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. It is reported for the first time in Israel, and for the first time outside of the American continent. Its productivity decline from 2001 to 2007 was correlated with concurrently collected rainfall and temperature data. Our data suggested that the number of morel species and ecotypes displaying long seasonality is greater than previously thought.

S. Masaphy

2009-01-01

133

A molecular basis for the physiological variation in shade avoidance responses: A tale of two ecotypes  

OpenAIRE

Using two ecotypes of Stellaria longipes with contrasting responses to shade, we found that plants can differ in their responses to similar light cues, reflecting adaptations to their natural habitat. It was also observed that the plants could distinguish between distinct shade signals. Furthermore, the activity of wall modifying proteins, expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase(s) (XTHs) was regulated during these responses. However, only expansin activity and gene expression...

Sasidharan, Rashmi; Chinnappa, Cc; Voesenek, Laurentius Acj; Pierik, Ronald

2009-01-01

134

Role of Polyamines in Efficiency of Norway Spruce (Hurst Ecotype) Somatic Embryogenesis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Rijeka : InTech, 2012 - (Sato, K.), s. 373-386 ISBN 978-953-51-0466-7 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH82303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Norway Spruce * Somatic Embryogenesis * Polyamines Subject RIV: GK - Forestry http://www.intechopen.com/books/howtoreference/embryogenesis/role-of-polyamines-in-efficiency-of-norway-spruce-hurst-ecotype-somatic-embryogenesis-

Malá, J.; Cvikrová, Milena; Máchová, P.; Gemperlová, Lenka

135

Genome scale transcriptional response diversity among ten ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana during heat stress  

OpenAIRE

In the scenario of global warming and climate change, heat stress is a serious threat to crop production worldwide. Being sessile, plants cannot escape from heat. Plants have developed various adaptive mechanisms to survive heat stress. Several studies have focused on diversity of heat tolerance levels in divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, but comprehensive genome scale understanding of heat stress response in plants is still lacking. Here we report the genome scale transc...

Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh D.; Mundy, John; Bones, Atle M.

2013-01-01

136

Medicago truncatula ecotypes A17 and R108 differed in their response to iron deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicago truncatula Gaertn is a model legume species with a wide genetic diversity. To evaluate the responses of the two M. truncatula ecotypes, the effect of Fe deficiency on ecotype A17 and ecotype R108, which have been widely used in physiological and molecular studies, was investigated. A greater reduction in shoot Fe concentration of R108 plants than that of A17 plants was observed under Fe-deficient conditions. Exposure to Fe-deficient medium led to a greater increase in ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity in roots of A17 than those of R108 plants, while expression of genes encoding FCR in roots of A17 and R108 plants was similarly up-regulated by Fe deficiency. Exposure of A17 plants to Fe-deficient medium evoked an ethylene evolution from roots, while the same treatment had no effect on ethylene evolution from R108 roots. There was a significant increase in expression of MtIRT encoding a Fe transporter in A17, but not in R108 plants, upon exposure to Fe-deficient medium. Transcripts of MtFRD3 that is responsible for loading of iron chelator citrate into xylem were up-regulated by Fe deficiency in A17, but not in R108 plants. These results suggest that M. truncatula ecotypes A17 and R108 differed in their response and adaptation to Fe deficiency, and that ethylene may play an important role in regulation of greater tolerance of A17 plant to Fe deficiency. These findings provide important clues for further elucidation of molecular mechanism by which legume plants respond and adapt to low soil Fe availability. PMID:24709157

Li, Gen; Wang, Baolan; Tian, Qiuying; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

2014-05-01

137

Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblage  

OpenAIRE

How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl S...

Engelhard, G. H.; Ellis, J. R.; Payne, M. R.; Hofstede, R.; Pinnegar, J. K.

2011-01-01

138

Distinct, ecotype-specific genome and proteome signatures in the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus, having multiple ecotypes of distinct genotypic/phenotypic traits and being the first documented example of genome shrinkage in free-living organisms, offers an ideal system for studying niche-driven molecular micro-diversity in closely related microbes. The present study, through an extensive comparative analysis of various genomic/proteomic features of 6 high light (HL) and 6 low light (LL) adapted strains, makes an attem...

Bag Sumit K; Dutta Anirban; Paul Sandip; Das Sabyasachi; Dutta Chitra

2010-01-01

139

Ecotypic variation in response to light spectra in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated Scots pine adaptive responses to the light spectra by measuring hypocotyl length in seeds sampled from three natural Scots pine ecotypes across a latitudinal cline ranging from 63° to 68° N in Sweden where the adaptive cline is known to be steeper. Seeds were germinated under dark (D) and three monochromatic continuous light wavelengths: blue (B), red (R) and far-red (FR). Analysis of variance revealed a northward decrease in the inhibitory effect of FR with respect to D, the so-called far red high irradiance response. Ecotypic variation for hypocotyl development was observed under the FR and D treatments, while the trends for the B and R treatments were not statistically significant. Under FR the ecotypic variation showed an increase in hypocotyl length northwards, in contrast to the treatment under D which showed a decrease in the hypocotyl length northwards. These results could be interpreted in view of the previously reported northward increase in FR requirement to maintain growth in Norway spruce and Scots pine. Prior to the performance of the main light experiment, the maternal effect on progeny performance was investigated, which showed the absence of maternal environment effect on the performance of the seedlings. PMID:23392595

Ranade, Sonali S; García-Gil, M R

2013-02-01

140

Plant response to climate change varies with topography, interactions with neighbors, and ecotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the future of any given species represents an unprecedented challenge in light of the many environmental and biological factors that affect organismal performance and that also interact with drivers of global change. In a three-year experiment set in the Mongolian steppe, we examined the response of the common grass Festuca lenensis to manipulated temperature and water while controlling for topographic variation, plant-plant interactions, and ecotypic differentiation. Plant survival and growth responses to a warmer, drier climate varied within the landscape. Response to simulated increased precipitation occurred only in the absence of neighbors, demonstrating that plant-plant interactions can supersede the effects of climate change. F. lenensis also showed evidence of local adaptation in populations that were only 300 m apart. Individuals from the steep and dry upper slope showed a higher stress/drought tolerance, whereas those from the more productive lower slope showed a higher biomass production and a greater ability to cope with competition. Moreover, the response of this species to increased precipitation was ecotype specific, with water addition benefiting only the least stress-tolerant ecotype from the lower slope origin. This multifaceted approach illustrates the importance of placing climate change experiments within a realistic ecological and evolutionary framework. Existing sources of variation impacting plant performance may buffer or obscure climate change effects. PMID:23691663

Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Song, Daniel S; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

2013-02-01

141

Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".  

Science.gov (United States)

Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region. PMID:24283538

Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

2014-06-01

142

The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects  

OpenAIRE

For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context ...

Pascal Leroy; Dang Vu Binh; Vu Dinh Ton; Frédéric Farnir; Pham Kim Dang; Do Duc Luc; Nassim Moula; Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux

2011-01-01

143

Welfare of broiler chickens  

OpenAIRE

Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for ...

Federico Sirri; Adele Meluzzi

2010-01-01

144

Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silene vulgaris possesses ecotype-specific tolerance to high levels of copper in the soil. Although this was reported a few decades ago, little is known about this trait on a molecular level. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription response to elevated copper concentrations in two S. vulgaris ecotypes originating from copper-contrasting soil types - copper-tolerant Lubietova and copper-sensitive Stranska skala. To reveal if plants are transcriptionally affected, we first analyzed the HMA7 gene, a known key player in copper metabolism. Based on BAC library screening, we identified a BAC clone containing a SvHMA7 sequence with all the structural properties specific for plant copper-transporting ATPases. The functionality of the gene was tested using heterologous complementation in yeast mutants. Analyses of SvHMA7 transcription patterns showed that both ecotypes studied up-regulated SvHMA7 transcription after the copper treatment. Our data are supported by analysis of appropriate reference genes based on RNA-Seq databases. To identify genes specifically involved in copper response in the studied ecotypes, we analyzed transcription profiles of genes coding Cu-transporting proteins and genes involved in the prevention of copper-induced oxidative stress in both ecotypes. Our data show that three genes (APx, POD and COPT5) differ in their transcription pattern between the ecotypes with constitutively increased transcription in Lubietova. Taken together, we have identified transcription differences between metallifferous and non-metalliferous ecotypes of S. vulgaris, and we have suggested candidate genes participating in metal tolerance in this species. PMID:24973591

Baloun, Jiri; Nevrtalova, Eva; Kovacova, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

2014-08-15

145

Biogeography and diversity of methane and sulfur-cycling ecotypes in deep subsurface sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is critical for regulating the flux of methane from the ocean. AOM is coupled to sulfate availability in many anoxic marine environments, which has been extensively studied at cold seeps, hydrothermal vents, and the sulfate-methane transition zone at the seafloor. The microbes known to catalyze AOM form phylogenetically distinct anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) clusters and sometimes live in concert with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Strikingly, certain ANME groups and subgroups have been shown to occupy different ecological niches in both hydrocarbon seep and hydrothermal vent sediments. However, the environmental parameters that select for certain phylogenetic variants or 'ecotypes' in a wide range of marine systems are still unknown. A marine environment that remains elusive to characterization of potential ANME and SRB ecotype diversity is methane hydrate formations in the deep subsurface. Current estimates indicate that seafloor hydrates may exceed 10,000 GtC at standard temperature and pressure conditions. However, only a handful of studies have investigated the potential for AOM in the deep subsurface associated with methane hydrates. To gain a better understanding of the distribution of methane- and sulfur- cycling ecotypes in biogeochemically distinct marine subsurface ecosystems, we generated a substantial library of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these uncultivable deep sea microorganisms using Illumina sequencing. Sediment strata were collected from the methane-hydrate associated deep subsurface of Hydrate Ridge (30 - 100 mbsf), hydrocarbon cold seeps of Monterey Bay, metalliferous sedimented hydrothermal vents of Juan de Fuca Ridge, and organic-rich hydrothermally influenced sediments of Guaymas Basin. We used the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform to assess Archaeal and Bacterial richness in a total of 36 deep sea sediment samples followed by qPCR for quantification of ANME and SRB phylotype abundance across geographic ranges and environmental gradients. Co-registered metadata were used to establish the relationships between ANME and SRB phylotype distribution and geochemistry as well as the extent of these ecotypes in the deep subsurface compared to seafloor sediments. Our results shed light on the degree to which physical, geochemical, and biological constraints drive the distribution of different ecotypes over spatially and biogeographically separated sites, in particular temperature, substrate availability, and the presence of associated phylotypes.

Adams, M. M.; Biddle, J.; Girguis, P. R.

2013-12-01

146

The influence of prices on market participation decisions of indigenous poultry farmers in four districts of Eastern Province, Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Over 70% of the domesticated birds in Kenya are indigenous chicken (IC) providing meat and table eggs. They are frequently raised through the free range, backyard production system. Small flock sizes are characteristic of this production system and often, sales are mainly at the farmgate. Although IC production possesses enormous potential at livelihood improvement, marketing systems are undefined and variable. The influence of prices on market engagement has frequently been assumed. A study ...

Mailu, Stephen; Wachira, Ann

2009-01-01

147

Indigenous health and climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-07-01

148

Conversations, collaborations and contestations: Building a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the ways collaborative research offers ethnomusicologists a “dialogic alternative: speaking with rather than for” Indigenous people (Fielding 305. Drawing on my research experiences collaborating with Indigenous Australian women, I consider the difficulties, dilemmas, ethics and the benefits of cross-cultural collaborative research. I focus on two collaborative projects and incorporate interviews with my co-researchers and theoretical perspectives on collaborative research, to examine the complexities of including Indigenous people as “co-researchers”, the implication of knowledge production with and for Indigenous people, and the importance of a dialogic approach to collaborative research. I discuss my perspective as a non-Indigenous ethnomusicologist and my shared lived experiences with Indigenous researchers. Ultimately, I consider how collaborative research can allow Indigenous and non-Indigenous ethnomusicologists to engage in dialogue, have equal voices in projects, and facilitate relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Katelyn Barney

2012-11-01

149

Indigenous Writing: Relating Practice Led Research to Indigenous Postgraduate Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methodology of this paper continues the work I have done writing the ‘subjective academic narrative’ for publication within refereed academic journals. Storytelling is a basic human activity and the academy since the mid 20th century has begun to see its value rather than use it as the non-academic side of the dichotomy between thought and reason and feeling and emotion that the Enlightenment left as its residue of academic thought and knowledge. I use this methodology to enter into the privileged academic discussion and to add to it regarding the  relationship of Indigenous knowledge to the academy that remains a challenge in Australian Universities in this postmodern and postcolonial moment. This paper recognises the need to open discussion about how Indigenous people might be facilitated within the academy to bring their knowledge-models into the university and its traditional dominant knowledge systems. This paper looks at Practice Led Research (PLR as a possible pathway for supporting the transition of Indigenous community scholars into university postgraduate courses. It explores how PLR contributes to an appropriate entry point into postgraduate studies for some Indigenous students who have significant life experiences and narratives and/or productions of artefacts that act to replace the breadth of undergraduate credentials. This paper identifies and explicates a nexus between Practice Led Research and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL and Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC. In doing so, it provides a reference point for University protocols and practices regarding RPL and RCC.  

Josie Jacqueline Arnold

2012-11-01

150

Welfare of broiler chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

Federico Sirri

2010-01-01

151

Two-eyed seeing: a framework for understanding indigenous and non-indigenous approaches to indigenous health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents two-eyed seeing as a theoretical framework that embraces the contributions of both Indigenous and Western "ways of knowing" (world-views). It presents key characteristics and principles of these different perspectives and suggests ways in which they might be used together to answer our most pressing questions about the health of Indigenous people and communities. Presenting a critique of positivism, which has historically undermined and/or dismissed Indigenous ways of knowing as "unscientific," it discusses the origins of both Western and Indigenous approaches to understanding health; the importance of giving equal consideration to diverse Indigenous and non-Indigenous worldviews such that one worldview does not dominate or undermine the contributions of others; and how balanced consideration of contributions from diverse worldviews, embraced within a two-eyed seeing framework, can reshape the nature of the questions we ask in the realm of Indigenous health research. PMID:22894005

Martin, Debbie H

2012-06-01

152

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-01-01

153

Indigenous mortality (revealed): the invisible illuminated.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inaccuracies in the identification of Indigenous status and the collection of and access to vital statistics data impede the strategic implementation of evidence-based public health initiatives to reduce avoidable deaths. The impact of colonization and subsequent government initiatives has been commonly observed among the Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The quality of Indigenous data that informs mortality statistics are similarly connected to these distal processes, which began with colonization. We discuss the methodological and technical challenges in measuring mortality for Indigenous populations within a historical and political context, and identify strategies for the accurate ascertainment and inclusion of Indigenous people in mortality statistics. PMID:25211754

Freemantle, Jane; Ring, Ian; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G; Gachupin, Francine C; Smylie, Janet; Cutler, Tessa Louise; Waldon, John A

2015-04-01

154

Ecotype Variability in Growth and Secondary Metabolite Profile in Moringa oleifera: Impact of Sulfur and Water Availability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype. PMID:25689922

Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

2015-03-25

155

DNA methylation and methylation polymorphism in ecotypes of Jatropha curcas L. using methylation-sensitive AFLP markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated DNA methylation and polymorphism in the methylated DNA using AFLP based methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MS-AFLP) markers in ecotypes of Jatropha curcas L. growing in similar and different geo-ecological conditions. Three ecotypes growing in different geo-ecological conditions with environmental heterogeneity (Group-1) and five ecotypes growing in similar environmental conditions (Group-2) were assessed. In ecotypes growing in group-1, 44.32 % DNA was methylated and of which 93.59 % DNA was polymorphic. While in group-2, 32.27 % DNA was methylated, of which 51.64 % DNA was polymorphic. In site 1 and site 2 of group-1, overall methylation was 18.94 and 22.44 % respectively with difference of 3.5 %, while overall polymorphism was 41.14 and 39.23 % with a difference of 1.91 %. In site 1 and site 2 of group-2, overall methylation was 24.68 and 24.18 % respectively with difference of 0.5 %, while overall polymorphism was 12.19 and 12.65 % with a difference of 0.46 %. The difference of methylation percentage and percentage of methylation polymorphism throughout the genome of J. curcas at site 1 and 2 of group-1 is higher than that of J. curcas at site 1 and 2 of group-2. These results correlated the physico-chemical properties of soil at these sites. The variations of physico-chemical properties of soil at Chorwadla (site 1 in group-1 and site 2 in group-2) compared to the soil at Brahmapur (site 2 in group-1) is higher than that of soil at Neswad (site 1 in group-2). The study suggests that these homologous nucleotide sequences probably play important role in ecotype adaptation to environmental heterogeneity by creating epiallelic variations hence in evolution of ecotypes/clines or forms of species showing phenotypic/genotypic differences in different geographical areas. PMID:25227523

Mastan, Shaik G; Rathore, Mangal S; Bhatt, Vacha D; Chikara, J; Ghosh, A

2014-12-01

156

Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

2011-01-01

157

Chicken NK cell receptors  

OpenAIRE

Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive...

Straub, C.; Neulen, M.; Sperling, B.; Windau, K.; Zechmann, M.; Jansen, C. A.; Viertlboeck, B. C.; Go?bel, T. W.

2013-01-01

158

Effect of Introgressing Dwarf Gene from Bangladeshi Indigenous to Exotic Breeds on Egg Production  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of introgressing autosomal recessive dwarf gene (adw) from Bangladeshi indigenous (deshi) dwarf (DD) chicken to Rhode Island Red (RIR), White Leghorn (WLH) and Fayoumi (FO) on body weight and egg production. Deshi normal (DN), DD, RIR, WLH and FO were used in crossings to produce 8 genotypes; RIR, WLH, FO, DN, DD, RIR x DD, WLH x DD and FO x DD. At 19 weeks of age, for separation of crossbreds into normal and dwarf on the basis of shank l...

Yeasmin, T.; Howlider, M. A. R.; Ahammad, M. U.

2003-01-01

159

Variability of the physico-mechanical properties of the ecotypes of nut fruits (Juglans regia L. in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present time among the endangered species of plants, there exists elements of flora which can be found in Slovakia. Within the framework of the program "Protection of Endangered Genebank Plants in Slovakia" is the processing, existence and description of individual king nut ecotypes (Juglans Regia L.. Several agrophysical methods were applied for evaluating and grouping advantageous ecotypes in genebanks. This work presents the results obtained of the dimension and weight characteristics of fruits and shells, together with the determined necessary force for cracking nutfruits. The research was done on 16 selected samples obtained from 11 localities of southern Slovakia.

Brindza J.

1999-09-01

160

Book review: Indigenous research methodologies  

OpenAIRE

Responding to increased emphasis in the classroom and the field on exposing students to diverse epistemologies, methods, and methodologies, Bagele Chilisa’s Indigenous Research Methodologies aims to provide tools for situating research in a larger historical, cultural, and global context. With case studies from around the world, the book seeks to demonstrate the specific methodologies that are commensurate with the transformative paradigm of research and the historical and cultural trad...

Goede, Meike

2013-01-01

161

Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

Marchand, Dawn Marie

2011-01-01

162

Out of the Pacific and back again: the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous.

Foote, Andrew David; Morin, PA

2011-01-01

163

Freezing of Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to The Hill Ecotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our purpose was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the hill ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (-120°C and then plunged into nitrogen (-196,8oC. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing the Hancock, endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and hypoosmotic tests were performed. Abnormalities of the head, midpiece and tail were also investigated using the Hancock method. After thawing motility sperm decreased to 0.32-0.42, while only 25% of the spermatozoa were HOST positive. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was as high as 50%, the acrosome being flawed in most cases (34.20%. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the hill ecotype.

Vasile Miclea

2011-05-01

164

Response diversity of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in elevated [CO2] in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free Air [CO(2)] Enrichment (FACE) allows for plant growth under fully open-air conditions of elevated [CO(2)] at concentrations expected to be reached by mid-century. We used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0, Cvi-0, and WS to analyze changes in gene expression and metabolite profiles of plants grown in "SoyFACE" (http://www.soyface.uiuc.edu/), a system of open-air rings within which [CO(2)] is elevated to approximately 550 ppm. Data from multiple rings, comparing plants in ambient air and elevated [CO(2)], were analyzed by mixed model ANOVA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and data-mining tools. In elevated [CO(2)], decreases in the expression of genes related to chloroplast functions characterized all lines but individual members of distinct multi-gene families were regulated differently between lines. Also, different strategies distinguished the lines with respect to the regulation of genes related to carbohydrate biosynthesis and partitioning, N-allocation and amino acid metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone responses, irrespective of the plants' developmental status. Metabolite results paralleled reactions seen at the level of transcript expression. Evolutionary adaptation of species to their habitat and intrinsic genetic plasticity seem to determine the nature of responses to elevated [CO(2)]. Irrespective of their underlying genetic diversity, and evolutionary adaptation to different habitats, a small number of common, predominantly stress-responsive, signature transcripts appear to characterize responses of the Arabidopsis ecotypes in FACE. PMID:16941220

Li, Pinghua; Sioson, Allan; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Ulanov, Alexander; Grothaus, Gregory; Heath, Lenwood S; Murali, T M; Bohnert, Hans J; Grene, Ruth

2006-11-01

165

Contemporary ecotypic divergence during a recent range expansion was facilitated by adaptive introgression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although rapid phenotypic evolution during range expansion associated with colonization of contrasting habitats has been documented in several taxa, the evolutionary mechanisms that underlie such phenotypic divergence have less often been investigated. A strong candidate for rapid ecotype formation within an invaded range is the three-spine stickleback in the Lake Geneva region of central Europe. Since its introduction only about 140 years ago, it has undergone a significant expansion of its range and its niche, now forming phenotypically differentiated parapatric ecotypes that occupy either the pelagic zone of the large lake or small inlet streams, respectively. By comparing museum collections from different times with contemporary population samples, we here reconstruct the evolution of parapatric phenotypic divergence through time. Using genetic data from modern samples, we infer the underlying invasion history. We find that parapatric habitat-dependent phenotypic divergence between the lake and stream was already present in the first half of the twentieth century, but the magnitude of differentiation increased through time, particularly in antipredator defence traits. This suggests that divergent selection between the habitats occurred and was stable through much of the time since colonization. Recently, increased phenotypic differentiation in antipredator defence traits likely results from habitat-dependent selection on alleles that arrived through introgression from a distantly related lineage from outside the Lake Geneva region. This illustrates how hybridization can quickly promote phenotypic divergence in a system where adaptation from standing genetic variation was constrained. PMID:25228272

Lucek, K; Lemoine, M; Seehausen, O

2014-10-01

166

Effect of Freezing on Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to the Mountain Ecotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the mountain ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in 0.25 ml straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (- 120°C and then plunged into nitrogen. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing sperm morphology was assessed using Hancock’s method and at the same time the endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and HOST tests were performed. The highest motility (0.40 was graded at 30 minutes. It could be correlated with the increased percentage of HOST positive spermatozoa, 27.78%. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was also high (47.89%, 38.44% of them having acrosome flaws. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on the characteristics of sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the mountain ecotype.

Vasile Miclea

2011-05-01

167

Identification of Italian ecotypes of Juglans regia L. by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Juglans regia L. is a multipurpose species important for quality wood and fruit production. In order to contrast the erosion and to properly conserve, manage and revaluate the genetic resources of Italian walnut, possible ecotypes, naturally adapted and still present in Italy have been researched. Leaves and fruits have been sampled in Campania region, localities of Montella, Cervinara, Fisciano, and in Abruzzo region, localities of Sulmona, Pescasseroli, Villetta Barrea, and Civitella Alfedena. The sites are located at different altitudes and climatic conditions. Materials have been collected on a total of 276 plants. Molecular, morphological and preliminary biochemical analyses have been carried out on this germplasm and on material belonging to 80 plants of 4 famous Italian walnut varieties (Bleggiana and Feltrina, North Italy; Sorrento and Malizia, Southern Italy, in order to have a comparison model. 134 ISSR, morphological and biochemical data have shown peculiar characters for Montella and Pescasseroli in comparison with the other accessions. Because of the peculiar environmental conditions of their locations, the effect of the temperature on the fruit development and fatty acid contents, it is possible to suppose that Montella and Pescasseroli are ecotypes which could be utilised as essential fat acid source and as material for afforestation of mountain zones.

Pollegioni P

2006-01-01

168

Widespread metabolic potential for nitrite and nitrate assimilation among Prochlorococcus ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the most abundant photosynthetic organism in oligotrophic regions of the oceans. The inability to assimilate nitrate is considered an important factor underlying the distribution of Prochlorococcus, and thought to explain, in part, low abundance of Prochlorococcus in coastal, temperate, and upwelling zones. Here, we describe the widespread occurrence of a genomic island containing nitrite and nitrate assimilation genes in uncultured Prochlorococcus cells from marine surface waters. These genes are characterized by low GC content, form a separate phylogenetic clade most closely related to marine Synechococcus, and are located in a different genomic region compared with an orthologous cluster found in marine Synechococcus strains. This sequence distinction suggests that these genes were not transferred recently from Synechococcus. We demonstrate that the nitrogen assimilation genes encode functional proteins and are expressed in the ocean. Also, we find that their relative occurrence is higher in the Caribbean Sea and Indian Ocean compared with the Sargasso Sea and Eastern Pacific Ocean, which may be related to the nitrogen availability in each region. Our data suggest that the ability to assimilate nitrite and nitrate is associated with microdiverse lineages within high- and low-light (LL) adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes. It challenges 2 long-held assumptions that (i) Prochlorococcus cannot assimilate nitrate, and (ii) only LL adapted ecotypes can use nitrite. The potential for previously unrecognized productivity by Prochlorococcus in the presence of oxidized nitrogen species has implications for understanding the biogeography of Prochlorococcus and its role in the oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles. PMID:19549842

Martiny, Adam C; Kathuria, Satish; Berube, Paul M

2009-06-30

169

The evolving male: spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes are divergent at Y chromosome but not mtDNA or autosomal markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of the Y chromosome to sexual selection may make this chromosome an important player in the formation of reproductive isolating barriers, and ultimately speciation. Here, we investigate the role of the Y chromosome in phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes. This species contains six known ecotypes (grouped into four subspecies) that exhibit striking differences in morphology, habitat and mating system, despite having adjacent or overlapping ranges and little genetic divergence at previously studied mtDNA and autosomal markers. We examined the phylogeographic structure for all six ecotypes across the species range (n = 261, 17 geographic locations) using DNA sequences from three Y chromosome markers, two maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) markers, and a biparentally inherited autosomal intron. mtDNA and autosomal analyses revealed low divergence (most ?(ST) values Tres Marias ecotypes). Another ecotype (whitebelly), previously postulated to be a hybrid between the two phenotypically most divergent ecotypes, had Y haplotypes from both putative parent ecotypes, supporting a hybrid designation. Reduced introgression of the Y chromosome has previously been observed in other organisms ranging from insects to terrestrial mammals, and here we demonstrate this phenomenon in a marine mammal with high dispersal capabilities. These results indicate that reduced introgression of the Y chromosome occurs in a wide taxonomic range of organisms and support the growing body of evidence that rapid evolution of the Y chromosome is important in evolutionary diversification. PMID:23551274

Andrews, Kimberly R; Perrin, William F; Oremus, Marc; Karczmarski, Leszek; Bowen, Brian W; Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

2013-05-01

170

Resilience and Indigenous Spirituality: A Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous spirituality is a more complex phenomenon than the term spirituality alone, as generally understood, implies. Spirituality is closely bound up with culture and ways of living in Indigenous communities and requires a more holistic or comprehensive research approach. Two conceptual frameworks could help to orient Indigenous resilience research. One is the enculturation framework. Enculturation refers to the degree of integration within a culture, which can be protective in social beh...

Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J.

2008-01-01

171

Defining 'Indigenous': Between Culture and Biology  

OpenAIRE

This essay considers a range of discourses on identity and the definition of culture. I have little doubt that, generally speaking, Indigenous people are quite capable of defining the meaning of ‘Indigenous person’ or ‘culture’ in a way that satisfies their specific immediate needs and interests. My concern here is with the definition of ‘Aboriginal or Indigenous person’ in Australian law and legislation and with the critical response, by members of the scientific community as wel...

Stephen Pritchard

2013-01-01

172

Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by germinating seeds of two edaphic ecotypes of Silene nutans L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two parapatric ecotypes of Silene nutans, exhibiting distinct allozyme patterns, morphology and autecology were investigated for differences in exudation of low molecular weight organic acids from germinating seeds, and for differences in seed phosphorus content. The calcicolous ecotype is restricted to calcareous soils, and the silicicolous one predominantly occurs on acid soils, and sometimes, although less frequently, on neutral to alkaline soils. No clear difference was found between ecotypes. However, within the silicicolous ecotype seed samples showed marked differences in exudation pattern and seed phosphorus content depending on origin along the soil acidity gradient. Seeds of low-pH origin exuded more dicarboxylic acids (malic + succinic acid, oxalic acid) and had a lower phosphorus content than seeds of high pH origin. The exudation of dicarboxylic acids from seeds of low pH origin is probably an adaptation to adverse conditions (aluminium toxicity) on acid soils. The pattern is similar to that found among different cultivars of wheat. It is contrasted to the pattern found on comparison of a suite of calcifugous and calcicolous species, where exudation of di- and tricarboxylic acids is associated with solubilisation of recalcitrantly bound phosphorus and iron in calcareous soils.

Bruun, Hans Henrik; Van Rossum, Fabienne; Ström, Lena

2001-12-01

173

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

174

The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous education.…

Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

2012-01-01

175

Investigating the Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Weed Management on Forage and Seed Yield of Alfalfa Ecotypes (Medicago sativa L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate fertilizing and weed management effects on forage and seed yield of alfalfa ecotypes, a field trial was conducted during 2008-2009 growing season at Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Alfalfa ecotypes including (Ghareghozlo, Hoakmabad, Malekkandi, Kozre, Faminin, Galebani, Rahnani, Shorkat, Chaleshtar, Ghareaghaj, Gharoghlogh, Ordobad, Sedighan, Silvana, Sahandava, Ghahavand, Mohajerankaraj and Mashhad were allocated to main plots; sub plots consisted of two levels of none fertilizing and fertilization treatments using simultaneous application of potassium sulphate and phosphate triple at rates of 150 and 350 K/ha, respectively and sub-sub plots were allocated to weeding and none weeding treatments based on a complete randomized block design in a splitsplit- plot scheme with three replicates. Results showed that the effect of ecotype on forage yield was not significant. Gharoghlogh and Silvana produced the highest (18270 kg/ha and the lowest (14630 kg/ha green forage yield, respectively at both cuttings (first and second cuts. The interaction of fertilization and weeding on forage yield was significant (p<0.01. On the other hand, with application of fertilizer, forage yield 11.74% was increased and it was enhanced 26.93% by manual weeding. Furthermore, results revealed that ecotype fertilizer interaction was significant (p<0.05 for weed dry weight. Ecotype weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per pod and seed weight (p<0.01. In addition, fertilizer weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per plant. Among the treatments, highest number of seed per plant was produced by fertilizer and weeding treatment (2734 and the lowest one was obtained by non-fertilizer and non-weeding treatment (559.5.

Ali Reza Heidarian

2012-09-01

176

Desulfo-glucosinolate sulfotransferases isolated from several Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes differ in their sequence and enzyme kinetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal was to investigate whether the diverse glucosinolate (Gl) profiles described for different Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotypes are at least partially shaped by the kinetic properties of sulfotransferases (SOTs) (EC 2.8.2.-) catalyzing the final step in Gl core structure biosynthesis. This study focuses on only one of the three SOTs that contribute to Gl biosynthesis. Homologues of AtSOT18 proteins were characterized, which was inspired by earlier findings on SOTs from ecotypes Col-0 and C24 differing in two amino acids (aa) and specific enzyme activities. Could there be a correlation of AtSOT18 enzyme activities and differences in Gl profiles between the ecotypes? SOT18 sequences from eight Arabidopsis ecotypes with highly diverse Gl patterns differed in two aa at various positions in the protein sequence. The SOT18 sequence from Col-0 showed the highest similarity to the largest number of other sequences in the alignment. The small differences in the primary sequence lead to important structural changes in secondary and tertiary structure that might be the key of different kinetic activities towards a broad range of substrates. All recombinant AtSOT18 proteins showed low substrate specificity with an indolic Gl, while the specificity for aliphatic substrates varied. There is no correlation in the kinetic behavior with the major ds-Gl contents or with the ratio of C(3)/C(4) ds-Gl in the respective ecotype. Therefore, is it unlikely that ds-Gl AtSOT18 proteins play a major role in shaping the Gl profile in Arabidopsis. PMID:23220083

Luczak, Sören; Forlani, Fabio; Papenbrock, Jutta

2013-02-01

177

Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population sizes particularly in the conservation flocks. The utility and limitations of the iselect chicken SNP60K in village chicken populations is discussed. PMID:25691890

Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

2015-01-01

178

The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

2014-11-01

179

Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds  

OpenAIRE

Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy): Robusta (PRR: n=54), Pepoi (PPP: n=33) and Padovana (PPD: n=20). Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analy...

Massino De Marchi; Chiara Targhetta; Barbara Contiero; Martino Cassandro

2003-01-01

180

Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

White, Rob

2009-01-01

181

Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility  

Science.gov (United States)

Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

2012-01-01

182

Embedding Indigenous Perspectives in Teaching School Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…

Appanna, Subhashni Devi

2011-01-01

183

Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

Bevan-Brown, Jill

2013-01-01

184

Considerations on the relationship between chromosome constitution and biochemical phenotype in five ecotypes of seabuckthorn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seabuckthorn is a small tree showing pronounced morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic variability, high ecological plasticity and large limits of resistance to unfavourable factors and to phytopathogens. It is largely exploited in biotechnological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical purposes, cosmetics domain and in environmental protective field. The possibility that some karyotype traits of five seabuckthorn ecotypes to be used as markers in relation with some specific biochemical features was discussed in this paper. There is intraspecific chromosome variability; the formula of haploid complement is different concerning the preponderance of chromosome morphotypes. Also a marked chemical heterogeneity was evidenced. At this research stage, the results not allow us to establish a direct relationship between some chromosome characteristics and certain morphological and biochemical parameters.

Gabriela Vochita

2011-06-01

185

Are melanistic populations of the Karoo girdled lizard, Karusasaurus polyzonus, relics or ecotypes? A molecular investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been proposed that melanism in cordylids evolved in response to a single climaticevent and that melanistic populations of Karusasaurus polyzonus are relictual. This studyinvestigates the genetic relationships of melanistic and non-melanistic populations ofK. polyzonus along the west coast of South Africa. Thirty-five specimens of K. polyzonus werecollected from three ‘melanistic’ and eight ‘non-melanistic’ sample localities. Partial sequencedata were derived for two mitochondrial DNA loci (16S rRNA and nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide dehydrogenase component 2 (ND2 and analysed using maximum parsimony,maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. In addition, a haplotype network wasconstructed using TCS and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA was conducted. Thederived topologies were highly congruent and showed that melanistic and non-melanisticpopulations were interdigitated on all tree topologies and a number of haplotypes were sharedbetween melanistic and non-melanistic specimens. These results suggest that melanisticpopulations of K. polyzonus are ecotypes, not relics.

P. le Fras N. Mouton

2011-08-01

186

Indigenous child health: are we making progress?  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified 244 relevant articles pertinent to indigenous health (4% of the total) with a steady increase in number since 1995. Most Australian publications in the journal (with a small Indigenous population) have focussed on conditions such as malnutrition, diarrhoeal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and respiratory and ear infections, and in settings where nearly all affected children are Indigenous. In contrast, New Zealand publications (with a large Maori and Pacific Islander population) have addressed important health issues affecting all children but emphasised the over-representation of Maori and Pacific Islanders. Publications in the journal are largely descriptive studies with relatively few systematic reviews and randomised trials. Our review attempts to cover the important Indigenous health issues in our region as represented by articles published in the Journal. The studies do document definite improvements in indigenous child health over the last 50 years. PMID:25534334

Brewster, David R; Morris, Peter S

2015-01-01

187

Differential contributions of archaeal ammonia oxidizer ecotypes to nitrification in coastal surface waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of nitrification in the oceanic water column has implications extending from local effects on the structure and activity of phytoplankton communities to broader impacts on the speciation of nitrogenous nutrients and production of nitrous oxide. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea, responsible for carrying out the majority of nitrification in the sea, are present in the marine water column as two taxonomically distinct groups. Water column group A (WCA) organisms are detected at all depths, whereas Water column group B (WCB) are present primarily below the photic zone. An open question in marine biogeochemistry is whether the taxonomic definition of WCA and WCB organisms and their observed distributions correspond to distinct ecological and biogeochemical niches. We used the natural gradients in physicochemical and biological properties that upwelling establishes in surface waters to study their roles in nitrification, and how their activity--ascertained from quantification of ecotype-specific ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and transcripts--varies in response to environmental fluctuations. Our results indicate a role for both ecotypes in nitrification in Monterey Bay surface waters. However, their respective contributions vary, due to their different sensitivities to surface water conditions. WCA organisms exhibited a remarkably consistent level of activity and their contribution to nitrification appears to be related to community size. WCB activity was less consistent and primarily constrained to colder, high nutrient and low chlorophyll waters. Overall, the results of our characterization yielded a strong, potentially predictive, relationship between archaeal amoA gene abundance and the rate of nitrification. PMID:24553472

Smith, Jason M; Casciotti, Karen L; Chavez, Francisco P; Francis, Christopher A

2014-08-01

188

Indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous embedded microbial filaments, bacterial cells and other microfossils were found in the Orgueil, Ivuna (CI1), Murchison, and Bells (CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. Biominerals, biofilms, framboids, magnetite platelets, and curious elemental iron ovoids covered with minute fibrils and carbon sheaths were also found. The S-4100 Hitachi Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) were used for in situ investigations of freshly fractured interior meteorite surfaces. EDAX x-ray spectra shows the microfossils bear signatures of the meteorite matrix and possess elemental ratios indicating they are indigenous and not recent microbial contaminants. Many of the well-preserved biogenic remains in the meteorites are encased within carbon-rich, sometimes electron transparent, sheaths. Their size, morphology and ultra microstructure are comparable to microfossils known from the phosphorites of Khubsughul, Mongolia and to some of the living cyanobacteria and other sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria known from the halophilic Microcoleus mats of Sivash Lagoon, Crimea and from Mono Lake in California.

Hoover, Richard B.; Jerman, Gregory; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Sipiera, Paul P.

2004-11-01

189

Chicken from Farm to Table  

Science.gov (United States)

... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

190

Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD). All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to higher PFD and especially lower temperature. The Swedish ecotype exhibited the strongest response to these conditions, the Italian ecotype the weakest response, and the Col-0 ecotype exhibited an intermediate response. Among all three ecotypes, strong linear relationships were found between light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the number and area of either sieve elements or of companion and phloem parenchyma cells in foliar minor loading veins, with the Swedish ecotype showing the highest number of cells in minor loading veins (and largest minor veins) coupled with unprecedented high rates of photosynthesis. Linear, albeit less significant, relationships were also observed between number and cross-sectional area of tracheids per minor loading vein versus light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We suggest that sugar distribution infrastructure in the phloem is co-regulated with other features that set the upper limit for photosynthesis. The apparent genetic differences among Arabidopsis ecotypes should allow for future identification of the gene(s) involved in augmenting sugar-loading and -transporting phloem cells and maximal rates of photosynthesis. PMID:23898338

Cohu, Christopher M; Muller, Onno; Stewart, Jared J; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W

2013-01-01

191

Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes  

OpenAIRE

Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD). All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to hi...

Cohu, Christopher M.; Muller, Onno; Stewart, Jared J.; Demmig-adams, Barbara; Adams, William W.

2013-01-01

192

A Study of Agronomic and Morphological Variations in Certain Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Ecotypes of the Cold Region of Iran  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to characterize and classify the genetic diversity among alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ecotypes collected from the cold regions of Iran, based on some agro-morphological traits. Twenty one alfalfa ecotypes were collected and planted in a Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) with three replications in April 1998 at Nyshabour Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty three above ground agro-morphological characters were ...

Basafa, M.; Taherian, M.

2009-01-01

193

Cloning the chicken leptin gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken is characterized by a relative insulin resistance and a physiological hyperglycemia (2g/L) and is also subjected to fattening. Fat deposits in chicken, as in mammals, are regulated by environmental and genetic factors. In mammals, leptin, an adipose cell-specific secreted protein has been characterized that is encoded by ob gene. Leptin regulates satiety through hypothalamic specific receptors, energy balance, energy efficiency and contributes to adaptation to starvation. The leptin gene has been characterized in various mammalian species, and the cloning and sequencing of the chicken leptin gene (ob gene) are reported. Using RT-PCR and primers flanking the coding region of the leptin gene selected from known mammalian sequences, we have successfully amplified a 600-bp fragment from chicken liver and adipose tissue total ARNs. The amplified fragment exhibits a similar size to that of the coding region of the mammalian leptin gene. The sequences of the coding region of chicken liver and adipose tissue are identical and presented 97%, 96% and 83% similarity to the mouse, rat and human sequences, respectively. Finally, this is the first report showing that leptin gene expression in chicken is not exclusively localized in adipose tissue but is also expressed in liver. The expression of leptin in liver may be associated with a key role of this organ in avian species in controlling lipogenesis. PMID:9524275

Taouis, M; Chen, J W; Daviaud, C; Dupont, J; Derouet, M; Simon, J

1998-02-27

194

Neuroendocrine Responses to Cold Stress in Chinese Indigenous Breeds from Different Latitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well established that stress is related to neurochemical and hormonal changes including alterations in adrenal and thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, thyroid axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis related hormomal, Triiodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH, Adreno-Cortico-Tropic-Hormone (ACTH and Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH mRNA, ACTH mRNA changes during cold stress with different intensities were recorded in two Chinese indigenous breeds from different latitude. The results showed that Huainan partridge chicken from central China, showed obvious conversion in T3 and T4 under severe cold stress. Plasma TSH and pituitary TRH mRNA highly expressed over 12-24 h long time severe cold exposure. However, mild cold did not obviously affect those hormones mentioned above. In the Wenchang chicken which from south of China, severe and mild cold stress showed the same affection on the thyroid axis but not obvious on the adrenal axis. The results would further help the revealing of the mechanism of injury caused by cold stress and provide better controls for chicken from loss of cold stress in different areas.

H.C. Bai

2011-01-01

195

Strategies for Improving Indigenous Financial Literacy in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indigenous Australian population is not only considerably younger than the non-Indigenous population but is also on the rise. The challenge for many is to provide the kind of education that equips young Indigenous Australians with the necessary skills for managing their money. This challenge is further compounded, as the adult Indigenous

Bin-Sallik, MaryAnn; Adams, Isabella; Vemuri, Siva Ram

2004-01-01

196

Microsatellite diversity in sympatric reproductive ecotypes of pacific steelhead (Oncorhynchus my kiss) from the Middle Fork Eel River, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic differentiation between two reproductive ecotypes of anadromous steelhead found in the Middle Fork Eel River in northern California was tested using 16 microsatellite loci. Twelve of these loci showed significant differences in allelic frequency between the two Middle Fork Eel River steelhead populations (Fisher's exact PEel River. Variation found among individuals within the two runs equaled 18.2%. Analyses showed less genetic distance between the two populations of steelhead in the Middle Fork Eel River than in comparisons made with geographically proximate coastal winter-run fish. Divergence time based on genetic distance for the two within-basin reproductive ecotypes was estimated to be 16,000-28,000 years ago. Copyright ?? Munksgaanl 1999.

Nielsen, J.L.; Fountain, M.C.

1999-01-01

197

Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to enhance scientific and adaptive capacity in Tribal communities in the United States around climate change. The first is the American Indian Alaska Native Climate Change Working Group, led out of Haskell Indian Nations University. The second is a newly funded effort led by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges that will use NASA resources to explore climate change on the great planes. Finally, we will present an effort led by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) that seeks to develop an undergraduate course introducing climate change to tribal college students. Our presentation will also describe how a geoscience research facility, in this case the National Center for Atmospheric Research, can support efforts led by indigenous communities.

Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

2009-12-01

198

Not all semantics: similarities and differences in reminiscing function and content between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember. PMID:24999815

Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny

2015-01-01

199

[Nutritional status in telarche and menarche in indigenous and non indigenous Chilean adolescents].  

Science.gov (United States)

A compensatory effect of chronic malnutrition that influences excess of weight has been reported. This effect would be more evident in indigenous populations. The aim of this study was to find out the association between ethnic group (mapuche) and body composition in the telarche and menarche of indigenous and non indigenous adolescents. This was a cross sectional design. At the beginning, a screening of 10,121 girls from 168 schools in the Araucania Region, Chile was done. 230 adolescent in telarche (grade II of the development of the mammary gland): 112 indigenous and 118 non indigenous and 239 in menarche (113 indigenous and 126 non indigenous) were identified. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were evaluated. BMI, WC and LM were higher in the indigenous adolescent in telarche. For those with menarche, the differences decreased, reaching with higher values for indigenous girls only in BMI and FM (p=0,04 and 0,02, respectively). Belonging to the indigenous group increased the BMI in 0.37 z scores in telarche (95% CI: 0,17-0,58) and 0,44 in menarche (95% CI:0,18-0,70). Being mapuche was also associated to higher WC: 3.33 cm (CI 1,67 - 4,99) in telarche and 3,17 cm (CI 0,73-5,60) in menarche and to higher lean mass only for those adolescents with telarche (1,3 CI: 0,11-2,43) and to fat mass only for those with menarche (2,4 CI: 1,02-3,77). The body composition indicators in indigenous adolescents are of concern and underscores the importance of programs to promote healthy lifestyles that take into account resources from the indigenous communities. PMID:19886510

Amigo, Hugo; Costa Machado, Thais; Bustos, Patricia

2009-09-01

200

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.

Jin Xiaofen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn; Islam, Ejazul [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam 48800, Hyderabad (Pakistan); Liu Dan [School of Tourism and Health, Zhejiang Forestry College, 311300 Lin' an (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2008-08-15

201

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O2·-) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

202

Causality between Openness and Indigenous Factors among World Economies  

OpenAIRE

The paper studies the causality relationship between economic openness and indigenous factors. The construction of the Openness Index and the Indigenous Index provides a measure on the extent of openness and indigenous development among world economies. The two indices are used to study their causality. The empirical findings show that there are bi-directional dynamic causality relationships between openness and indigenous factors. Indigenous factors help to forecast openness factors and vice...

Zhou, X.; Li, Kui-wai

2010-01-01

203

Davvi Šuvva 1979 : being Sámi, becoming indigenous : vocal and musical manifestation of Sámi and indigenous movement  

OpenAIRE

This thesis focuses on the significance of Sámi and indigenous vocal and musical expression in ethno and indigenous political mobilizing in the 1970s and particularly in June 1979. My point of departure is the Davvi Šuvva festival; the first Sámi and international indigenous culture and music festival after the establishing of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples. It took place on a hill in a Sámi and Swedish/Finnish border village in the north of Sweden and in the middle of Sápmi. My...

Angell, Synnøve

2009-01-01

204

Davvi Šuvva 1979 : being Sámi, becoming indigenous :vocal and musical manifestation of Sámi and indigenous movement  

OpenAIRE

This thesis focuses on the significance of Sámi and indigenous vocal and musical expression in ethno and indigenous political mobilizing in the 1970s and particularly in June 1979. My point of departure is the Davvi Šuvva festival; the first Sámi and international indigenous culture and music festival after the establishing of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples. It took place on a hill in a Sámi and Swedish/Finnish border village in the north of Sweden and in the middle of Sápmi. My...

Angell, Synnøve

2009-01-01

205

Computerised tomography of chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. The use of computerised tomography (CT) to predict body composition of chickens has been evaluated. Prediction equations were constructed by regression analyses with CT-observations as independent variables. The accuracy of prediction was evaluated on separate sets of birds, not included in the regression analyses. 2. Different methods of generating CT-observations were evaluated. The most robust CT-variables for prediction purposes were obtained from a principal component analysis of the distribution of CT-values. The accuracy of prediction depended on the traits and the material analysed. 3. The correlation between observed and predicted values for the amount of abdominal fat or breast cut in grams were in the range of 0.70 and 0.90 where the principal component method was applied. The bias was 1 to 2% of the standard deviation for the trait. 4. The amount of abdominal fat relative to carcase weight was predicted with similar accuracy, whereas the relative amount of breast cut seemed to be more difficult to predict. The increase in accuracy of prediction for amount of abdominal fat was considerable when compared to an equation including only body weight and sex. 5. The results from a small scale experiment, where a wide range of compositional traits were determined by more laborious and precise methods, indicated that the accuracy of prediction may be increased further and that CT-observations may in addition provide important information about the chemical composition of the tissues analysed

206

Fermented Cereal from Indigenous Raw Materials  

OpenAIRE

Fermented cereal was prepared from indigenous raw material like parboiled rice and Bengal gram. The approximate analysis, microbiology, edibility of cereal product has been done. It was found to be a high nutritive value and acceptable as a food.

Sahana Parveen; Fauzia Hafiz

2003-01-01

207

Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

2014-10-01

208

Decolonial goals and pedagogies for Indigenous studies  

OpenAIRE

This article explores decolonial priorities in Indigenous Studies, raises questions about the pedagogical approach, and challenges the primary educational goal for students, arguing that Indigenous Studies has become fixated on a simplistic decolonisation of Western knowledge and practices. We put forward a case to prioritise the development of learning dispositions in students that encourage openness to further inquiry and productive ways of thinking in and through complex and contested know...

Martin Nakata; Victoria Nakata; Sarah Keech; Reuben Bolt

2012-01-01

209

Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.

Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

2013-09-01

210

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS.

Begum, Parvin, E-mail: parvinchy@ees.hokudai.ac.jp; Fugetsu, Bunshi

2013-09-15

211

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defens [...] ive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p

Cecilia, Andere; M.A., Palacio; E.M., Rodriguez; E., Figini; M.T., Dominguez; E., Bedascarrasbure.

212

Diversity of thermal ecotypes and potential pathotypes of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological diversification of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates was examined to determine whether bacteria adapted to grow at low temperature and/or potentially pathogenic correspond to genetically distinct lineages. Altogether, nine phylogenetic lineages were found among bacilli originating from North-Eastern Poland (n = 24) and Lithuania (n = 25) using multi-locus sequence typing. This clustering was chiefly confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One third of the bacilli were found to be psychrotolerant, which strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of thermal ecotypes among B. thuringiensis. PCR screening was also performed to detect potential enterotoxin genes and Bacillus anthracis pXO1- and pXO2-like replicons. The cytK-positive isolates (22%) were significantly associated with two phylogenetic lineages (potential CytK pathotypes), whereas there was no correlation between phylogenetic grouping and the presence of the potential tripartite enterotoxin pathotypes (86% of strains). A statistically significant association between phylogenetic lineages and ecologic properties was found with regard to the cry1-positive Lithuanian isolates, while the cry genes in Polish isolates and the pXO1- and pXO2 replicon-like elements showed scattered distribution across phylogenetic lineages. Our results support the hypothesis that B. thuringiensis comprises strains belonging to different phylogenetic lineages, which exhibit specific ecological properties. PMID:23521504

Swiecicka, Izabela; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Drewnowska, Justyna M; Murawska, Emilia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Lukaszuk, Edyta; Mahillon, Jacques

2013-08-01

213

Investigation of the effect of phosphogypsum amendment on two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype growth and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock leads to an industrial waste called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid produced. This acidic waste (pH 2.2) is mostly disposed of by dumping into large stockpiles close to fertilizer production units, where they occupy large land areas that can cause serious environmental damages. Several attempts were made to test PG valorization via soil amendment because of its phosphate, sulphate and calcium content. The aim of the this study was to evaluate the potential use of PG as phosphate amendment in soil using two wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Wassilewskija and Colombia) as model plants. Plants were grown in a greenhouse for 30 days, on substrates containing various PG concentrations (0%, 15%, 25%, 40% and 50%). The growth rate and physiological parameters (fresh weight, phosphate and chlorophyll content) were determined. The data revealed that 15% PG did not alter plant survival and leaf's dry weight, and the inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake by plant seemed to be efficient. However, some alterations in Chlorophyll a/Chlorophyll b ratio were noticed. Higher PG concentrations (40 and 50% PG) exhibited an enhanced negative effect on plant growth, survival and Pi uptake. These inhibitory effects of the substrates may be related to the acidity of the medium in addition to its Cd content. PMID:25495660

Ayadi, Amal; Chorriba, Amal; Fourati, Amine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

2015-06-01

214

Research on Indigenous Elders: From Positivistic to Decolonizing Methodologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

Braun, Kathryn L.

2014-01-01

215

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

2012-03-01

216

Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

Kuokkanen, Rauna

2011-01-01

217

Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

Sakellariou, Chris

2008-01-01

218

[Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].  

Science.gov (United States)

During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods. PMID:21090273

Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

2010-03-01

219

Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be addressed in the science classroom. We conclude by presenting instructional strategies that can help all science learners negotiate border crossings between Western modern science and indigenous science.

Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

2001-01-01

220

The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

Doolittle Amity

2010-01-01

221

Microsatellite Marker Based Genetic Diversity among Four Varieties of Pakistani Aseel Chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian Aseel chicken (Gallus gallus is traditionally used as a favorite game bird all over the world. Bird fighting communities of Pakistan are the major source of its conservation and there are at least four distinctively recognized varieties of Aseel chicken based upon selective breeding, geographical location and color patterns. A pioneering study on genetic diversity of these varieties namely Lakha (n=17, Mushki (n=19, Mianwali (n=19 and Peshawari (n=13 was undertaken using FAO recommended 10 microsatellite loci. A total of 91 alleles were observed in 4 varieties of Aseel chicken with an average of 9.1 alleles per locus. Number of alleles varied between 4 to 8 in Lakha, 4 to 9 in Mushki, 3 to 10 in Mianwali and 3 to 7 in Pashawari. Mean polymorphic information content values were 0.67, 0.69, 0.71 and 0.65 in individual varieties, respectively. Mean observed and expected heterozygosity index values of 0.3941 and 0.7376 were recorded in Lakha, 0.4105 and 0.7468 for Mushki, 0.4105 and 0.7718 Mianwali and 0.3692 and 0.7191 for Peshawari. Mean Fixation index (Fst value was calculated as 0.1264. Highest Nei’s standard genetic distance (Ds value of 1.0735 was observed between Mushki and Peshawari, whereas its value was minimum (0.3533 between Lakha and Mushki. This report describes genetic diversity of Aseel chicken in Pakistan and provides foundation data to initiate extensive and more comprehensive studies on indigenous chicken genetic resource conservation and its future utilization in commercial breeding programs.

Masroor Ellahi Babar§*, Asif Nadeem§, Tanveer Hussain§, Abdul Wajid, Sajjad Ali Shah, Amjad Iqbal1, Zeeshan Sarfraz1 and Muhammad Akram1

2012-05-01

222

Identification of Genes Related to Beak Deformity of Chickens Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization. PMID:25198128

Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

2014-01-01

223

RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

224

The Chicken and Egg Project  

OpenAIRE

This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children’s work.

Ivette Alkon

2004-01-01

225

Adenoviral gizzard erosion in commercial broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathologic and immunohistochemical changes caused by group I of the fowl adenovirus (FAV) serotype-1 99ZH strain, isolated from broiler chickens exhibiting gizzard erosion, were investigated in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred twenty-two chickens were inoculated with the strain by both oral and ocular routes at 1, 3, or 5 weeks of age and euthanatized for necropsy within 4-18 days of inoculation. Focal gizzard erosions were observed in the inoculated chickens of each age group. A histologically degenerative koilin layer, necrotic mucosa, intranuclear inclusion bodies in the glandular epithelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltrations in the lamina propria, submucosa, and a muscle layer were seen in the gizzards. Immunohistochemical staining showed evidence of FAV antigens in the intranuclear inclusion bodies. These findings were recognized regardless of their maternal antibody levels for FAV serotype-1. Gizzard lesions appeared later in the lower-dose-inoculated chickens than in the higher-dose-inoculated chickens. Numerous CD3-positive cells and IgY-positive plasma cells were seen in the gizzard lesions. In 5-week-old chickens the heterophil infiltrations in the lesions were milder than in younger chickens. Intranuclear inclusion bodies also were observed in the epithelial cells of the ileum or cecal tonsils of some chickens. Thus, this study shows that FAV-99ZH causes adenoviral gizzard erosion in broiler chickens without hepatic or pancreatic lesions and that cell infiltration is more severe than in dietary gizzard erosions. PMID:12724571

Ono, M; Okuda, Y; Yazawa, S; Imai, Y; Shibata, I; Sato, S; Okada, K

2003-05-01

226

Maximum bite force in elderly indigenous and non-indigenous denture wearers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the measures of maximum bite force (MBF) in elderly edentulous indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous individuals with new complete dentures at two different measuring times. A sample of 100 elderly subjects was divided into two groups: 50 indigenous and 50 non-indigenous, each including 25 females and 25 males. All individuals were totally edentulous, with new maxillary and mandibular removable complete dentures. Measurements were taken at the time of new prosthesis placement and after 1 month of use. Subjects were asked to perform with maximum effort three bites per side at maximum intercuspidation, with a rest time of 2 minutes in between. Statistics were analyzed with Student 's t-test. The MBF values were significantly higher in indigenous than non-indigenous subjects. Force after 1 month of wearing the new prosthesis was significantly higher than at the time of new prosthesis placement. No significant difference was found between sides. Elderly indigenous complete denture wearers had the greatest MBF values. Denture wearers were observed to undergo an adaptation process to the new prosthesis, with MBF increasing considerably after one month of use. PMID:25560689

Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara A; Fuentes, Ramón; Beltrán, Víctor; Navarro, Pablo; Pareja, Felipe; Raimundo, Lariça B

2014-01-01

227

Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands' environmental gradient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate. Using two primer sets, we genotyped 378 plants at 384 polymorphic AFLP loci across regional ecotypes from central and eastern Kansas and Illinois. Neighbour-joining tree and PCoA revealed strong genetic differentiation between Kansas and Illinois ecotypes, which was better explained by IBE than IBD. We found high genetic variability within prairies (80%) and even fragmented Illinois prairies, surprisingly, contained high within-prairie genetic diversity (92%). Using Bayenv2, 14 top-ranked outlier loci among ecotypes were associated with temperature and precipitation variables. Six of seven BayeScanFST outliers were in common with Bayenv2 outliers. High genetic diversity may enable big bluestem populations to better withstand changing climates; however, population divergence supports the use of local ecotypes in grassland restoration. Knowledge of genetic variation in this ecological dominant and other grassland species will be critical to understanding grassland response and restoration challenges in the face of a changing climate. PMID:25370460

Gray, Miranda M; St Amand, Paul; Bello, Nora M; Galliart, Matthew B; Knapp, Mary; Garrett, Karen A; Morgan, Theodore J; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R; Akhunov, Eduard D; Johnson, Loretta C

2014-12-01

228

Indigenous Australia: The Role of Storytelling  

Science.gov (United States)

A collaborative effort between Australia's Cultural Network and the Australian Museum, this site showcases some fine examples of Indigenous Australian stories. Collected from all over Australia, the stories (currently 20) are offered in text, audio, and video formats, with brief introductions and a glossary of indigenous words. Short descriptions of the role of storytelling, custodianship, "Dreaming," and secret/ sacred stories are also provided. Users should note that RealPlayer G2 is required to view the video presentations, and that, at time of review, video playback quality was rather poor. The text and audio formats, however, were quite acceptable, making this site worthwhile for anyone interested in Indigenous Australian culture or storytelling in general.

229

Structure of the rare archaeal biosphere and seasonal dynamics of active ecotypes in surface coastal waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details regarding their community structure and long-term seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In this study, we monitored the interannual archaeal community composition of abundant and rare biospheres in northwestern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by pyrosequencing 16S rDNA and rRNA. A detailed analysis of the rare biosphere structure showed that the rare archaeal community was composed of three distinct fractions. One contained the rare Archaea that became abundant at different times within the same ecosystem; these cells were typically not dormant, and we hypothesize that they represent a local seed bank that is specific and essential for ecosystem functioning through cycling seasonal environmental conditions. The second fraction contained cells that were uncommon in public databases and not active, consisting of aliens to the studied ecosystem and representing a nonlocal seed bank of potential colonizers. The third fraction contained Archaea that were always rare but actively growing; their affiliation and seasonal dynamics were similar to the abundant microbes and could not be considered a seed bank. We also showed that the major archaeal groups, Thaumarchaeota marine group I and Euryarchaeota group II.B in winter and Euryarchaeota group II.A in summer, contained different ecotypes with varying activities. Our findings suggest that archaeal diversity could be associated with distinct metabolisms or life strategies, and that the rare archaeal biosphere is composed of a complex assortment of organisms with distinct histories that affect their potential for growth. PMID:23536290

Hugoni, Mylène; Taib, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Domaizon, Isabelle; Jouan Dufournel, Isabelle; Bronner, Gisèle; Salter, Ian; Agogué, Hélène; Mary, Isabelle; Galand, Pierre E

2013-04-01

230

Physiology of ecotypic plant response to sulfur dioxide in Geranium carolinianum L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats, vary in their foliar response to sulfur dioxide, and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO/sub 2/ has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of this ecotypic response was investigated using a whole-plant gaseous exchange system in which leaf resistance to H/sub 2/O efflux and SO/sub 2/ influx were currently monitored. Individual plants of distinct SO/sub 2/ susceptibility were exposed to pollutant concentrations of either 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ in both the dark and light. Total SO/sub 2/ flux (..mu..g cm/sup -2/ h/sup -1/) to the plant, which is the sum of leaf adsorptive and absorptive loss, varied as an inverse function of leaf resistance (s cm/sup -1/), and the relationship was modeled using linear regression techniques. Total SO/sub 2/ flux was partitioned to leaf surface and internal fractions using estimation procedures with the regresssion analysis. SO/sub 2/ flux into the leaf interior, the pollutant fraction responsible for causing foliar injury, was strikingly similar for resistant and sensitive plants at each concentration. Resistant plants must absorb 30% more SO/sub 2/ than their sensitive counterparts in order to exhibit comparable levels of foliar injury. Therefore, in G. carolinianum the predominant explanation for genetically controlled and quantitatively inherited differences in plant response to SO/sub 2/ is not variable pollutant flux but rather disparate physiological-biochemical processes affecting pollutant toxicity, cellular perturbation and repair. This conclusion is relevant to understanding how populations of G. carolinianum respond over time to elevate levels of SO/sub 2/ and may explain the inherent susceptibility of this species compared with plants with which it co-exists.

Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Tingey, D.T.

1981-01-01

231

Karyotype variation is indicative of subgenomic and ecotypic differentiation in switchgrass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Karyotypes can provide information about taxonomic relationships, genetic aberrations, and the evolutionary origins of species. However, differentiation of the tiny chromosomes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. and creation of a standard karyotype for this bioenergy crop has not been accomplished due to lack of distinguishing features and polyploidy. Results A cytogenetic study was conducted on a dihaploid individual (2n?=?2X?=?18 of switchgrass to establish a chromosome karyotype. Size differences, condensation patterns, and arm-length ratios were used as identifying features and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assigned 5S and 45S rDNA loci to chromosomes 7 and 2 respectively. Both a maize CentC and a native switchgrass centromeric repeat (PviCentC that shared 73% sequence identity demonstrated a strong signal on chromosome 3. However, only the PviCentC probe labeled the centromeres of all chromosomes. Unexpected PviCentC and 5S rDNA hybidization patterns were consistent with severe reduction or total deletion of these repeats in one subgenome. These patterns were maintained in tetraploid and octoploid individuals. The 45S rDNA repeat produced the expected number of loci in dihaploid, tetraploid and octoploid individuals. Differences observed at the 5S rDNA loci between the upland and lowland ecotypes of switchgrass provided a basis for distinguishing these subpopulations. Conclusion Collectively, these results provide a quantitative karyotype of switchgrass chromosomes. FISH analyses indicate genetic divergence between subgenomes and allow for the classification of switchgrass plants belonging to divergent genetic pools. Furthermore, the karyotype structure and cytogenetic analysis of switchgrass provides a framework for future genetic and genomic studies.

Young Hugh A

2012-07-01

232

Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

Leszek Trz?ski

1996-06-01

233

Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenou...

Alvarado Dzul, Santos H.; Rosado-may, Francisco J.; Susanne Kissmann; Gemma Burford; Harder, Marie K.

2012-01-01

234

Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

235

Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus  

Science.gov (United States)

Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

236

Eagle and the Condor: Indigenous Alliances for Youth Leadership Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration…

Wihak, Christine; Hately, Lynne; Allicock, Sydney; Lickers, Michael

2007-01-01

237

Analysis of the genetic effects of CAPN1 gene polymorphisms on chicken meat tenderness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. Four previously identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located within the CAPN1 gene were evaluated for their associations with variation in the meat tenderness of a Chinese indigenous chicken breed, a higher meat quality breed (i.e., Qingyuan partridge chicken), and the commercial Recessive White chicken breed. Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements were used to determine tenderness phenotypes for all animals; intramuscular fat (IMF) content and rate of water loss in the breast muscles were also measured. Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Polymorphisms were identified for all markers, except CAPN1 2546. The frequency of allele T was zero, and allele C was fixed for CAPN1 2546 in the studied populations. The SNP CAPN1 3535 in the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with tenderness and other meat quality traits, where animals inheriting the AA genotype had smaller shear force values, lower water loss rates, and higher IMF contents. Moreover, H1 (AAA) was the most advantageous haplotype for meat tenderness. The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified that, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programs to improve meat quality. PMID:25730078

Shu, J T; Zhang, M; Shan, Y J; Xu, W J; Chen, K W; Li, H F

2015-01-01

238

Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P anserine after cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. PMID:24812230

Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

2014-07-01

239

2025 Vision for Mexican Chicken Consumption  

OpenAIRE

This study estimates the demand for chicken meat for Mexico in 2025. Expenditure elasticities are calculated separately for ten income groups using national household survey data for the period 1984 to 2002. The results reveal that lower income groups will increase their chicken meat consumption in the future at a much higher rate than the upper income groups with the rise in income. Overall, the total chicken meat consumption is projected to increase by 70 percent in the next two decades. Th...

Alejandro Salazar; Samarendu Mohanty; Jaime Malaga

2005-01-01

240

Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks. PMID:21858730

Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

2012-04-01

241

A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or 'Gumboro disease' seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level i [...] nformation was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90) of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (?2= 16.1, P

E S, Swai; M J, Kessy; P N, Sanka; P F, Mtui.

242

Genetic Traceability of Chicken Breeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.

Massino De Marchi

2003-12-01

243

A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL) Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players  

OpenAIRE

It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL) injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012), covering 162,683 player-...

Jessica Orchard; John Orchard; Hugh Seward

2013-01-01

244

Emerging issues in indigenous rights: transformative effects of the recognition of indigenous peoples  

OpenAIRE

The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007) marks a significant shift in the relations whereby indigenous peoples define themselves and their claims. They are now faced with the challenge of implementing international standards within national spaces. By adopting a global comparative perspective, our article aims to explore how this movement unfolds in a variety of local issues and strategies, building transnational links and differences. We first examine the acceptance of i...

Bellier, Ire?ne; Pre?aud, Martin

2011-01-01

245

Beyond South Africa's 'indigenous knowledge - science' wars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, the paradoxes and difficulties attending the notion of indigenous knowledge in South Africa are reviewed and an alternative dialogue about intellectual heritage is proposed. Beginning with a survey of debates on 'indigenous knowledge' and sciences in India, Australia and Latin America [...] , the discussion draws attention to differences in regional discussions on the subject of knowledge diversity. Turning to the South African context, the paper foregrounds contradictions in the debate on traditional medicines and the sciences in relation to HIV. The bifurcation of 'indigenous knowledge' and 'science' is argued against. Debates on both indigenous knowledge and science within the critical humanities in South Africa have been characterised by denunciation: an approach which does not facilitate the important discussions needed on intellectual heritage, or on the relationship between sciences and coloniality. In dialogue with current research on the anthropology of knowledge, strategies are proposed to broaden the possibilities for scholarship on knowledge, sciences, and different ways of understanding the world.

Lesley J.F., Green.

246

Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

Saha Abhijeet

2010-01-01

247

Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

248

Indigenous Scholars versus the Status Quo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Native American scholars committed to the long-term health and vitality of Indigenous peoples see decolonization and empowerment as central to their struggles. However, those who maintain the colonial power structure do not want to connect the past to the present or use Native perspectives or theories. Common examples of discriminatory practice…

Mihesuah, Devon A.; Wilson, Angela Cavender

2002-01-01

249

Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

2006-01-01

250

Indigenous Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis, Taiwan  

OpenAIRE

We report the first indigenous case of disseminated histoplasmosis in Taiwan diagnosed by histopathology of bone marrow, microbiologic morphology, and PCR assay of the isolated fungus. This case suggests that histoplasmosis should be 1 of the differential diagnoses of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients in Taiwan.

Lai, Chung-hsu; Huang, Chun-kai; Chin, Chuen; Yang, Ya-ting; Lin, Hsiu-fang; Lin, Hsi-hsun

2007-01-01

251

Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…

Sterenberg, Gladys

2013-01-01

252

Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

2008-01-01

253

Indigenous Australian Artworks in Intercultural Contact Zones  

OpenAIRE

This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998), by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my arg ument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I wil l argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural und erstanding and competence.

Eleanore Wildurger

2009-01-01

254

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil / Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dific [...] ultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX). Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis ( Abstract in english Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US [...] states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (

J.A., Noldin; J.M., Chandler; G.N., McCauley.

2006-12-01

255

Zoonotic Chicken Toxoplasmosis in Some Egyptians Governorates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR (69.5% than commercial farm Chickens (C (68.5%; while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

Ehab Kotb El-Mahllawy

2012-01-01

256

Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Thai Inheritance Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inheritance chickens are important in the developing countries, because of their meat quality. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic background of Baetong, Black-boned, and Praduhangdum chickens. 30 chickens each and 4 replications of the chicken breeds were reared for 14 weeks. 10 chickens of each replication were sampled and analyzed, including carcass characteristics and meat quality as well as Shear’s value, water holding capacity, and color of their meat. No different marketable weight and hot carcass weight was found (P>0.05. Baetong chickens were lower hot carcass yield than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Conversely, Baetong chickens were higher structural frame than Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens were edible portion, and wing yield than Baetong chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned chickens and Baetong chickens have more leg yield than Praduhangdum chickens (P<0.05. While, Praduhangdum chickens have more breast yield than the other chickens (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more Shear’s force and Shear’s energy than Baetong breast meat and Praduhangdum breast meat (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat and skin was darken than Baetong and Praduhangdum breast meat and skin (P<0.05. Black-boned breast meat was more drip losses than the others (P<0.05, while being lower cooking losses than the others (P<0.05. At the typical marketable weight, Black-boned chickens and Praduhangdum chickens have better meat quality compared with the carcass from Baetong chickens.

Nakarin Pripwai

2014-01-01

257

Effects of chronic ozone exposure on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and in Thellungiella halophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arabidopsis thaliana (At) ecotypes Columbia-0 (Col-0), Wassilewskija (WS), Cape Verde Islands (Cvi-0) and a relative, Thellungiella halophila (Th), were exposed to 20-25% over ambient ozone [O3] in a free air concentration enrichment (FACE) experiment (http://www.soyFACE. uiuc.edu), mirroring increases expected in the near future. Col-0 and WS accelerated development and developed lesions within 10 d under increased ozone, while Cvi-0 and Th grew slowly. RNAs were used in microarray hybridizations (Col-0-based 26 000 elements, 70-mer oligonucleotides). A two-step analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, including comparison with values obtained under [O3], was used for analyses. WS showed the greatest number of changes in gene expression in response to ozone. Th showed the least changes, suggesting that its expression state at [O3] was sufficient for resistance at increased ozone. Patterns observed in ambient air controls for Cvi-0 and Col-0 were most similar, while Th showed the greatest number of differences compared with the other controls. Compared with Col-0, however, Cvi-0 showed higher levels of expression of chaperones, receptor kinase-like and photosynthesis-related genes in ambient air. Cvi-0 exhibited ozone-mediated changes in a pathway involving AtSR, a homologue of the mammalian NF kappa B family of redox-sensitive transcription factors, changes in chaperones, WRKY and C2H2 proteins and antioxidants. WS displayed ozone-mediated decreases in the expression of two AtSR/NF kappa B family members, C2-domain proteins and genes associated with cell wall growth and changes in the expression of marker genes for programmed cell death (PCD), among them RCD1, a key regulator in this pathway. Microarray data were verified by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. We relate O3-response diversity across the four lines to different responses among signaling and transcriptional response networks and differences in gene expression at [O3] levels. PMID:17087469

Li, Pinghua; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Sioson, Allan A; Robinet, Cecilia Vasquez; Heath, Lenwood S; Bohnert, Hans J; Grene, Ruth

2006-05-01

258

The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

Kesselmeier, J.

2012-12-01

259

Stable isotopes reveal ecotypic variation of water uptake patterns in Aleppo pine  

Science.gov (United States)

Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) has a large natural distribution range that encompasses a multitude of thermal and moisture conditions found in the Mediterranean basin. We hypothesized that due to the recurrent incidences of drought stress and high temperatures that occur at varying degrees along its distribution range, populations of Aleppo pine have undergone ecotypic differentiation in soil water uptake patterns. This study analyzed stable isotopic compositions (?18O and ?2H) of xylem water to identify adaptive divergence associated to the pattern of soil water consumption by roots of Aleppo pine populations originating from the Mediterranean region. The results from this study show that genetic diversity in the extraction pattern of soil water can be found among populations and ecological regions of Aleppo pine under common garden conditions. However, the ability to detect such differences depended on the period of the year examined. In particular, data collection in full summer (end of July) proved to be the most adequate in revealing genetic divergence among populations, while end of spring and, to a lesser extent, end of summer, were less successful for this purpose. Both water uptake patterns (as estimated by ?18O and ?2H) and above-ground growth, exhibited significant relationships with both climatic and geographical variables. This suggests that the underlying variation among populations can be explained by certain characteristics at origin. In addition, we used a bayesian mixing model (SIAR package for R) that incorporated isotopic signatures from xylem and soil water in order to determine the predominant soil layer of water source consumption at the aforementioned periods of the growing season, where water availably ranged from lowest to highest. This allowed us to gain some understanding of Aleppo pines' differential reaction to drought, at the intraspecific level, across the fluctuating conditions of the growing season by comparing the relative contribution of each water source. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the Spanish project FENOPIN (AGL 2012-40151-C03). J.P.F. has been supported by the Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MCINN, Spain) and a Marie Curie Reintegration Grant (MC-ERG-246725, FP7, EU). We acknowledge M. Lucà and P. Sopeña for field and technical assistance.

Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Regina; Voltas, Jordi

2014-05-01

260

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

CERN Document Server

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for the future. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project involving experts in the higher education, library, and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a cult...

Nakata, N M; Warren, J; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M; Harley, R; Venugopal, S; Thorpe, K; Neville, R; Bolt, R

2014-01-01

261

Indigenous participation and representation in Venezuelan electoral processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.

Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ

2012-06-01

262

CONTEMPORARY INDIGENOUS LITERATURE: FORMS AND CONTENTS IN THE POETRY AND PROSE OF THE II LITERARY PARTY OF INDIGENOUS POETICS.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By analyzing the forms and contents of the presentations made by indigenous performers and writers at the I Literary Party of Indigenous Poetics, this article exposes the challenges faced by traditional genre theories in tackling indigenous narratives and analyses how this “crisis” contributes to widening hierarchical and Western biased conceptions. On a stage open to contemporary indigenous expression, as is the literary party, the concepts of performance and storytelling, with the social function of maintaining tradition, continuous learning and transformation, better define this indigenous expression.

Deborah Goldemberg

2010-06-01

263

The magnetic compass of domestic chickens  

OpenAIRE

In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident.

Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J.; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

264

Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

265

Chicken Skeleton - Ball and Socket Joint (Wing)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken has large feet because it spends so much of its time on the ground. The ball and socket joints and hinge joints allow the chicken to move its leg. It uses its sharp claws mainly for defense against predators.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

266

Chicken Skeleton - Ball and Socket Joint (Limb)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken has wings modified for flight, although it spends much it its time on ground. The bones are very light and long with finger-like ends. The ball and socket joint and hinge joint allow the chicken to move its wing in different directions.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

267

Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

Biswas, Paritosh K.; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S. U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S. M. S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Debnath, Nitish C.

2008-01-01

268

The Regulation of Cell Wall Extensibility during Shade Avoidance: A Study Using Two Contrasting Ecotypes of Stellaria longipes1[C][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

Shade avoidance in plants involves rapid shoot elongation to grow toward the light. Cell wall-modifying mechanisms are vital regulatory points for control of these elongation responses. Two protein families involved in cell wall modification are expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases. We used an alpine and a prairie ecotype of Stellaria longipes differing in their response to shade to study the regulation of cell wall extensibility in response to low red to far-red ratio (R/FR), an early neighbor detection signal, and dense canopy shade (green shade: low R/FR, blue, and total light intensity). Alpine plants were nonresponsive to low R/FR, while prairie plants elongated rapidly. These responses reflect adaptation to the dense vegetation of the prairie habitat, unlike the alpine plants, which almost never encounter shade. Under green shade, both ecotypes rapidly elongate, showing that alpine plants can react only to a deep shade treatment. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase activity was strongly regulated by green shade and low blue light conditions but not by low R/FR. Expansin activity, expressed as acid-induced extension, correlated with growth responses to all light changes. Expansin genes cloned from the internodes of the two ecotypes showed differential regulation in response to the light manipulations. This regulation was ecotype and light signal specific and correlated with the growth responses. Our results imply that elongation responses to shade require the regulation of cell wall extensibility via the control of expansin gene expression. Ecotypic differences demonstrate how responses to environmental stimuli are differently regulated to survive a particular habitat. PMID:18768908

Sasidharan, Rashmi; Chinnappa, C.C.; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; Pierik, Ronald

2008-01-01

269

Characterization and expression of chicken selenoprotein W.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an essential trace element, selenium (Se) deficiency results in White Muscle Disease in livestock and Keshan disease in humans. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken selenoprotein W (SeW) gene and investigate SeW mRNA expression in chicken tissues. The deduced amino acid (AA) sequence of chicken SeW contains 85 AAs with UAG as the stop codon. Like all SeW genes identified in different species, chicken SeW contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 13th position encoded by the UGA codon. The proposed glutathione (GSH)-binding site at the Cys(37) of SeW is not conserved in the chicken, but Cys(9) and Sec(13), with possible GSH binding, are conserved in SeWs identified from all species. There are 23-59% and 50-61% homology in cDNA and deduced AA sequences of SeW, respectively, between the chicken and other species. The predicted secondary structure of chicken SeW mRNA indicates that the selenocysteine insertion sequence element is type II with invariant adenosines within the apical bulge. The SeW mRNA expression is high in skeletal muscle followed by brain, but extremely low in other tissues from chickens fed a commercial maize-based diet. The SeW gene is ubiquitously expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, brain, testis, spleen, kidney, lung, liver, stomach and pancreas in chickens fed a commercial diet supplemented with sodium selenite. These results indicate that dietary selenium supplementation regulates SeW gene expression in the chicken and skeletal muscle is the most responsive tissue when dietary Se content is low. PMID:21207117

Ou, Bor-Rung; Jiang, Mei-Jung; Lin, Chao-Hsiang; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lee, Kuei-Jen; Yeh, Jan-Ying

2011-04-01

270

Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

2011-09-01

271

Covalent structure of chicken pepsinogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken pepsinogen is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain and containing the following 367 amino acid residues: Asp23, Asn16, Thr26, Ser41, Glu14, Gln11, Pro18, Gly31, Ala17, Cys7, Val25, Met9, Ile23, Leu28, Tyr22, Phe20, His8, Lys17, Arg7, Trp4. The Mr-value of the protein is 42 074. This value includes the carbohydrate moiety of the protein, i.e. Man3, (GlcNAc)7, (-SO3H)5. The primary fragmentation of the molecule was effected by limited trypsinolysis at arginine residues after preceding modification of the lysines with citraconic anhydride. All eight peptides expected in theory were obtained and their size, amino acid composition, and N-terminal amino acid sequence were characterized. To elucidate the amino acid sequence of these large fragments the latter were subjected to secondary cleavage by CNBr, trypsin (after removal of the protecting groups from the lysines), the proteinase from Staphylococcus aureus V8 strain, alpha-chymotrypsin, hydroxylamine, or dilute acid; the resulting peptides were isolated by gel permeation and ion-exchange chromatography and by the fingerprint techniques. Overlaps at sites of the arginine residues were obtained in an earlier study [Baudys, M. & Kostka, V. (1982) Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 47, 2814-2832]. Chicken pepsinogen shows the highest degree of homology with the primary structures of pepsinogens A. The internal homologies are apparent in the neighborhood of the two active aspartic acid residues. We have assigned tentatively chicken pepsinogen to the group of pepsinogens A (EC 3.4.23.1); this assignment is a result both of our sequence studies and of an investigation of the kinetic characteristics of the enzyme. PMID:6617663

Baudys, M; Kostka, V

1983-10-17

272

The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining an historical overview and first-hand account of the indigenous involvement with the UN with an analysis of global indigenous identity as a relativist and constructed term rather than a positivist definitional concept, Dahl addresses how indigenous peoples have implemented the UN achievements at home.

Dahl, Jens

2012-01-01

273

THE REPRESENTATION INDIGENOUS GUARANI MEMOIR IN BOOKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon of invisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Caroline Hermínio Maldonado

2010-06-01

274

Are Supernovae Recorded in Indigenous Astronomical Traditions?  

CERN Document Server

Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.

Hamacher, Duane W

2014-01-01

275

Nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel NIMF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding ISP of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inertial mass low earth orbit (IMLEO) of lunar missions by 35 percent and Mars missions by 50 to 65 percent. The same personnel and facilities used to revive the hydrogen NTR can also be used to develop NTR engines capable of using indigenous Martian volatiles as propellant. By putting this capacity of the NTR to work in a Mars descent/acent vehicle, the Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF) can greatly reduce the IMLEO of a manned Mars mission, while giving the mission unlimited planetwide mobility

276

LIBRARIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper reviews experiences on library services to indigenous people developed in Latin America, from Argentina to Mexico. It provides a brief introduction to the reality of native communities all around the continent, and points out the outstanding projects on this issue. Since native populations are subjected to serious problems -such as discrimination, social exclusion, diseases, unemployment, loss of identity, endangered languages and cultural pressure-it argues that libraries can become an option to the recovery of culture and a way to guarantee the egalitarian access to strategic information, a resource that is vital for a balanced development and progress.KEYWORDS: Indigenous People; Latin America-Libraries; Latin America-Culture

Edgardo Civallero

2007-12-01

277

Effect of zearalenone on female White Leghorn chickens.  

OpenAIRE

Acute toxic effects of purified zearalenone were studied in growing female White Leghorn chickens. In the first experiment, zearalenone in gelatin capsules was administered to 10 chickens (zearalenone-treated chickens [ZC]) in a single oral dose of 15.0 g/kg. Another 10 control chickens (CC) received empty gelatin capsules. All chickens survived the 10-day experiment and did not show any noticeable gross or histopathological lesions. There were no differences between CC and ZC in weight gain,...

Chi, M. S.; Mirocha, C. J.; Weaver, G. A.; Kurtz, H. J.

1980-01-01

278

Indigenous Plants Reported for Hypoglycemic Activity  

OpenAIRE

Plants are the only source of a well established traditional and modern drugs and phytochemicals. Many plant species are known in folk medicine of different cultures to be used for their hypoglycemic properties and therefore used for treatment of diabetes. The evaluation of these plants and of their active natural principles is logic way of searching for new drugs to treat this disease. The present paper deals with the uses of indigenous plants for curing diabetes.

Roy, Shipra; Agrawal, Venu

2001-01-01

279

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

2003-02-11

280

The challenges of maintaining indigenous ecological knowledge  

OpenAIRE

Increased interest in indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK) has led to concern that it is vulnerable amidst social and ecological change. In response, multiple authors have recommended the establishment of programs for the maintenance and revitalization of IEK systems. However, few studies have analyzed the methods, opportunities, and challenges of these programs. This is a critical gap, as IEK maintenance is challenging and will require layered and evidence-based solutions. We seek to build ...

Joe McCarter; Gavin, Michael C.; Sue Baereleo; Mark Love

2014-01-01

281

LIBRARIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN LATIN AMERICA  

OpenAIRE

The paper reviews experiences on library services to indigenous people developed in Latin America, from Argentina to Mexico. It provides a brief introduction to the reality of native communities all around the continent, and points out the outstanding projects on this issue. Since native populations are subjected to serious problems -such as discrimination, social exclusion, diseases, unemployment, loss of identity, endangered languages and cultural pressure-it argues that libraries can becom...

Edgardo Civallero

2007-01-01

282

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

283

India's first indigenously developed helium liquefier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the first indigenous development of helium liquefier at Cryo-engineering and Cryo-module Development Section at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. This system is based on reciprocating type expansion engine and uses cross counter flow type heat exchangers, based on high finned density copper tubes. The cyclic compressor is a four stage air cooled reciprocating type compressor. Its oil removal system is also designed and developed indigenously. Helium gas from commercial cylinders, as well as that recovered from user experiments, is used for liquefying, after passing it through a liquid nitrogen based gas purifier, made locally. First successful liquefaction in this system was achieved on August 14, 2010 at 4.35 K, 1140 mbara, approx. 2.5 psig. This was for the first time in the country using a indigenously developed system. More than 150 liters of liquid helium was collected during its maiden trial itself, while operating for more than 25 hours continuously. Details of the liquefier system and the performance of different components are presented in this paper. (author)

284

Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. PMID:23790864

Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

2013-11-15

285

Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24  

KAUST Repository

A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

Garcia, Alexandre F.

2015-02-27

286

Towards the 'tangible unknown': Decolonization and the Indigenous future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the occasion of the inaugural issue of Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, we examine the many contradictions, contestations and possible pathways to decolonization. In working to explore the many themes that the articles in this issue bring forth, we recognize that, despite our certainty that decolonization centers Indigenous methods, peoples, and lands, the future is a ‘tangible unknown’, a constant (renegotiating of power, place, identity and sovereignty. In these contestations, decolonization and Indigeneity are not merely reactionary nor in a binary relationship with colonial power. Decolonization is indeed oppositional to colonial ways of thinking and acting but demands an Indigenous starting point and an articulation of what decolonization means for Indigenous peoples around the globe. This editorial works towards the possibility of a global Indigenous movement that strengthens and supports local moments for decolonization, and does so by exploring some of the many layers and questions that this necessarily entails.

Aman Sium

2012-09-01

287

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

Science.gov (United States)

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-04-01

288

Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review  

OpenAIRE

Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may ha...

Zhao Chen; Xiuping Jiang

2014-01-01

289

A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

Jessica Orchard

2013-09-01

290

Multinational companies and indigenous development : an empirical analysis  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an empirical study of the effect of foreign multinational companies on the development of indigenous firms in the host country, using data for the Irish manufacturing sector. Our starting point is a recent paper by Markusen and Venables (1999) that shows formally that multinationals, through the creation of linkages with indigenous suppliers, can exert positive effects on the development of indigenous firms. Based on the literature on entry in industrial organisation theor...

Go?rg, Holger; Strobl, Eric

2000-01-01

291

Beyond Hollywood Formulas: Evolv?ng Indigenous Yoruba Film Aesthetics  

OpenAIRE

Home video scholarship is an emerging aspect of theatre studies in Nigeria. While previous studies have been merely critical of Nigerian film practitioners’ inability to evolve an indigenous form, they have failed in prescribing necessary strategies for achieving this. This study, therefore, fills this gap by proposing devices for evolving an indigenous meta-language for the Nigerian film industry. It concludes, amongst others, that Nigerian film industry should evolve an indigenous film la...

Abiodun Olayiwola

2011-01-01

292

Readership Pattern of Indigenous Language Newspapers Among Selected Nigerian  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous language press which was the harbinger of journalism in Nigeria is suffering serious neglect. The neglect reflects in a number of ways among which is poor readership. Although, the fact of poor readership of indigenous language newspapers is a common knowledge, but it lacks empirical documentation as many researches on readership of newspapers were concentrated on newspapers written in English. This research attempt therefore examined the readership pattern of Indigenous language n...

Alabi, O. F.

2011-01-01

293

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Simao Chinese indigenous dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract In this study, the whole mtDNA genome of Simao Chinese indigenous dog was amplified and sequenced. Our data showed that the whole mtDNA genome of Simao Chinese indigenous dog includes 16,730 base pairs (bps). The Simao Chinese indigenous dog mitochondrial genome included structural organization and base composition of the rRNAs, tRNAs and protein-coding genes, as well as characteristics of tRNAs. PMID:24724904

Zhao, Jun-Hui; Liu, Wei

2014-04-14

294

Benthic non-indigenous species among indigenous species and their habitat preferences in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea)  

OpenAIRE

To date 11 non-indigenous benthic taxa have been reported in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea). Five of the 34 taxa forming the soft bottom communities are regarded as non-indigenous to this area. They are Marenzelleria spp., Mya arenaria, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus tigrinus and Amphibalanus improvisus. Non-indigenous species comprised up to 33% of the total number of identified macrofaunal taxa (mean 17%). The average proportion of aliens was 6% (max 46%) in the total abundance of macro...

Urszula Janas; Halina Kendzierska

2014-01-01

295

The magnetic compass of domestic chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident. PMID:24753787

Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

2013-11-01

296

LIQUORICE IN CHICKEN-BROILERS FEEDING ?????? ? ????????? ??????-?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different liquorice’s dosage as additive to main diet influence on chicken-broilers quality and productivity is studied in the article. According to the results, it was established that liquorice addition use in chicken-broilers’ fattening diet during 42 days provided chick-en-broilers gain increase and fodder consumption decrease per 1 kg of the gain increasing, therefore, production economic efficiency

Struk V. N.

2013-04-01

297

Interactions Between "Indigenous" and "Colonial" Astronomies: Adaptation of Indigenous Astronomies in the Modern World  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, we discuss the methodological aspects of cultural astronomy in the context of the interactions between indigenous groups and colonial powers. We seek to show the importance of relationships and flows in order to understand the production of sky's representations and practices in these contexts.

López, Alejandro Martín

298

Indigenizing Student-Centred Learning: A Western Approach in an Indigenous Educational Institution  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the alignment of the teaching and learning practices with a student-centred learning approach in an indigenous educational institution. The findings indicated that when a western concept is applied in the classroom, it is vital for it to be culturally relevant and appropriate to the cultural beliefs and values of the…

Kennedy, Chona Pineda

2013-01-01

299

The State versus Indigenous Peoples: The Impact of Hydraulic Projects on Indigenous Peoples of Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that many Asian nations, in their drive to industrialize, have chosen national identity and economic development over the survival of their indigenous peoples. Utilizes case studies in Malaysia, India, and China to examine the divergence between macro- and microinterests illustrated by the egregious examples of these hydraulic projects.…

Thi Dieu, Nguyen

1996-01-01

300

Create a new vision for indigenous development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

2009-07-01

301

Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ? 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

2014-12-01

302

Interpreting indigenous art in university collections  

OpenAIRE

Debates on the representation of indigenous cultures in museums have come to the fore in the past thirty years. This paper examines the context for the opening of Waipapa Marae at the University of Auckland in 1988. It outlines a history of M?ori meeting houses used for teaching and learning in a specifically M?ori context in the New Zealand tertiary sector. The challenge for the university curator with a marae as part of the collection is how to interpret it for the 21st century. Facilitat...

Linda Tyler

2012-01-01

303

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

304

Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that different ecotypes of Maca (Red, Yellow and Black) after short-term (7 days) and long-term (42 days) treatment affects differentially spermatogenesis adult rats. After 7 days of treatment with Yellow and Red Maca, the length of stage VIII was increased (P<0.05), whereas with Black Maca stages II-VI and VIII were increased (P<0.05). Daily sperm production (DSP) was increased in the group treated with Black Maca compared with control values (P<0.05). Red or Yellow Maca did not alter DSP and epididymal sperm motility was not affected by treatment with any ecotype of Maca. After 42 days of treatment, Black Maca was the only ecotype that enhanced DSP (P<0.05). Moreover, Black Maca was the only that increased epididymal sperm motility (P<0.05). In relation to the control group, Red Maca did not affect testicular and epididymal weight nor epididymal sperm motility and sperm count; however, prostate weight was reduced (P<0.05). Black or Yellow Maca did not affect prostate weight. In conclusion, there were differences in the biological response of the three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Red and Black). Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility. PMID:16174556

Gonzales, Carla; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Nieto, Jessica; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

2006-02-20

305

Estimación de la variabilidad genética entre ecotipos de cocoteros presentes en Cuba por ISTR / Genetics variability estimation among coconut ecotypes in Cuba by ISTR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó la caracterización molecular entre 16 ecotipos de cocoteros pertenecientes a una población del municipio de Baracoa, provincia Guantánamo, empleando la técnica Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat (ISTR). El análisis molecular ISTR detectó un polimorfismo del 81,8%, demostrando la potencialidad [...] de este marcador para realizar estudios de diversidad molecular en el cocotero. El porcentaje de identificación fue alto (Pi=91,2%), lo cual sugiere que las combinaciones de oligonucleótidos empleadas pudieran ser utilizada para estudios de identificación de ecotipos en poblaciones de cocotero de la zona de Baracoa mientras, que la heterocigocidad esperada fue baja (He=0,30). La evaluación de la diversidad en los diferentes ecotipos de cocoteros mediante marcadores ISTR mostró que se cuenta con un nivel de variabilidad, atendiendo a los grupos formados, lo que se corresponde con la gran variación morfológica observada en la población in situ. Además, estos resultados sugieren que la hibridación natural ha sido un factor determinante en la generación de la variabilidad encontrada entre los ecotipos, característica de las variedades de cocotero. Abstract in english The molecular characterization among 16 coconut ecotypes belonging to a population of Baracoa municipality, Guantanamo province, employing the ISTR technique (Inverse Sequence Tagged Repeat) has been done. The molecular analysis ISTR detected a polymorphism of 81.8%, showing the potenciality of this [...] marker to do studies on molecular diversity in coconut. The identification percentage was high (Pi= 91.2%) suggesting that primer combinations employed could be used to ecotype identification studies on coconut populations of Baracoa. The heterocigocity hoped was low (He=0.30). Diversity evaluation in different coconut ecotypes by means of ISTR markers showed the variability level, according to the groups. This corresponds with the great morphologic variation observed in the population in situ. These results suggest that natural hybridization has been a determinant factor generating the variability found between the ecotypes, typical of coconut varieties.

Maruchi, Alonso Esquivel; Jorge R., Cueto Rodríguez; Raixa, Llauger Riverón; Maribel, Rodríguez; Yusniel, Santos Rodríguez; Wolfgang, Rohde.

2008-07-01

306

Response to long-term NaHCO3-derived alkalinity in model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: transcriptomic profiling and physiological characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search for common and distinct tolerance mechanisms to long-term alkaline stress response in plants. PMID:24835559

Babuin, María Florencia; Campestre, María Paula; Rocco, Rubén; Bordenave, Cesar D; Escaray, Francisco J; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo; Gárriz, Andrés; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A; Menendez, Ana B

2014-01-01

307

Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

Zhao Chen

2014-01-01

308

Low rates of postpartum glucose screening among indigenous and non-indigenous women in Australia with gestational diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women with gestational diabetes have a high risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum, with Indigenous women particularly affected. This study reports postpartum diabetes screening rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with gestational diabetes, in Far North Queensland, Australia. Retrospective study including 1,012 women with gestational diabetes giving birth at a regional hospital from 1/1/2004 to 31/12/2010. Data were linked between hospital records, midwives perinatal data, and laboratory results, then analysed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Indigenous women had significantly longer times to first oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [hazards ratio (HR) 0.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.79, p < 0.0001) and 'any' postpartum glucose test (HR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03], compared to non-Indigenous women. Postpartum screening rates among all women were low. However, early OGTT screening rates (<6 months) were significantly lower among Indigenous women (13.6 vs. 28.3 %, p < 0.0001), leading to a persistent gap in cumulative postpartum screening rates. By 3 years postpartum, cumulative rates of receiving an OGTT, were 24.6 % (95 % CI 19.9-30.2 %) and 34.1 % (95 % CI 30.6-38.0 %) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Excluding OGTTs in previous periods, few women received OGTTs at 6-24 months (7.8 vs. 6.7 %) or 2-4 years (5.2 vs. 6.5 %), among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, respectively. Low rates of postpartum diabetes screening demonstrate that essential 'ongoing management' and 'equity' criteria for population-based screening for gestational diabetes are not being met; particularly among Indigenous women, for whom recent guideline changes have specific implications. Strategies to improve postpartum screening after gestational diabetes are urgently needed. PMID:24981736

Chamberlain, Catherine; McLean, Anna; Oats, Jeremy; Oldenburg, Brian; Eades, Sandra; Sinha, Ashim; Wolfe, Rory

2015-03-01

309

Comparative analysis of the distribution of segmented filamentous bacteria in humans, mice and chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are indigenous gut commensal bacteria. They are commonly detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite the significant role they have in the modulation of the development of host immune systems, little information exists regarding the presence of SFB in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and diversity of SFB in humans and to determine their phylogenetic relationships with their hosts. Gut contents from 251 humans, 92 mice and 72 chickens were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction and subjected to SFB 16S rRNA-specific PCR detection. The results showed SFB colonization to be age-dependent in humans, with the majority of individuals colonized within the first 2 years of life, but this colonization disappeared by the age of 3 years. Results of 16S rRNA sequencing showed that multiple operational taxonomic units of SFB could exist in the same individuals. Cross-species comparison among human, mouse and chicken samples demonstrated that each host possessed an exclusive predominant SFB sequence. In summary, our results showed that SFB display host specificity, and SFB colonization, which occurs early in human life, declines in an age-dependent manner. PMID:23151642

Yin, Yeshi; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Liying; Liu, Wei; Liao, Ningbo; Jiang, Mizu; Zhu, Baoli; Yu, Hongwei D; Xiang, Charlie; Wang, Xin

2013-03-01

310

Language Negotiations Indigenous Students Navigate when Learning Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on implications of a research study with a group of 44 Indigenous middle school students learning the science concepts of energy and force. We found the concepts of energy and force need to be taught in English as we failed to find common comparable abstract concepts in the students' diverse Indigenous languages. Three…

Chigeza, Philemon

2008-01-01

311

Biopiracy and Native Knowledge: Indigenous Rights on the Last Frontier.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past few years, transnational corporations and university researchers received patents for traditional medicines and for food and textile plants used by indigenous peoples without returning any benefits to those peoples. In light of U.S. and Canadian government claims that traditional knowledge is not intellectual property, indigenous

Benjamin, Craig

1997-01-01

312

Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

Cavino, Hayley Marama

2013-01-01

313

Repatriating Indigenous Technologies in an Urban Indian Community  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous people are significantly underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). The solution to this problem requires a more robust lens than representation or access alone. Specifically, it will require careful consideration of the ecological contexts of Indigenous school age youth, of which more than 70%…

Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda; Faber, Lori; Suzukovich, Eli S., III

2013-01-01

314

Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

Schmelkes, Sylvia

2011-01-01

315

Uranium mining and indigenous social impact issues - Kakadu Region, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on indigenous social impact issues in the Kakadu/Alligators Rivers region of Australia. It briefly outlines the social history of the region, reflects on local, national and international attention being given to the impact of regional development on local indigenous (bininj) people, notes how social impact issues are being addressed and suggests some lessons learnt. (author)

316

Indigenous Knowledge and Science in a Globalized Age  

Science.gov (United States)

This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students'…

Regmi, Jagadish; Fleming, Michelle

2012-01-01

317

Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism--Theory, Research, Praxis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Wyman, Leisy T.

2009-01-01

318

Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

2012-01-01

319

Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…

Thondhlana, Juliet

320

Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

2013-01-01

321

The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these…

Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

2012-01-01

322

Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

Robertson, Carmen

2012-01-01

323

Combining abilities of growth traits among pure and crossbred meat type chickens / Posibilidades de combinación de las características de crecimiento entre pollos para carne puros y cruzados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cinco mil ciento diecinueve pollos fueron obtenidos, en un programa de mejora de pollos de engorde, a partir de una combinación dialélica de cuatro razas: Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) y Normal indígena (N). Los pollos fueron criados a 12 semanas en las que se registraron los datos sobre p [...] eso corporal por semana (BW), circunferencia del pecho (BG) y longitud de la tibia (TL). El genotipo de machos y hembras afectó significativamente (p Abstract in english Five thousand one hundred and nineteen chicks were obtained from a diallel combination of four breeds of chickens; (Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) and Normal indigenous (N) chickens) in a broiler improvement program. The chicks were reared to 12 weeks in which data on weekly body weight (BW [...] ), breast girth (BG) and tibia length (TL) were recorded. Sire and dam genotype significantly (p

A.O., Adebambo; C.O.N., Ikeobi; M.O., Ozoje; O.O., Oduguwa; A., Adebambo Olufunmilayo.

2011-12-01

324

Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

Katelyn Barney

2010-03-01

325

Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

Barney, Katelyn

2010-01-01

326

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

2014-06-01

327

Economic Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples in Latin America  

Science.gov (United States)

With an increasing interest in the role of indigenous peoples in the economy, the World Bank's Latin America & Caribbean division has created this 55-page report on that very subject. Published in February 2007, this report is primarily concerned with the fact that more than 80 percent of Latin America's indigenous population still lives in abject poverty. Some of the results from the paper include the finding that many indigenous persons tend to be concentrated in few occupations, and that they mostly work in the informal economy. The report's authors, Emmanuel Skoufias and Harry Patrinos, do have a number of policy suggestions, including designing development programs that improve infrastructure in areas where indigenous persons live and also raising the general awareness of the needs of indigenous people at the national and international levels. For persons with an interest in this region and public policy issues, this report will be a most valuable read.

Patrinos, Harry Anthony

2007-01-01

328

MOST: Database of Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

"The Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks (CIRAN) in co-operation with UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) has established a new Database Of Best Practices On Indigenous Knowledge." The site includes a definition of indigenous knowledges, a discussion of criteria for selecting "best practices," and a Registry of Best Practices that gives numerous detailed summaries of projects in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America that have sought to improve conditions and alleviate poverty through the successful employment of indigenous knowledges. The site also links to CIRAN and MOST's joint publication entitled "Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge," which provides further details on indigenous knowledge and on the production phase of the database. For a review of MOST's home site and more about their projects worldwide, see the November 18, 1997 Scout Report for Social Sciences.

329

Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha / Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L.) predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1) as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por [...] isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill), em diferentes meios; 2) as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3) as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT) foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após), ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após), coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI. Abstract in english The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.) predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1) the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pec [...] tinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill), in different media; 2) the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3) the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT) were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours), or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours), staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

Ana Maria Queijeiro, López; Danielle dos Santos Tavares, Pereira.

330

Development of Database for Indigenous Indonesian Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the research is to create and develop a database of indigenous Indonesian microorganisms based at the University of Indonesia. Development of the database of indigenous Indonesian microorganisms was carried out in several stages, i.e. data identification, database design, programming, data entry, testing and debugging, and repairing and maintenance. Development of the database utilized the licensed software of General Public License (GPL, which include Linux RedHat 9.0 (operating system, Apache ver. 2.20 (web server, MySQL ver. 4.2 (database server, and PHP ver. 4.3 (web interface programming language. The result of this research is a database named UI Bioinfo which has the following facilities: online catalog search for UICC (University of Indonesia Culture Collection strains collection and sequence homology search utility through BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Integrated information on strains collection was first carried out on the yeast collection. At present, UI Bioinfo contains information for 297 strains that includes isolation data, morphological descriptions, physiology-biochemical characteristics, and images. Moreover it also contains sequence data from the large subunit (LSU ribosomal RNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions. UI Bioinfo can be accessed from the following site: http://152.118.162.250/bio/. Future development will be addition of data from the other collections in UICC.

Ariyanti Oetari

2006-04-01

331

Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility. PMID:25241484

Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

2014-01-01

332

Indigenous Astronomies and Progress in Modern Astronomy  

CERN Document Server

From an anthropological point of view, the whole concept of a "path of progress" in astronomical discovery is anathema, since it implicitly downgrades other cultural perspectives, such as the many "indigenous cosmologies" that still exist in the modern world. By doing so, one risks provoking those who hold them and-as is most obvious in places such as Hawaii where the two "world-views" come into direct contact-reating avoidable resistance to that very progress. The problem is complicated by the existence of "fringe" and "new-age" views that are increasingly confused with, and even passed off as, indigenous perceptions. In a modern world where widespread public perceptions include many that are unscientific in the broadest sense of the term, I shall argue that there are actually a range of positive benefits for progress in scientific astronomy to be derived from the mutual awareness and comprehension of "genuine" cultural world-views whose goals-in common with those of modern science-are to make sense of the c...

Ruggles, Clive

2010-01-01

333

Health Status of Kanaka Maoli (Indigenous Hawaiians).  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To summarize the current health status of Kanaka Maoli (indigenous Hawaiians) with historical background, underlying factors responsible for the Kanaka Maoli health plight and recommendations. METHODS: The author reviewed the available literature and some not readily available, unpublished information. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kanaka Maoli continue to have the worst health and socio­economic indicators of the various ethnic groups in their home islands of Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i). Cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, obstructive lung disease, maternal and infant health and mental distress are the prominent maladies. Tobacco smoking, high­fat diet, alcohol drinking, hyperlipidemia and obesity are the major lifestyle risk factors. Societal factors, such as depopulation, foreign transmigration, colonial exploitation, coercive assimilation, cultural conflict and racism persist. Since 1990, Kanaka Maoli communities have established five island­wide Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems to improve availability, accessibility, and acceptability of health services to their people, but with inadequate resources. CONCLUSIONS: Under present conditions, while the future may bring some amelioration of Kanaka Maoli ill health, the price will be progressive acculturation and loss of Kanaka Maoli identity. Accordingly, recommendations include augmented revitalization of the traditional culture, effective recontrol by the Kanaka Maoli of their lives and natural resources and thus, improved total health. KEY WORDS: Pacific Islander Americans, Kanaka Maoli, Hawaiians, Indigenous Health, Culture, Ethnicity, Racism, Colonialism, Sovereignty PMID:11567247

Blaisdell, Richard Kekuni

1993-01-01

334

The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

Pascal Leroy

2011-06-01

335

Characterization of an ecotype of brake-fern, Pteris vittata, for arsenic tolerance and accumulation in plant biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ecotype of brake fern (Pteris vittata) was assessed for arsenic tolerance and accumulation in its biomass under in vivo and in vitro condition; using soil, and agar-gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of arsenic. The plants were raised in soil amended with 100-1000 mg arsenic kg(-1) soil, and MS medium was supplemented with 10-300 mg arsenic L(-1) medium using Na2HAsO4 x x 7H2O. The spores and haploid gametophytic-prothalli were raised in vitro on MS medium supplemented with arsenic. The field plants showed normal growth and biomass formation in arsenic amended soil, and accumulated 1908-4700 mg arsenic kg(-1) dry aerial biomass after 10 weeks of growth. Arsenic toxicity was observed above > 200 mg arsenic kg(-1) soil. The concentrations of arsenic accumulated in the plant biomass were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Normal plants were developed from spores and gametophyte prothalli on the MS media supplemented with 50-200 mg arsenic L(-1) medium. The in vitro raised plants were tolerant to 300 mg arsenic kg(-1) of soil and accumulated up to 3232 mg arsenic kg(-1) dry aerial biomass that showed better growth performance, biomass generation and arsenic accumulation in comparison to the field plants. PMID:19140437

Sarangi, B K; Chakrabarti, T

2008-01-01

336

Comparative proteomics reveals that a saxitoxin-producing and a nontoxic strain of Anabaena circinalis are two different ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Australia, saxitoxin production is restricted to the cyanobacterial species Anabaena circinalis and is strain-dependent. We aimed to characterize a saxitoxin-producing and nontoxic strain of A. circinalis at the proteomic level using iTRAQ. Seven proteins putatively involved in saxitoxin biosynthesis were identified within our iTRAQ experiment for the first time. The proteomic profile of the toxic A. circinalis was significantly different from the nontoxic strain, indicating that each is likely to inhabit a unique ecological niche. Under control growth conditions, the saxitoxin-producing A. circinalis displayed a higher abundance of photosynthetic, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolic proteins. Differential abundance of these proteins suggests a higher intracellular C:N ratio and a higher concentration of intracellular 2-oxoglutarate in our toxic strain compared with the nontoxic strain. This may be a novel site for posttranslational regulation because saxitoxin biosynthesis putatively requires a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. The nontoxic A. circinalis was more abundant in proteins, indicating cellular stress. Overall, our study has provided the first insight into fundamental differences between a toxic and nontoxic strain of A. circinalis, indicating that they are distinct ecotypes. PMID:24460188

D'Agostino, Paul M; Song, Xiaomin; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

2014-03-01

337

Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students  

Science.gov (United States)

An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

2014-01-01

338

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous

Breen, Helen M.

2012-01-01

339

Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the kinetic and extent of recovery process under darkness in both C. quitensis ecotypes. The greater recovery of PSII at low temperature in the Antarctic ecotype was related with its ability to maintain PsaA, Cyt b6/f and D1 protein after photoinhibitory conditions. This is probably due to either a higher stability of these polypeptides or to the maintenance of their turnover upon cold acclimation. In both cases, it is associated to the maintenance of electron drainage from the intersystem pool, which maintains QA more oxidized and may allow the synthesis of ATP and NADPH necessaries for the regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate in the Calvin Cycle. This could be a key factor for C. quitensis success under the harsh conditions and the short growing period in the Maritime Antarctic.

Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa

2012-07-01

340

Indigenous Development of a Track Etch Detector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs have been recognised by IAEA as a standard method for estimation of radon, thoron and their daughter products in the environment. The detectors that are commonly used in environmental monitoring are generally made from cellulose nitrate (LR-115 and polycarbonates (CR-39. In view of the non-availability of these detectors in India, need was felt to develop them indigenously. Accordingly, an attempt has been made to develop cellulose nitrate films for their use in SSNTD. Cellulose nitrate with a particular nitrogen content was used for preparing these films by a cast method. This films were annealed, evaluated and then compared with imported films. The background track density and alpha track density after exposure to 150 nCi of /sup 241/Am source at 2.5 cm distance were found to be comparable with those of imported films.

Ashok Kumar

2013-04-01

341

Mapping Medievalism: An Indigenous Political Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of Kathryn Brush (ed., Mapping Medievalism at the Canadian Frontier, London Ontario Canada: Museum London and the McIntosh Gallery, 2010. Mapping Medievalism, a collection of essays written by a professor and nine graduate students, is an examination of the role of settlers’ imagination of Europe’s middle ages in the development of Canadian culture. The project aims to be inclusive of Aboriginal histories, and some authors grapple with the colonial implications of the settlers’ imagining of the medieval. This review provides an indigenous political perspective on the book, and argues that some essays provide useful insight into colonial processes. However, some essays approach colonialism in a non-productive fashion and, ultimately, the publication falls short of its aim to be inclusive to Aboriginal histories.

Vanessa Dion Fletcher

2011-12-01

342

Nuclear fuel fabrication - developing indigenous capability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early 70's for production of fuel for PHWRs and BWRs in India, has made several improvements in different areas of fuel manufacturing. Starting with wire-wrap type of fuel bundles, NFC had switched over to split spacer type fuel bundle production in mid 80's. On the upstream side slurry extraction was introduced to prepare the pure uranyl nitrate solution directly from the MDU cake. Applying a thin layer of graphite to the inside of the tube was another modification. The Complex has developed cost effective and innovative techniques for these processes, especially for resistance welding of appendages on the fuel elements which has been a unique feature of the Indian PHWR fuel assemblies. Initially, the fuel fabrication plants were set-up with imported process equipment for most of the pelletisation and assembly operations. Gradually with design and development of indigenous equipment both for production and quality control, NFC has demonstrated total self reliance in fuel production by getting these special purpose machines manufactured indigenously. With the expertise gained in different areas of process development and equipment manufacturing, today NFC is in a position to offer know-how and process equipment at very attractive prices. The paper discusses some of the new processes that are developed/introduced in this field and describes different features of a few PLC based automatic equipment developed. Salient features of innovative techniques being adopted in the area Of UO{sub 2} powder production are also briefly indicated. (author)

Gupta, U.C.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Meena, R.; Sastry, V.S.; Radhakrishna, C.; Rao, S.M.; Sinha, K.K. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy (India)

1997-07-01

343

Aetheroleum and fat oxidation of chicken meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1024x768 The quality of meat changges during storage. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens COBB 500. Chickens were fed by feed mixture with   aetheroleum. Premix of aetheroleum  contained  aetheroleum from Origanum vulgare L. (30 g, Thymus vulgaris L. (10 g and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (10 g. The carcass was stored at -18 °C in a freezer box. Acid number of fat in chicken meat was ranged from 4.74 to 14.57 mg KOH/g fat after 9 months and after 12 months was ranged from 5.75 to 9.11 mg KOH/g fat.doi:10.5219/267   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

Jana Tká?ová

2013-03-01

344

NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

Vipman Tandjiria

1999-01-01

345

Indigenous Research on Chinese Management : What and How  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue. Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research.

Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok

2012-01-01

346

Mobile Technologies for Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Communities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within the digitalization process under the limitations and capabilities of the tools. We believe that a continuation of local appropriation and co-design of tools will lead to an integrated, intuitive and non-intrusive indigenous knowledge preservation process within the local communities.

Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq

2013-01-01

347

ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

1994-05-01

348

ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted.

Bordi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M.

1994-05-01

349

ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author)

350

“Looking back to my family”: Indigenous Australian patients’ experience of hemodialysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In common with Indigenous populations elsewhere, Indigenous Australians have higher incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), but lower transplantation rates than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Understanding how the demands of dialysis impact on, and are impacted by, the lives of Indigenous patients may provide important insight into treatment pathways and decision-making. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews in 2005–06 with 146 Indigenous and 95 non-I...

Anderson Kate; Cunningham Joan; Devitt Jeannie; Preece Cilla; Cass Alan

2012-01-01

351

The role of indigenous knowledge in disaster risk reduction: a critical analysis / Oageng Ivan Maferetlhane  

OpenAIRE

Although the importance of Indigenous Knowledge systems has been recognised by international organisations, such as the United Nations and World Bank, the role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction has to date not received the attention it deserves in South Africa. Little is known about how South Africa‘s indigenous communities use Indigenous Knowledge to avoid, prevent and deal with disasters. This study has sought to investigate the role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster Ri...

Maferetlhane, Oageng Ivan

2013-01-01

352

Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III) and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. Methods CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks) and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks) were determined by ELISA. Results The mean level of CA-III...

Nishita Toshiho; Tomita Yuichiro; Yorifuji Daisuke; Orito Kensuke; Ochiai Hideharu; Arishima Kazuyosi

2011-01-01

353

Forum conference report 2007 : Indigenous Peoples-Migration and Urbanisation  

OpenAIRE

This is the report from the 8th annual Forum for Development Cooperation with Indigenous Peoples, which commenced the 18th-19th of October 2007. The Centre for Sámi Studies hosted the conference at the University of Tromsø, Norway

2007-01-01

354

Forum conference report 2005 : Globalization, Cultural Resources and Indigenous Peoples  

OpenAIRE

This is the report from the 6th annual Forum for Development Cooperation with Indigenous Peoples, which commenced in 2005. The Centre for Sámi Studies hosted the conference at the University of Tromsø, Norway

2005-01-01

355

Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

2010-01-01

356

Indigenous Peoples of North America: Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Justice  

OpenAIRE

Background: Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice.

Hoover, Elizabeth; Cook, Katsi; Plain, Ron; Sanchez, Kathy; Waghiyi, Vi; Miller, Pamela; Dufault, Renee; Sislin, Caitlin; Carpenter, David O.

2012-01-01

357

New strategies by indigenous movements against extractivism in Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the emergence of transnational activism in the context of collective action organised around socio-environmental conflicts in Chile’s indigenous areas. It details the main events in the process of indigenous mobilisation in the form of three emblematic cases carried out on an interna­tional scale, together with their implications for the national political arena. The author explains how, after the indigenous people’s demands were blocked at home, they then mobilised abroad, where they raised aware­ness over their situation and called for justice in the international courts. Finally, at the local level the paper identifies the inclusion of glo­bal frameworks related to the human rights to the indigenous peoples.

Ximena Cuadra Montoya

2014-04-01

358

Talking Past Each Other: Genetic Testing and Indigenous Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The peer-reviewed resource portrays how an ethical approach to genetic testing of indigenous populations requires protection from racial discrimination, preservation of human rights, prior informed consent of individuals, and retention of a population's cultural self-determination.

Ikechi Mgbeoji (University of British Columbia; )

2007-09-01

359

Effects of irradiation on bacterial load and Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens

360

[An outbreak of infectious chicken anemia in fattening chickens in Switzerland].  

Science.gov (United States)

An outbreak of infectious anaemia in 46 broiler flocks due to chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is described. The vertically acquired infection led to increased mortality (3.6-19.8%) in 16 to 24 day-old broiler chickens. At necropsy severe atrophy of thymus and anaemia with pale bone marrow was observed. The histologic findings were depletion of cortical thymocytes and of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. The CAA was isolated from 15 of 35 examined broiler flocks. PMID:1470902

Hoop, R K; Guscetti, F; Keller, B

1992-01-01

361

Mechanical behaviour of chicken quills and chicken feather fibres reinforced polymeric composites  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The objective of this study is to utilise and evaluate the mechanical properties of the chicken feather quill and fibre reinforced vinylester and polyester composites.Design/methodology/approach: Prior to production of the composites, the chicken feather fibres (CFF) were cleaned, tested and analyzed in terms of physical properties; linear density and tensile behaviour. The unidirectional CFF reinforced composites were produced with vinylester and polyester resins with three fibre re...

Uzun, M.; Sancak, E.; Patel, I.; Usta, I.; Akal?n, M.; Yuksek, M.

2011-01-01

362

Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...

Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K.

2004-01-01

363

Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of ave high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

364

Editors’ Commentary: The Challenges in Improving Indigenous Educational Attainment  

OpenAIRE

Education has been called the “new buffalo” for its potential to contribute to the economic, social, and political well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada (Stonechild, 2006). Despite gains in education among Aboriginal peoples in Canada, there continues to be gaps in educational attainment. This editors' introduction explores some of the realities underlying educational trends among Indigenous peoples in order to set the stage for the articles in this special edition of the Internation...

White, Jerry P.; Julie Peters

2013-01-01

365

Towards the 'tangible unknown': Decolonization and the Indigenous future  

OpenAIRE

On the occasion of the inaugural issue of Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, we examine the many contradictions, contestations and possible pathways to decolonization. In working to explore the many themes that the articles in this issue bring forth, we recognize that, despite our certainty that decolonization centers Indigenous methods, peoples, and lands, the future is a ‘tangible unknown’, a constant (re)negotiating of power, place, identity and sovereignty. In these...

Aman Sium; Chandni Desai; Eric Ritskes

2012-01-01

366

[Re]claiming Indigenous Knowledge: Challenges, Resistance, and Opportunities  

OpenAIRE

In May 1994, I arrived in Kenya to carry out my research on Africa and, more specifically, rural Kenyan women’s Indigenous ways of knowing.  My interest in this research was sparked by the lack of textual knowledge of African Indigenous knowledges during my tenure in three North American universities. As a young scholar,  I “ran” away from Kenya because, all through my education, there was a great emphasis on western education, lifestyle, and culture.  I longed for it, hungered for i...

Njoki Nathani Wane

2013-01-01

367

Quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods: approaching indigenous ecological knowledge heterogeneity  

OpenAIRE

I discuss the use of quantitative, qualitative, and collaborative methods to document and operationalize Indigenous ecological knowledge, using case studies from the Nepalese Himalaya and Great Basin. Both case studies applied results to natural and cultural resource management and interpretation for the public. These approaches attempt to reposition the interview subjects to serve as active contributors to the research and its outcomes. I argue that the study of any body of Indigenous knowle...

Jeremy Spoon

2014-01-01

368

Power, Culture, Economy (CAEPR 30) : Indigenous Australians and Mining  

OpenAIRE

Research over the past decade in health, employment, life expectancy, child mortality, and household income has confirmed that Indigenous Australians are still Australia’s most disadvantaged group. Those residing in communities in regional and remote Australia are further disadvantaged because of the limited formal economic opportunities there. In these areas mining developments may be the major—and sometimes the only—contributors to regional economic development. However Indigenous com...

Altman, Jon; Martin, David

2009-01-01

369

Teletherapy sources with imported and indigenous 60Co activity  

OpenAIRE

Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, a unit of the Department of Atomic Energy, fabricates and supplies radioactive sources for medical, industrial, agriculture and research applications. High specific activity cobalt-60, required for teletherapy is normally imported. There was a proposal for manufacturing high specific activity sources indigenously. A study was carried out to observe the feasibility of mixing imported and indigenous cobalt-60 pellets to fabricate teletherapy source cap...

George, Jain Reji; Kushwah, Raksha; Sastry, K. V. S.

2009-01-01

370

The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of petrol sniffing is a unique and poorly understood phenomenon that is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and social devastation in affected remote Indigenous communities. For these groups and for the wider community, much mystery has surrounded the practice and its effects. Here we introduce the epidemiology of petrol sniffing among Indigenous groups internationally, review its impact on the brain, behaviour and social functions and summarise related interventions. PMID:20854322

Cairney, Sheree; Dingwall, Kylie

2010-09-01

371

Reanimating Storywork: Indigenous Elders’ Reflections on Leadership by Larry Grant  

OpenAIRE

xwmuthkwey’um Musqueam Elder Larry Grant looks at leadership by exploring how colonialism has altered Indigenous ways of leading and being. Grant examines how culture, language, and values create Indigenous leadership. Themes: Oral tradition is leadership/stories/language. Preparation for learning, training, develop diplomatic skills. Respect with land/the land teaches us. Colonialism; Reconciliation; Religion; Racism; Word bundle/baskets responsibilities; Equi...

Grant, Larry

2011-01-01

372

Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

A Rosyidi

2010-05-01

373

Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.

Cunningham Joan

2010-08-01

374

AGROBUSINESS PERSPECTIVES IN THE INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENT: CASE QUERETARO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This document argueses about aspects of agribusiness in the indigenous development in the state of Queretaro, considers as an economic activity under taken in rural areas, principally related to the use of agricultural and forestry resources, with an efficient management of productive resources. The approaches outlined here are the result of a research, training and organization in which over half a year the representatives and indigenous leaders of the State Council of Indigenous People of the State of Querétaro, which has played an important role in management and represent more than 63 thousand indigenou’s ethnicities Ñäñhu (Otomi Xi'ui (Pame and Tenek (Huasteco, located mainly in the municipiums of Amealco, Toliman, Cadereyta, Eezequiel Montes, Columbus and Jalpan, with the support of the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People, Regional Delegation Queretaro - Guanajuato. Under the coordination and advice from the authors of this work. The information was collected by self - manegement participation approaches and with the participation of the leaders, communit’y leaders and municipal authorities. The agribusiness in the indigenous communities of the State of Queretaro, are an important option to fortify the economy family’s base and community, especially in the processes of integrating companies with their own identity and social responsability.

Gerardo Gómez González, Elvia Xitlaly Gómez Calderón y Yuriena Gerenarda Gómez Calderón

2008-12-01

375

????????????????????? Constructing Indigenous Education Based on Culture-Based Curriculum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????culture-based curriculum??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Indigenous culture is unique, distinct and diverse. However, the indigenous people are now under a risk of losing their precious traditional culture because of the dominant non-indigenous culture. Culture-based curriculum is designed to emphasize the concept of subjectivity, life, diversity, functionalist or practicality in indigenous culture. Culture based curriculum is the indigenous education constructed through the interaction between indigenous people and their tradition and society. Base on the construction of the culture - based curriculum model, it is categorized into nine fields including ethnic language and literature, skills of traditional lives, social organization, art and dance, traditional beliefs and rituals, ethnic relations and tribal history, tribal ethics and taboos, and environmental and ecological conservation, and under each fields are more specific subcategories. According reviewing the related papers, the current study suggests the order of development and the recommendations of assessment for culture-based curriculum to shed light on more meaningful programs of teaching design.

??? Ching-I Horng

2014-09-01

376

RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications. PMID:24146446

Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

2013-01-01

377

Root physiological adaptations involved in enhancing P assimilation in mining and non-mining ecotypes of Polygonum hydropiper grown under organic P media.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to seek out plant species, high in phosphorus (P) uptake, for phytoremediation of P-enriched environments with a large amount of organic P (Po). P assimilation characteristics and the related mechanisms of Polygonum hydropiper were investigated in hydroponic media containing various concentrations of Po (1-8 mmol L(-1)) supplied as phytate. The mining ecotype (ME) showed significantly higher biomass in both shoots and roots compared to the non-mining ecotype (NME) at 4, 6, and 8 m mol L(-1). Shoot P content of both ecotypes increased up to 4 mmol L(-1) while root P content increased continually up to 8 mmol L(-1) for the ME and up to 6 mmol L(-1) for the NME. Root P content of the ME exceeded 1% dry weight under 6 and 8 mmol L(-1). The ME had significantly higher P accumulation in both shoots and roots compared to the NME supplied with 6 and 8 mmol L(-1). The ME showed higher total root length, specific root length, root surface area, root volume, and displayed significantly greater root length, root surface area, and root volume of lateral roots compared to the NME grown in all Po treatments. Average diameter of lateral roots was 0.17-19 mm for the ME and 0.18-0.21 mm for the NME. Greater acid phosphatase and phytase activities were observed in the ME grown under different levels of Po relative to the NME. This indicated fine root morphology, enhanced acid phosphatase and phytase activities might be adaptations to high Po media. Results from this study establish that the ME of P. hydropiper is capable of assimilating P from Po media and is a potential material for phytoremediation of polluted area with high Po. PMID:25699065

Ye, Daihua; Li, Tingxuan; Zheng, Zicheng; Zhang, Xizhou; Chen, Guangdeng; Yu, Haiying

2015-01-01

378

Chicken energia metabolism after single gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study investigated changes in the concentration of cholesterol and glucose in the serum of poultry after single whole-body gamma irradiation with 4,5 Gy dose. In the experiment we used chickens of initial age 21 and 35 days at the beginning of the experiment. (authors)

379

Gene finding in the chicken genome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome annotation method. Results We performed experimental evaluation by RT-PCR of three different computational gene finders, Ensembl, SGP2 and TWINSCAN, applied to the chicken genome. A Venn diagram was computed and each component of it was evaluated. The results showed that de novo comparative methods can identify up to about 700 chicken genes with no previous evidence of expression, and can correctly extend about 40% of homology-based predictions at the 5' end. Conclusions De novo comparative gene prediction followed by experimental verification is effective at enhancing the annotation of the newly sequenced genomes provided by standard homology-based methods.

Antonarakis Stylianos E

2005-05-01

380

Expanding Teacher Understanding of Wisconsin's Prairie Chickens  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal author developed a workshop through the Becoming an Outdoors-Woman (BOW) program, based on central Wisconsin's prairie chicken population, to present teachers with the knowledge and skills needed to provide quality environmental education. Seventeen high school teachers attended the 2003 workshop. Pre-and post-workshop surveys were…

Brown, Melinda S.; Sivek, Daniel J.; Thomas, Christine L.

2008-01-01

381

A physical map of the chicken genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategies for assembling large, complex genomes have evolved to include a combination of whole-genome shotgun sequencing and hierarchal map-assisted sequencing. Whole-genome maps of all types can aid genome assemblies, generally starting with low-resolution cytogenetic maps and ending with the highest resolution of sequence. Fingerprint clone maps are based upon complete restriction enzyme digests of clones representative of the target genome, and ultimately comprise a near-contiguous path of clones across the genome. Such clone-based maps are used to validate sequence assembly order, supply long-range linking information for assembled sequences, anchor sequences to the genetic map and provide templates for closing gaps. Fingerprint maps are also a critical resource for subsequent functional genomic studies, because they provide a redundant and ordered sampling of the genome with clones. In an accompanying paper we describe the draft genome sequence of the chicken, Gallus gallus, the first species sequenced that is both a model organism and a global food source. Here we present a clone-based physical map of the chicken genome at 20-fold coverage, containing 260 contigs of overlapping clones. This map represents approximately 91% of the chicken genome and enables identification of chicken clones aligned to positions in other sequenced genomes. PMID:15592415

Wallis, John W; Aerts, Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Layman, Dan; Graves, Tina A; Scheer, Debra E; Kremitzki, Colin; Fedele, Mary J; Mudd, Nancy K; Cardenas, Marco; Higginbotham, Jamey; Carter, Jason; McGrane, Rebecca; Gaige, Tony; Mead, Kelly; Walker, Jason; Albracht, Derek; Davito, Jonathan; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Leong, Shin; Chinwalla, Asif; Sekhon, Mandeep; Wylie, Kristine; Dodgson, Jerry; Romanov, Michael N; Cheng, Hans; de Jong, Pieter J; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Nefedov, Mikhail; Zhang, Hongbin; McPherson, John D; Krzywinski, Martin; Schein, Jacquie; Hillier, Ladeana; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Warren, Wesley C

2004-12-01

382

Chicken models of retroviral insertional mutagenesis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

New York : Springer, 2011 - (Dupuy, A.; Largaespada, D.), s. 77-112 ISBN 978-1-4419-7655-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA301/09/1727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : insertional mutagenesis * chicken model * MAV retroviruses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

Pe?enka, Vladimír; Karafiát, Vít; Dvo?ák, Michal

383

From prediction to function using evolutionary genomics: human-specific ecotypes of Lactobacillus reuteri have diverse probiotic functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host-microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-derived L. reuteri strains are highly conserved in gene content and at the nucleotide level. Nevertheless, they share only 70-90% of total gene content, indicating differences in functional capacity. Human-associated lineages are distinguished by genes related to bacteriophages, vitamin biosynthesis, antimicrobial production, and immunomodulation. Differential production of reuterin, histamine, and folate by 23 clade II and VI strains was demonstrated. These strains also differed with respect to their ability to modulate human cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin [IL]-1?, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-13) by myeloid cells. Microarray analysis of representative clade II and clade VI strains revealed global regulation of genes within the reuterin, vitamin B12, folate, and arginine catabolism gene clusters by the AraC family transcriptional regulator, PocR. Thus, human-derived L. reuteri clade II and VI strains are genetically distinct and their differences affect their functional repertoires and probiotic features. These findings highlight the biological impact of microbe:host coevolution and illustrate the functional significance of subspecies differences in the human microbiome. Consideration of host origin and functional differences at the subspecies level may have major impacts on probiotic strain selection and considerations of microbial ecology in mammalian species. PMID:24951561

Spinler, Jennifer K; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B; Venable, Susan F; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A; Saulnier, Delphine M A; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K

2014-07-01

384

Estimativa da divergência entre ecótipos de braquiária baseada em descritores quantitativos e qualitativos / Estimation of genetic divergence between braquiária ecotypes based on quantitative and qualitative descriptors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estimar a divergência genética entre ecótipos de Urochloa brizantha com base na análise de descritores quantitativos, qualitativos e sua análise conjunta a fim de selecionar os promissores para liberação como cultivares desta espécie. Oito ecótipos (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, [...] B6, B8) e a cultivar 'Marandu' de U. brizantha foram implantados em piquetes, com 1000m2 cada, em duas repetições. Foram avaliados cinco descritores quantitativos e dez qualitativos no período seco e das águas. Os descritores quantitativos foram: área foliar, comprimento e largura das lâminas foliares, massa seca (MS) e proporção de lâmina foliar na MS. Os descritores qualitativos mensurados foram: resistência ao cisalhamento, volume de gás acumulado na fração rápida e lenta, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, celulose, lignina em ácido sulfúrico, sílica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica. Houve divergência genética entre os ecótipos de U. brizantha, especialmente em relação aos descritores quantitativos. Com base nos agrupamentos dos descritores quantitativos, qualitativos e sua análise conjunta, o agrupamento contendo de B1, B3 e B5 com 'Marandu' podem resultar em ecótipos promissores de U. brizantha Abstract in english This study aimed to estimate the genetic divergence between Urochloa brizantha ecotypes based on quantitative, qualitative descriptors and their joint analysis to select the promising to release as cultivars of this species. Eight ecotypes (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B8) and cultivar 'Marandu' of U. br [...] izantha were implanted into pickets with 1000m2 each, with two repetitions. Five quantitative descriptors were evaluated [leaf area (ALF), length and width of leaf blades (CLF and LLF, respectively), dry mass (MS), mass of dry matter (MMS) and proportion of leaf blade in MS (PLF)] in two forage samples, being a representative of rainfall, in February 2000, and another in the dry period, in August 2000. It was measured the qualitative descriptors: shear strength (RC), volume of accumulated gas in fast and slow fraction (A and B, respectively), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF ), cellulose (CEL), lignin in sulfuric acid (LIG), silica (SIL) and in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVOMD). There was considerable genetic divergence in U. brizantha ecotypes, especially regarding to quantitative descriptors. Based on the groupings of quantitative, qualitative descriptors and their joint analysis, the grouping containing of B1, B3 and B5 with 'Marandu' can result in promising U. brizantha ecotypes

Francisco Eduardo, Torres; Cacilda Borges do, Valle; Beatriz, Lempp; Paulo Eduardo, Teodoro; João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz, Rigon; Larissa Pereira, Ribeiro; Caio Cézar Guedes, Corrêa; Roque Apolinário Alves da Luz, Júnior.

2015-03-01

385

Diabetes Mellitus: Indigenous naming, indigenous diagnosis and self-management in an African setting: the example from Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The objective was to examine how the indigenous naming, indigenous self-diagnosis and management of diabetes evolved with awareness in order to develop a socially oriented theoretical model for its care. Methods The data was collected through a one-year extended participant observation in Bafut, a rural health district of Cameroon. The sample consisted of 72 participants in a rural health district of Cameroon (men and women) with type 2 diabetes. We used participant observ...

Awah Paschal K; Unwin Nigel C; Phillimore Peter R

2009-01-01

386

Health service use in indigenous Sami and non-indigenous youth in North Norway :A population based survey  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This is the first population based study exploring health service use and ethno-cultural factors in indigenous Sami and non-Sami youth in North Norway. The first aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of health service use between Sami adolescents and their non-indigenous peers. The second aim was to explore the relationships between health service use and ethno-cultural factors, such as ethnic context, Sami self-identification, perceived discrimination and ...

Skre Ingunn B; Bals Margrethe; Turi Anne; Kvernmo Siv

2009-01-01

387

The Indigenous Curriculum and the Production of Indigenous Materials: Curriculum Reform in The Bahamas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study, from which the data in this paper are drawn, examined the "intended" curriculum of the Bahamian primary schools and the processes of its translation into classroom practices. The methods of investigation included documentary analysis, participant observation, informal interviews, and a teacher questionnaire. The study identified several factors that can influence the success of the curriculum implementation process. This paper focuses on resources since the question of resource availability, specifically resources of an indigenous nature, was the most significant issue uncovered by the study. A case is made for strengthening the local resource base, not only in terms of personnel but also in terms of local materials.

Davis, Linda A.

1995-01-01

388

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

389

Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS

390

Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology of disease, are used to place the various seafood products in risk categories and to identify areas of concern. It is concluded that the presence of pathogens in molluscs and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products are hazards which are presently not under control. In order to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum when products are stored at abuse temperature, it is recommended that additional barriers to growth are included in lightly preserved (e.g. cold smoked salmon) and low-heat treated (e.g REPFEDS) products. It is finally pointed out that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is the preferred strategy in most quality assurance programmes and it is recommended that microbiological criteria are applied only as guidelines in the verification of the HACCP-system - and not for official control purposes. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

Huss, Hans Henrik

1997-01-01

391

The challenges of maintaining indigenous ecological knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK has led to concern that it is vulnerable amidst social and ecological change. In response, multiple authors have recommended the establishment of programs for the maintenance and revitalization of IEK systems. However, few studies have analyzed the methods, opportunities, and challenges of these programs. This is a critical gap, as IEK maintenance is challenging and will require layered and evidence-based solutions. We seek to build a foundation for future approaches to IEK maintenance. First, we present a systematic literature review of IEK maintenance programs (n = 39 and discuss the opportunities and challenges inherent in five broad groups of published approaches. Second, we use two case studies from the Republic of Vanuatu to illustrate these challenges in more depth. The first case study takes a community-based approach, which has inherent strengths (e.g., localized organization. It has, however, faced practical (e.g., funding and epistemological (changing modes of knowledge transmission challenges. The second case study seeks to facilitate IEK transmission within the formal school system. Although this model has potential, it has faced significant challenges (e.g., lack of institutional linkages. We conclude that supporting and strengthening IEK is important but that serious attention is needed to account for the social, situated, and dynamic nature of IEK. In closing, we use the review and case studies to propose four principles that may guide adaptive and flexible approaches for the future maintenance of IEK systems.

Joe McCarter

2014-09-01

392

Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

Richardson Katya L

2012-12-01

393

INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

2003-09-01

394

Thermoluminescence dating of Brazilian indigenous ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two indigenous ceramics fragments, one from Lagoa Queimada (LQ) and another from Barra dos Negros (BN), both sites located on Bahia state (Brazil), were dated by thermoluminescence (TL) method. Each fragment was physically prepared and divided into two fractions, one was used for TL measurement and the other for annual dose determination. The TL fraction was chemically treated, divided in sub samples and irradiated with several doses. The plot extrapolation from TL intensities as function of radiation dose enabled the determination of the accumulated dose (Dac), 3.99 Gy and 1.88 Gy for LQ and BN, respectively. The annual dose was obtained through the uranium, thorium and potassium determination by ICP-MS. The annual doses (D an) obtained were 2.86 and 2.26 mGy/year. The estimated ages were ?1375 and 709 y for BN and LQ ceramics, respectively. The ages agreed with the archaeologists' estimation for the Aratu and Tupi tradition periods, respectively. (authors)

395

Histopathology of avian adenovirus group II splenomegaly of chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chickens were infected with an avian adenovirus group II isolate previously obtained from chickens exhibiting splenomegaly in commercial broiler flocks. The isolate was inoculated orally in 6-week-old experimental chickens, which were euthanatized and necropsied 6 days postinoculation. The primary gross lesions found were splenomegaly and splenic mottling. Numerous tissues from 12 chickens were taken for histologic evaluation. Histologic lesions included splenic reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia with intranuclear inclusions. Lymphocytic degeneration was seen in the lungs of most chickens examined. Lung hemorrhage and edema with endothelial disruption and congestion of pulmonary arterioles were found less frequently. The splenic lesions in the chickens were similar to those seen in turkeys naturally infected with hemorrhagic enteritis, and the lung lesions resembled those seen in pheasants naturally infected with marble spleen disease. PMID:6279073

Veit, H P; Domermuth, C H; Gross, W B

1981-01-01

396

CONTENT OF NUTRIENTS AND NUTRICINES - CARNOSINE IN DARK CHICKEN MEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine content of nutrients and carnosine concentration in thighs (dark meatof chickens of the Ross 308 provenance with respect to chicken gender. Amount of carnosine is determinedby the HPLC device. Thigh muscle tissue of female and male chickens contains 339.28±68.17 ?g/g and319.29±65.47 ?g/g of carnosine (P>0.05, respectively. Live end weights of chickens are also shown, withaverage male chickens weights of 2377 g and female chickens 2104 g (P0.05are also shown. The obtained research results are explained in the context of other relevant studies on asimilar topic.

Gordana Kralik

2010-06-01

397

To grow or to seed: ecotypic variation in reproductive allocation and cone production by young female Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis, Pinaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Age and size at the first reproduction and the reproductive allocation of plants are linked to different life history strategies. Aleppo pine only reproduces through seed, and, as such, early female reproduction confers high fitness in its infertile highly fire-prone habitats along the Mediterranean coast because life expectancy is short. We investigated the extent of ecotypic differentiation in female reproductive allocation and examined the relation between early female reproduction and vegetative growth. In a common-garden experiment, the threshold age and size at first female reproduction and female reproductive allocation at age seven differed significantly among Aleppo pine provenances of ecologically distinct origin. Significant correlations among reproductive features of the provenances and the ecological traits of origin were found using different analytical tools. In nonlinear models of cone counts vs. stem volume, medium-sized trees (not the largest trees) produced the highest cone yield, confirming that, at the individual level, early female reproduction is incompatible with fast vegetative growth. The contribution of founder effects and adaptation to contrasting fire regimes may be confounding factors. But considering all traits analyzed, the geographical patterns of resource allocation by Aleppo pine suggest ecotypic specialization for either resource-poor (favoring early reproduction) or resource-rich (favoring vegetative growth) habitats. PMID:21632409

Climent, José; Prada, M Aránzazu; Calama, Rafael; Chambel, M Regina; de Ron, David Sánchez; Alía, Ricardo

2008-07-01

398

Mitochondrial DNA D-loop analysis of South Western Nigerian chicken / Analisis de D-Loop ADN mitocondrial de pollos de SW Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Un segmento D-loop de AND mitocondrial mtADN) fue secuenciado para un total de 98 pollos domésticos de SW Nigeria. Las poblaciones domésticas de pollos fueron: Anak titan (raza israelí, n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzlexOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (raza india, n= 3), Normal (n= [...] 55), Cuello Desnudo (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). Las secuencias de los primeros 397 nucleotidos fueron usadas para el análisis. Diecisiete haplotipos de 23 sitios polimórficos, fueron identificados en las muestras: 15 para las poblaciones indígenas nigerianas de pollos, 1 para Giriraja y 1 para Anak Titan. El análisis filogenético, muestra que los pollos indígenas nigerianos pueden agruparse todos dentro del clade IV, mientras que el Giriraja indio, se encuadró en el clade IIIc. El clade IV tiene 16 haplotipos mientras que el clade IIIc tiene sólo un haplotipo. El análisis AMOVA indica que el 97,32% de la variación total de la secuencia entre haplotipos estuvo presente dentro de la población y el 2,68% entre poblaciones. Los resultados sugieren un solo origen maternal múltiple para los pollos domésticos de SW Nigeria. Abstract in english Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), N [...] ormal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

A.O., Adebambo.

2009-12-01

399

Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens. PMID:20878234

Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

2011-02-01

400

Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown to be invasive in orally challenged chickens as well as in three different human epithelial cell lines.

Knudsen, Katrine NØrrelund; Bang, Dang Duong

2006-01-01

401

Chicken hemogen homolog is involved in the chicken-specific sex-determining mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a comprehensive transcriptome analysis, a Z chromosome-linked chicken homolog of hemogen (cHEMGN) was identified and shown to be specifically involved in testis differentiation in early chicken embryos. Hemogen [Hemgn in mice, EDAG (erythroid differentiation-associated gene protein) in humans] was recently characterized as a hematopoietic tissue-specific gene encoding a transcription factor that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in mammals. In chicken, cHEMGN was expressed not only in hematopoietic tissues but also in the early embryonic gonad of male chickens. The male-specific expression was identified in the nucleus of (pre)Sertoli cells after the sex determination period and before the expression of SOX9 (SRY-box 9). The expression of cHEMGN was induced in ZW embryonic gonads that were masculinized by aromatase inhibitor treatment. ZW embryos overexpressing cHEMGN, generated by infection with retrovirus carrying cHEMGN, showed masculinized gonads. These findings suggest that cHEMGN is a transcription factor specifically involved in chicken sex determination. PMID:23401550

Nakata, Tomohiro; Ishiguro, Manabu; Aduma, Nana; Izumi, Hiroe; Kuroiwa, Asato

2013-01-01

402

Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul  

OpenAIRE

The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old), from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village), for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken) 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 %) and four types of chewing lice were classi...

Al-saffar, T. M.; Al-mawla, E. D.

2008-01-01

403

Secretion of endogenous lectin by chicken intestinal goblet cells  

OpenAIRE

The two lactose-binding lectins found in adult chicken intestine, chicken-lactose-lectin-1 (CLL-1) and chicken-lactose-lectin-11 (CLL- 11), were localized within the vesicles of the mucin-secreting goblet cells by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining methods. Attention was concentrated on CLL-11 which is 200 time more abundant than CLL-1 in adult intestine. The localization of CLL-11 in secretory vesicles, combined with its demonstration on the intestinal epithelial surfa...

1982-01-01

404

Gallus GBrowse: a unified genomic database for the chicken  

OpenAIRE

Gallus GBrowse (http://birdbase.net/cgi-bin/gbrowse/gallus/) provides online access to genomic and other information about the chicken, Gallus gallus. The information provided by this resource includes predicted genes and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, links to Gallus In Situ Hybridization Analysis (GEISHA), Unigene and Reactome, the genomic positions of chicken genetic markers, SNPs and microarray probes, and mappings from turkey, condor and zebra finch DNA and EST sequences to the chicken genome...

Schmidt, Carl J.; Romanov, Michael; Ryder, Oliver; Magrini, Vincent; Hickenbotham, Matthew; Glasscock, Jarret; Mcgrath, Sean; Mardis, Elaine; Stein, Lincoln D.

2007-01-01

405

Extensive Microbial and Functional Diversity within the Chicken Cecal Microbiome  

OpenAIRE

Chickens are major source of food and protein worldwide. Feed conversion and the health of chickens relies on the largely unexplored complex microbial community that inhabits the chicken gut, including the ceca. We have carried out deep microbial community profiling of the microbiota in twenty cecal samples via 16S rRNA gene sequences and an in-depth metagenomics analysis of a single cecal microbiota. We recovered 699 phylotypes, over half of which appear to represent previously unknown speci...

Sergeant, Martin J.; Constantinidou, Chrystala; Cogan, Tristan A.; Bedford, Michael R.; Penn, Charles W.; Pallen, Mark J.

2014-01-01

406

Analysis of Local Chicken Entreprise in DAS Serayu Banyumas  

OpenAIRE

The Objectives of this research was to know income and efficiency level of local chicken entreprise. Beside that, to know potency of local chicken enterprise developing in DAS Serayu, Banyumas and know factors can effect level of that income and efficiency. Methode that used at this research is survey method to farmer families. Take of research data by random sampling.The data is analysed by multiple regression analysis. The results of this research showed that income level of local chicken e...

Soeprapto; Nunung Noor Hidayat

2000-01-01

407

Evidence of the adaptive evolution of immune genes in chicken  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The basis for understanding the characteristics of gene functional categories in chicken has been enhanced by the ongoing sequencing of the zebra finch genome, the second bird species to be extensively sequenced. This sequence provides an avian context for examining how variation in chicken has evolved since its divergence from its common ancestor with zebra finch as well as well as a calibrating point for studying intraspecific diversity within chicken. Immune genes have been subjec...

Cormican Paul; Downing Tim; Farrelly Cliona, O.; Bradley Daniel G; Lloyd Andrew T

2009-01-01

408

Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well. Perhaps most importantly, traditional knowledge and Indigenous spirituality hinges on the maintenance and renewal of relationships to the land.Indigenous land bases and the environment as a whole remain vitally important to the practice of traditional healing.A focus on Indigenous healing, when discussing Indigenous knowledge systems and spirituality, is paramount today due to the large scale suppression of Indigenous cultural expressions during the process of colonization. With respect to policy, there appears to be a historical progression of perception or attitude towards Indigenous traditional healing in Canada from one of disfavour to one favour. There are nevertheless continuing challenges for traditional healing. Mainstream perceptions and subsequent policy implementations sometimes still reflect attitudes that were formulated during the decline of traditional healing practice during colonization processes. As a consequence the ability for particular communities to maintain and use their specific understandings ofIndigenous knowledge continues encounter obstacles. Indigenous Knowledge systems are living entities and not relics of the past. Today, these knowledge systems are still greatly being applied to help Indigenous communities and Indigenous people recover fromintergenerational pain and suffering endured during the colonization process. Future policy development and implementation should aim to support Indigenous peoples and communities when they decide to learn about, maintain and build upon the knowledge amassed by their ancestors.

Julian A. Robbins

2011-10-01

409

Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenous, resulting in full partnerships in which participants share expertise to meet mutual needs. With reference to literature and two illustrative examples of intercultural education initiatives in Mexico and Tanzania, we present an original conceptual framework for assessing indigenous participation in intercultural education. This incorporates a new ladder of participation depth (in relation to both curriculum content and decision making alongside separate considerations of breadth, i.e., stakeholder diversity, and scope, i.e., the number of key project stages in which certain stakeholder groups are participating. The framework can be used to compare intercultural education initiatives in differing contexts and might be adaptable to other intercultural work.

Santos H. Alvarado Dzul

2012-12-01

410

The paradox of Indigenous resurgence at the end of empire  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the twenty-first century, we are facing the unprecedented convergence of human-created crises. Climate chaos, fossil-fuel resource depletion, overpopulation, and the ongoing destruction of ecosystems threaten the very foundation of colonial empire, both creating emancipatory potential for Indigenous societies struggling against colonial subjugation and wreaking devastating havoc on the lands, waters, and ecosystems upon which our people must survive.  While the vulnerability and unsustainability of empire is clearly exposed, Indigenous people must wrestle with the continued cooptation of our people into civilization’s fallacies and destructive habits as well as the increasing threats to our homelands that jeopardize our capacity for a land-based existence. Thus, just when liberation may be within our grasp, the ecological destruction may be so complete that Indigenous lifeways may be impossible to practice. In this context there is a simultaneous and urgent need for both the restoration of sustainable Indigenous practices and a serious defense of Indigenous homelands.

. Waziyatawin

2012-09-01

411

A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (?2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.

P. F. Mtui

2012-04-01

412

Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P?0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P?0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

Martin Kliment

2012-05-01

413

Study on determination method of identifying irradiated chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of gamma irradiation on the activities of aleipsis, peroxidase, perhydrol catalase and the peroxide values in chicken oil and effects of different storage time on self-oxidation of fat and lipa in irradiated chicken were studied. The results showed that the activities of aleipsis and perhydrol catalase in irradiated chicken decreased with increasing doses, and the peroxide activity and peroxide value of lipa increased with increase of doses. No significant effect of storage time on peroxide value was observed in the irradiated chicken

414

Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final 125I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. 125I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors

415

Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1989-12-01

416

Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

Deogade

2008-02-01

417

[Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics. PMID:20544129

Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

2010-06-01

418

Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and would reduce oocyst shedding and the severity of intestinal lesions. In other words, the question addressed was whether MOS or EMF could serve as an alternative to the anticoccidial drugs currentl...

Elmusharaf, M. A.

2007-01-01

419

Genetic Studies of Pigmentation in Chicken  

OpenAIRE

Domestic animals have been selected by humans for thousands of years, which have drastically altered their genetic constitution and phenotypes. In this thesis, several of the most important genes causing pigmentation differences between the wild red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) and domestic chickens have been identified. Pigmentation phenotypes are easily scored, and the genes underlying these phenotypes are valuable models to study gene function and gene interaction. Dominant white colour is w...

Gunnarsson, Ulrika

2009-01-01

420

Infection-interactions in Ethiopian village chickens  

OpenAIRE

Chickens raised under village production systems are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens, and current or previous infections may affect their susceptibility to further infections with another parasite, and/or can alter the manifestation of each infection. It is possible that co-infections may be as important as environmental risk factors. However, in cross-sectional studies, where the timing of infection is unknown, apparent associations between infections may be observed due to parasites ...

Bettridge, J. M.; Lynch, S. E.; Brena, M. C.; Melese, K.; Dessie, T.; Terfa, Z. G.; Desta, T. T.; Rushton, S.; Hanotte, O.; Kaiser, P.; Wigley, P.; Christley, R. M.

2014-01-01

421

Reovirus infections in young broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected 10-to-21-day-old broiler chickens from flocks undergoing runting-stunting syndrome were found to have significant pancreatic damage, grossly and histologically. Six reoviruses, with sequences that varied, both from each other and from S1133 reovirus, were isolated from these pancreases and from pancreases of specific-pathogen-free leghorn sentinels placed on two of the broiler farms for 7 days. PMID:24689195

Davis, James F; Kulkarni, Arun; Fletcher, Oscar

2013-06-01

422

Chicken Corneocyte Cross-Linked Proteome  

OpenAIRE

Shotgun proteomic analysis was performed of epidermal scale, feather, beak and claw from the domestic chicken. To this end, the samples were separated first into solubilized and particulate fractions, the latter enriched in isopeptide cross-linking, by exhaustive extraction in sodium dodecyl sulfate under reducing conditions. Among the 205 proteins identified were 17 keratins (types ? and ?), 51 involved in protein synthesis, 8 junctional, 8 histone, 5 heat shock and 5 14-3-3 proteins. Cons...

Rice, Robert H.; Winters, Brett R.; Durbin-johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.

2013-01-01

423

Liver regeneration on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore how the liver regenerates, liver pieces from 15-day-old chicken embryos were grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 9-day-old chicken embryos and cultured for 11 days at the longest. The cultured liver pieces were examined histologically. The liver implants were gradually engulfed into the CAM and underwent necrosis of hepatocytes, except in their peripheral areas, during the first 1-4 days after grafting. Surviving cells in the peripheral areas began to proliferate 4 days after grafting. Thereafter, the cells were assembled into normal liver tissues and represented almost all the areas of the implants 9 days after grafting. Only after penetration of blood vessels from CAM did the liver implants enter a phase of rapid regeneration to form well-organized liver tissues. At the early stage of regeneration, the cells at the peripheral areas did not produce albumin, but reproduced it in the regenerated liver tissues, implying that hepatocytes restored their functions that were temporarily lost in the process of regeneration. Thus, we concluded that the liver pieces from 15-day-old chicken embryos had the ability to form normal liver tissues on CAM and that the blood supply played an important role in liver regeneration. PMID:11399852

Katoh, M; Nakada, K; Miyazaki, J I

2001-01-01

424

Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-e [...] sophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

Daise Aparecida, Rossi; Belchiolina Beatriz, Fonseca; Roberta Torres de, Melo; Gutembergue da Silva, Felipe; Paulo Lourenço da, Silva; Eliane Pereira, Mendonça; Ana Luzia Lauria, Filgueiras; Marcelo Emilio, Beletti.

2012-06-01

425

Transmission of Campylobacter coli in chicken embryos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.

Daise Aparecida Rossi

2012-06-01

426

Indigenous manufacture of fuelling machine carriages (Paper No. 63)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuelling machine carriage is a vital equipment required for remote operated on-load refuelling of PHW reactors. It consists of a number of complex mechanisms which are assemblies of components made of different grades of prime quality material and machined to very accurate dimensions to ensure dependable operation. Manufacture of this equipment involves use of a wide range of technologies and diverse state of the art facilities. The carriages required for Rajasthan-1 Reactor were imported from Canada and indigenous manufacture of these was taken up from Rajasthan-2 Reactor onwards. Thereafter indigenous content has been progressively increased with each project as briefly shown in the illustrations. Fuelling machine carriages required for Narora Atomic Power Project and further projects are of a design totally different from the above ones and these were entirely designed and are being manufactured indigeneously. (author). 2 tables, 2 figs

427

Uma visão indígena da história An indigenous view of history  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir as possibilidades de ensino e construção de conhecimentos históricos na comunidade indígena guarani-mbya, da aldeia de Sapucaí, em um contexto de educação escolar intercultural. Refletindo acerca da utilização de documentação imagética - fotografias, gravuras e iconografias produzidas por não-índios como fontes históricas na reconstrução e no registro de uma memória indígena.The main goal of this article is to discuss the teaching possibilities and historical knowledge construction in the indigenous communities of Guarani-mbya, from Sapucaí Indian settlement, in an intellectual school education context. Thinking over about the use of image documentation - photography, pictures and iconography - not produced by indigenous people as historical sources in the reconstruction and recording of an indigenous memory.

Paulo Humberto Porto Borges

1999-12-01

428

X-Integrationism for Chinese Indigenous Management Research : ?????????X????  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Regarding philosophical foundation of Chinese indigenous management research, Prof. Kwang?Kuo Hwang of Taiwan University and Prof. Peter P. Li of Copenhagen Business School have contradictory judgments. Their opinions represent two opposite poles. This paper tries to offer a middle route between these two poles. The author does not fully agree with Hwang’s argument that Chinese indigenous management research must adopt Western philosophies of science, nor does he agree with Li’s philosophy of wisdom interpretation of Chinese traditional philosophy. By integrating multiple philosophical elements rooted in China and the West, such as, Chinese Yin Yang thinking, Daoism, Confucianism, Bohr’s complementarity principle, and Hegel’s dialectic logic, this paper tries to construct the daoliology, epistemology and methodology of Chinese indigenous management research

Li, Xin

2015-01-01

429

Entrepreneurial characteristics of indigenous housing developers: the case of Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the colonisation era, the immigrants from mainland China (and now their descendents dominate the Malaysian housing industry. Their high entrepreneurial ethics stimulated early venture in all economic sectors to become dominant in business. To increase the participation of indigenous entrepreneurs in economic activities, Malaysia has practiced its own version of the affirmative policy since the 1970s which is known as National Economic Policy (NEP. Unlike other economic sectors such as construction, manufacturing and agricultural, the government has not provided special assistance (other than those that are generic in nature for the indigenous populace to penetrate and thrive in housing development. As a consequence, their participation in this sector is conspicuous by their absence. A study was conducted to look into the involvement of indigenous housing developers in housing industry. Data was collected through postal questionnaires followed by face-to-face interviews. The discussion on the data analysis is presented together with interview findings.

Mastura JAAFAR

2009-12-01

430

Medicinal Plants Diversity and its Indigenous use in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pakistan has a lot of diversity in the medicinal plants. More than 50% of the medicines used today in daily life are taken from plants source. According to WHO 80% of the population of the world use the traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. People living in the different provinces namely Punjab, Sind, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan an Kashmir are dependent o these natural resource (Plants for their daily life use of food, medicine, vegetable, fodder, feulwood, timber and religious purposes. About 75% of the total population villages and rural areas of the country depends on the traditional indigenous medicine. The indigenous knowledge of the medicinal plants is the rich source of the important medicinal plants knowledge and the elderly people are mostly more aware of the indigenous use of these medicinal plants.

Syed Aneel Gilani

2013-07-01

431

Occurrence of chicken anemia virus in backyard chickens of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The occurrence of CAV in backyard chickens in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was evaluated. The spleen and thymus of chickens from different origins were collected for DNA extraction and nested-PCR. CAV genome was detected in 30% of the flocks (n=20) examined. CAV origin