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Genetic Diversity of the Cameroon Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes  

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Full Text Available Cameroon has a wide range of agro-ecological zones, having indigenous chicken populations which are thought to be adapted and diversified. Genetic diversity of the Cameroon chicken populations from agro-ecological zones I, II, III and IV was assessed using 25 microsatellite markers. A total of 314 chickens were genotyped, revealing 226 distinct alleles and 24 private alleles (10.62%. The mean polymorphic information content was 0.57. The average observed, expected and unbiased frequencies of heterozygote were 0.60, 0.62 and 0.65 respectively, with the mean Shannon index of 1.21. The global inbreeding coefficient among population was 0.13. Inbreeding coefficient varied significantly with 4.27% variation observed among ecotypes. Within ecotypes the highest diversity was observed in the Bafang-Bakou population having 7.92±4.22 alleles per locus, 168.80±4.73 gene copies, 9 private alleles and 0.68±0.02 expected heterozigosity. However the same region displayed the highest inbreeding coefficient (0.13. In all the populations, 67% of the loci did not deviate significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg. The neighbor-joining tree, UPGMA cladogram as well as the Evanno’s population structure parameters revealed existence of 3 clusters in Cameroon chicken populations. The current study confirmed usefulness of microsatellites for studying genetic variation of the Cameroonian indigenous chicken. They demonstrate information on genetic variability of Cameroon local chicken populations, offer steps towards rational decision making prior to genetic improvement and conservation programs, without compromising the existence of each unique genotype.

T.C. Keambou

2014-01-01

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Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes in Ethiopia: Growth and Feed Utilization Potentials  

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Full Text Available Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro-ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (p<0.01 effect on overall body weight gain per bird and mean body weight gain per bird per day from day old to 12 weeks of age. The highest body weight gain per bird was recorded for Fayoumi chicks. The Fayoumi chicks were 11.9, 97.7 and 49.4% heavier than chicks from Chefe (heaviest locals at this age ecotype, Jarso (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age ecotype and mean daily gain of all local ecotypes, respectively at six weeks of age. Chefe chicks ecotypes showed 76.8% positive deviation over chicks from Jarso market sheds in terms of total body weight gain per bird at this age. The Fayoumi chicks consumed 41, 115 and 65% more feed than chicks from Chefe ecotype (highest body weight gain and feed intake among locals at this age, Jarso ecotype (lowest body weight gain and least feed intake among the locals at this age and the mean feed intake of all local ecotypes, at six weeks of age, respectively. Among the local ecotypes, Jarso and Tepi had the smaller body weight gains while Chefe and Tilili had larger weight gains. The result from the analysis of variance showed a highly significant (p<0.001 difference on body weight gain per bird, average body weight gain per bird per day, feed intake per bird, average feed intake per bird per day and feed conversion ratio (feed: gain among the different ecotypes and sex from six to 12 weeks of age. The highest body weight gain per bird and mean daily body weight gain per bird per day among the locals were recorded for Tilili growers. The Fayoumi chicks were 28, 77 and 52% heavier than chicks from Tilili ecotypes (heaviest locals at this age, Tepi ecotypes (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age and mean body weight gain of local birds, respectively. Male growers from Tilili ecotype (heaviest locals at this age, Tepi ecotype (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age and mean body weight gain of local birds, were 22, 30 and 33% heavier in body weight gain per bird over female chicken at twelve weeks of age, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was also significantly (p<0.01 affected by ecotypes. The highest feed requirement per unit gain was recorded for the Fayoumi chicks followed by chicks from Tepi and Horro chicks and the lowest feed requirement per units of gain was recorded for Tilili and Chefe chicks with feed conversion ratio of 4.95g and 5.2g feed per unit of gain, respectively.

D. Tadelle

2003-01-01

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Comparative Studies of Two Nigerian Ecotypes Chicken Kept in Battery Cages for Laying Performance and Egg Quality Traits  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and determine the effects of ecotype on laying performance and some egg quality traits of two indigenous chickens ecotype in Kwara state Nigeria {Fulani Ecotype chicken (FE and Yoruba Ecotype chicken (YE} kept in battery cage for a period of fifty two (52 weeks. It was observed that the YE matured earlier than FE with Age at First Egg (AFE of 20.56 (20 – 23weeks compared to 26.73weeks (22-31wks obtained for FE. Significant difference (p0.05 differences in other egg quality traits measured.

Sola-Ojo, F. E.

2013-02-01

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Assessing the genetic diversity of five Tanzanian chicken ecotypes using molecular tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of Tanzanian chicken populations through phylogenetic relationship, and to trace the history of Tanzanian indigenous chickens. Five ecotypes of Tanzanian local chickens (Ching'wekwe, Kuchi, Morogoro-medium, Pemba and Unguja) from eight regions were s [...] tudied. Diversity was assessed based on morphological measurements and 29 microsatellite markers recommended by ISAG/FAO advisory group on animal genetic diversity. A principal component analysis (PCA) of morphological measures distinguished individuals most by body sizes and body weight. Morogoro Medium, Pemba and Unguja were grouped together, while Ching'wekwe stood out because of their disproportionate short shanks and ulna bones. Kuchi formed an independent group owing to their comparably long body sizes. Microsatellite analysis revealed three clusters of Tanzanian chicken populations. These clusters encompassed i) Morogoro-medium and Ching'wekwe from Eastern and Central Zones ii) Unguja and Pemba from Zanzibar Islands and iii) Kuchi from Lake Zone regions, which formed an independent cluster. Sequence polymorphism of D-loop region was analysed to disclose the likely maternal origin of Tanzanian chickens. According to reference mtDNA haplotypes, the Tanzanian chickens that were sampled encompass two haplogroups of different genealogical origin. From haplotype network analysis, Tanzanian chickens probably originated on the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia. The majority of Kuchi chickens clustered in a single haplogroup, which was previously found in Shamo game birds sampled from Shikoku Island of Japan in the Kõchi Prefecture. Analysis of phenotypic and molecular data, as well as the linguistic similarity of the breed names, suggests a recent introduction of the Kuchi breed to Tanzania.

C.M., Lyimo; A., Weigend; U., Janßien-Tapken; P.L., Msoffe; H., Simianer; S., Weigend.

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Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period  

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Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significa...

Tawatchai Teltathum, Supamit Mekchay

2009-01-01

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ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN  

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Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

E. Kusdiyantini

2012-06-01

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Effects of High Environmental Temperatures on the Electrolyte Status of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

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The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of high environmental temperatures on the electrolyte status of three breeds of chickens: Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC), Thai Indigenous Crossbred Chickens (TICC) and Broiler Chickens (BC). Male and female TIC, TICC and BC were maintained at the environmental temperature ranges of 26±2°C and cyclic 38±2°C. Sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl¯) and potassium (K+) were investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the expe...

Aengwanich, W.

2007-01-01

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Effects of High Environmental Temperature on Blood Indices of Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of high environmental temperature on the blood indices (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC of Thai Indigenous Chickens (TIC, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred (TICC and broilers (BC. One kilogram of male and female TIC, TICC and BC were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2°C and 38±2°C. MCV, MCH and MCHC were investigated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of an experimental period. The results revealed the following information: On day 14 of the experimental period, MCV of the chickens maintained at 38±2°C was significantly higher than that of chickens maintained at 26±2°C (p<0.05. MCH of the chickens maintained in the environmental temperature at 38±2°C was significantly decreased during days 1-14 and then increased on day 21 of the experimental period (p<0.05. The MCH of chickens maintained at 26±2°C was significantly decreased during days 7-21 and then increased on day 28 of experimental period (p<0.05. On days 1 and 21, the MCH of chickens maintained in the environmental temperature at 38±2°C was significantly higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C (p<0.05. The MCHC of chickens maintained at 38±2°C was significantly higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C (p<0.05. Moreover, the MCHC of the TICC changed less than that of the TIC and BC (p<0.05. This experiment showed that the high environmental temperature had an effects on the chickens blood indices and more specifically, the MCHC of the TIC and BC responsed to high heat greater than TICC.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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STUDY OF NEMATODES IN INDIGENOUS CHICKENS IN SWAT DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available Research was conducted on IO< indigenous chickens. Examination of guts revealed that out of 100 guts. 51 per cent were positive for nematodes. Mixed infestation was 16 per cent. Two species i.e., Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum were identified. The incidence rate of Ascaridia galli was higher (42 % as compared to Heterakis gallinarum (9 %.

R.S. Sayyed, M. S. Phulanl, W.M. Bhatti1, M. Pardehi1 and Shamsher Ali

2000-01-01

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Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Heterophil/Lymphocyte Ratio  

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Full Text Available The effects of high environmental temperature on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined for a comparison of the ability to tolerate heat between Thai indigenous chickens, crossbred Thai indigenous chickens and broilers. One kilogram of the representative males and females of each of the three breeds were maintained in an environmental temperature range of 26±2 and 38±2°C. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was investigated on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experimental period. The results revealed the following information: For those chickens maintained in an environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher than that of chickens at 26±2°C. With the environmental temperature at 38±2°C, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the broilers was significantly higher than that of the Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds and Thai indigenous chickens (p<0.05, respectively. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio of the chickens for the environmental temperature of 38±2°C was significantly increased on day 7 and then significantly decreased to day 14 and 21 of experimental period (p<0.05. This finding indicated that when chickens were maintained in high environmental temperatures, they were under heat stress. Chickens could adapt to high environmental temperatures. Finally, Thai indigenous chickens and Thai indigenous chicken crossbreds tolerated higher environmental temperatures than the broilers.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

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Proteome changes in Thai indigenous chicken muscle during growth period.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1), heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25) and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3). These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i) the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (pPGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period. PMID:19893640

Teltathum, Tawatchai; Mekchay, Supamit

2009-01-01

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Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.  

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Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity. PMID:21805308

Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2012-03-01

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Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period  

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Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1, apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1, triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1, heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25 and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3. These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05, (ii the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05 and (iii the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05, whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period.

Tawatchai Teltathum, Supamit Mekchay

2009-01-01

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Bio-Economic Model to Support Breeding of Indigenous Chicken in Different Production Systems  

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A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to support breeding of indigenous chicken and used to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterise indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) production systems in Kenya. The systems were defined on the basis of the feeding regime, level of confinement and healthcare provided and included; confined full ration system, where the chicken are confined all the time and provided with commercial feed and proper healthcare; s...

Menge, E. O.; Kahi, A. K.; Kosgey, I. S.

2005-01-01

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Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken (Gallus domesticus L.) in Some Selected Areas of Rajshahi, Bangladesh  

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Aims: The present study on management practices, productive performance and profitability of indigenous chickens evaluated the existing indigenous rearing practices with the objectives to pave the way for improvement of this variety into sustainable income in favour of the small-scale urban, semi-urban and rural households in the study areas. Study Design: The current status of indigenous chicken householders of the urban, semiurban and rural areas was surveyed. Availability of a large num...

Dutta, R. Kumar; Islam, M. Saiful; Kabir, M. Ashraful

2013-01-01

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Blood Cell Characteristics, Hematological Values and Average Daily Gained Weight of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available This investigation was carried at the Experimental Laboratory Unit, Division of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand in August to December 2004. Three different breeds of poultry were used, i.e., Thai indigenous, Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with three replications. The three poultry breeds were used as main plots, whilst gender (male and female and sampling periods were used as subplots. An assay on blood characteristics and blood counts of red and white blood cells were carried out. Feed intake and average daily gained weight (ADG/week were determined. The results showed that the appearances on blood cells characteristics of erythrocyte of red blood cells and white blood cells of heterophil, eosinophil, monocyte, basophil and thrombocyte of the three poultry breeds were not different from one another. Hematological values of the three different breeds possessed normal blood values for normal growth and they fitted within a normal range of blood of normal chickens. Hemoglobin concentration (Hb of Thai indigenous chickens was higher than both Thai indigenous crossbred and broiler chickens. White blood cells of heterophil of Thai indigenous crossbred chickens were higher than broiler chickens, whilst white blood of lymphocyte of female was higher than female. However, the differences found on hematological values of both male and female were not statistically significant. Daily feed intake/week and average daily gained weight increased/week of broiler chickens ranked the highest followed by Thai indigenous crossbred and the lowest was with Thai indigenous chickens.

Chinrasri Orawan

2007-01-01

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Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using six marker combinations were applied to detect genetic variation and phylo genetic relationships among 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds and a Recessive White chicken breed introduced from France. The DNA was pooled for each group. Polymorphic b [...] ands, breed-specific bands and genetic similarity coefficients of 13 chicken breeds were derived from the AFLP data. A total of 280 polymorphic bands was generated from which nine specific bands were observed for the Shouguang and the Dongxiang Dark chicken. One specific band was observed in the pooled DNA of the Jiuyuan Dark chicken, the Xingyi Bantam chicken and the Recessive White chicken. The genetic similarity coefficients among the 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds varied between 0.635 - 0.860, and 0.188 - 0.360 between the Recessive White and the indigenous Chinese chicken breeds. The UPGMA based tree yielded two clusters for the 13 chicken breeds, with the Recessive White chickens forming a distinct cluster. In summary, the genetic similarity coefficients and the UPGMA tree of the 13 chicken breeds were consistent with their breeding history and geographical distribution. These results provide useful data with regard to the genetic diversity, genetic relationships and identification of chicken breeds in China.

Yushi, Gao; Yunjie, Tu; Haibin, Tong; Kehua, Wang; Xiujun, Tang; Kuanwei, Chen.

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Bio-Economic Model to Support Breeding of Indigenous Chicken in Different Production Systems  

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Full Text Available A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to support breeding of indigenous chicken and used to evaluate biological and economic variables that characterise indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production systems in Kenya. The systems were defined on the basis of the feeding regime, level of confinement and healthcare provided and included; confined full ration system, where the chicken are confined all the time and provided with commercial feed and proper healthcare; semi-intensive system, where the chicken are confined part of the time and given crop residues and kitchen waste, with no healthcare; and free range system, where the chicken are left to roam around the homestead picking whatever feed resource they get and without healthcare. The input parameters are divided into four categories: biological variables which include animal traits, managemental variables, nutritional variables and economic variables. These parameters assume typical indigenous chicken production in Kenya. However, the input parameters may be adjusted to suit specific situations and also assess the biological and economic performance of various production systems of other domestic avian species. The model`s ability to simulate live weight changes, feed intake of various chicken categories, revenues, cost and profitability of the three production systems is illustrated. The bio-economic models can be used to develop breeding goals and estimate economic values for the genetic improvement of indigenous chicken.

E.O. Menge

2005-01-01

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Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous) Chickens  

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The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous) chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtaine...

Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha

2012-01-01

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Effects of High Environmental Temperature on the Productive Performance of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of high environmental temperatures and breed on live productive performances of Thai Indigenous (TIC, Thai Indigenous Crossbred (TICC and Broilers (BC Chickens. Twenty four TIC, TICC and BC, one kilogram of weight were used in this study. Chickens were housed in two conditions, i.e., 26±2°C and 38±2°C. At weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of experimental period, feed intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate were investigated. The results revealed the following information: At thermoneutral, the productive performances of BC were higher than TICC and TIC (p<0.05, respectively. Under heat stress temperatures, the productive performance of the BC was higher than that of the TICC and TICC (p<0.05. The productive performance of chickens at thermoneutral was higher than that of chickens under heat stress (p<0.05. However, at week 4 the feed conversion rate of the BC was higher than that of the TICC and TIC (p<0.05 and high environmental temperatures did not affect the feed conversion rate of TICC (p>0.05. The result of the current trials indicates environment temperature and breed influence the productive performance of chickens.

W. Aengwanich

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) in northeastern, Thailand  

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Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females) ...

Suchint Simaraks; Orawan Chinrasri; Worapol Aengwanich

2005-01-01

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Influence of Energy Intake on Egg Production and Weight in Indigenous Chickens of Kenya  

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Full Text Available Indigenous chickens are widespread within the rural areas of Kenya where they contribute more than 50% of the domestic egg requirement. Although they contribute a significant proportion of egg requirements, the productivity is low. Poor nutrition is one of the reasons for the low productivity of indigenous chickens. They depend primarily on the scavenging feed resource base for nutrients. Scavenging is an uncertain method of feeding because the scavenged rations may be inadequate in nutrient supply. Productivity of indigenous chickens can be achieved through improved nutrition by supplementation to supply the deficient nutrients. The energy requirements of growing indigenous chickens have been determined and the energy intakes of the free-ranging chickens have been estimated. However, the energy requirements of indigenous chicken hens in Kenya have not been determined, hence the need to determine the requirements. An on-station feeding trial was conducted to determine the influence of energy intake on egg production, egg and hen weight. Two summit diets were formulated containing 18 and 24% Crude Protein (CP. They were blended in various ratios (diet 2 = 67% of diet 1 and 33% of diet 4; diet 3 = 33% of diet 1 and 67% of diet 4 to obtain two other diets containing 17 and 22% CP. The diets were randomly allocated to 48 indigenous chicken hens 42 weeks of age. Each diet was replicated 4 times and 3 hens were housed per cage. The diets were offered to the hens such that they had similar CP, vitamin and mineral intake but varying energy intake. Egg production, egg and hen weights were measured over an eight-week period. Egg production increased (p 0.05 for energy intake between 813-1185 kJ. Final hen weight was similar (p>0.05 for energy intake between 813-874 kJ and increased from an intake of 1034 kJ. From the results, it is concluded that the daily metabolizable energy requirement for a laying indigenous chicken hen given adequate proteins and other nutrients is 1185 kJ.

A.M. Kingori

2014-01-01

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Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

2012-10-01

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Associations between Immune Traits and MHC B-F Gene in Shandong Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available In order to find the relationship between immune traits and the Major Histocompatibility Complex B-F (MHC B-F gene, an immune traits model was established in Wenshang Barred Chicken (LH, Laiwu Black Chicken (LWH and Jining Bairi Chicken (BR. PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods were used to identified haplotypes in these three Shandong indigenous chickens. As a result, 53 (LH, 52 (LWH and 54 (BR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs were found in the 264 bp of exon 2 in chicken MHC B-F gene. The least square analysis showed that 2, 2, 3 SNPs were respectively found significant associations with antibody responses to H5, H9 and ND in LH chickens; 1, 3 and 3 SNPs were respectively found significant associations with antibody responses to H5, H9 and ND in LWH chickens but none with SRBC. In BR chickens, there was association with responses to H5 (2 SNPs, H9 (3 SNPs, ND (3 SNPs and SRBC (3 SNPs. These results indicate that the genomic region bearing exon 2 of the MHC B-F gene has significant effects on antibody responses to SRBC and vaccination against AI and ND.

S.B. Wang

2012-01-01

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The Contribution of Scavenging Indigenous Chicken to the Socio-Economic Welfare of the Rural Households  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most than 90% of farmers in Western Kenya keep chicken which are mainly indigenous breeds. The most common production system is extensive free-range production. chickens are ranked second to cattle in the livestock industry of which but since they readily fetch cash they play a role as a source of security to most households. Apart from this chicken have a special place in the social and cultural practices of the people of this region and it is difficult to attach monetary value to these practices. Local breeds are believed to be resistance to diseases, cheap to maintain, increase rapidly after calamities and are a resource of available to even the poorest families. The main production constraints are disease, lack of feed, predation and bad weather. The purpose of this trial was to increase consumption and enhance family income through sales of eggs and chicken meat. To achieve these local communities were trained on improved management technologies. Evaluation of the trial showed the technologies could greatly enhance production, translating into higher consumption and sales of chickens and chicken products, thus substantially benefiting the farmers. Trial results showed that the cost of input in chicken production is far below the value of output as most chickens scavenge for feed. Simple financial analyses have shown that with minimal inputs, a farmer could get between Ksh. 3600 and Ksh. 4100 per single hen in one year

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Molecular Characterization of Indonesian Indigenous Chickens based on Mitochondrial DNA Displacement (D-loop Sequences  

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Full Text Available The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA displacement (D-loop sequences were used to study the genetic diversity and relationship of Indonesian indigenous chickens. A total of 483 individuals belonging to 15 population breeds and 43 individuals belonging to 6 populations of jungle fowl (2 populations of Gallus gallus and 4 populations of Gallus varius were sampled. The hypervariable I (HVI segment of the D-loop was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. Sixty nine haplotypes were identified from 54 polymorphic sites with polymorphism between nucleotides 167 and 397 contributing to 94.5% of the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian indigenous chickens can be grouped into five distinct clades (clade I, II, IIIc, IIId, and IV of the previously identified seven clades (clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId, and IV in Asian indigenous chickens. Fifty haplotypes belong to clade II, seven haplotypes are in clade IV, six are in clade IIId, three are in clade I and one haploype is in clade IIIc. There was no breed-specific clade. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA based on partial D-loop sequences of Indonesian chicken indicates that 67.85% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within the population and 32.15% between populations. One of the haplotypes (represented by PLC4 was shared by all populations, suggesting that these populations may share the same maternal ancestor. These results show a high mitochondrial D-loop diversity and indicate multiple maternal origins for Indonesian indigenous chickens.

SRI SULANDARI

2008-12-01

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The Growth of Muscle Cell of Inbred Chicken and Indigeneous Chicken Embryo in The Medium of Rabbit Serum and Sheep Serum  

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Full Text Available An experiment on the growth embryonic muscle cell in the rabbit and sheep serum media was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The aim of this experiment was to observe the potency of the growth of embryonic muscle cell of the inbred chicken and indigeneous chicken in the medium of rabbit and sheep serum. Two kinds of embryo, the inbred and indigeneous chicken of eleven days old were used in the experiment. The rabbit and the sheep serum were prepared in the laboratory. The experiment was conducted by applying Nested Classification with basic Complete Randomized Design (CRD. Data collected was analyzed using analysis of variance and also using a proliferation index formula. Samples used in those research were the inner and outer cell nucleus after fourty eight hours of the growth. The result of the experiment indicated that the index of proliferation of embryonic muscle cell of the inbred chicken in the rabbit and sheep serum were 89.65 and 84.92 percent respectively. Whereas, the proliferation index of embryonic muscle cell of the indigeneous chicken in the rabbit and sheep serum were 86.20 and 84.82 percent respectively. The total of inner muscle cell nuclei of inbred chicken embryos was significantly higher (P0.05. inconclusion the muscle cell of inbred and indigeneous chicken embryos could growth in both serum but the growth muscle cell of inbred chicken embryo was better than that of indigeneous chicken embryo. (Animal Production 2(2: 75-82 (2000 Key words : tissue culture, chicken embryos, index proliferation, serum.

JA Soeroso

2000-01-01

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The Growth of Muscle Cell of Inbred Chicken and Indigeneous Chicken Embryo in The Medium of Rabbit Serum and Sheep Serum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment on the growth embryonic muscle cell in the rabbit and sheep serum media was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The aim of this experiment was to observe the potency of the growth of embryonic muscle cell of the inbred chicken and indigeneous chicken in the medium of rabbit and sheep serum. Two kinds of embryo, the inbred and indigeneous chicken of eleven days old were used in the experiment. The rabbit and the sheep serum were prepar...

Ja, Soeroso

2000-01-01

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The Influence of Energy Intake on Egg Production of Indigenous chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted on indigenous chicken to determine the influence of energy intake on egg production, egg and hen weight. Two summit diets were formulated containing 17 and 30% crude protein (CP). The diets were randomly allocated to 120 indigenous hens' aged 34 weeks, such that each diet was offered to the hens such that they had similar CP, Vitamin and mineral intake varying energy intake. Egg production increased (p0.05). Hen weight increased (p0.05) when energy intake increased from 524 to 915 kj/d

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Comparative Egg Production and Mortality of Two Commercial Egg Strains, Indigenous Chicken and Their Inbred Progenies  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the monthly hen day egg production (HDEP %, egg weights, total egg mass and mortality of two commercial egg strains and the indigenous chicken with their inbred progenies. The results indicate significant (P<0.05, 0.01 inbreeding depression in the HDEP %, egg weight and total egg mass of the two commercial strains but not in the indigenous chicken. Brooding mortality was higher in the parents compared to their inbred progenies. The inbred progenies recorded higher mortality than the parents during the rearing and laying periods especially in the two commercial strains. It was concluded that the exotic commercial hybrid should not be used as breeders for the production of day old chicks for commercial egg production.

I. Udeh

2013-08-01

31

Proximate, Total Phenolic, Antioxidant Activity and Amino Acids Profile of Bali Indigenous Chicken, Spent Laying Hen and Broiler Breast Fillet  

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Full Text Available Fresh chicken breast fillet of Bali indigenous chicken, spent laying hen and broiler were studied for proximate, total phenolic, antioxidant activity and its amino acids profile. Broiler breast fillet contained higher moisture, fat, and ash contents (P0.05 with spent laying hen, and had higher (P<0.05 compared to broiler breast fillet.

Liliek Eka Radiati

2013-01-01

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Helminth parasites of indigenous chickens in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana : short communication  

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Full Text Available Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.

E.Z. Mushi

2012-07-01

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Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in China using microsatellite markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds was evaluated with 25 microsatellite markers. Polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity with the estimator of genetic differentiation F ST and Nei's genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these four prot [...] ected local chicken populations showed high levels of diversity. The proportion of inter-population subdivision among the four protected local chicken populations was 16.0%. The average heterozygosity was 0.514, 0.581, 0.567 and 0.589 in Dongan, Xuefeng black-bone, Xianghuang and Taoyuan chickens, respectively, while the average PIC estimates were 0.455, 0.581, 0.557 and 0.576. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using genetic distance and the neighbour-joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local breeds estimated by microsatellite analysis may be useful as an initial guide for the effective conservation of chicken genetic diversity and developing conservation strategies.

Lin, Wei; Bin, Chen; Xiao-ying, Li; Sheng-gui, Liu; Jing-jing, Wang.

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Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand  

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Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/?l, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/?l, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous chickens (P<0.05, lymphocyte counts of the females were significantly higher than the males (P<0.05. From serum biochemical values, potassium, sodium, total protein and uric acid of female indigenous birds were significantly higher than males (P<0.05.

Suchint Simaraks

2005-05-01

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Relationships between cock semen viability and the fertility of artificially inseminated South African indigenous chicken breeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One hundred and sixty hens and 32 cocks of four different South African indigenous chicken breeds (Naked Neck (NN), Ovambo (OVB), Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) and Venda (VD) were used in this study. Reproductive performance tests as determined by the number of ejaculations per five minutes of abdomina [...] l sexual massage (5ASM) were used to select 16 high performing (HP) and 16 low performing (LP) cocks from a population of 80 cocks. Cocks with >2 ejaculates/60 min or

J.T., Molekwa; D.O., Umesiobi.

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Breed selection practices and traits of economic importance for indigenous chicken in Kenya  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study was conducted with an aim to generate essential information on breed selection practices and traits of economic importance of indigenous chicken (IC) farmers in Kenya. The study was carried out in six counties of Kenya with highest population of IC, namely; Siaya, Kakamega, Bomet, Narok, West Pokot and Turkana. A total of 594 farmers, 468 marketers and 546 consumers were interviewed using three sets of pre-tested structured questionnaires. The questionnaire was designed to capture information on selection criteria of farmers, genotypes raised, their attributes and traits of economic importance. Data on traits that farmers, marketers and consumers perceived as of primary economic importance were analyzed through computation of indices. Farmers were found to select breeding stock based on growth rate (GR), body size (BS), egg number (EN), disease resistance (DR), hatchability (HA) and mothering ability (MA). Normal feathered, giant, crested-head and necked-neck were the dominant chicken genotypes raised because of their superiority in EN, BS, MA, GR and broodiness (BRD) compared to other genotypes. The traits that farmers, marketers and consumers perceived as of economic importance were GR, DR, EN, BS, fertility, egg size and egg shell colour which were in line with farmers selection criteria. There is therefore a need consider these traits when developing breeding objectives for IC.

Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, A K

2011-01-01

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Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Levels on Egg Production, Hatchability and Post-Hatch Offspring Performance of Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available Indigenous chickens in Kenya are estimated to be 21.5 million and are found in all the ecological zones in the country. They are 75% of the poultry population and produce 46 and 58% of the egg and meat, respectively. These levels of production are comparatively low compared to their numbers. The low productivity of indigenous chickens in Kenya and other parts of the world is partly attributed to poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper healthcare, poor nutrition and housing. This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary protein levels on egg production, hatchability and post-hatch offspring feed intake, feed efficiency and growth rate of indigenous chickens. Seventy two hens averaging 46 weeks in age, were offered four diets formulated from similar ingredients but differing in protein levels: 100, 120, 140 and 170 g CP/kg DM. Diets were randomly allocated to hens such that each diet had nine replicates each consisting of two hens. The hens were housed in battery cages and diets offered ad-libitum. Laying percentage, egg weight and feed intake were measured over an 8-week period. There was an increase (p0.05 at 120 and 140 g CP/kg DM. The laying percentage of hens offered 170 g CP/kg DM was lower (p0.05 on offspring feed intake (51-56 g, live weight gain (6.5 -8.5 g / day and feed conversion efficiency (0.13-0.15. It is, therefore, concluded that the dietary crude protein requirement for laying indigenous hens is about 120 g CP/kg and maternal dietary protein level has no effect on hatchability and post-hatch offspring feed intake, feed efficiency and growth rate. The findings will help in the formulation of indigenous chicken layer diet with the appropriate protein content.

H.K. Muiruri

2010-01-01

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Associations of Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR Gene Polymorphisms with Reproductive Traits in a Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breed  

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Full Text Available Chicken Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR is a physiological candidate gene for reproductive traits. The objective of the current research was to investigate the association of VLDLR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and the reproductive traits in a Chinese Indigenous chicken breed (Wenshang Luhua chicken. A total of 528 individuals were genotyped with PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. As a result, an A?G mutation on exon 6 (A12321G and an A?G mutation on intron 17 (A13876G were identified. In locus 12321, genotypes have significantly effect on Egg Weight at 300 days (EW and the chickens harboring genotype A2A2 had significantly higher EW (p0.05. Four diplotypes were constructed on the two SNPs. Significantly dominant effects of diplotypes H1H1 were observed for traits EW whereas H4H4 had a negative effect on it. Also for EWFE, LWFE, LW and EP, the H1H1 chickens were superior to H4H4 chickens it maybe tell that H1H1 is an advantaged diplotype for chicken reproductive traits.

Z.L. Wang

2012-01-01

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Expression Profile of Toll-Like Receptor mRNA in an Indigenous Aseel Breed of Chicken in India  

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Full Text Available Expression profile of chicken six Toll-like Receptor (TLR mRNAs were analyzed in the heterophils, lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum, caecal tonsils and kidneys of 12-weeks old indigenous village chicken in India, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. TLR 2 type 1 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen, duodenum and caecal tonsils. TLR2 type 2 mRNA was expressed only in the lungs. TLR 3 mRNA was expressed in lungs, liver, spleen and caecal tonsils. TLR 4 mRNA was expressed only in lungs, liver and spleen. TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs were expressed in all the tissues examined. With respect to tissues, heterophils and lungs expressed all the TLR mRNAs examined while kidneys expressed only TLR 5 and TLR 7 mRNAs. All the TLR amplified PCR products were partially sequenced and showed high homologies with the available chicken (commercial TLR gene sequences. There could be a possibility of correlation between TLR mRNA expressions with higher levels of innate immunity seen in indigenous village breeds of chickens.

G. Dhinakar Raj

2009-01-01

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Community-based interventions for the use and conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of indigenous scavenger chicken production in Benin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scavenging chicken production in Africa is important for the livelihood of the poor. In most countries, these low inputs, low output systems employ local breeds making use of the feeding resources available in the household. However, their replacement with introduced exotic breeds with higher productivities represents a risk for their conservation. Here, we present a simulation model to evaluate the impact of community-based interventions aiming to improve the profitability of local chicken breeds and promote their use and conservation. The results indicate that under the current conditions, farmers producing exotic chicken are able to sell more animals in a one year period; however the market price of local chicken makes their production more profitable. Vaccination campaigns significantly reduce the mortality rate of both breeds, having a positive effect on producers' income but its impact on animal off-take is larger for exotic breeds, and the availability of feeding resources is the limiting factor as the flock size increases. The results of the intervention are positive in terms of increasing farmers' income but do not clearly contribute to the conservation of indigenous breeds since after the vaccination campaign, the gap between the profitability of indigenous and exotic breeds is reduced. The simulation model indicates that under the current conditions, the conservation of indigenous chicken breeds in Benin is maintained by the existence of distinct niche markets with consumers able to pay higher prices for indigenous chicken. Policies for the conservation of chicken genetic resources in Benin are discussed. PMID:21336502

Rodríguez, Luis C; Herrero, Mario; Baltenweck, Isabel

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Effect of transient prepubertal hypothyroidism on serum testosterone level and seminal characteristics of Iranian indigenous chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Forty 6-week-old male Iranian indigenous chickens were randomly assigned into two equal groups, designated as control or propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated group. The goitrogen, PTU, was administered at a level of 0.1% (w:w) to the diet of PTU-treated group between the weeks 7 and 13 of age. From the week 13 to 26, both groups were fed with a PTU-free diet. The lighting schedule was 14 h-light:10 h-darkness. Blood sampling started at week 7 of age, and repeated every other week until the week 19 as well as body weighing simultaneously. Chicks were trained by the abdominal massage method and semen samples were collected from the week 21 and repeated once a week for seven weeks. Proc Mixed of SAS (6.03 edn.) was used to data analysis and body weight was considered as covariate in statistical model. The effect of PTU treatment on serum thyroxine (T4) levels (P 0.05). The effect of age on all parameters, including body weight (P 0.05); but the interaction was significant for body weight (P 0.05). No significant correlation observed between testosterone and T4 levels in both groups. (author)

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Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Genetic Distance Between Twelve Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds Based on Microsatellite Markers  

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Full Text Available A total of 720 individuals of 12 indigenous chicken populations, geographically localized in Southern China were genotyped for 30 microsatellite markers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR to evaluate the genetic variation and genetic distance between populations. All microsatellites were found to be polymorphic. Heterozygosity was calculated to determine the genetic variation. Of the 30 microsatellite loci, number of alleles per locus (Na and effective number of alleles per locus (Ne ranged from 4 to 11 and 2.157 to 8.019, respectively. The average expected heterozygosity (HE was 0.669, while the average observed heterozygosity (HO was 0.764. The polymorphism information content (PIC has values between 0.560 and 0.641. Using Nei`s standard distance, genetic distance (DA calculated ranged between 0.088 (Guanxi Sanhuang vs. Nandan Yao and 0.495 (Huiyang Beard vs. Zhangzhou Game. The topology of phylogenetic trees constructed showed general patterns of relationship and genetic differentiation among the indigenous populations studied, however, both trees from Neighbor-Joining method and Unweighted Pair Group method showed a similar topology. The results provided evidence of the applicability of microsatellite to determining the genetic relatedness among different Chinese indigenous chicken populations and evaluating of genetic variations.

Yu Ya-Bo

2006-01-01

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Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens in Polokwane, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens. Three hundred and sixty indigenous Venda chicken eggs were collected for a period of a week and selection was done based on the weight [...] of the eggs. A complete randomized design was used, with four treatment weights, each with 90 eggs. The four treatment weights were as follows: below 49 g, between 50 and 59 g, between 60 and 69 g, and above 70 g. Egg weight was positively and strongly correlated with egg hatchability (r² = 0.727) and chick hatch-weight (r² = 0.953). Heavier-sized eggs hatched chicks had higher mortality rates. Growth rate and live weight of the chickens were optimized at different egg weig hts of 56 (r² = 0.657) and 60 (r² = 0.870) g, respectively, for chickens aged 1 to 7 weeks, and egg weig hts of 61 g (r² = 0.514) and 60 g (r² = 0.948), respectively, for chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks. It is concluded that indigenous Venda chicken egg weight affects hatchability, hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of the chickens. It is concluded that production variables were optimized at different egg weights. This means that the selection of eggs for incubation will depend on the parameter in question.

J.W., Ng' ambi; M.W., Thamaga; D, Norris; M, Mabelebele; O.J., Alabi.

2013-07-01

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Effects of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens in Polokwane, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine the effect of egg weight on hatchability, chick hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of indigenous Venda chickens. Three hundred and sixty indigenous Venda chicken eggs were collected for a period of a week and selection was done based on the weight [...] of the eggs. A complete randomized design was used, with four treatment weights, each with 90 eggs. The four treatment weights were as follows: below 49 g, between 50 and 59 g, between 60 and 69 g, and above 70 g. Egg weight was positively and strongly correlated with egg hatchability (r² = 0.727) and chick hatch-weight (r² = 0.953). Heavier-sized eggs hatched chicks had higher mortality rates. Growth rate and live weight of the chickens were optimized at different egg weig hts of 56 (r² = 0.657) and 60 (r² = 0.870) g, respectively, for chickens aged 1 to 7 weeks, and egg weig hts of 61 g (r² = 0.514) and 60 g (r² = 0.948), respectively, for chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks. It is concluded that indigenous Venda chicken egg weight affects hatchability, hatch-weight, mortality and subsequent productivity of the chickens. It is concluded that production variables were optimized at different egg weights. This means that the selection of eggs for incubation will depend on the parameter in question.

J.W., Ng' ambi; M.W., Thamaga; D, Norris; M, Mabelebele; O.J., Alabi.

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Characteristics and Destinations of Indigenous Chickens Marketed in Guera Region, East-Central Chad  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess zooeconomic parameters like age, weight, price and destinations of produced chickens that are sold on three main markets of Guera, east-central Chad. Data were collected over six months on the market places of Mongo and Mangalme and four months on the market place of Bitkine. The transversal and retrospective survey was coupled with direct observations and weightings. For 1549 marketed chickens, the males made up 57% and the females 43%. The average values per chicken were found to be 16.29.9 months for age, 1082.4371.2 g for weight and 1607.8FCFA 414.6 for price. Average age and weight of sold chickens were significantly higher (p<0.001 on Mangalme market, with an average price significantly lower (p<0.001. On the whole, 52% of surveyed chickens were intended for sale in the capital NDjamena, 39% in Mongo city, 7% in Bitkine and 2% in Mangalme. According to the final destinations declared by buyers, average age and weight of the sold chickens to be consumed in Bitkine were significantly lower (p<0.001 but with an average price significantly higher (p<0.001. The Mangalme sellers sold mainly old chickens in order to earn more money. The pressure exerted by NDjamena traders to purchase chickens in Bitkine increases prices.

El Hadji Fallou Gueye

2011-01-01

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Hawks and Baby Chickens: Cultivating the Sources of Indigenous Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…

Easton, Peter B.

2011-01-01

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Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous chicken egg  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 % egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For bacteriological isolation a piece of liver, lung and yolk sac contents were collected from 25 nos. of dead in shell embryos and send to the Department of Microbiology for further examination.Results: A total of 241 (42.42 % egg were recorded as dead-in-shell embryos out of 568 eggs which were fail to pip out. The percentage of dead-in-shell was higher on 21st day (61.34% than 18th day (38.66 % of incubation. Out of 241 nos. of dead in shell embryos, 47 (19.50% cases showed malpositions,19 (7.88% malformation, 6 (2.49% adhesion,4 (1.66% dehydra-tion, 67 (27.80% pathological condition and 98 (40.66% cases showed no definite abnormalities and 327 (57.57% numbers of egg were found as infertile.Conclusion: The dead in shell embryo may be due to genetic factor, breed, some pathological condition, frequent power failure, lack of proper hygiene etc.

N. Kalita,

2013-08-01

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An evaluation of ratios as a measure of carcass traits using mature indigenous chickens in Limpopo Province of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Live weight and weight of body parts of 60 mature indigenous chickens were collected to investigate whether the use of ratios in poultry science may cause misinterpretation of data and misleading conclusions. Three villages from Mukula Tribal land in Thulamela municipality from Vhembe District in Li [...] mpopo Province of South Africa were identified for the purpose of this study. Five mature chickens were bought from each village, weighed, killed, dressed and cut to get the body parts using the standard procedures. This was done across the four distinct seasons from March 2005 to March 2006. The data was collected using a weighing scale with variables of interest being the sex, season and village. Summary statistics were computed and data was analyzed in two separate ways using the Statistical Analysis Software Packages as follows: Firstly each individual body part was expressed as ratio of body weight and data analyzed using a simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Secondly, live body weight was used a covariate in the analysis of other body parts using the ANCOVA procedures. Ratios suggested differences gizzard, liver, head and feet and body length due to sex and in gizzard, liver and body length due to village which were not apparent with ANCOVA. The results from this study suggested that ratios did not remove the variation due to differences in sex and village and may lead us to wrong conclusions. From this study, one can draw conclusions that use of ANCOVA gives us the exceptional method for interpreting the data correctly.

N.J., Tshovhote; A.E., Nesamvuni; K.A., Nephawe; I., Groenewald.

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ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS  

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Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

2005-04-01

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Growth Performance of Indigenous X Exotic Crosses of Chicken and Evaluation of General and Specific Combining Ability under Sudan Condition  

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Full Text Available Two thousand three hundred and fourty six chickens, line X tester crosses were obtained from fifteen consecutive hatches at weekly interval. Testers were exotic cockerels; Rhode Island Red (RIR, Bovans (BO and Egyptian Fayoumi (FO, while lines were indigenous hens; large Baladi (LB, Bare-neck (BN and Betwil (BT. The nine genetic groups of crosses were reared up to 18 weeks of age in litter opened-house system. Significant differences (DMRT 5% for average body weight of different crosses were obtained at hatching, 2, 14, 16 and 18 weeks of age. Biweekly average weight gain showed similarity in growth pattern of the various crosses. Sex affected body weight insignificant at hatching, whereas the differences were significant (P< 0.05 at 2 weeks of age and highly significant (P< 0.01 for the subsequent ages. Hatching effect was found to be highly significant (P< 0.01 on body weight at various ages; however, sex X hatch interaction was found to be significant (P< 0.05 at day old and disappeared thereafter. The average live weight at 18 week of age for the nine groups was adjusted for hatching and sex effects. There were significant differences (P< 0.05 of lines and testers, however, line X tester interaction was not significant for 18 weeks body weight. The estimated general combining ability (gca, thus the additive gene effect, was relatively high for both lines (-42.03, 19.90 and 22.13 and testers (-36.74, 10.74 and 26.00. On the other hand the specific combining ability (sca, which involves dominance, over dominance and epistasis effects, was found to be minor in both positive and negative values for the nine groups, ranging from -14.66 to 17.37. The general combining ability estimated was of high value and seemed to be much important than specific combining ability for body weight at 18 weeks of age.

Mekki Dafaalla Mohammed

2005-01-01

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A Study on the Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA Content in Common Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised by Natural Farming in Nakhon Phanom Province  

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Full Text Available This research studied the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in common Thai indigenous chickens (5 months old raised by natural farming in Nakhon Phanom province. One hundred and ten chickens (55 females and 55 males with an average weight of 955 g and 1,050 g for females and males respectively were selected for the experiment. The chickens were randomly selected and meat samples were collected to determine the fatty acid profile and CLA content. The results showed that the saturated fatty acids (SFA in males were composed mainly of C16:0, C14:0 and C15:0 while in females they were composed of C22:0, C15:0 and C16:0. The most common monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in males and females were C24:1 and C15:1 respectively. The most common polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA for both males and females was C20:3n3. The highest CLA profile was found in chicken meat cis9trans11 in males and females. The total fatty acid profile in breast meat showed that males had higher amounts of MUFA than females (p < 0.05 but that females had higher amounts of SFA and CLA than males (p < 0.05 while the amount of PUFA was similar in both males and females (p > 0.05.

Tanom TATHONG

2010-06-01

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Growth Performances, Carcass and Organs Characteristics and Economics Results of Growing Indigenous Senegal Chickens Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) Leaves Meal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study carried out from September to December 2010 was to evaluate the effects of Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal inclusion in the diets on growth performances, carcass and organs characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal chickens. One hundred and four (104) indigenous Senegal chicks of 4 weeks old were randomly allocated into four groups of 26 chicks each with similar body weight. Each group subdivided in two repetitions of 13 birds, correspo...

Akpo, Y.; Dahouda, M.; Houinato, M. R.; Dieng, A.; Zanmenou, J. C.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; Ayssiwede, S. B.; Hornick, J. L.; Missohou, A.

2011-01-01

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Nutrient Composition of Some Unconventional and Local Feed Resources Available in Senegal and Recoverable in Indigenous Chickens or Animal Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10 unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata, cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds and cockroaches (Blatta orientalis were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea to 94.9% (C. vulgaris. The Crude Protein (CP content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea to 61.9% (cockroaches meal, with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%. Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9% Ether Extract (EE values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%, Moringa (9.8%, Leuceana (6.4% and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%, while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera to 16.8% (C. tora while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea to 19% (Citrullus seeds. A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%, followed by Cassia (15.2%, Moringa (13.6%, Leuceana (11.4% and Sesbania leaves (7.1%, while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera. Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%, followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%, Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%, whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.

J.L. Hornick

2011-01-01

54

Environmental descriptors influencing performance of the Nguni ecotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nguni is an indigenous breed of cattle in Southern Africa, specifically found in Swaziland, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. Due to the ten years of civil war, cattle numbers in Mozambique was reduced from 1.6 million head in 1976 to approximately 200,000 in 1992. After 1996, large numbers of Nguni cattle were imported from South Africa into Mozambique as part of the livestock restocking program. A nucleus herd of Nguni cattle was established at the breeding station, Posto de Fomento do Impaputo (PFI), near Maputo and next to the Swaziland border. PFI has also a separate breeding nucleus of the Landim cattle. Both these ecotypes are registered at the Nguni Breed's Society of South Africa. This study whose results are reported here aims to determine the environmental descriptors that influence the performance of the Nguni and the Landim cattle ecotypes in Mozambique. Results from the analysed data will help to provide information for sustainable country level utilization and conservation programs in the region. Reproductive and productive data, between 1997 and 2008, were analysed for the two ecotypes using PROC GLM from SAS (1999). Variation sources such as type of breed, place of origin of foundation herd, parity, season and year of calving were taken into consideration in preliminary runs. Results of the preliminary runs on PFI herds indicate that the age at first calving (AFC) was 1089.2 ± 193 d and the calving interval (CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for b(CI) was 437.6 ± 98.8 d on average for both ecotypes. For AFC there were interactions between the year and season of calving (Nguni or Landim; P < 0.05) and place of birth (Chobela, RSA or Impaputo; P < 0.01) for both ecotypes. CI decreased as the number of parities increased. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) was found on CI for the place of herd's birth, parity and interaction between the year and season of calving (dry and rainy seasons). It is concluded that there is sufficient data to demonstrate within and between population variations in the different ecotypes in terms of reproductive performance. A more complete analysis, which includes information from both ecotypes and data from South Africa as well as other similar environments, should be done. These results can thus be used for the design and implementation of breeding and sustainable conservation programs for the Nguni and the Landim ecotypes under Mozambique and South Africa as well as similar environments. (author)

55

Serological Status for Newcastle Disease Virus in Unvaccinated Indigenous Chickens in Yewa Division of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sero-epidemiological survey of antibody to Newcastle disease (ND virus was conducted in the unvaccinated local chickens in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria using haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. All the 180 sera samples collected tested positive for ND antibody. The range of HI antibody titre was 23 to 27. Out of the 180 chicks tested, 44 (24.4% had HI antibody titre of 23; the remaining birds (75.6% had higher titres of up to 27. The results showed the high endemicity of the disease among the local chicken population in the survey area in Nigeria.

M.A. Oyekunle

2006-01-01

56

Semen Characteristics of the Brown Ecotype of Sahel Goats in the Semi-arid Zone of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the semen characteristics of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection from two to twelve months of age. It was observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased over-age (months and that at three months of age, there were significant levels of semen characteristic values. In conclusion, the spermiogram of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks was studied with a view to document the semen profile of indigenous and possibly evolving ecotypes of sahal bucks for future studies of improved breeding and selection.

V.A. Maina

2006-01-01

57

MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida orAscaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance Udgivelsesdato: 15. May

Schou, T W; Labouriau, R

2010-01-01

58

Chicken Chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics". Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics".

Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

2008-04-01

59

Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308

Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

2007-06-01

60

Chicken Chicken  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real...

Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

Wongwiwat, P.

2007-11-01

62

Growth Performance of Australorp x Tswana Crossbred Chickens under an Intensive Management System  

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Full Text Available Indigenous Tswana chickens are better adapted to prevailing environmental conditions and diseases than their exotic counterparts. They however exhibit slower growth rate and less mature final weight than their exotic counterparts. Crossbreeding of indigenous Tswana chickens with exotic chicken breeds can therefore be used as an alternative strategy to improve growth performance of indigenous Tswana chickens by taking advantage of breed complementarily and heterosis. The current study was therefore aimed at evaluating growth performance of Australorp x indigenous Tswana chickens F1 crossbred progeny relative to purebred indigenous Tswana chickens under an intensive management system. A total of 42 Australorp x Tswana crossbred chickens and 44 purebred indigenous Tswana chickens were evaluated for growth performance (body weight every fortnight from 4-18 weeks of age. The chickens were raised under a deep litter house system and provided with water and commercial feeds ad libitum. Males of both crossbred and purebred chickens were generally heavier (p>0.05 than their age-matched female counterparts at different ages. Body weight was however significantly higher in Australorp x Tswana crossbred males and females than their indigenous purebred counterparts at 18 weeks of age. Growth was also more enhanced in crossbred Australorp x Tswana males than Females. Crossbreeding can therefore be used as a strategy to improve growth performance of indigenous Tswana chickens raised under an intensive management system. The study however needs to be repeated to evaluate growth performance of crossbred chickens under free range system commonly practiced in rural areas of Botswana.

Patrick M. Kgwatalala

2013-01-01

63

QTL Analysis of Intraspecific Differences between Two Silene vulgaris Ecotypes  

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• Background and Aims Serpentine soils provide a highly selective substrate for plant colonization and growth and represent an ideal system for studying the evolution of plant-ecotypes. In the present study the aim was to identify the genetic architecture of morphological traits distinguishing serpentine and non-serpentine ecotypes of Silene vulgaris.

Bratteler, Martin; Baltisberger, Matthias; Widmer, Alex

2006-01-01

64

An ex situ study on body characteristics and effect of plumage color on body weight of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Bangladesh / Investigação ex situ sobre as características do corpo e os efeitos da cor das penas no peso corporal de frangos indígenas (Gallus domesticus) em Bangladesh  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo foi conduzido no Instituto de Pesquisa Animal (BLRI) em Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, para comparar as características corporais e o peso corporal de três genótipos de frangos indígenas, Common Desi, Hilly e Naked Neck. A proporção dos genótipos Common Desi, Naked Neck e Hilly foi respectivamen [...] te 49,49, 24,95 e 25,56% num total de 489 aves analisadas. A cor predominante das penas foi preto avermelhado com 33.13%. Foram observados os quarto tipos de cores mais frequentes das pernas: branca (39,87%), amarela (37,22%), preta (20,04%) e mista (2,87%). A cor das orelhas era geralmente branca avermelhada (44,79%), seguida por branca (29,24%) e vermelha (25,97%). A cor da pele mais predominante era branca (92,22%). A maioria das aves tinha uma só cresta (96,12%). As aves Hilly eram mais pesadas do que os outros grupos de aves indígenas (p 0,05), mas havia diferença significativa do peso das aves Hilly. Em termos de cumprimento de perna e circunferência, não havia diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre Common Desi e Naked Neck, embora as aves Hilly diferissem significativamente (p Abstract in english The study was conducted at the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh with the objectives of comparing the body characteristics and body weight of three Indigenous chicken genotypes namely Common Desi, Hilly and Naked Neck. Of the four hundred and eighty nine birds [...] analyzed the proportion of Common Desi, Naked Neck and Hilly chicken were 49.49, 24.95 and 25.56% respectively. The most predominant plumage color was reddish black (33.13%). Four types of shank colors were most frequently observed, i.e. white (39.87%), yellow (37.22%), black (20.04%) and mixed (2.87%). The earlobes were mainly reddish white (44.79%) followed by white (29.24%) and red (25.97%). The most predominant skin color was white (92.22%). Most birds had a single comb (96.12%). Hilly birds were heavier than the other Indigenous chicken groups (p 0.05) but significantly differed from that of Hilly chicken. In terms of shank length and circumference, there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between Common Desi and Naked Neck chicken, but Hilly chicken had significant (p

Nipa Rani, Sarker; Azharul, Hoque; Shakila, Faruque; Nazrul, Islam; Fazlul Haque, Bhuiyan.

2014-03-01

65

An ex situ study on body characteristics and effect of plumage color on body weight of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Bangladesh / Investigação ex situ sobre as características do corpo e os efeitos da cor das penas no peso corporal de frangos indígenas (Gallus domesticus) em Bangladesh  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo foi conduzido no Instituto de Pesquisa Animal (BLRI) em Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, para comparar as características corporais e o peso corporal de três genótipos de frangos indígenas, Common Desi, Hilly e Naked Neck. A proporção dos genótipos Common Desi, Naked Neck e Hilly foi respectivamen [...] te 49,49, 24,95 e 25,56% num total de 489 aves analisadas. A cor predominante das penas foi preto avermelhado com 33.13%. Foram observados os quarto tipos de cores mais frequentes das pernas: branca (39,87%), amarela (37,22%), preta (20,04%) e mista (2,87%). A cor das orelhas era geralmente branca avermelhada (44,79%), seguida por branca (29,24%) e vermelha (25,97%). A cor da pele mais predominante era branca (92,22%). A maioria das aves tinha uma só cresta (96,12%). As aves Hilly eram mais pesadas do que os outros grupos de aves indígenas (p 0,05), mas havia diferença significativa do peso das aves Hilly. Em termos de cumprimento de perna e circunferência, não havia diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre Common Desi e Naked Neck, embora as aves Hilly diferissem significativamente (p Abstract in english The study was conducted at the Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh with the objectives of comparing the body characteristics and body weight of three Indigenous chicken genotypes namely Common Desi, Hilly and Naked Neck. Of the four hundred and eighty nine birds [...] analyzed the proportion of Common Desi, Naked Neck and Hilly chicken were 49.49, 24.95 and 25.56% respectively. The most predominant plumage color was reddish black (33.13%). Four types of shank colors were most frequently observed, i.e. white (39.87%), yellow (37.22%), black (20.04%) and mixed (2.87%). The earlobes were mainly reddish white (44.79%) followed by white (29.24%) and red (25.97%). The most predominant skin color was white (92.22%). Most birds had a single comb (96.12%). Hilly birds were heavier than the other Indigenous chicken groups (p 0.05) but significantly differed from that of Hilly chicken. In terms of shank length and circumference, there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between Common Desi and Naked Neck chicken, but Hilly chicken had significant (p

Nipa Rani, Sarker; Azharul, Hoque; Shakila, Faruque; Nazrul, Islam; Fazlul Haque, Bhuiyan.

66

Variation in call pitch among killer whale ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocal structure can vary between populations due to variation in ecology-dependent selection pressures, such as masking by background noise and the presence of eavesdroppers. Signalers can overcome these obstacles to effective communication by avoiding frequencies that overlap with background noise or the audible range of eavesdroppers. In the Northeastern Pacific three "ecotypes" of killer whale coexist in sympatry, but differ from one another in their diet and habitat use. The minimum frequency (F(min)) and the frequency containing the peak energy between 0 and 10 kHz (F(peak)) of a random sample of calls produced by a population of each ecotype was measured. The offshore ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) than the other ecotypes, which could be a strategy to avoid masking by low frequency chronic bandlimited wind noise found in the offshore environment. The resident ecotype produced calls with a significantly higher F(min) and F(peak) than the transient ecotype. This could be to reduce detection by their salmonid prey, which has a narrow band, low frequency auditory range. PMID:18345862

Foote, Andrew D; Nystuen, Jeffrey A

2008-03-01

67

Haemoglobin Polymorphisms in the Nigerian Indigenous Chickens  

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Full Text Available Haemoglobin (Hb alleles and their frequencies as well their effect of some phenotypic characteristics were studied in local (LB and Exotic Birds (EB (Meat-type strain. Blood samples were collect from the local birds and exotic birds. The local birds were from reputable commercial farm. Blood samples were analyzed for haemoglobin types determined by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The result showed that Hb genotypes were the same for exotic birds (AA and also the phenotype characteristics studied were uniform but the local birds varied in Hb type and phenotype characteristics. The frequencies of HbA and HbA in local birds were 0.68 and 0.33, respectively and genotype frequencies HbAA (0.35 and Hb AB (0.65 and frequencies of HbA in exotic bird was 1.00 with genotype frequency of 100%. The local birds? population was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg?s equilibrium while the exotic birds were not. This suggests that the sample was a mixture of subpopulations with different gene frequencies. The relations among the investigated genotypes, plumage and shank colors were discussed.

Salako, A.E

2006-01-01

68

Nodulation and Root Traits in Four Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus Ecotypes under Root-Zone Temperatures  

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Full Text Available In order to study the effect of four Root-Zone Temperatures (RZT (5, 10, 15 and 25°C on nodulation and nitrogen percent of four grasspea ecotypes (ardabil, zanjan, mashhad and sharkord, an experiment was conducted in a controlled-environmental chamber in 2005. There were differences (p<0.01 among ecotypes, RZT and ecotypes*RZT for root length, forage dry matter, root dry matter, nodule dry weight, nodule number, nodule cluster number, nodule cluster diameter, nodule diameter, nodule distribution (root length that has nodule and plant nitrogen percent. Mashad and ardabil ecotypes produced the most and least nodule number at 25 and 5°C, respectively. The maximum and minimum nodule cluster number were observed in ardabil ecotype under 25 and 5°C RZT, respectively. Root distribution was the most and the least in mashhad and ardabil ecotypes under 25 and 5°C RZT, respectively. Ardabil produced the highest dry nodule weight at 25°C RZT. The least dry nodule weight was belonged to ardabil ecotype under 5°C RZT. Plant nitrogen percent was the highest in ardabile ecotype at 15°C RZT and the lowest in mashhad ecotype under 5°C RZT. This experiment showed that at low RZT (i.e., 5 and 10°C none of ecotypes had preferred on other ecotypes in point of view measured traits except nodule diameter. Ardabile and mashhad ecotypes were better than other ecotypes at 15 and 25°C RZT respectively for most traits.

B. Mahdavi Mahdavi

2007-01-01

69

Indigenous Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indigenous Australia Website, presented in affiliation with the Australian Museum and the Australia's Cultural Network, combines two Websites -- Dreaming Online and Stories of the Dreaming (see the July 16, 1999 Scout Report) -- into one comprehensive resource. An engaging introduction to the 60,000-year-old cultural heritage of Australia's Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, the site is divided into four main sections: Background Info, Stories of the Dreaming, For Kids, and For Teachers. The Background section provides users with a nice overview, accompanied by images, of art and dress, spiritual and family life, the relationship of indigenous peoples to the land, and their interactions with British colonists, as well as a fairly detailed timeline. Stories of the Dreaming offers short movies of people reciting the tales from their ancestors about the land, sea, and animals. These were filmed in the rugged backdrop of Australia and are available as low or high quality videos (RealPlayer) or as audio or text only. The Teachers and Kids pages supply additional resources including links, a glossary, a FAQ, and advice on teaching lessons in indigenous studies.

70

PHOTOSYNTHESIS, CARBON ALLOCATION, AND GROWTH OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ECOTYPES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation in Geranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and ...

71

Chicken eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

Eggs are the means through which chickens reproduce. Hens lay the eggs and incubate them so they will grow. The egg has all of the nutrients the chicken embryo needs to develop into a baby chick and helps protect it as it matures.

Peter N/A (None;)

2005-09-11

72

Chicken Art  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

Bickett, Marianne

2009-01-01

73

Accumulation and tolerance of lead in two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dianthus carthusianorum is one of the dominant plant species colonising the Zn-Pb waste deposits in Boles?aw, Southern Poland. It differs in terms of morphology and genetics from ecotypes inhabiting non-metal-polluted areas. The response of waste-heap (metallicolous, M) and reference (nonmetallicolous, NM) ecotypes of D. carthusianorum to Pb in hydroponics was investigated and compared in this study. The plants of the M ecotype were more tolerant to Pb than these of the NM ecotype in spite of accumulation of higher concentrations of Pb. In both ecotypes, about 70-78% of Pb was retained in roots. In non Pb-treated plants, a higher glutathione (GSH) level was found in the M ecotype. After the Pb exposure, the GSH level decreased and was similar in both ecotypes. Lead treatment induced synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) only in the plant roots, with significantly higher concentrations thereof detected in the NM ecotype. Malate and citrate concentrations were higher in the M ecotype; however, they did not change significantly upon any Pb treatment in either ecotype. The results indicated that neither PCs nor organic acids were responsible for the enhanced Pb tolerance of the waste-heap plants. PMID:24512840

Wójcik, Ma?gorzata; Tukiendorf, Anna

2014-04-01

74

Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

Zemanová V.

2013-04-01

75

Nodulation and root traits in four grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) ecotypes under root-zone temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the effect of four Root-Zone Temperatures (RZT) (5, 10, 15 and 25 degrees C) on nodulation and nitrogen percent of four grasspea ecotypes (ardabil, zanjan, mashhad and sharkord), an experiment was conducted in a controlled-environmental chamber in 2005. There were differences (p < 0.01) among ecotypes, RZT and ecotypes *RZT for root length, forage dry matter, root dry matter, nodule dry weight, nodule number, nodule cluster number, nodule cluster diameter, nodule diameter, nodule distribution (root length that has nodule) and plant nitrogen percent. Mashad and ardabil ecotypes produced the most and least nodule number at 25 and 5 degrees C, respectively. The maximum and minimum nodule cluster number were observed in ardabil ecotype under 25 and 5 degrees C RZT, respectively. Root distribution was the most and the least in mashhad and ardabil ecotypes under 25 and 5 degrees C RZT, respectively. Ardabil produced the highest dry nodule weight at 25 degrees C RZT. The least dry nodule weight was belonged to ardabil ecotype under 5 degrees C RZT. Plant nitrogen percent was the highest in ardabile ecotype at 15 degrees C RZT and the lowest in mashhad ecotype under 5 degrees C RZT. This experiment showed that at low RZT (i.e., 5 and 10 degrees C) none of ecotypes had preferred on other ecotypes in point of view measured traits except nodule diameter. Ardabile and mashhad ecotypes were better than other ecotypes at 15 and 25 degrees C RZT respectively for most traits. PMID:19069923

Mahdavi, B; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Aghaalikhani, Majid

2007-04-15

76

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Bangladeshi Chicken using RAPD Markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the genetic diversity at molecular level is a prerequisite in developing strategies for effective conservation and utilization of chicken genetic resources. We studied the genetic variation within and between Bangladeshi native (Naked Neck, Frizzle and Non-descriptive indigenous) and exotic (White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, Commercial layer and broiler) chicken populations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Four out of the 20 random primers exhibited sufficient variabil...

Mollah, M. B. R.; Islam, F. B.; Islam, M. S.; Ali, M. A.; Alam, M. S.

2009-01-01

77

A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome?wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced. Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate genomic patterns of diversity and population differentiation in a natural system characterized by high gene flow and large effective population sizes, properties which theoretically could restrict divergence in local genomic regions. We identify a genomic region of strong population differentiation, extending over approximately 20 cM, between pairs of migratory and stationary ecotypes examined at two different localities. Furthermore, the region is characterized by markedly reduced levels of genetic diversity in migratory ecotype samples. The results highlight the genomic region, or ‘genomic island’, as potentially associated with ecological divergence and suggest the involvement of a selective sweep. Finally, we also confirm earlier findings of localized genomic differentiation in three other linkage groups associated with divergence among eastern Atlantic populations. Thus, although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, the results suggest that ‘genomic mosaics’ of differentiation may even be found under high levels of gene flow and that marine fishes may provide insightful model systems for studying and identifying initial targets of selection during ecological divergence.

Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina O.

2013-01-01

78

Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

Despagne, Colette

2013-01-01

79

Why Indigenous Nations Studies?  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

2000-01-01

80

STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

2004-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Genetic Diversity of Echinohloa Crus-galli Var. Crus-galli (L. Beauv (Barnyardgrass: Poaceae Ecotypes in Malaysia and Indonesia as Revealed by Rapd Markers  

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Full Text Available Fourty ecotypes of Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli (Barnyardgrass: Poaceae collected from Malaysian (26 ecotypes and Indonesian (14 ecotypes rice fields were studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The ecotypes were collected randomly from 11 locations in Malaysia and 6 locations in Indonesia. Individual ecotypes from all the sites were clearly distinguished from each other by RAPD-PCR polymorphisms. The 26 individual ecotypes of E. crus-galli var. crus-galli were clustered into four groups at a similarity level of 60% in UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages. Four groups were identified of the 14 barnyardgrass ecotypes from Indonesia with similarity level of 64%. Six groups have been classified among Malaysian and Indonesian ecotypes of barnyardgrass. Group one had the highest number in the phylogenetic majority, while group 4 and 6 had one ecotype, respectively. The results showed that the Malaysian ecotypes were more variable than Indonesia ecotypes. Three Malaysian ecotypes (in group five and six formed different clusters. Two Malaysia ecotypes had genetic relationship with 4 Indonesia ecotypes (group two, while the rest of the ecotypes correlated with the geographic distribution. RAPD-PCR markers revealed relatively low genetic variation between barnyardgrass ecotypes. Thus, the genetic diversity observed might be attributed to the diversity among individual ecotypes from divergent locations that may affect weed management systems especially herbicide application. The genetic differences within and among barnyardgrass ecotypes were not sufficient enough for biocontrol implications.

Arifin Tasrif

2004-01-01

82

Chicken skeleton  

Science.gov (United States)

The long neck and beak allow the chicken to peck at food to eat it. The large breastbone of birds is indicative a large, volumous chest that fills with air while flying. Thin legs makes the animal lighter in weight, which also aids in flight.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-09-01

83

The ecotype concept to measure bovine adaptability under tropical climatic conditions: reproductive performance in dairy cattle breed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data was collected from 2663 registers from 657 cows of the breed Lucerna. The ecotypes were selected on basis of color and uniformity of coat, length of hair besides skin and mucous color. Tests analysis shown statistical difference among ecotypes in reference to the mean of the days open (p < 0.05) and Calving periods (p<0.01). No statistical difference between ecotypes in dry period. Lucerna ecotypes show good reproductive performance and adaptability under tropical climatic conditions

84

The genetics of divergence and reproductive isolation between ecotypes of Panicum hallii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of plant speciation often involves the evolution of divergent ecotypes in response to differences in soil water availability between habitats. While the same set of traits is frequently associated with xeric/mesic ecotype divergence, it is unknown whether those traits evolve independently or if they evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization either by pleiotropy or genetic linkage. The self-fertilizing C4 grass species Panicum hallii includes two major ecotypes found in xeric (var. hallii) or mesic (var. filipes) habitats. We constructed the first linkage map for P. hallii by genotyping a reduced representation genomic library of an F2 population derived from an intercross of var. hallii and filipes. We then evaluated the genetic architecture of divergence between these ecotypes through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Overall, we mapped QTLs for nine morphological traits that are involved in the divergence between the ecotypes. QTLs for five key ecotype-differentiating traits all colocalized to the same region of linkage group five. Leaf physiological traits were less divergent between ecotypes, but we still mapped five physiological QTLs. We also discovered a two-locus Dobzhansky-Muller hybrid incompatibility. Our study suggests that ecotype-differentiating traits may evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization. PMID:25252269

Lowry, David B; Hernandez, Kyle; Taylor, Samuel H; Meyer, Eli; Logan, Tierney L; Barry, Kerrie W; Chapman, Jarrod A; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy; Juenger, Thomas E

2015-01-01

85

The adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in two ecotypes of a marine gastropod  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Few surveys have concentrated on studying the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity within genetically-distinct conspecific ecotypes. Here, we conduct a test to assess the adaptive value that partial phenotypic plasticity may have for survival in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis. This species has evolved canalized ecotypes but, nevertheless, the ecotypes show some phenotypic plasticity for the traits under divergent selection between wave-exposed and high-predation habitats. Results We exposed juveniles of each ecotype to several environmental treatments under laboratory conditions in order to produce shape variation associated with plasticity. The two ecotypes from different treatments were then transplanted to the wave-exposed habitat and the survival rate was monitored. Ecotype explained the largest distinction in survival rate while treatment caused variation in survival rate within the ecotype released into its parental habitat which was correlated with plastic changes in shell shape. Snails that had experienced a treatment mimicking the environment of the transplantation location survived with the highest rate, while individuals from the contrary experimental treatment had lower survivorship. Conclusions We conclude that the partial plastic response shown in Littorina saxatilis has a significant impact on fitness, although this remains small compared to the overall adaptive difference between ecotypes.

Butlin Roger K

2010-10-01

86

Effect of Ecotype on Semen Characteristics of Sahel Goats in Borno State  

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Full Text Available A research was conducted to study the influence of ecotype on semen characteristics in 5 white and 5 brown ecotypes of sahel goats. Semen was collected from eight to forty-eight weeks of age and analyzed for semen characteristics and abnormalities. Body weights and scrotal circumference were also measured from three months to 1 year of age on a monthly basis. Analysis to determine the difference between the two ecotypes was performed. The only significant difference between the two ecotypes was in body weights, scrotal circumference and protoplasmic droplet abnormality. It was concluded that there was no superiority in the mean semen characteristics between the white and brown ecotypes of sahel bucks. This may be due to the total absence of coordinated breeding programmes evidenced by random indiscriminate mating in the goat population in Borno pastoral setting. This suggests that the conservation and preservation of most cherished traits are un-achievable under the current husbandry practices.

V.A. Maina

2006-01-01

87

The growth, flowering and chemical composition of leaves of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L.  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the Botanical Garden of UMCS in Lublin. A collection of three ecotypes of Allium ursinum L. from Dukla, Roztocze Region and Bieszczady mountain range, were the subject of our study. The aim of the study was to compare the biometrical features and chemical composition of garlic leaves. There were substantial differences both in growth characteristics and flowering characteristics of the ecotypes of Allium ursinum. The Dukla ecotype formed the longest leaves, whereas the shortest ones were found in the Roztocze ecotype. The Bieszczady ecotype was characterized by the widest leaf blades, the longest leaf stalk and flowering stems as well as the largest diameter of inflorescence. The Roztocze ecotype had the largest number of flowers in an inflorescence, while the Dukla ecotype had the shortest flowering stems and the fewest flowers in an inflorescence. The largest concentration of dry mass in leaves was detected in A. ursinum from Roztocze. The largest concentration of proteins was detected in the leaves of A. ursinum from Bieszczady. The most flavonoids were assayed in the leaves of the Roztocze ecotype of A. ursinum, the fewest in the Dukla one. Phenolic acids were at their highest concentration in the leaves of bear's garlic from Dukla, while the lowest concentration was recorded in the leaves of the ecotype from Bieszczady. The garlic leaves from Dukla had also the highest content of essential oil, while the Roztocze ones had the lowest oil content. The ecotypes of Allium ursinum differed substantially when it comes to the number of components of their essential oils and the amount of selected components.

Marzena B?a?ewicz-Wo?niak

2011-12-01

88

Adaptations between ecotypes and along environmental gradients in Panicum virgatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the patterns and mechanisms of natural selection in the wild is of fundamental importance to understanding the differentiation of populations and the evolution of new species. However, it is often unknown the extent to which adaptive genetic variation is distributed among ecotypes between distinct habitats versus along large-scale geographic environmental gradients, such as those that track latitude. Classic studies of selection in the wild in switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, tested for adaptation at both of these levels of natural variation. Here we review what these field experiments and modern agronomic field trials have taught us about natural variation and selection at both the ecotype and environmental gradient levels in P. virgatum. With recent genome sequencing efforts in P. virgatum, it is poised to become an excellent system for understanding the adaptation of grassland species across the eastern half of North America. The identification of genetic loci involved in different types of adaptations will help to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of diversification within P. virgatum and provide useful information for the breeding of high-yielding cultivars for different ecoregions. PMID:24739200

Lowry, David B; Behrman, Kathrine D; Grabowski, Paul; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kiniry, James R; Juenger, Thomas E

2014-05-01

89

Effect of Water Deficit on Physiological Behavior of Some Collected Tunisian Barley Ecotypes  

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Full Text Available In Tunisia, the post-anthesis water deficit for cereals takes place almost every year. The identification of tolerant barley ecotypes to this stress is of great importance for crop improvement and yield stability. To fulfill this objective, we evaluated the response of 6 barley ecotypes to moderate and severe stress (one week and three weeks of withholding irrigation. After 7 days of water stress, Souihli, Sidi Bouzid and Tozeur 1 ecotypes maintained higher leaf water potential allowing them to keep hydrated tissue cells, a significant accumulation of proline and a high peroxidases activity which allowed them to withstand the effect of oxidative stress and preserve their chlorophyll content. However, the other ecotypes showed lower water potentials. Although the peroxidases activity decreased for Sidi Bouzid and Souihli ecotypes and remained moderate for Tozeur 1 under severe stress compared to what was registered after moderate stress, it remained important compared to their control. This must be due to an acclimatation of these ecotypes to water stress. However, for Northern ecotypes, we recorded a high reduction of leaf water potential and chlorophyll content which was associated with lower accumulation of proline content and moderate or significant peroxidases activity related to stress intensity showing their lack of tolerance to water stress.

Abdellaoui Raoudha

2007-01-01

90

Comparative Analyses of Stomatal Size and Density among Ecotypes of Aster hispidus (Asteraceae  

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Full Text Available To determine the size and the density of stomata among different environments, we conducted anatomical analyses using Aster hispidus var. hispidus (open field, As. hispidus var. leptocladus (serpentine soil, and As. hispidus var. insularis (coastal. The stomatal size was not significantly different among these ecotypes but the density of stomata in the serpentine and coastal ecotypes was significantly lower than that of As. hispidus var. hispidus, which suggests that these ecotypes have experienced selection that reduced the density of stomata for adaptation to the dry conditions of serpentine and coastal areas.

Tatsuya Fukuda

2013-03-01

91

Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources. PMID:25178289

Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

2014-10-01

92

Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The natural diversity of honey bees in Europe is eroding fast. A multitude of reasons lead to a loss of both genetic diversity and specific adaptations to local conditions. To preserve locally adapted bees through breeding efforts and to maintain regional strains in conservation areas, these valuable populations need to be identified. In this paper, we give an overview of methods that are currently available and used for recognition of honey bee subspecies and ecotypes, or that can be utilised to verify the genetic origin of colonies for breeding purposes. Beyond summarising details of morphometric, allozyme and DNA methods currently in use, we report recommendations with regard to strategies for sampling, and suggest methods for statistical data analysis. In particular, we emphasise the importance of reference data and consistency of methods between laboratories to yield comparable results.

Meixner, Marina D.; Pinto, Maria Alice

2013-01-01

93

Reclaiming Indigenous Representations and Knowledges  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores contemporary Indigenous artists', activists', and scholars' use of the Internet to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, culture, art, history, and worldview; critique the political realities of dominant discourse; and address the genocidal history and ongoing repression of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Internet examples include…

Iseke-Barnes, Judy; Danard, Deborah

2007-01-01

94

Transcript profiling of different Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes in response to Tobacco etch potyvirus infection  

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Full Text Available The use of high-throughput transcript profiling techniques has opened the possibility of identifying, in a single experiment, multiple putative viral targets on infected host. Several studies have used this approach to analyze the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to the infection of different RNA and DNA viruses. However, the possible differences in response of genetically heterogeneous ecotypes of the plant to the same virus have never been addressed before. Here we have used a strain of Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV experimentally adapted to A. thaliana ecotype Ler-0 and a set of seven plant ecotypes to tackle this question. Each ecotype was inoculated with the same amount of the virus and the outcome of infection characterized phenotypically (i.e., virus infectivity and accumulation and symptoms development. Using commercial microarrays containing probes for more than 43000 plant transcripts, we explored the effect of viral infection in the plant transcriptome. In general, we found that ecotypes differ in the way they perceive and respond to the virus. While some showed strong symptoms and accumulated large amounts of viral genomes, others only developed mild symptoms and accumulated fewer viruses. At the transcriptomic level, ecotypes could be classified into two groups according to the particular genes whose expression was altered upon infection. Moreover, a functional enrichment analyses showed that the two groups differed in the nature of the altered biological processes. While the group constituted by ecotypes developing milder symptoms and allowing for lower virus accumulation tend to over-express genes involved in abiotic stresses and in the construction of new tissues, those ecotypes for which infection was severer and allowed for more viral accumulation, defense genes tend to be over-expressed, deviating the necessary resources from building new tissues.

SantiagoFElena

2012-06-01

95

Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions) and southern (9 accessions) regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differ...

Majid Shokrpour; Mohammad Moghaddam; Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Ziai; Aziz Javanshir

2007-01-01

96

Transcriptomic and Physiological Variations of Three Arabidopsis Ecotypes in Response to Salt Stress.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. Analysis of natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis is an effective approach to characterize candidate salt responsive genes. Differences in salt tolerance of three Arabidopsis ecotypes were compared in this study based on their responses to salt treatments at two developmental stages: seed germination and later growth. The Sha ecotype had higher germination rates, longer roots and less accumulation of superoxide radi...

Zhu, Jian-kang

2013-01-01

97

Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits  

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Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, ?Seyah-Roud?, ?Ahar-Hourand?, ?Oskou?, ?Malekan? and ?Sefida-Khan? were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and ?Sefida-Khan? had comparatively less sodium contents than ?Oskou?, ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes ?Malekan?, Ahar- Hourand and ?Oskou? were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes ?Malekan? and ?Ahar-Hourand? were better.

Maryam BARGHI

2009-12-01

98

Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits  

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Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, ?Seyah-Roud?, ?Ahar-Hourand?, ?Oskou?, ?Malekan? and ?Sefida-Khan? were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and ?Sefida-Khan? had comparatively less sodium contents than ?Oskou?, ?Ahar-Hourand? and ?Malekan? ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes ?Malekan?, Ahar- Hourand and ?Oskou? were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes ?Ahar-Hourand?? and ?Malekan? maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes ?Malekan? and ?Ahar-Hourand? were better.

Hassan MONIRIFAR

2009-12-01

99

Linking genotype, ecotype, and phenotype in an intensively managed large carnivore  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous factors influence fitness of free-ranging animals, yet often these are uncharacterized. We integrated GPS habitat use data and genetic profiling to determine their influence on fitness proxies (mass, length, and body condition) in a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. We detected distinct genetic and habitat use (ecotype) clusters, with individual cluster assignments, or genotype/ecotype, being correlated (Pearson r=0.34, P<0.01). Related indi...

Shafer, Aaron B. A.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Northrup, Joseph M.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.

2014-01-01

100

Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics of Australia ecotype Solanum nigrum L. and its implication in screening hyperaccumulator.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot culture experiment was used to determine the differences in uptake characteristics of a cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. discovered in China, an ecotype from Melbourne, Australia and a non-hyperaccumulator Solanum melogena Australian ecotype was not significantly different to the China ecotype. In particular, Cd concentration in leaves and shoots of S. nigrum collected from Australia were 166.0 and 146.3 mg kg(-1) respectively when 20 mg kg(-1) Cd spiked, and were not significantly different to the ecotype imported from China which had 109.8 and 85.3 mg kg(-1) respectively, in the stems and leaves. In contrast, the tolerance of the eggplant to Cd was significantly less than the two S. nigrum ecotypes. Although some morphological properties of S. nigrum collected from Australia were different from that of the plants collected from China, Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics of two ecotypes were similar. The results suggested that the tolerance and uptake of Cd may be a constitutive trait of this species. PMID:23488006

Wei, Shuhe; Clark, Gary; Doronila, Augustine Ignatius; Jin, Jian; Monsant, Alison Carol

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Influence of light and temperature on Prochlorococcus ecotype distributions in the Atlantic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

In a focused analysis of Prochlorococcus population structure in the western North Atlantic, we found that the relative abundances of ecotypes varied significantly with depth and, at seasonally stratified locations, with degree of vertical mixing. More limited regional variation was observed (e.g., Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, continental slope, and equatorial current), and local patchiness was minimal. Modeling of a combined North and South Atlantic data set revealed significant, independent effects of light and temperature on ecotype abundances, suggesting that they are key ecological determinants that establish the different habitat ranges of the physiologically and genetically distinct ecotypes. This was in sharp contrast with the genus Synechococcus, whose total abundance was related to light but did not vary in a predictable way with temperature. Comparisons of field abundances with growth characteristics of cultured isolates of Prochlorococcus suggested the presence of ecotype-specific thermal and light adaptations that could be responsible for the distinct distribution patterns of the four dominant ecotypes. Significantly, we discovered that one "low-light-adapted" ecotype, eNATL2A, can thrive in deeply mixed surface layers, whereas another, eMIT9313, cannot, even though they have the same growth optimum for (low) light. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Zinser, E.R.; Johnson, Z.I.; Coe, A.; Karaca, E.; Veneziano, D.; Chisholm, S.W.

2007-01-01

102

Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metallothioneins (MTs) were identified as important players in metal metabolism. MT3 gene presents a key metallothionein controlling copper homeostasis in plants. We have selected one cupricolous and one non-cupricolous ecotype to isolate and analyse the MT3 gene in Silene vulgaris. For expression data comparison, we have also included other metal-tolerant ecotypes. Based on a S. vulgaris BAC library screening, we have identified and sequenced a genomic clone containing MT3 gene (SvMT3). We found that SvMT3 gene has been locally duplicated in a tandem arrangement. Expression analysis and complementation studies using yeast mutants showed that both copies of the SvMT3 gene were functional. Moreover, we examined the expression of MT3 gene(s) in selected ecotypes under different copper treatments to show the tissue-specific expression response to copper stress. We demonstrated that higher copper concentrations specifically affected MT3 expression among ecotypes. Our analysis shows that MT3a has similar expression pattern in cupricolous ecotypes while MT3b has common expression features shared by all metallophyte S. vulgaris ecotypes. Our data indicate that down-regulation of MT3b root expression in higher copper concentrations is associated with copper stress. We propose that there might be a specific regulation of SvMT3s transcription depending on the type of heavy metal tolerance. PMID:24748066

Nevrtalova, Eva; Baloun, Jiri; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Safar, Jan; Milde, David; Hobza, Roman

2014-11-01

103

Transcriptomics Research in Chicken  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For...

Ligang Tang; Lianqin Zhu; Chen Gao; Dongying Yang; Juan Liu; Haisheng Nie

2012-01-01

104

Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia  

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Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

Elena S. Jones

2007-04-01

105

The Expanded Diversity of Methylophilaceae from Lake Washington through Cultivation and Genomic Sequencing of Novel Ecotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe five novel Methylophilaceae ecotypes from a single ecological niche in Lake Washington, USA, and compare them to three previously described ecotypes, in terms of their phenotype and genome sequence divergence. Two of the ecotypes appear to represent novel genera within the Methylophilaceae. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction highlights metabolic versatility of Methylophilaceae with respect to methylotrophy and nitrogen metabolism, different ecotypes possessing different combinations of primary substrate oxidation systems (MxaFI-type methanol dehydrogenase versus XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase; methylamine dehydrogenase versus N-methylglutamate pathway) and different potentials for denitrification (assimilatory versus respiratory nitrate reduction). By comparing pairs of closely related genomes, we uncover that site-specific recombination is the main means of genomic evolution and strain divergence, including lateral transfers of genes from both closely- and distantly related taxa. The new ecotypes and the new genomes contribute significantly to our understanding of the extent of genomic and metabolic diversity among organisms of the same family inhabiting the same ecological niche. These organisms also provide novel experimental models for studying the complexity and the function of the microbial communities active in methylotrophy. PMID:25058595

Beck, David A. C.; McTaggart, Tami L.; Setboonsarng, Usanisa; Vorobev, Alexey; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Ivanova, Natalia; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

2014-01-01

106

A Study of Genetic Diversity in Sardari Wheat Ecotypes Using AFLP Markers and Agronomic Traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studying genetic diversity is important because a decrease in genetic variability might result in a reduction of the plasticity of the crops to respond to changes in climate, pathogen populations, or agricultural practices. In this study, 72 Sardari wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ecotypes were analyzed by AFLP markers and 17 phenotypic characters. Three pairs of EcoRI/MseI primer combinations produced 1582 polymorphic bands (with mean percentage of polymorphic 73.92%. Cluster analysis using Jaccard coefficient and the entire AFLP data divided all ecotypes into eight major groups. Mean, coefficient of variation, phenotypic, genotypic and environment variance were calculated in each quantitative character. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance through the quantitative characters divided all ecotypes into six major groups. Comparison of genetic distances obtained from AFLP and agronomic data showed low correlation between the two diversity measurements (0.02. The results showed a high degree of genetic diversity between the Sardari ecotypes, suggesting that Sardari is not a single cultivar, but it is the mass of ecotypes and could be introduced in the gene bank.

A Siosemardeh

2009-04-01

107

Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can be related to fish ecotypes. Broadly speaking, there were steady increases in abundance of species that were either Lusitanian, small-bodied, or low-/mid-trophic-level ecotypes, and generally declining or only marginally increasing trends of most Boreal, large-bodied, or high-trophic-level ecotypes or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure.

Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.

2011-01-01

108

Evolution of a new ecotype of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the discovery and spread of a dwarf ecotype of Spartina alterniflora in San Francisco Bay. Relative to typical S. alterniflora, this dwarf ecotype has one-fifth the tiller height (?21 cm), tenfold the tiller density (?4000 tillers/m(2)), and is restricted to growth in the upper intertidal zone. Chromosome counts of the dwarfs are identical to typical smooth cordgrass (2n = 62), and smooth cordgrass-specific random amplified DNA markers confirm the species identity of the dwarf. Field-collected clonal fragments of the dwarf grown for 2 yr under high-nutrient conditions maintained the dwarf syndrome, as did plants grown from the seed of a dwarf. The dwarf condition is not caused by endophytic fungi. The first dwarf smooth cordgrass patch was discovered in 1991, and by 1996 five separate dwarf patches had appeared within 200 m of the original. Since 1991, total area covered by the dwarf ecotype has increased sixfold to 140 m(2). The ecological range of the dwarf smooth cordgrass ecotype is similar to that of S. patens, a competitor on the Atlantic coast. We suggest that the absence of S. patens from most of San Francisco Bay has allowed the dwarf ecotype of smooth cordgrass to survive and spread. PMID:10205074

Daehler, C C; Anttila, C K; Ayres, D R; Strong, D R; Bailey, J P

1999-04-01

109

Indigenous Weather Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Produced by the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, this Web site exhibits seasonal weather calendars created by Indigenous people thousands of years ago. The site first discusses the Aboriginal people in Australia and their methods for dealing with past climate changes. Studying the calendars, users will notice that Indigenous people dealt with climate on a local scale and recognized a varying number of seasons. For comparison, the site presents the Bureau of Meteorology's Temperature and Rainfall Graphs and climate group classification maps. Because it is still in the early stages of development, users should revisit this site to learn more about Aboriginal knowledge of weather and climate.

110

Australian Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to significant changes in the Indigenous information landscape, the State Library of New South Wales and Jumbunna Indigenous House of Learning, University of Technology, Sydney, hosted a Colloquium, "Libraries and Indigenous Knowledge," in December 2004. The two-day Colloquium brought together professionals, practitioners and academics…

Nakata, Martin, Ed.; Langton, Marcia, Ed.

2005-01-01

111

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Bangladeshi Chicken using RAPD Markers  

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Full Text Available Understanding the genetic diversity at molecular level is a prerequisite in developing strategies for effective conservation and utilization of chicken genetic resources. We studied the genetic variation within and between Bangladeshi native (Naked Neck, Frizzle and Non-descriptive indigenous and exotic (White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, Commercial layer and broiler chicken populations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Four out of the 20 random primers exhibited sufficient variability for studied populations. The four primers yielded a total of 39 distinct bands, 25 of which were polymorphic. Estimation of polymorphic loci, intra-population similarity indices and Nei’s gene diversity suggested that genetic diversities within a population were high in non-descriptive, Frizzle, Naked Neck, Rhode Island Red and White Leghorn chicken populations compared to the commercial layer and broiler populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (GST = 0.34 and gene flow (Nm = 0.98 values reflected a high level of population differences. UPGMA dendrogram segregated the chicken populations in various degree based on their genetic distance. The overall genetic distance among native chicken was relatively low comparison to the exotic populations. The results of present study might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation of native chicken genetic resources in Bangladesh.

M.B.R. Mollah

2009-01-01

112

Abiotic ecotypes in south-central Spanish rivers: Reference conditions and pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical water quality in five of Spain's main rivers was assessed during the years 2001-2003. A previous physiographical river typology was carried out by applying System B of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) which distinguished four main river ecotypes: calcareous headwaters, siliceous rivers, plain rivers, and large rivers. The physiographical classification into river ecotypes also corresponded to distinct hydrochemical types. Reference values of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate fitted for local river ecotypes surpassed only slightly Natural and background levels established by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 2003). Half of the sampled sites were above the limits established as reference conditions. Additionally, concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to agriculture and less to forest land. - Agriculture by means of nutrient surpluses and water diversion for irrigation, along with poor sewage treatment of urban wastes are the main environmental problems in Spanish rivers

113

Ultrastructural changes, zinc hyperaccumulation and its relation with antioxidants in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zn phytotoxicity and its possible detoxifying responses in two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance, i.e. hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) were investigated. HE grew better with high Zn concentrations of 29.11gkg(-1) DW in shoots when exposed to 500microM Zn2+. Toxicity symptoms caused by Zn in root cells of both ecotypes mainly included plasmolysis, disruption of plasma membranes and increased cell vacuolation. At high supplied Zn concentration, chloroplasts suffered from structural disorganization in both ecotypes. Zn-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O(2)-) productions in leaves were determined by a histochemical method, which revealed that Zn stress may have involved NADPH oxidase, protein phosphatases and intracellular Ca2+ to activate the reactive oxygen species production. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis may have led to increased H2O2 and O(2)- accumulations in leaves of HE. In response to higher Zn concentrations, ascorbic acid significantly increased in both ecotypes and levels of glutathione increased in both leaves and roots of HE and in roots of NHE without any change in the leaves of NHE. The enzymatic activities like those of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in leaves of HE were all enhanced at supplied Zn concentration of 500microM, which may account for its better growth. PMID:18693116

Jin, Xiao Fen; Yang, Xiao E; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar; Li, Hong; Li, Junying

2008-11-01

114

Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. RESULTS: In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p <0.01) in 10 ecotypes, including 498 transcription factors and 315 transposable elements. The majority of the transcripts (75%) showed ecotype specific expression pattern. By using sequence data available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. CONCLUSIONS: A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted regulatory network model was able to identify new ecotype specific transcription factors and their regulatory interactions, which might be crucial for their local geographic adaptation to cold temperature. Additionally, since the approach presented here is general, it could be adapted to study networks regulating biological process in any biological systems.

Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik BjØrn

2013-01-01

115

The pancreas of sacrificial animals as an object of divination for the indigenous peoples on the Island of Sumba, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes contemporary 'intestinal' divination with the pancreas by indigenous people in Indonesia and explores the feasibility of comparing it to ancient intestinal divination. To our knowledge, divinatory use of the pancreas of sacrificial animals (chickens) has not yet been described in the literature. PMID:16015018

Sachs, Michael; Mulvahill, Matthew; Dapawole, Yance Lele

2005-01-01

116

Indigenization of Urban Mobility  

CERN Document Server

Uncovering urban mobility patterns is crucial for further predicting and controlling spatially embedded events. In this article, we analyze millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a Chinese leading location-based social networking service, Jiepang.com, which contains demographical information and thus allows the group-specific studies. We found distinguishable mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities under consideration, and by assigning different algorithms onto natives and non-natives, the accuracy of location prediction can be largely improved compared with pure algorithms. We further propose the so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify to which extent an individual behaves like a native, which depend only on check-in behaviors, instead of any demographical information. To our surprise, a hybrid algorithm weighted by the indigenization coefficients outperforms the mixed algorithm accounting for additional demographical information.

Yang, Zimo; Xie, Xing; Lian, Defu; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

2014-01-01

117

Evaluation of quality characteristics of chicken meat emulsion/nuggets prepared by using different equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken meat emulsions prepared using food processor (FP), an indigenous meat cutter (MC) and bowl chopper (BC) were evaluated for physicochemical, texture and electron microscopic studies (SEM). Product yield, emulsion stability, hydration properties and gel strength (N) were significantly (P?cohesiveness were observed in BC emulsion. SEM studies revealed a dense and compact protein matrix characteristic of heat induced protein gels. All micrographs showed structures that are compatible with fat globules, muscle fiber, meat protein matrix and heat induced gel/protein matrix. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference between three treatments for colour, flavour, texture and acceptability scores. Thus, food processor and indigenously developed meat cutter found suitable for producing a stable chicken meat emulsion required for indigenous meat products. PMID:24587526

Devatkal, Suresh K; Manjunatha, M; Narsaiah, K; Patil, R T

2014-03-01

118

Indigenous Job Search Success  

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One important and under-researched aspect of labour market policy is the extent to which policy interventions are effective in modifying job search behaviour. Furthermore, there is little extant research on whether certain job search behaviours lead to labour market success. Our analysis uses the only existing largescale longitudinal survey of Indigenous Australians to examine the effects of job search behaviour over an 18-month period from March 1996. One major fi nding is that the introduct...

Gray, Matthew; Hunter, Boyd

2005-01-01

119

Genetic diversity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium ecotypes based on morphological traits, allicin content and RAPD markers  

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Full Text Available Sixteen ecotypes of Allium hirtifolium, collected from their main local growth areas of Lorestan in Iran, were evaluated for genetic variation of morphological traits, allicin content and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD data. The investigated morphological characteristics include: mean bulb weight, clove number, plant height, leaf number, leaf width, leaf length, days-to-emergence and days-to-flowering. Duncan`s multiple range test showed that the ecotypes were significantly different for most morphological characters. A dendrogram prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using UPGMA algorithm separated the 16 ecotypes in six groups. There was no significant correlation between ecological conditions and morphological traits. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between allicin content and bulb weight, which is useful for indirect selection of ecotypes with high bulb weight and therefore, high amount of allicin content. Molecular analysis of diversity was carried out using RAPD technique with 16 random primers of 10-mer oligonucleotides. Out of 353 bands obtained, 336 were polymorphic among ecotypes. Cluster analysis on RAPD data separated the 16 ecotypes into four groups. Our results indicate that genetic parameters were very effective in morphological and phytochemical divergence of ecotypes.

Ali Asili

2010-01-01

120

Chicken life cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

A female chicken is called a hen and a male chicken is called a rooster. Hens lay eggs as a way to reproduce. The egg then hatches into a baby chick and the chick matures into an adult hen or rooster.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

 
 
 
 
121

Chicken Wing Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore cooked chicken wings and identify the various parts including: bones (radius, ulna, humerus, shoulder joint, elbow joint), tendons, and cartilage. Learners observe the relationships between bones, tendons, and cartilage and identify how a chicken wing is similar to a human arm.

Center, Arizona S.

2012-01-01

122

Signals of heterogeneous selection at an MHC locus in geographically proximate ecotypes of sockeye salmon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are an important component of the vertebrate immune system and can provide insights into the role of pathogen-mediated selection in wild populations. Here, we examined variation at the MHC class II peptide-binding region in 27 populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), distributed among three distinct spawning ecotypes, from a complex of interconnected rivers and lakes in south-western Alaska. We also obtained genotypes from 90 putatively neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms for each population to compare the relative roles of demography and selection in shaping the observed MHC variation. We found that MHC divergence was generally partitioned by spawning ecotype (lake beaches, rivers and streams) and was 30 times greater than variation at neutral markers. Additionally, we observed substantial differences in modes of selection and diversity among ecotypes, with beach populations displaying higher levels of directional selection and lower MHC diversity than the other two ecotypes. Finally, the level of MHC differentiation in our study system was comparable to that observed over much larger geographic ranges, suggesting that MHC variation does not necessarily increase with increasing spatial scale and may instead be driven by fine-scale differences in pathogen communities or pathogen virulence. The low levels of neutral structure and spatial proximity of populations in our study system indicate that MHC differentiation can be maintained through strong selective pressure even when ample opportunities for gene flow exist. PMID:25283474

Larson, Wesley A; Seeb, James E; Dann, Tyler H; Schindler, Daniel E; Seeb, Lisa W

2014-11-01

123

Sensitivity of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis Thaliana (Cvi and Te) towards UV-B irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana towards the detrimental effect of UV-B irradiation was investigated using two ecotypes, Cvi and Te. The effect of UV-B treatment on primary photosynthetic reactions - energy interaction between the main pigment-protein complexes and oxygen evolution, was evaluated at low (40C) and at room (220C) temperature. UV-B-induced alterations of investigated photosynthetic reactions are better expressed at 220C than at 40C for Cvi. For Te ecotype the energy interaction was suppressed to higher extent at 220C, while oxygen evolving activity was affected similarly at both temperatures. At low and room temperature, the energy interaction in the complex PSII-core antenna is affected stronger by UV-B treatment than the energy distribution between both photosystems, as revealed by fluorescence ratios of 77 K spectra. The results presented indicate that the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi (Cape Verde Islands) is less affected by UV-B irradiation in respect to the investigated primary photosynthetic reactions than the ecotype Te (Finland)

124

Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species together with strong resource specializations, understanding the process of differentiation will require an understanding of the relative importance of both genetic drift and local adaptation. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis based on nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphic markers and inference about differentiation at both neutral loci and those potentially under selection. We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry. Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion). The pattern of differentiation for one ecotype in the North Pacific suggests local adaptation and shows some fixed differences among sympatric ecotypes. We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift. PMID:25244680

Moura, Andre E; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy; Hughes, Margaret A; J Welch, Andreanna; Reisinger, Ryan R; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hall, Neil; Hoelzel, A Rus

2014-11-01

125

Morpho-Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Some Tunisian Barley Ecotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aim is to study whether we still have genetic diversity of barley all around the country, or there has been genetic erosion leading to a reduction in landraces barley cultivars. To fulfill this purpose, some ecotypes were collected from few frequented various bioclimatic regions and morpho-physiological and molecular level were studied. Our results showed differences among the ecotypes studied based on the morpho-physiological criteria such as heading date, density and ear length and response to saline stress. The molecular analysis showed the limits of the morpho-physiological approach. In fact, identical ecotypes were found grown in different parts of the country and the morpho-physiological differences observed could be due to environmental conditions’ adaptation acquired over time. Also, ecotypes that were grown mixed together in the same area and having similar physiological behavior were found different using the RAPD markers method. Important local barley genetic variability was found, concluding the Tunisian germplasm richness.

Raoudha Abdellaoui

2007-01-01

126

Transcriptomics Research in Chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat. The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For example, compared to mammals, the use of a Z/W sex determination system is a special aspect of the avian genome where the female is the heterogametic sex (ZW and the male is the homogametic (ZZ sex. A comparison of the genomic sequences of platypus, chicken and human showed that sex chromosomes evolved separately in birds and mammals.

Ligang Tang

2012-01-01

127

Some Agronomical and Cytological Properties of Wild Sheep`s Fescue Ecotypes (Festuca ovina ssp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the number of chromosome was determined in the wild ecotypes of Festuca ovina ssp., collected from five different natural pasture locations in Erzurum (Eastern Turkey. As a result of examinations, it was determined that the plants collected from Ispir town were diploid (2n=14, the plants from Tuzcu village, Koprukoy town and Uzundere town were tetraploid (2n=28 and those from the pasture of Ataturk University in Erzurum city were hexaploid (2n=42. There were no aneuploid plants in the collected ecotypes. The ecotypes (Ispir, Uzundere and University of 3 various locations with different ploidy types were cultivated in the field for 2 years. During the cultivation period, the plant height, hay yield and plant crude protein content and yield were determined during various cutting times for each of the ecotypes. Evaluations were made according to the means of two years. Plant height (15.67-55.05 cm, fresh hay yield (22.71-65.52 g plant-1 and dry hay yield (9.12-31.54 g plant-1 and protein yield (1.49-3.47 g plant-1 significantly increased until the cutting time of 16 June and the subsequent cutting reduced yield after this date. The crude protein content (7.74-16.42% reduced as the cutting time was delayed. The maximum plant yield for the hexaploid plants was reached at the end of May while the maximum plant yield for diploid and tetraploid plants was at the end of June. The effect of ploidy type was significant on plant height and crude protein content. The diploid ecotypes had longest plant height (40.37 cm and the highest crude protein content (12.99%.

Ilknur Akgun

2004-01-01

128

Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub  

Science.gov (United States)

Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species–climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep clines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed to inform restoration and management planning. We propose four transfer zones in blackbrush that correspond to areas currently dominated by cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes in each of the two ecoregions.

Richardson, Bryce A.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Germino, Matthew J.; Rehfeldt, Gerald E.; Meyer, Susan E.

2014-01-01

129

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (<1%) when buried at 5 cm, but 9 ecotypes had viable seed after two years when buried at 25 cm. At the thir...

Noldin, J. A.; Chandler, J. M.; Mccauley, G. N.

2006-01-01

130

Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

Enn, Rosa

2012-01-01

131

Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

2010-01-01

132

Information Technology and Indigenous People  

Science.gov (United States)

Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

2007-01-01

133

Phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic variations in growth and flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) under different light and temperature conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four ecotypes of A. thaliana (L.) (Ct-1, Pf-0, Old-1 and Per-i) from low to high latitudes were grown under different light (300 micro mol photon m-2s-1 and 150 micromol photon m-2s') and temperature (22 and 14 degreesC) conditions to investigate their effects on phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic variations in plant growth and first flowering time. The results suggest that in A. thaliana low temperature decreases both phenotypic plasticity and ecotypic variations in first flowering time and total dry matter at final harvest under different light intensities. Relative growth rate is the most stable parameter of A. thaliana that is hardly affected by ecotype (no effect), light (no effect) or temperature (small effect) and this may one of the reason why A. thaliana is widely distributed on earth as a result of adaptations to different environments. PMID:24772937

Moharekar Lokhande, Shubhangi; Moharekar, Sanjay; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Hiroaki; Sumida, Akihiro; Hara, Toshihiko

2014-04-01

134

Morphological Traits of Lotus japonicus (Regal Ecotypes Collected in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty-seven wild accessions of Lotus japonicus Regal (Japanese trefoil indigenous to Japan were investigated for nine morphological characters. Average temperature and annual precipitation were negatively correlated with stem color and seed weight. On the other hand, latitude was positively correlated with these traits. Consequently, accessions from sites at higher latitudes with low temperatures and precipitation tend to have dark red stems and heavy seeds. Cluster analysis based on nine morphological characters classified 47 wild accessions into six major groups. Cluster I included four accessions of tall and erect plants. These plants are phenotypically similar to commercial variety ‘Empire’. Cluster II consisted of three accessions of creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster III contained 24 accessions that had average values for all morphological characters evaluated. Cluster IV included two accessions of erect plants with rounded leaflets and dark red stems. Cluster V included four accessions of small, creep plants with pale red stems. Cluster VI included seven accessions of small and erect plants, a phenotype that also applies to ‘Gifu B-129’, which is used as experimental strain worldwide. These data were deposited into LegumeBase, an online database (http://www.legumebase.brc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp/ supported by the National BioResource Project (NBRP in Japan.

Ryo Akashi

2011-02-01

135

Selected indigenous teaching materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) project in Nepal in 1974-75 and Afghanistan in 1975-76, indigenous teaching material production played a key role. 2 main categories of teaching materials were produced. 1) Project histories briefly described a project and the problems encountered in its initiation, implementation, and maintenance. 2) Situational materials briefly described incidents that required a decision that occurred in real work situations. They were used as guides in showing how to handle similar situations and to enable examination of the elements of the situation and its handling. The selection of materials was made by the course participants in connection with the MTS team. Criteria were: connection with curriculum, showing of ways to solve a specific problem, whether it would stimulate discussion to help conceptualize causes of a problem, how well it teaches assessment of factors, and cultural values important for progress. Even incidents of failure were instructive. In producing the indigenous teaching materials, teachers and learners solved problems together in collaboration, rather than seeing experts as owning or storing knowledge. An incident from Nepal showing culture conflict is presented along with teaching notes on usage, such as discussion of one's own cultural values. A second incident from Afghanistan illustrates the need for collaboration with local influentials and the need for identifying phases of a campaign. PMID:12265560

Kaikobad, N F

1977-01-01

136

Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to co [...] llect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998) management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers.

Zandra, Balbinot; Luciano, Minghini; Rafael, Borim-de-Souza.

2012-12-01

137

Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices  

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Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

Zandra Balbinot

2012-12-01

138

Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to co [...] llect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998) management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers.

Zandra, Balbinot; Luciano, Minghini; Rafael, Borim-de-Souza.

139

Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase  

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Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but ?s1-CN and ?s2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of ?-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

Samir Kalit

2002-06-01

140

Culture Isolation and Culture-Independent Clone Libraries Reveal New Marine Synechococcus Ecotypes with Distinctive Light and N Physiologies?  

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Marine microbial communities often contain multiple closely related phylogenetic clades, but in many cases, it is still unclear what physiological traits differentiate these putative ecotypes. The numerically abundant marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus can be divided into at least 14 clades. In order to better understand ecotype differentiation in this genus, we assessed the diversity of a Synechococcus community from a well-mixed water column in the Sargasso Sea during March 2002, a time of...

Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Rocap, Gabrielle

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Eggcited about Chickens  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

2012-01-01

142

Bioactivities of chicken essence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. PMID:22432477

Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

2012-04-01

143

The Chicken Problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

Reeves, Charles A.

2000-01-01

144

[Salinity effect on germination, growth, and grain production of some autochthonous pear millet ecotypes (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the behaviour of six autochthonous pear millet ecotypes collected through the Tunisian territory under salt stress from germination to maturity. It showed that salt has little effect on germination rate and coleoptile emergence. However, this effect is more significant for radicular growth and between ecotypes. Salinity did not influence plant height, which seems to be a varietal characteristic, but revealed a positive effect on the foliar expansion. On the productivity level, salinity did not exert a prejudicial effect over the length of the principal candle, but improved the yield component. This adaptation to salinity is mainly due to its root system. This effect varied according to stress intensity and ecotype. Vegetative growth and yield of high-straw ecotypes was decreased by severe salinity, while ecotypes with low or medium height appear very stable on the productivity level. Such ecotypes can play an important role in the conservation and development of fragile grounds, and also be useful as a source of desirable genes for genetic improvement in salinity conditions. PMID:18355750

Radhouane, Leila

2008-04-01

145

Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbour porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of 10 microsatellite loci and a 5085 base-pair portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the Black Sea (BS), the European continental shelf waters, and a previously overlooked ecotype in the upwelling zones of Iberia and Mauritania. Historical demographic inferences using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) suggest that these ecotypes diverged during the last glacial maximum (c. 23-19 kilo-years ago, kyrbp). ABC supports the hypothesis that the BS and upwelling ecotypes share a more recent common ancestor (c. 14 kyrbp) than either does with the European continental shelf ecotype (c. 28 kyrbp), suggesting they probably descended from the extinct populations that once inhabited the Mediterranean during the glacial and post-glacial period. We showed that the two Atlantic ecotypes established a narrow admixture zone in the Bay of Biscay during the last millennium, with highly asymmetric gene flow. This study highlights the impacts that climate change may have on the distribution and speciation process in pelagic predators and shows that allopatric divergence can occur in these highly mobile species and be a source of genetic diversity. PMID:24888550

Fontaine, Michaël C; Roland, Kathleen; Calves, Isabelle; Austerlitz, Frederic; Palstra, Friso P; Tolley, Krystal A; Ryan, Sean; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Angela; Öztürk, Bayram; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Borrell, Asunción; Michaux, Johan R; Aguilar, Alex

2014-07-01

146

Genetic diversity of local Yunnan chicken breeds and their relationships with Red Junglefowl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yunnan is situated in the Southwest China and encompasses regions having high biodiversity, including habitats for several ancestral species of domestic animals such as chicken. Domestic chickens in Yunnan were kept by peoples of varied ethnic and economic backgrounds living in highly varied geographic environments. To identify the genetic background of Yunnan domestic chickens and their relationships with Red Junglefowl, we applied 28 widely used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype 340 birds from 7 chicken breeds and Red Junglefowl indigenous to Yunnan. Among a total of 342 alleles identified, 121 (35.4%) were breed specific, with Red Junglefowl harboring most microsatellite alleles (23). High levels of heterozygosity were observed within populations indicated by a mean unbiased HE value of 0.663, which was higher than the reported for most populations elsewhere. The FIS value of domestic populations ranged from -0.098-0.005, indicating a lack of inbreeding among these populations. A high proportion of significant departures (89) from the 224 HWE tests for each locus in each population reflected an excess of heterozygosity and population substructure. Individual assignment tests, high FST values (0.1757-0.3015), and Nei's DA genetic distances (0.4232-0.6950) indicated clear differentiation among these populations. These observations, along with the close genetic distance between indigenous domestic populations and Red Junglefowl, were consistent with the primitive and ancestral state of Yunnan indigenous chickens. Protecting the unique variants of these indigenous poultry varieties from contamination with commercial breeds might provide values for improving modern agricultural livestock and breeding programs. Thus, the current study may benefit breeding management and conservation efforts. PMID:24841782

Huo, J L; Wu, G S; Chen, T; Huo, H L; Yuan, F; Liu, L X; Ge, C R; Miao, Y W

2014-01-01

147

In silico selection of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes with enhanced stress tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate models predict increased occurrences of combined abiotic and biotic stress. Unfortunately, most studies on plant stress responses include single or double stress scenarios only. Recently, we established a multi-factorial system in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) to study the influence of simultaneously applied heat, drought, and virus. Our transcriptome analysis revealed that gene expression under multi-factorial stress is not predictable from single stress treatments. Combined heat and drought stress reduced expression of defense genes and genes involved in R-mediated disease responses, which correlated with increased susceptibility of Arabidopsis to virus infection. Eleven genes were found to be differentially regulated under all stress conditions. Assuming that regulated expression of these genes is important for plant fitness, Arabidopsis ecotypes were clustered according to their expression. Interestingly, ecotypes showing a close correlation to stressed Col-0 prior stress treatment showed improved growth under stress conditions. This result suggests a functional relevance of these genes in stress tolerance. PMID:24022272

Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Sonnewald, Uwe

2013-11-01

148

Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples  

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Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Garth Nettheim

2009-09-01

149

Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ecotypes  

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The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India) to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels) and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain len...

Parray, Ghulam A.; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Sanghera, Gulzar Singh

2013-01-01

150

A Study of Genetic Diversity in Sardari Wheat Ecotypes Using AFLP Markers and Agronomic Traits  

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Studying genetic diversity is important because a decrease in genetic variability might result in a reduction of the plasticity of the crops to respond to changes in climate, pathogen populations, or agricultural practices. In this study, 72 Sardari wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ecotypes were analyzed by AFLP markers and 17 phenotypic characters. Three pairs of EcoRI/MseI primer combinations produced 1582 polymorphic bands (with mean percentage of polymorphic 73.92%). Cluster analysis using Ja...

Siosemardeh, A.; Zh, Osamny

2009-01-01

151

Ecotypes of wild rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm. F) Dahlg., Fabaceae) are ecologically distinct  

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Aspalathus linearis (Burm. F) Dahlg., Fabaceae is cultivated by small- and large-scale commercial farmers of the Cederberg and Bokkeveld Plateau in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, for the production of an herbal beverage called ‘rooibos’ or ‘rooibos tea’. Small-scale farmers also harvest A. linearis from the wild and market the tea as an organic and fair-trade certified product. However, little is known about the apparent ecotypes of wild A. linearis. We hypothesiz...

Hawkins, H. J.; Malgas, R.; Bienabe, E.

2011-01-01

152

Considerations on the relationship between chromosome constitution and biochemical phenotype in five ecotypes of seabuckthorn  

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Seabuckthorn is a small tree showing pronounced morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic variability, high ecological plasticity and large limits of resistance to unfavourable factors and to phytopathogens. It is largely exploited in biotechnological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical purposes, cosmetics domain and in environmental protective field. The possibility that some karyotype traits of five seabuckthorn ecotypes to be used as markers in relation with some specific biochemi...

Elena Truta; Maria Magdalena Zamfirache; Elena Ciornea; Lacramioara Oprica; Gabriela Vochita

2010-01-01

153

Considerations on the relationship between chromosome constitution and biochemical phenotype in five ecotypes of seabuckthorn  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seabuckthorn is a small tree showing pronounced morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic variability, high ecological plasticity and large limits of resistance to unfavourable factors and to phytopathogens. It is largely exploited in biotechnological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical purposes, cosmetics domain and in environmental protective field. The possibility that some karyotype traits of five seabuckthorn ecotypes to be used as markers in relation with some specific biochemi...

Gabriela Vochita; Lacramioara Oprica; Elena Ciornea; Maria Magdalena Zamfirache; Elena Truta

2011-01-01

154

More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous

Bunten, Alexis Celeste

2010-01-01

155

Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".  

Science.gov (United States)

Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region. PMID:24283538

Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

2014-06-01

156

Plant response to climate change varies with topography, interactions with neighbors, and ecotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the future of any given species represents an unprecedented challenge in light of the many environmental and biological factors that affect organismal performance and that also interact with drivers of global change. In a three-year experiment set in the Mongolian steppe, we examined the response of the common grass Festuca lenensis to manipulated temperature and water while controlling for topographic variation, plant-plant interactions, and ecotypic differentiation. Plant survival and growth responses to a warmer, drier climate varied within the landscape. Response to simulated increased precipitation occurred only in the absence of neighbors, demonstrating that plant-plant interactions can supersede the effects of climate change. F. lenensis also showed evidence of local adaptation in populations that were only 300 m apart. Individuals from the steep and dry upper slope showed a higher stress/drought tolerance, whereas those from the more productive lower slope showed a higher biomass production and a greater ability to cope with competition. Moreover, the response of this species to increased precipitation was ecotype specific, with water addition benefiting only the least stress-tolerant ecotype from the lower slope origin. This multifaceted approach illustrates the importance of placing climate change experiments within a realistic ecological and evolutionary framework. Existing sources of variation impacting plant performance may buffer or obscure climate change effects. PMID:23691663

Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Song, Daniel S; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

2013-02-01

157

Linking genotype, ecotype, and phenotype in an intensively managed large carnivore.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous factors influence fitness of free-ranging animals, yet often these are uncharacterized. We integrated GPS habitat use data and genetic profiling to determine their influence on fitness proxies (mass, length, and body condition) in a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. We detected distinct genetic and habitat use (ecotype) clusters, with individual cluster assignments, or genotype/ecotype, being correlated (Pearson r?=?0.34, P?ecotype, and phenotype and mechanisms behind the negative heterozygosity-fitness correlations critical for management and conservation of this species. PMID:24567749

Shafer, Aaron B A; Nielsen, Scott E; Northrup, Joseph M; Stenhouse, Gordon B

2014-02-01

158

Distribution of cadmium in leaves of cadmium tolerant and sensitive ecotypes of Silene vulgaris  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been postulated that vacuolar compartmentation might play an important role in naturally selected cadmium tolerance in Silene vulgaris (Moench.) Garcke (Bladder campion). Additionally, a tendency of heavy metals to accumulate in the epidermis has been reported. Since these factors would affect the distribution of cadmium in leaves, we determined the distribution of cadmium in leaves of cadmium tolerant and sensitive ecotypes of Solene vulgaris at different levels of exposure and at different time intervals. Cadmium concentrations were higher in leaves of sensitive plants than in those of cadmium tolerant ones after identical exposure to cadmium for a period of 8 days. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the lower epidermis of plants of both ecotypes. The amount of cadmium located at the lower epidermis was highest for sensitive plants, although the stomatal density was lower in the sensitive ecotype than in the tolerant one. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is the weak relationship between transpiration (water flow) and element allocation. Our results support the hypothesis that vacuolar storage of cadmium plays an important role in the mechanism of cadmium tolerance in Silene vulgaris. (au) 34 refs.

Chardonnens, A.N.; Bookum, W.M. ten; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Verkleij, J.A.C.; Ernst, W.H.O. [Vrije Univ. Amsterdam, Faculty of Biology, Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1998-12-31

159

African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the concept, features, sources and function of African Indigenous knowledge systems and its relevance in the present digital age against the background of ICT technologies. Since knowledge refers to what one knows and understands and is sometimes categorized as unstructured, structured, explicit or tacit, African Indigenous Knowledge systems falls into categorized structures that bear its traditional stamp and yet remains effective. The study concludes that African indigenous knowledge system can and is adaptable to other forms of knowledge in the current ICT age.

Ngozi Blessing Ossai

2011-04-01

160

Biogeography and diversity of methane and sulfur-cycling ecotypes in deep subsurface sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is critical for regulating the flux of methane from the ocean. AOM is coupled to sulfate availability in many anoxic marine environments, which has been extensively studied at cold seeps, hydrothermal vents, and the sulfate-methane transition zone at the seafloor. The microbes known to catalyze AOM form phylogenetically distinct anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) clusters and sometimes live in concert with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Strikingly, certain ANME groups and subgroups have been shown to occupy different ecological niches in both hydrocarbon seep and hydrothermal vent sediments. However, the environmental parameters that select for certain phylogenetic variants or 'ecotypes' in a wide range of marine systems are still unknown. A marine environment that remains elusive to characterization of potential ANME and SRB ecotype diversity is methane hydrate formations in the deep subsurface. Current estimates indicate that seafloor hydrates may exceed 10,000 GtC at standard temperature and pressure conditions. However, only a handful of studies have investigated the potential for AOM in the deep subsurface associated with methane hydrates. To gain a better understanding of the distribution of methane- and sulfur- cycling ecotypes in biogeochemically distinct marine subsurface ecosystems, we generated a substantial library of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these uncultivable deep sea microorganisms using Illumina sequencing. Sediment strata were collected from the methane-hydrate associated deep subsurface of Hydrate Ridge (30 - 100 mbsf), hydrocarbon cold seeps of Monterey Bay, metalliferous sedimented hydrothermal vents of Juan de Fuca Ridge, and organic-rich hydrothermally influenced sediments of Guaymas Basin. We used the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform to assess Archaeal and Bacterial richness in a total of 36 deep sea sediment samples followed by qPCR for quantification of ANME and SRB phylotype abundance across geographic ranges and environmental gradients. Co-registered metadata were used to establish the relationships between ANME and SRB phylotype distribution and geochemistry as well as the extent of these ecotypes in the deep subsurface compared to seafloor sediments. Our results shed light on the degree to which physical, geochemical, and biological constraints drive the distribution of different ecotypes over spatially and biogeographically separated sites, in particular temperature, substrate availability, and the presence of associated phylotypes.

Adams, M. M.; Biddle, J.; Girguis, P. R.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Indigenous knowledge and science revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a guided tour through three diverse cultural ways of understanding nature: an Indigenous way (with a focus on Indigenous nations in North America), a neo-indigenous way (a concept proposed to recognize many Asian nations' unique ways of knowing nature; in this case, Japan), and a Euro-American scientific way. An exploration of these three ways of knowing unfolds in a developmental way such that some key terms change to become more authentic terms that better represent each culture's collective, yet heterogeneous, worldview, metaphysics, epistemology, and values. For example, the three ways of understanding nature are eventually described as Indigenous ways of living in nature, a Japanese way of knowing seigyo-shizen, and Eurocentric sciences (plural). Characteristics of a postcolonial or anti-hegemonic discourse are suggested for science education, but some inherent difficulties with this discourse are also noted.

Aikenhead, Glen S.; Ogawa, Masakata

2007-07-01

162

Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silene vulgaris possesses ecotype-specific tolerance to high levels of copper in the soil. Although this was reported a few decades ago, little is known about this trait on a molecular level. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription response to elevated copper concentrations in two S. vulgaris ecotypes originating from copper-contrasting soil types - copper-tolerant Lubietova and copper-sensitive Stranska skala. To reveal if plants are transcriptionally affected, we first analyzed the HMA7 gene, a known key player in copper metabolism. Based on BAC library screening, we identified a BAC clone containing a SvHMA7 sequence with all the structural properties specific for plant copper-transporting ATPases. The functionality of the gene was tested using heterologous complementation in yeast mutants. Analyses of SvHMA7 transcription patterns showed that both ecotypes studied up-regulated SvHMA7 transcription after the copper treatment. Our data are supported by analysis of appropriate reference genes based on RNA-Seq databases. To identify genes specifically involved in copper response in the studied ecotypes, we analyzed transcription profiles of genes coding Cu-transporting proteins and genes involved in the prevention of copper-induced oxidative stress in both ecotypes. Our data show that three genes (APx, POD and COPT5) differ in their transcription pattern between the ecotypes with constitutively increased transcription in Lubietova. Taken together, we have identified transcription differences between metallifferous and non-metalliferous ecotypes of S. vulgaris, and we have suggested candidate genes participating in metal tolerance in this species. PMID:24973591

Baloun, Jiri; Nevrtalova, Eva; Kovacova, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

2014-08-15

163

Variability of External Genetic Characteristic of Kokok Balenggek Chicken in West Sumatera, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Kokok Balenggek chicken is one of the rare indigenous chickens in Indonesia. They are unique as they produce a melodious song like crow. They have syllabic diversity, as each portion of the call can be composed with different pitches and vocalizations. The identification and characterizations of local adorn chicken is very important for animal conservation. A research was conducted in west Sumatera to identify the genetic variability of the external genetic characteristic of Kokok Balenggek chicken. This research was conducted in a limited area of Solok district West Sumatera, Indonesia. About 203 (111 males and 92 females Kokok Balenggek chicken were observed. The varieties are based on base colour of feather, colour of the plumage, flick feather, pattern of feather, shank colour and comb types. The method were used to analyze the rate of purity and native gene, the frequency of autosomal and sex-linked of the genes, feather pattern, rate of introgression from the exotic breed of Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn and of Barred Plymouth Rock. The research showed that the highest controlling genes characteristic external of kokok Balenggek chicken are coloured (ii, wild type pattern (e+, plain feather (ss golden flick feather (ss, yellow shank coloured (Id_ and single comb (pp. A constitution on external genetic characteristic of Kokok Balenggek is ii e+_bbssId_pp. while The purity gene of Kokok Balenggek chicken has only 45.30%. Its genetic introgression is affected by the exotic breed from Europa and America with genetic introgression value of 0.5470. According to the rate of heterozygosity value of kokok Balenggek chicken varied within 29.41%. In conclusion, the Kokok Balenggek chickens show heterogeneity in the external genetic. To complete a set of their characterization further studies are needed on their quantitative traits and the molecular composition.

Firda Arlina

2014-01-01

164

Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for body weights and egg production in Horro chicken of Ethiopia  

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A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks of age for one generation. Genetic parameters were estimated using animal model fitted with common environmental effects for growth traits and ignori...

Dana, N.; Waaij, E. H.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2011-01-01

165

Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for body weights and egg production in Horro chicken of Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks of age for one generation. Genetic parameters were estimated using animal model fitted with common environmental effects for growth traits and i...

Dana, N.; Waaij, E. H.; Arendonk, J. A. M.

2011-01-01

166

Welfare of meat chickens  

Mar 31, 2010 ... An example of an 'off the shelf' course that matches the Directive's training ... a \\keeper must be at least 21 years of age; and have a minimum of 5 years ... \\Keepers of meat chickens will have until 30 June 2011 to sign up for ...

167

Welfare of broiler chickens  

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Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

Federico Sirri

2010-01-01

168

Polymorphism of avian leukosis virus subgroup e Loci showing selective footprints in chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian leukosis virus subgroup E (ALVE) is a family of endogenous retroviruses in the chicken genome. To investigate the genetic consequences of chicken domestication, we analyzed 18 ALVE loci in red jungle fowls, layers, broilers, and Chinese indigenous chickens. None of the ALVE loci tested were found in red jungle fowls, but 12 were present in domestic chickens. ALVE1 and ALVE16 are found in regions of the genome that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting egg production traits. ALVE1 was fixed and ALVE16 was detected only in layers. By contrast, ALVE-b1, ALVE-b5, ALVE-b6, and ALVE-b8 integrated into regions of the genome that harbor QTL affecting meat production traits. Carrier frequencies of these four ALVE loci were high in broilers and low in Chinese local chickens; the loci were not found in the layers. This study demonstrated that insertionally polymorphic ALVE loci can illustrate the selective footprints in the chicken genome. PMID:25007752

Chen, Weiguo; Qu, Hao; Li, Chunyu; Luo, Chenglong; Wang, Jie; Yang, Chunfen; Shu, Dingming

2014-12-01

169

Honeybee (Apis mellifera Races, Ecotypes and Their General Charecterisctisc in Turkey  

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Full Text Available The present studies carried out before the development of migratory beekeeping on the identification of the Anatolian honeybee population showed that the honeybee population could be a valuable genetic potential for breeding and also preservation. Since these initial studies, many research have been carried out to identify races, ecotypes; morphological, physiological and behavioural characteristics of honeybees inhabited in Turkey. According to the behavioural and ecological data of Ruttner (1, there are three different honeybee races in Turkey, Apis mellifera anatoliaca, Apis mellifera caucasica, Apis mellifera meda.

Duran Ozkok

2006-01-01

170

Ecotype differentiation in the face of gene flow within the diving beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in northern Scandinavia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at ?-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the ?-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes. PMID:22348080

Drotz, Marcus K; Brodin, Tomas; Saura, Anssi; Giles, Barbara E

2012-01-01

171

Ecotypic variability in the metabolic response of seeds to diurnal hydration-dehydration cycles and its relationship to seed vigor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds in the seed bank experience diurnal cycles of imbibition followed by complete dehydration. These conditions pose a challenge to the regulation of germination. The effect of recurring hydration-dehydration (Hy-Dh) cycles were tested on seeds from four Arabidopsis thaliana accessions [Col-0, Cvi, C24 and Ler]. Diurnal Hy-Dh cycles had a detrimental effect on the germination rate and on the final percentage of germination in Col-0, Cvi and C24 ecotypes, but not in the Ler ecotype, which showed improved vigor following the treatments. Membrane permeability measured by ion conductivity was generally increased following each Hy-Dh cycle and was correlated with changes in the redox status represented by the GSSG/GSH (oxidized/reduced glutathione) ratio. Among the ecotypes, Col-0 seeds displayed the highest membrane permeability, whilst Ler was characterized by the greatest increase in electrical conductivity following Hy-Dh cycles. Following Dh 2 and Dh 3, the respiratory activity of Ler seeds significantly increased, in contrast to the other ecotypes, indicative of a dramatic shift in metabolism. These differences were associated with accession-specific content and patterns of change of (i) cell wall-related laminaribiose and mannose; (ii) fatty acid composition, specifically of the unsaturated oleic acid and ?-linoleic acid; and (iii) asparagine, ornithine and the related polyamine putrescine. Furthermore, in the Ler ecotype the content of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates fumarate, succinate and malate increased in response to dehydration, in contrast to a decrease in the other three ecotypes. These findings provide a link between seed respiration, energy metabolism, fatty acid ?-oxidation, nitrogen mobilization and membrane permeability and the improved germination of Ler seeds following Hy-Dh cycles. PMID:22156384

Bai, Bing; Sikron, Noga; Gendler, Tanya; Kazachkova, Yana; Barak, Simon; Grafi, Gideon; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Fait, Aaron

2012-01-01

172

Indigenous health and climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-07-01

173

Variability of the physico-mechanical properties of the ecotypes of nut fruits (Juglans regia L. in Slovakia  

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Full Text Available At the present time among the endangered species of plants, there exists elements of flora which can be found in Slovakia. Within the framework of the program "Protection of Endangered Genebank Plants in Slovakia" is the processing, existence and description of individual king nut ecotypes (Juglans Regia L.. Several agrophysical methods were applied for evaluating and grouping advantageous ecotypes in genebanks. This work presents the results obtained of the dimension and weight characteristics of fruits and shells, together with the determined necessary force for cracking nutfruits. The research was done on 16 selected samples obtained from 11 localities of southern Slovakia.

Brindza J.

1999-09-01

174

Diversity and Distribution of Ecotypes of the Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophy Gene pufM in the Delaware Estuary? †  

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The diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria has been examined in marine habitats, but the types of AAP bacteria in estuarine waters and distribution of ecotypes in any environment are not well known. The goal of this study was to determine the diversity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and to examine the distribution of select ecotypes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for the pufM gene, which encodes a protein in the light reaction center of AAP bacteria. In PCR...

Waidner, Lisa A.; Kirchman, David L.

2008-01-01

175

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the...

2010-01-01

176

Indigenous Writing: Relating Practice Led Research to Indigenous Postgraduate Opportunities  

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Full Text Available The methodology of this paper continues the work I have done writing the ‘subjective academic narrative’ for publication within refereed academic journals. Storytelling is a basic human activity and the academy since the mid 20th century has begun to see its value rather than use it as the non-academic side of the dichotomy between thought and reason and feeling and emotion that the Enlightenment left as its residue of academic thought and knowledge. I use this methodology to enter into the privileged academic discussion and to add to it regarding the  relationship of Indigenous knowledge to the academy that remains a challenge in Australian Universities in this postmodern and postcolonial moment. This paper recognises the need to open discussion about how Indigenous people might be facilitated within the academy to bring their knowledge-models into the university and its traditional dominant knowledge systems. This paper looks at Practice Led Research (PLR as a possible pathway for supporting the transition of Indigenous community scholars into university postgraduate courses. It explores how PLR contributes to an appropriate entry point into postgraduate studies for some Indigenous students who have significant life experiences and narratives and/or productions of artefacts that act to replace the breadth of undergraduate credentials. This paper identifies and explicates a nexus between Practice Led Research and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL and Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC. In doing so, it provides a reference point for University protocols and practices regarding RPL and RCC.  

Josie Jacqueline Arnold

2012-11-01

177

Conversations, collaborations and contestations: Building a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians  

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Full Text Available This paper explores the ways collaborative research offers ethnomusicologists a “dialogic alternative: speaking with rather than for” Indigenous people (Fielding 305. Drawing on my research experiences collaborating with Indigenous Australian women, I consider the difficulties, dilemmas, ethics and the benefits of cross-cultural collaborative research. I focus on two collaborative projects and incorporate interviews with my co-researchers and theoretical perspectives on collaborative research, to examine the complexities of including Indigenous people as “co-researchers”, the implication of knowledge production with and for Indigenous people, and the importance of a dialogic approach to collaborative research. I discuss my perspective as a non-Indigenous ethnomusicologist and my shared lived experiences with Indigenous researchers. Ultimately, I consider how collaborative research can allow Indigenous and non-Indigenous ethnomusicologists to engage in dialogue, have equal voices in projects, and facilitate relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Katelyn Barney

2012-11-01

178

Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives  

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Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. This insightful volume contributes to the understanding of indigenous empowerment through education, and creates a new foundation for implementing specialized indigenous/minority education worldwide, engaging the simultaneous…

Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.

2005-01-01

179

Indigenous Knowledge for Development: Opportunities and Challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. Empowerment of local communities is a prerequisite for the integration of indigenous knowledge in the development process. The integration of appropriate indigenous knowledge systems into development programs has already contributed to efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable…

Gorjestani, Nicolas

180

The Making of Indigeneity: a Study of Indigenous Representation in Peru  

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This project is set out to analyse the negotiation of indigeneity. This will be done by unfolding the semiotic practices of two organisations that represents indigenous interests in contemporary Peruvian politics. It examines the rise of the term indigeneity in international politics through the emergence of an international framework and asks to how this has shaped political possibilities for the local indigenous organisations to represent the indigenous interests. The analysis shows that th...

Gandrup, Tobias; Jespersgaard Jakobsen, Line

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Identification of Italian ecotypes of Juglans regia L. by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers  

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Full Text Available Juglans regia L. is a multipurpose species important for quality wood and fruit production. In order to contrast the erosion and to properly conserve, manage and revaluate the genetic resources of Italian walnut, possible ecotypes, naturally adapted and still present in Italy have been researched. Leaves and fruits have been sampled in Campania region, localities of Montella, Cervinara, Fisciano, and in Abruzzo region, localities of Sulmona, Pescasseroli, Villetta Barrea, and Civitella Alfedena. The sites are located at different altitudes and climatic conditions. Materials have been collected on a total of 276 plants. Molecular, morphological and preliminary biochemical analyses have been carried out on this germplasm and on material belonging to 80 plants of 4 famous Italian walnut varieties (Bleggiana and Feltrina, North Italy; Sorrento and Malizia, Southern Italy, in order to have a comparison model. 134 ISSR, morphological and biochemical data have shown peculiar characters for Montella and Pescasseroli in comparison with the other accessions. Because of the peculiar environmental conditions of their locations, the effect of the temperature on the fruit development and fatty acid contents, it is possible to suppose that Montella and Pescasseroli are ecotypes which could be utilised as essential fat acid source and as material for afforestation of mountain zones.

Pollegioni P

2006-01-01

182

Contemporary ecotypic divergence during a recent range expansion was facilitated by adaptive introgression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although rapid phenotypic evolution during range expansion associated with colonization of contrasting habitats has been documented in several taxa, the evolutionary mechanisms that underlie such phenotypic divergence have less often been investigated. A strong candidate for rapid ecotype formation within an invaded range is the three-spine stickleback in the Lake Geneva region of central Europe. Since its introduction only about 140 years ago, it has undergone a significant expansion of its range and its niche, now forming phenotypically differentiated parapatric ecotypes that occupy either the pelagic zone of the large lake or small inlet streams, respectively. By comparing museum collections from different times with contemporary population samples, we here reconstruct the evolution of parapatric phenotypic divergence through time. Using genetic data from modern samples, we infer the underlying invasion history. We find that parapatric habitat-dependent phenotypic divergence between the lake and stream was already present in the first half of the twentieth century, but the magnitude of differentiation increased through time, particularly in antipredator defence traits. This suggests that divergent selection between the habitats occurred and was stable through much of the time since colonization. Recently, increased phenotypic differentiation in antipredator defence traits likely results from habitat-dependent selection on alleles that arrived through introgression from a distantly related lineage from outside the Lake Geneva region. This illustrates how hybridization can quickly promote phenotypic divergence in a system where adaptation from standing genetic variation was constrained. PMID:25228272

Lucek, K; Lemoine, M; Seehausen, O

2014-10-01

183

Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

Bulbul AHMED

2011-11-01

184

Comparative quantitative proteomics of prochlorococcus ecotypes to a decrease in environmental phosphate concentrations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The well-lit surface waters of oligotrophic gyres significantly contribute to global primary production. Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus are a major fraction of photosynthetic organisms within these areas. Labile phosphate is considered a limiting nutrient in some oligotrophic regions such as the Caribbean Sea, and as such it is crucial to understand the physiological response of primary producers such as Prochlorococcus to fluctuations in the availability of this critical nutrient. Results Prochlorococcus strains representing both high light (HL (MIT9312 and low light (LL (NATL2A and SS120 ecotypes were grown identically in phosphate depleted media (10 ?M Pi. The three strains displayed marked differences in cellular protein expression, as determined by high throughput large scale quantitative proteomic analysis. The only strain to demonstrate a significantly different growth rate under reduced phosphate conditions was MIT9312. Additionally, there was a significant increase in phosphate-related proteins such as PhoE (> 15 fold increase and a depression of the Rubisco protein RbcL abundance in this strain, whereas there appeared to be no significant change within the LL strain SS120. Conclusions This differential response between ecotypes highlights the relative importance of phosphate availability to each strain and from these results we draw the conclusion that the expression of phosphate acquisition mechanisms are activated at strain specific phosphate concentrations.

Fuszard Matthew A

2012-03-01

185

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

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Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

Cecilia Andere

2002-01-01

186

Out of the Pacific and back again: the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous.

Foote, Andrew David; Morin, PA

2011-01-01

187

Two-eyed seeing: a framework for understanding indigenous and non-indigenous approaches to indigenous health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents two-eyed seeing as a theoretical framework that embraces the contributions of both Indigenous and Western "ways of knowing" (world-views). It presents key characteristics and principles of these different perspectives and suggests ways in which they might be used together to answer our most pressing questions about the health of Indigenous people and communities. Presenting a critique of positivism, which has historically undermined and/or dismissed Indigenous ways of knowing as "unscientific," it discusses the origins of both Western and Indigenous approaches to understanding health; the importance of giving equal consideration to diverse Indigenous and non-Indigenous worldviews such that one worldview does not dominate or undermine the contributions of others; and how balanced consideration of contributions from diverse worldviews, embraced within a two-eyed seeing framework, can reshape the nature of the questions we ask in the realm of Indigenous health research. PMID:22894005

Martin, Debbie H

2012-06-01

188

The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830

Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

2014-06-01

189

Haematological and serum biochemical responses of chickens to hydric stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dehydration can be extremely damaging to the performance and welfare of indigenous chickens. The effect of water restriction on haematological and biochemical parameters was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens. A total of 54 8-week-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641 ± 10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments with three replications, each having six birds. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m2 per strain were used. Feed was provided ad libitum. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total leucocyte count (WBC), and biochemical parameters (uric acid (UA)), creatinine (CREAT), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), triglyceride (TGA), total cholesterol (TC), high- (HDLC) and low- (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined from blood collected after 60 days of water restriction. PCV was higher (P < 0.05) in NNK than OVB chickens offered water ad libitum, but similar in birds offered 70% and 40% of ad libitum. There were no differences in RBC and MCV values between strains, but MCV was higher in birds on 40% than 70% of ad libitum water intake, irrespective of strain. Naked neck chickens had higher (P < 0.05) WBC values than OVB at 40% restriction level, but lower WBC than OVB at 70% water restriction level. UA, CREAT, TGA, TC, LDLC, TP and GLOB increased (P < 0.05) with each increment in water restriction, but the increase in CREAT and TC was more pronounced in OVB than NNK chickens. The opposite was observed for UA. ALT activity indicated that liver function was not affected by water restriction. It was concluded that the two strains can withstand up to 40% of ad libitum water restriction, but NNK tolerated water stress better than OVB chickens. PMID:23764254

Chikumba, N; Swatson, H; Chimonyo, M

2013-09-01

190

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-01-01

191

Indigenous Education and Literacy Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available evidence suggests that Islamic (or Quranic) schools, as the primary contemporary example of indigenous schooling, have made major changes in various countries where they remain active. These include changes in the nature of instruction, style of teaching, and teacher corps. In general, these changes have been made in response to social…

Wagner, Daniel A.

192

Providing Space for Indigenous Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Colonial influences have generally failed to respect indigenous knowledge, languages, and cultures. Determination to reclaim First Nations identity is visible in many jurisdictions. First Nations Peoples continue to call on governments to facilitate changes needed to revitalize their economic, social, cultural, and spiritual well-being. This…

Tangihaere, Tracey Mihinoa; Twiname, Linda

2011-01-01

193

Reconciling Indigenous and Western Knowing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being able to consider the full range of social and economic issues from different cultural perspectives while maintaining respect and an open mind is a difficult task. The similarities between the latest thinking of Western cosmology and theoretical physics and Indigenous understandings of the bush and its components are striking and provide a…

Hooley, Neil

194

Specific learning processes and indigenous teacher training  

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Full Text Available Indigenous teacher formation and the issue of specific learning processes, as a right of the indigenous peoples derived from the 1988 Constitution, aim at the re-signification of pedagogical practices in specific socio-cultural contexts and at the visibility of indigenous education. Taking indigenous children as a reference, or rather, the agents that produce knowledge within the context of their particularities and territorialities, the essay points to the necessity of constructing new theoretical bases and a pedagogy that gives visibility to other local epistemic logics produced by “power coloniality”. They are different from the dominant Western logic in the process of training indigenous educators.

Adir Casaro Nascimento

2012-11-01

195

Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable age.  

Science.gov (United States)

When genetic constraints restrict phenotypic evolution, diversification can be predicted to evolve along so-called lines of least resistance. To address the importance of such constraints and their resolution, studies of parallel phenotypic divergence that differ in their age are valuable. Here, we investigate the parapatric evolution of six lake and stream threespine stickleback systems from Iceland and Switzerland, ranging in age from a few decades to several millennia. Using phenotypic data, we test for parallelism in ecotypic divergence between parapatric lake and stream populations and compare the observed patterns to an ancestral-like marine population. We find strong and consistent phenotypic divergence, both among lake and stream populations and between our freshwater populations and the marine population. Interestingly, ecotypic divergence in low-dimensional phenotype space (i.e. single traits) is rapid and seems to be often completed within 100 years. Yet, the dimensionality of ecotypic divergence was highest in our oldest systems and only there parallel evolution of unrelated ecotypes was strong enough to overwrite phylogenetic contingency. Moreover, the dimensionality of divergence in different systems varies between trait complexes, suggesting different constraints and evolutionary pathways to their resolution among freshwater systems. PMID:24976108

Lucek, K; Sivasundar, A; Kristjánsson, B K; Skúlason, S; Seehausen, O

2014-09-01

196

Habitat-specific foraging and sex determine mercury concentrations in sympatric benthic and limnetic ecotypes of threespine stickleback.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury (Hg) is a widespread environmental contaminant known for the neurotoxicity of its methylated forms, especially monomethylmercury, which bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in aquatic food webs. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification rates are known to vary among species utilizing different food webs (benthic vs limnetic) within and between systems. The authors assessed whether carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and total Hg (THg) concentrations differed between sympatric benthic and limnetic ecotypes and sexes of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Benka Lake, Alaska, USA. The mean THg concentration in the limnetic ecotype was significantly higher (difference between benthic and limnetic means equals 26?mg/kg dry wt or 16.1%) than that of the benthic ecotype. Trophic position and benthic carbon percentage utilized were both important determinants of THg concentration; however, the 2 variables were of approximately equal importance in females, whereas trophic position clearly explained more of the variance than benthic carbon percentage in males. Additionally, strong sex effects (mean difference between females and males equals 45?mg/kg dry wt or 29.4%) were observed in both ecotypes, with female fish having lower THg concentrations than males. These results indicate that trophic ecology and sex are both important determinants of Hg contamination even within a single species and lake and likely play a role in governing Hg concentrations in higher trophic levels. PMID:23456641

Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Ackerly, Kerri L; O'Hara, Todd M

2013-07-01

197

HABITAT-SPECIFIC FORAGING AND SEX DETERMINE MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SYMPATRIC BENTHIC AND LIMNETIC ECOTYPES OF THE THREESPINE STICKLEBACK  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury (Hg) is a widespread environmental contaminant known for the neurotoxicity of its methylated forms, especially monomethylmercury, which bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in aquatic food webs. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification rates are known to vary among species utilizing different food webs (benthic vs limnetic) within and between systems. The authors assessed whether carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and total Hg (THg) concentrations differed between sympatric benthic and limnetic ecotypes and sexes of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Benka Lake, Alaska, USA. The mean THg concentration in the limnetic ecotype was significantly higher (26 mg/kg dry wt, 16.1%) than that of the benthic ecotype. Trophic position and benthic carbon percentage utilized were both important determinants of THg concentration; however, the 2 variables were of approximately equal importance in females, whereas trophic position clearly explained more of the variance than benthic carbon percentage in males. Additionally, strong sex effects (45 mg/kg dry wt, 29.4%) were observed in both ecotypes, with female fish having lower THg concentrations than males. These results indicate that trophic ecology and sex are both important determinants of Hg contamination even within a single species and lake and likely play a role in governing Hg concentrations in higher trophic levels. PMID:23456641

Willacker, James J.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; Ackerly, Kerri L.; O'Hara, Todd M.

2013-01-01

198

Chicken Skeleton - Gliding Joint (Skull)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken uses its beak to pick up small pieces of food from the ground. The gliding joint at the base of the skull allows the chicken to move its head in different directions. It can also defend itself by pecking.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

199

Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.  

Science.gov (United States)

The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken

Dwyer, Edward J.

200

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture...ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL...Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture...ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL...Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given...

2010-01-01

202

Estimation of Inbreeding Rate in Kokok balenggek Chicken (KBC Population under Ex-Situ Conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was carried out in "Kinantan Bagombak" Breeding Farm (KBBF in Solok City-Indonesia to estimate inbreeding rate on Kokok balenggek chicken (KBC. Estimation of inbreeding rate in a small and limited population of local chickens is very important to prevent inbreeding depression. KBC is a poultry genetic resource known as song fowl from West Sumatera Province, Indonesia. This research was aimed to calculate flock composition, effective population size (Ne and inbreeding rate (?F in KBC under ex-situ population. Census was the main research method. The results showed that total number of KBC at KBBF was 528 heads. Chicken flock composition of KBC was chick (31.63%, chicken grower (27.65% and adult chicken (40.72%. Number of breeding males (Nm was 54 heads and females (Nf was 161 heads. Male and female ratio (Nm/Nf was 1:3 (33.54%. Effective population size (Ne was 162 heads. The rate of inbreeding (?F calculated for the indigenous KBC flock considering the existing flock size and management practice was 0.0031 (0.31% indicating that the population is not at the risk of extinction. It is concluded that inbreeding depression in KBC population at KBBF was not occurred.

Rusfidra

2014-01-01

203

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

204

Identification of metalliferous ecotypes of Cistus ladanifer L. using RAPD markers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The genetic diversity of Cistus ladanifer ssp. ladanifer (Cistaceae) growing on ultramafic and non-ultramafic (basic and schists) soils in the NE of Portugal was studied in order to identify molecular markers that could distinguish the metal-tolerant ecotypes of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used in order to estimate genetic variation and differences between populations. The RAPD dataset was analysed by means of a cluster analysis and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Our results indicate a significant partitioning of molecular variance between ultramafic and non-ultramafic populations of Cistus ladanifer, although the highest percentage of this variance was found at the intra-population level. Mantel's test showed no relationship between inter-population genetic and geographic distances. A series of RAPD bands that could be related to heavy metal tolerance were observed. The identification of such markers will enable the use of Cistus ladanifer in phytoremediation procedures. (orig.)

Quintela-Sabaris, C.; Fraga, M.I. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Kidd, P.S. [Dept. of Soil Science and Chemical Agronomy, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2005-04-01

205

Considerations on the relationship between chromosome constitution and biochemical phenotype in five ecotypes of seabuckthorn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seabuckthorn is a small tree showing pronounced morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic variability, high ecological plasticity and large limits of resistance to unfavourable factors and to phytopathogens. It is largely exploited in biotechnological, nutritional, and pharmaceutical purposes, cosmetics domain and in environmental protective field. The possibility that some karyotype traits of five seabuckthorn ecotypes to be used as markers in relation with some specific biochemical features was discussed in this paper. There is intraspecific chromosome variability; the formula of haploid complement is different concerning the preponderance of chromosome morphotypes. Also a marked chemical heterogeneity was evidenced. At this research stage, the results not allow us to establish a direct relationship between some chromosome characteristics and certain morphological and biochemical parameters.

Elena Truta

2010-06-01

206

Perspectives on Reconciliation & Indigenous Rights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of discourses of the movement for national reconciliation prevailing within the Australian socio-political context since the inception of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in 1991, to the national apology delivered by the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd on 13th February 2008. It provides an framework for the various discourses of reconciliation, by exploring and analysing the accrued meanings to such terms such as ‘genuine’, substantive or ‘true’ reconciliation; the Howard’s Government’s ‘practical reconciliation’ and the Rudd government’s great attempt at ‘symbolic’ reconciliation in the national apology to Indigenous Australians. In the changing political context in Australia today this paper revisits the debates on reconciliation, and endeavours to locate the movement solidly within a human rights framework that includes first nation rights. This requires an examination of the roots of the reconciliation movement including community attitudes to reconciliation and the nature of the peoples’ movement as well as the differing perspectives of policy makers, politicians and of course, Indigenous peoples. It asks crucial questions about the progress of reconciliation and the type of reconciliation mainstream Australians will accept. In truth therefore, was the ‘National Apology’ a grand symbolic gesture by mainstream Australia to maintain the status quo and divert our eyes from the more searching questions of the ‘unfinished business’ of ‘substantive’ reconciliation which encompasses first nations rights for Indigenous peoples.

Nina Burridge

2009-09-01

207

Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated. PMID:24287655

Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

2013-11-01

208

The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

2014-11-01

209

A compatible interaction of Alternaria brassicicola with Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype DiG: evidence for a specific transcriptional signature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The interaction of Arabidopsis with Alternaria brassicicola provides a model for disease caused by necrotrophs, but a drawback has been the lack of a compatible pathosystem. Infection of most ecotypes, including the widely-studied line Col-0, with this pathogen generally leads to a lesion that does not expand beyond the inoculated area. This study examines an ecotype, Dijon G (DiG), which is considered sensitive to A. brassicicola

Gepstein Shimon; Lev Sophie; Mukherjee Arup K; Horwitz Benjamin A

2009-01-01

210

Evaluation of the Impacts of Fall Sowing Dates on Different Ecotypes of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum, Apiaceae L. Productivity in Northeast of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Locally adapted plants can be considered as an alternative to commercial crops for cultivation in harsh environments within semi-arid regions. Nowadays, exploring these plants industrial benefits has motivated many farmers around the world to extend their cultivation. However, agronomic characters of these forgotten plants are still unknown. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fall sowing dates on yield and yield components of different Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., Apiaceae ecotypes in the semi-arid region of Khorasan Iran. An experiment of two years duration was performed using a split-plot randomized complete block design, employing sowing dates as main-plot factor, and cumin ecotypes as sub-plot factor in three replicates. Three levels of sowing dates included the following: mid October, mid November and mid December. Additonally, sub-plot treatments consisted of four local ecotypes of cumin from different regions of the Khorasan province (Gayen, Torbat, Sabzevar and Khaf. The plants? survival percentage in field conditions, number of umbels m-2, number of seeds per umbel, thousand seed weight, biological, and seed yield were measured in this experiment. The results showed that all study parameters were influenced by different sowing dates except thousand seed weight. The third sowing date resulted in the highest biological (110 g m-2 and 94 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007 and seed yield (50 g m-2 and 55 g m-2 in 2006 and 2007. There was a significant positive correlation between average minimum temperature and biological yield of cumin across all ecotypes and years. The results showed significant difference in productivity of different ecotypes of cumin from various parts of northeast of Iran. The Gayen and Khaf ecotypes showed the highest plant survival percentage, biological and seed yield across study ecotypes under the third sowing date. In conclusion, delayed fall sowing date and appropriate cumin ecotypes are able to increase yield of this plant in northeast of Iran.

Ahmad NEZAMI

2011-11-01

211

Leading the Way: Indigenous Knowledge and Collaboration at The Woolyungah Indigenous Centre  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper derives from collaborative research undertaken by staff at the Woolyungah Indigenous Centre, into our own teaching practice. It articulates a particular strand of inquiry emanating from the research: the importance of Indigenous knowledges as this is taught at Woolyungah in the discipline of Indigenous Studies. The paper is a reflection…

McGloin, Colleen; Marshall, Anne; Adams, Michael

2009-01-01

212

Destruction of Salmonella typhimurium on chicken wings by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

No viable CFU of a streptomycin-resistant S. typhimurium were detected on chicken wings inoculated with 100 CFU and treated with 1.8 kGy or greater doses of gamma radiation at 5 degrees C in air. The inoculated S. typhbnurium did not recover from radiation injury during 3 days of refrigerated storage. Viable CFU were detected on wings inoculated with 1,000 or 10,000 CFU and irradiated with 1.8 kGy but not on those irradiated with 2.7 or greater kGy. The indigenous aerobic mesophilic population on the wings was reduced from 10(4) to 44 CFU/cm2 by 1.4 kGy

213

Chicken from Farm to Table  

Science.gov (United States)

... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

214

Chicken Consensus Linkage Map 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

In the race to map animal and human genomes, the chicken genome mapping project is also underway. Most details are provided at this Consensus Map page, featuring a linkage map comprised of "all the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations (East Lansing, Compton and Wageningen)," containing 1889 loci. A reference table and reference list may also be downloaded as Excel files from the site.

2000-01-01

215

A comparison of the functional traits of common reed (Phragmites australis) in northern China: aquatic vs. terrestrial ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions). PMID:24586505

Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

2014-01-01

216

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical (O2·-) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

217

Proteome analysis differentiates between two highly homologues germin-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Ws-2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A proteome approach based on 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to compare the protein patterns of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and Ws-2. In leaf extracts a pair of protein spots were found to be diagnostic for each of the lines. Both pairs of spots were identified as closely related germin-like proteins differing in only one amino acid by using peptide mass finger printing of tryptic digests and by gaining additional data from post-source decay spectra in the MALDI-TOF analysis. Western blot analysis after separation of protein extracts by 2-DE confirmed results from Coomassie blue-stained gels and revealed additional immunoreactive spots for both ecotypes most likely representing dimers of the spots first identified. Western blot analysis and mass spectrometrical identification of the corresponding weakly stained protein in Coomassie blue-stained gels of the ecotype Col-0 also demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of AtGER3 protein in root extracts. Our results demonstrate the capacity of proteome analysis to analyse and distinguish closely related members of large protein families. PMID:15276453

Schlesier, Bernhard; Berna, Anne; Bernier, François; Mock, Hans-Peter

2004-06-01

218

Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.

Jin Xiaofen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn; Islam, Ejazul [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam 48800, Hyderabad (Pakistan); Liu Dan [School of Tourism and Health, Zhejiang Forestry College, 311300 Lin' an (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2008-08-15

219

Accumulation of zinc and Organic Acids in Roots of Zinc Tolerant and Non-tolerant Ecotypes of Deschampsia caespitosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A much higher zinc level was necessary to inhibit root elongation in the zinc tolerant ecotype as compared to the non-tolerant ecotype of Deschampsia caespitosa. In the presence of a range of high levels of zinc, zinc accumulated to a much higher concentration in the roots of the tolerant ecotype, especially in the root sap. Accumulation of citrate in the root sap was highly correlated to the accumulation of zinc. Gel filtration chromatography of the root sap showed zinc to be mainly present as zinc-citrate. This was the only zinc complex found. The malate concentration of the root sap was much lower than the concentration of citrate. However the malate content of aqueous root homogenates was comparable or even greater than the content of citrate, suggesting that malate and citrate are located in different compartments within the cell. The results are consistent with a model of zinc tolerance in which zinc is complexed with citrate in the vacuole. PMID:23194878

Godbold, D L; Horst, W J; Collins, J C; Thurman, D A; Marschner, H

1984-08-01

220

Personal Thoughts on Indigenous Language Stabilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents personal reflections on factors in the preservation and stabilization of North American indigenous languages. All indigenous languages in North America are in danger of being lost. Linguistic and cultural minority communities must control the institutions that affect their lives if there is to be significant and sustainable…

Burnaby, Barbara

 
 
 
 
221

Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

Dyall, Lorna

2010-01-01

222

Advocacy and Indigenous Methods of Healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most counselors have had very little experience with indigenous methods of healing. Indigenous healing can be defined as helping beliefs and practices that originate over extended time within a culture that are not transported from other regions, and that are designed for treating the inhabitants of a given group. Most counselors would find great…

Sue, Derald Wing

223

Reframing Evaluation: Defining an Indigenous Evaluation Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), comprising 34 American Indian tribally controlled colleges and universities, has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an "Indigenous Framework for Evaluation" that synthesizes Indigenous ways of knowing and Western evaluation practice. To ground the framework, AIHEC engaged in an…

LaFrance, Joan; Nichols, Richard

2008-01-01

224

Science, Metaphoric Meaning, and Indigenous Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Western cultural approaches to teaching science have excluded Indigenous knowledges and culturally favored many non-Aboriginal science students. By asking the question "What connections exist between Western science and Indigenous knowledge?" elements of epistemological (how do we determine what is real?) and ontological (what is real?)…

Elliott, Frank

2009-01-01

225

Indigenous Autoethnography: Formulating Our Knowledge, Our Way  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper seeks to engage the cultural interface where Indigenous knowledge meets Western academia, by questioning the validity of traditional research methods. Firstly, it is a response to the challenges facing Indigenous people confronted with the ethical and methodological issues arising from academic research. Secondly, it is a journey "into"…

Houston, Jennifer

2007-01-01

226

Indigenous Knowledge within a Global Knowledge System  

Science.gov (United States)

Faced with globalizing forces that promote universal approaches to knowledge and understanding, indigenous peoples have reacted by abandoning the old ways or alternately seeking to re-discover ancient wisdoms as foundations for pathways to the future. Increasingly, however, a third way has been to focus on the interface between indigenous

Durie, Mason

2005-01-01

227

Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector  

Science.gov (United States)

Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

2014-01-01

228

Embedding Indigenous Perspectives in Teaching School Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…

Appanna, Subhashni Devi

2011-01-01

229

Environmental education and indigenous approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

230

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

During the 20th century, there has been a concerted effort by a number of transnational organizations and advocacy groups to effectively lobby for the rights and protection of indigenous groups in all parts of the world. In 2000, the United Nations Economic and Social Council established the Permanent Form on Indigenous Issues to effectively address the needs of the 370 million indigenous peoples around the world. On the site, visitors can read official documents and proceedings created by the Forum's work, peruse a photo gallery of indigenous peoples, and read the text of various speeches on indigenous issues. Finally, visitors will also want to peruse the list of upcoming events sponsored by the Forum and also review its latest press releases.

231

Behavioural defenses of the honey bee ecotype from Sjenica–Pešter against Varroa destructor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two behaviours of honey bees, hygienic and grooming, are mechanisms of defense against brood diseases and parasitic mites, including Varroa destructor. Apis mellifera colonies remove the worker brood infested with Varroa destructor mites from the nest (hygienic behaviour, and groom the mites off other adult bees (grooming behaviour. In this study hygienic and grooming behaviours of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype were analysed in 440 honey bee colonies from 11 localities in the region of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski plateau, Podpešterje, Golija Mt. and Rogozna ML At each locality 40 honey bee colonies were investigated: 10 potent colonies with one-year old queen, 10 potent colonies with two-year old queen, 10 medium potent and 10 weak honey bee colonies. Hygienic behaviour was expressed in a range from 95.12% to 99.50% in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old and two-year old queens. Statistically highly significant (p<0.01 differences were registered among the analysed honey bee colonies at the investigated region, in favour of the potent honey bee colonies, compared to the medium potent and weak colonies. Also, statistically highly significant (p<0.01 differences were recorded between potent colonies with one-year old queens and colonies with two-year old queens, in favour of the colonies with one-year old queens. In general, investigated colonies belong to a category of the so called "hygienic colonies", as the efficiency of elimination of damaged pupae amounted to 91.50%. Grooming behaviour of Sjeni?ko-Pešterski honey bee ecotype potentially exists, but its significance cannot be discussed as, on the whole, investigated colonies showed potential of 34,04%. Our results point to an indisputable relationship between analysed behaviours and the strength of honey bee colonies: hygienic behaviour is more expressed in potent colonies (from 95.12% to 99.50% regardless of queen age; grooming behaviour was expressed only in potent honey bee colonies with one-year old queen at all 11 localities, where the number of damaged mites ranged from 36,05% to 39,61%. The damaged mites were separated into six categories. The most frequent category of damage was damaged legs (53.38% in potent colonies with one-year old queens and 52.02% in potent colonies with two-year old queens. The potent honey bee colonies from the investigated region especially with one-year old queen, could be used for highly selected breeds improving and queens rearing.

Stanimirovi? Zoran Ž.

2005-01-01

232

Analysis of Morphological Traits of Geographically Separated Population of Indigenous Muscovy Duck (Cairina Moschata  

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Full Text Available Inter and intra specific variation among muscovy duck ecotypes from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were studied The work evaluate the morphological variation of three ecotypes ( rainforest ecotypes, humid or guinea savanna and dry savanna ecotypes covering southern or coastal region, central and northern part of Nigeria. Twelve morphological traits including weight were considered. Significant (p<0.05 variation exist within and between ecotypes using population coefficient of variation (ANOVA bill height had the highest coefficient of variation 79.52 while body length recorded the least variation. There are marked differences in body morphology between sexes in all the ecotypes indicating significant sexual dimorphism. Correlation between the traits were low to high. The inter specific variations in bill structure and body morphology are indication of adaptation to the environment and influence of ecological condition

D.M. Ogah

2009-01-01

233

7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground...

2010-01-01

234

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from three ecotypes of Zataria multiflora  

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Full Text Available Background: Zataria multiflora Boiss. is a traditional and popular spice in Iran. The effects of 3 ecotypes (ECTPs of Z. multiflora essential oils (EOs against most common causes of food-borne and nosocomial infections were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the EOs were examined by broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The chemical compositions of the EOs from 3 ECTPs of Z. multiflora have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Analysis of the EOs indicated that 3 chemotypes were present in Z. multiflora, including carvacrol, thymol-carvacrol, and linalool, whereas previous studies have only found carvacrol and thymol. Inhibition studies showed that the tested EOs entirely inhibited the growth of yeasts at concentrations of less than 1 ?L/mL. Moreover, the oils exhibited significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 ?L/mL. Conclusion: These results suggest that the EOs from Z. multiflora should be investigated further for possible use in antimicrobial products and food preservatives.

Zomorodian K

2011-01-01

235

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defens [...] ive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p

Cecilia, Andere; M.A., Palacio; E.M., Rodriguez; E., Figini; M.T., Dominguez; E., Bedascarrasbure.

236

Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS

237

Genetic and Ecotypic Characterization of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Poland  

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Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is one of the most important forest tree species inPoland and it covers 5.2% of forest area. Present genetic structure of beech populations has beenformed within the last few thousand years and influenced by many different factors, not only ofenvironmental (postglacial and genetic origin, but also by anthropogenic ones. In Poland, beechattains its north-eastern limit of natural range, and is limited by continental climate, wintertemperatures, air humidity and soil conditions. The growth of beech stands outside the natural beechlimit indicates that the species possesses a potentially wider range.Based on their phytosociological characteristics, nine beech experimental plots of one hectare areawere established in selected seed stands, representing the typical plant associations and the most importantbeech provenance (seed regions. The genetic analyses were performed using isoenzymeelectrophoresis for seven loci (GOT, LAP, MDH, MNR, PGM, PGI, SKDH and DNA markers usingRAPD primers. The following genetic parameters were calculated: average number of alleles perlocus, percentage of polymorphic loci and heterozygosity (on the basis of isoenzyme analysis.Dendrograms based on genetic distances were constructed.There is a slight decrease of genetic variation of beech populations towards the north of Poland,which can be explained by migration paths and selection after the glacial period. The geneticdifferentiation of beech in Poland does not allow distinguishing provenance regions. The data show amosaic character of species differentiation and an ecotypic variation.

SU?KOWSKA, Ma?gorzata

2010-01-01

238

Metal phytoremediation by the halophyte Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss: two contrasting ecotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytoremediation potential of the halophyte Limoniastrum monopetalum for the removal of Cd and Pb from polluted sites is assessed in this work. Two pot experiments were conducted; the first with wild L. monopetalum grown on soil polluted with Cd and Pb irrigated at different salinities, and the second with commonly cultivated ornamental L. monopetalum grown on soil polluted with Cd irrigated also at different salinities. The data revealed that wild L. monopetalum is a Cd and Pb tolerant plant able to accumulate at least 100 ppm of cadmium in its shoots without showing any significant decrease in terms of biomass production, chlorophyll content or water content suggesting that it could be an accumulator of Cd. Pb above-ground accumulation was kept at low levels with the majority of Pb localized in the roots. On the other hand, contrasting results were obtained for ornamental L. monopetalum which although it was found to be also Cd tolerant, Cd accumulation in its tissues was kept at significantly lower levels especially compared to that of the wild ecotype. In addition for ornamental L. monopetalum salinity did not have a positive effect on Cd accumulation and translocation as observed in the wild type and in other halophytes. Analysis of the salt excretion crystals on the leaf surface confirmed that wild and cultivated ornamental L. monopetalum excrete cadmium and lead through their salt glands as a possible metal detoxification mechanism, although the amount excreted by the ornamental L. monopetalum is significantly less. PMID:24933883

Manousaki, Eleni; Galanaki, Kosmoula; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

2014-01-01

239

Diversity of thermal ecotypes and potential pathotypes of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological diversification of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates was examined to determine whether bacteria adapted to grow at low temperature and/or potentially pathogenic correspond to genetically distinct lineages. Altogether, nine phylogenetic lineages were found among bacilli originating from North-Eastern Poland (n = 24) and Lithuania (n = 25) using multi-locus sequence typing. This clustering was chiefly confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One third of the bacilli were found to be psychrotolerant, which strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of thermal ecotypes among B. thuringiensis. PCR screening was also performed to detect potential enterotoxin genes and Bacillus anthracis pXO1- and pXO2-like replicons. The cytK-positive isolates (22%) were significantly associated with two phylogenetic lineages (potential CytK pathotypes), whereas there was no correlation between phylogenetic grouping and the presence of the potential tripartite enterotoxin pathotypes (86% of strains). A statistically significant association between phylogenetic lineages and ecologic properties was found with regard to the cry1-positive Lithuanian isolates, while the cry genes in Polish isolates and the pXO1- and pXO2 replicon-like elements showed scattered distribution across phylogenetic lineages. Our results support the hypothesis that B. thuringiensis comprises strains belonging to different phylogenetic lineages, which exhibit specific ecological properties. PMID:23521504

Swiecicka, Izabela; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Drewnowska, Justyna M; Murawska, Emilia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Lukaszuk, Edyta; Mahillon, Jacques

2013-08-01

240

Assessing genetic variability in two ancient chicken breeds of Padova area  

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Full Text Available Genetic diversity in two ancient indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region was assessed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. A total of 63 individuals were analysed using three selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 66 clear polymorphisms. The breeds analyzed were the Padovana and the Polverara (two ancient breeds and a reference broiler line. The expected heterozygosity (Het did not differ significantly among breeds. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained across breeds, as indicated by the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst value. The lowest genetic distance is found between the Padovana and Polverara breeds suggesting that they could be genetically close.

Martino Cassandro

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chickens were irradiated in a 6deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.)

242

CHICKEN POX IN PREGNANCY : AN OBSTETRIC CONCERN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken p...

Wiwanitkit Viroj

2010-01-01

243

Reactivation of chicken erythrocyte nuclei in heterokaryons results in expression of adult chicken globin genes.  

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Activation of chicken globin gene transcription has been demonstrated in chicken erythrocyte--rat L6 myoblast heterokaryons. The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta-globin polypeptides. No fetal globin mRNA or globin polypeptides were detected. Heterokaryons between chicken erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cells or hamster BHK cells also synthesized adult chicken globins.

Linder, S.; Zuckerman, S. H.; Ringertz, N. R.

1981-01-01

244

Serologic Evidence of Chicken Infectious Anemia in Commercial Chicken Flocks in Shahrekord, Iran  

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CIAV infection in chicken flocks has been described in most countries with a developed chicken industry and can result in economically important clinical or subclinical disease in broiler chickens. In this study sera samples from 46 poultry flocks in Sharekord area, Iran, were tested for the presence of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. All farms were positive for CIAV antibodies and 87.7% of chickens were positi...

Mahzounieh, M.; Karimi, I.; Zahraei Salehi, T.

2005-01-01

245

Computerised tomography of chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. The use of computerised tomography (CT) to predict body composition of chickens has been evaluated. Prediction equations were constructed by regression analyses with CT-observations as independent variables. The accuracy of prediction was evaluated on separate sets of birds, not included in the regression analyses. 2. Different methods of generating CT-observations were evaluated. The most robust CT-variables for prediction purposes were obtained from a principal component analysis of the distribution of CT-values. The accuracy of prediction depended on the traits and the material analysed. 3. The correlation between observed and predicted values for the amount of abdominal fat or breast cut in grams were in the range of 0.70 and 0.90 where the principal component method was applied. The bias was 1 to 2% of the standard deviation for the trait. 4. The amount of abdominal fat relative to carcase weight was predicted with similar accuracy, whereas the relative amount of breast cut seemed to be more difficult to predict. The increase in accuracy of prediction for amount of abdominal fat was considerable when compared to an equation including only body weight and sex. 5. The results from a small scale experiment, where a wide range of compositional traits were determined by more laborious and precise methods, indicated that the accuracy of prediction may be increased further and that CT-observations may in addition provide important information about the chemical composition of the tissues analysed

246

Beyond Justice: What Makes an Indigenous Justice Organization?  

Science.gov (United States)

The data from a longitudinal study of seven indigenous justice service organizations in four colonized countries were analyzed to identify the characteristics that made them "indigenous." Although nine common organizational characteristics emerged, of these, four are essential and specific to indigenous organizations (dependency on indigenous

Nielsen, Marianne O.; Brown, Samantha

2012-01-01

247

Strategies for Improving Indigenous Financial Literacy in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indigenous Australian population is not only considerably younger than the non-Indigenous population but is also on the rise. The challenge for many is to provide the kind of education that equips young Indigenous Australians with the necessary skills for managing their money. This challenge is further compounded, as the adult Indigenous

Bin-Sallik, MaryAnn; Adams, Isabella; Vemuri, Siva Ram

2004-01-01

248

Towards a critique of indigenous African religion  

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Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

How to cite this article: Strijdom, J., 2011, ‘Towards a critique of indigenous African religion’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(1, Art. #950, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.950

Johan Strijdom

2011-06-01

249

Defining 'Indigenous': Between Culture and Biology  

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Full Text Available This essay considers a range of discourses on identity and the definition of culture. I have little doubt that, generally speaking, Indigenous people are quite capable of defining the meaning of ‘Indigenous person’ or ‘culture’ in a way that satisfies their specific immediate needs and interests. My concern here is with the definition of ‘Aboriginal or Indigenous person’ in Australian law and legislation and with the critical response, by members of the scientific community as well as cultural theorists, to references to a biological basis of identity.

Stephen Pritchard

2013-08-01

250

“Health divide” between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: Population based study  

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Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. Methods A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N?=?1660 men and women, 18–96?years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI?2

Haddad Slim; Mohindra Katia; Siekmans Kendra; Màk Geneviève; Narayana Delampady

2012-01-01

251

The Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the World Indigenous Movement  

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Over the last decade, under the auspices of the Commission on Human Rights, indigenous peoples have been associated by the United Nations (UN) in the negotiations concerning the Draft Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Even though the whole story started with the mobilisation of Northern, Central and South Amerindian organisations, which remain extremely active, indigenous representatives are now coming from all over the world to participate in the annual sessions. Known to be a...

Bellier, Ire?ne

2005-01-01

252

Variability of Carcass Traits of Local Poultry Populations of Gallus gallus Species of Benin  

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Full Text Available The local poultry population of Benin is composed of various ecotypes including chickens Holli, Sahoue, Fulani, North and South. To better characterize them, our study aims to assess their carcass traits according to genetic type, breeding system and slaughter age. Thus, 260 chickens of which 52 chickens of each ecotype were divided in two lots and reared respectively under traditional and improved breeding system. For each breeding system, 26 cockerels of each ecotype were slaughtered at 20, 24 and 28 weeks old for carcass traits study. The results show that the live weight, the carcass weight, the weight of the cuts of thigh-drumsticks and wings of Holli chickens were the highest (p0.05. The breast weight of Holli and Fulani were similar (p>0.05 but heavier (p<0.001 than the one of Sahoue, North and South ecotypes. The live weight and the carcass weight of chickens reared under improved breeding system were higher than those of traditional system (p<0.01. The carcass drip loss was more important in chickens bred under traditional system (p<0.001. The live weight and the carcass cuts value were significantly affected by slaughter age (p<0.001. The best carcass yields were recorded at 24 weeks (p<0.001 for both rearing systems. Therefore, the ideal slaughter age of indigenous chickens of Benin is 24 weeks.

U.P. Tougan

2013-01-01

253

Natural disasters and indigenous displacement in Bolivia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Those seeking to understand and address the reasons for growing numbers of displaced indigenous people in Bolivia should consider the relationship between traditional knowledge and the impacts of climate change.

Ludvik Girard

2012-12-01

254

Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

2014-10-01

255

School education policies aimed at indigenous people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Brazil the education system underwent broad reformulation as a result of the promulgation of the National Constitution in 1988 and the subsequent approval, in 1996, of the new Law of National Education Directives and Bases. Brazilian laws regognize indigenous knowledge and propose their inclusion in public schools curricula. They also recognize that indigenous people have their own teaching and learning process which each school needs to take into account and propose the formulation of diferenciated curricula. This presentation will attempt to assess the consequences and challenges brought about by these changes, with respect to the treatment of indigenous knowledges in the regular schools as well as in the indigenous schools, focusing the gaps between the law and the practice in the schools.

Antonella Maria Imperatriz Tassinari

2009-04-01

256

Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375-780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery. PMID:23873736

Worthington, Thomas A; Brewer, Shannon K; Grabowski, Timothy B; Mueller, Julia

2014-01-01

257

Structure of the rare archaeal biosphere and seasonal dynamics of active ecotypes in surface coastal waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details regarding their community structure and long-term seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In this study, we monitored the interannual archaeal community composition of abundant and rare biospheres in northwestern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by pyrosequencing 16S rDNA and rRNA. A detailed analysis of the rare biosphere structure showed that the rare archaeal community was composed of three distinct fractions. One contained the rare Archaea that became abundant at different times within the same ecosystem; these cells were typically not dormant, and we hypothesize that they represent a local seed bank that is specific and essential for ecosystem functioning through cycling seasonal environmental conditions. The second fraction contained cells that were uncommon in public databases and not active, consisting of aliens to the studied ecosystem and representing a nonlocal seed bank of potential colonizers. The third fraction contained Archaea that were always rare but actively growing; their affiliation and seasonal dynamics were similar to the abundant microbes and could not be considered a seed bank. We also showed that the major archaeal groups, Thaumarchaeota marine group I and Euryarchaeota group II.B in winter and Euryarchaeota group II.A in summer, contained different ecotypes with varying activities. Our findings suggest that archaeal diversity could be associated with distinct metabolisms or life strategies, and that the rare archaeal biosphere is composed of a complex assortment of organisms with distinct histories that affect their potential for growth. PMID:23536290

Hugoni, Mylène; Taib, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Domaizon, Isabelle; Jouan Dufournel, Isabelle; Bronner, Gisèle; Salter, Ian; Agogué, Hélène; Mary, Isabelle; Galand, Pierre E

2013-04-01

258

Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 ? mol mol?1) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops.

Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Price, Andrew J.; McElroy, J. Scott; Torbert, H. Allen

2014-01-01

259

Digital Library of Indigenous Science Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Digital Library of Indigenous Science Resources (DLISR) is a library collection of online text, video, audio, and image files of Indigenous science. According to the DLISR, Native or Indigenous Science "involves Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world (or non-Native persons learning about and understanding the natural world in the same ways Native people do)." The library includes knowledge about the natural world as well as methods of teaching and learning about the natural world. All the resources found in the DLISR are authored or produced by Indigenous persons or organizations, or are "approved for inclusion in the library collection by an elder or other Indigenous person with the expertise to assess the resource." Visitors will note that the National Science Foundation (NSF) is one of the supporters of this digital library, and they can find more information on Indigenous or Native Science by checking out the "Introduction" tab at the top of the page. The overarching categories available in the library are "Climate Change", "Education", "Law", "Sovereignty", "Traditional Knowledge" and "Traditional Foods". There are approximately two dozen subtopics for visitors to choose under the categories. For example, under the "Traditional Foods" category visitors will find five resources, including one entitled "Alaska Traditional Knowledge and Native Foods Database", which contains measurements of contaminants found in the animals harvested by Alaska Natives.

260

Immunisation issues for Indigenous Australian children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccination has provided major benefits to the health of indigenous children in the face of continuing poorer socioe-conomic conditions but several issues have been identified for improvement. While indigenous children are vaccinated at high rates for the standard schedule vaccines, vaccination is more commonly delayed. Coverage for 'targeted' vaccines is substantially lower, and data on coverage for indigenous adolescents is non-existent. Improved identification of indigenous clients by immunisation providers and the expansion of the childhood register are required. The progressive removal of early-acting Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines from schedules for indigenous children because of an international shortage raises the risk of disease re-emergence and highlights the need for vigilant surveillance including carriage. The expanded use of existing vaccines (influenza) and early adoption of new vaccines (higher valency pneumococcal conjugates) are needed to maximise benefits, in particular the potential to impact on non-invasive disease such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia that are so prevalent in indigenous children. PMID:21564384

Menzies, Robert; Andrews, Ross

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Avaliação de germinação e dormência de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho Seed germination and dormancy of red rice ecotypes  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relativos à germinação e dormência de 16 ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os ecótipos foram estudados e comparados com os cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e El Paso L 144, em condições de casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram realizados durante o ano agrícola 2001/02, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Foram avaliadas em laboratório a biometria e a massa de mil grãos, além de testes de germinação e dormência aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita dos genótipos. Os resultados evidenciaram grande variabilidade nas características morfofisiológicas dos ecótipos estudados. Os ecótipos de arroz-vermelho avaliados, procedentes de lavouras de arroz irrigado do RS e SC, apresentaram alta variabilidade quanto às características das sementes e à intensidade e duração da dormência. Alguns ecótipos avaliados apresentaram sementes com período de dormência maior que 150 dias após a colheita. Os resultados deste trabalho confirmam também que o êxito no manejo do arroz-vermelho em lavouras infestadas depende da recomendação e adoção por parte dos produtores não de medidas isoladas, mas de um grupo de medidas complementares que, quando adotadas conjuntamente, permitem minimizar os problemas com o arroz-vermelho.The objective of this work was to evaluate aspects related to the phenotypic characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The ecotypes were studied and compared to the commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso L 144. In the laboratory experiment, seed biometry, 1000 seed-weight and seed germination and dormancy 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after harvesting were evaluated. The red rice ecotypes from the rice fields evaluated showed wide variability in seed characteristics and dormancy intensity and duration. Some ecotypes showed dormancy period above 150 days after harvesting. The results of this study confirm that red rice populations infesting rice fields are quite diverse, and appropriate control of red rice is only achieved when growers adopt not only isolated control measures, but also several management practices to reduce red rice yield losses.

A.M.L. Schwanke

2008-01-01

262

Avaliação de germinação e dormência de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho / Seed germination and dormancy of red rice ecotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relativos à germinação e dormência de 16 ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de lavouras comerciais dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os ecótipos foram estudados e comparados com os cultivares BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417 e [...] El Paso L 144, em condições de casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram realizados durante o ano agrícola 2001/02, na Embrapa Clima Temperado - Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas, no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Foram avaliadas em laboratório a biometria e a massa de mil grãos, além de testes de germinação e dormência aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita dos genótipos. Os resultados evidenciaram grande variabilidade nas características morfofisiológicas dos ecótipos estudados. Os ecótipos de arroz-vermelho avaliados, procedentes de lavouras de arroz irrigado do RS e SC, apresentaram alta variabilidade quanto às características das sementes e à intensidade e duração da dormência. Alguns ecótipos avaliados apresentaram sementes com período de dormência maior que 150 dias após a colheita. Os resultados deste trabalho confirmam também que o êxito no manejo do arroz-vermelho em lavouras infestadas depende da recomendação e adoção por parte dos produtores não de medidas isoladas, mas de um grupo de medidas complementares que, quando adotadas conjuntamente, permitem minimizar os problemas com o arroz-vermelho. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate aspects related to the phenotypic characterization of red rice ecotypes collected in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The ecotypes were studied and compared to the commercial rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409, BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 417, and El Paso [...] L 144. In the laboratory experiment, seed biometry, 1000 seed-weight and seed germination and dormancy 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after harvesting were evaluated. The red rice ecotypes from the rice fields evaluated showed wide variability in seed characteristics and dormancy intensity and duration. Some ecotypes showed dormancy period above 150 days after harvesting. The results of this study confirm that red rice populations infesting rice fields are quite diverse, and appropriate control of red rice is only achieved when growers adopt not only isolated control measures, but also several management practices to reduce red rice yield losses.

A.M.L., Schwanke; A., Andres; J.A., Noldin; G., Concenço; S.O., Procópio.

263

Visuospatial selective attention in chickens  

Science.gov (United States)

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d?) increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an “indecision” model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens—a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies—as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L.; Schwarz, Jason S.; Knudsen, Eric I.

2014-01-01

264

RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos  

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The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

265

Killer cells in the chicken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 51chromium (51Cr) release microcytotoxicity assay has been established for studying cell-mediated immunity in chickens to a potentially wide variety of antigens. The system investigated in detail uses thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells (Tg-CRBC) to analyse effector cell mechanisms operative in spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Obese strain (OS) chickens. A variety of technical parameters were investigated in order to optimise reliable, reproducible target cell preparation and to minimise spontaneous 51Cr-release. The final method adopted used tannic acid for coupling antigen to carefully selected donor erythrocytes of uniform MHC genotype. For the study of antibody dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Tg-CRBE were pre-sensitised with OS serum containing high titre Tg-autoantibody. Tannic acid-treated CRBC (TA-CRBC) served simultaneously as controls for the Tg specificity of direct cellular cytotoxicity (DCC) to Tg-CRBC, and also as target cells for natural, or spontaneous cellular cytotoxicity (SCC). With such an assay, cells capable of mediating Tg-specific DCC were demonstrated in the OS, but not in normal chickens. No differences in ADCC or SCC were observed when the two strains were considered as a whole, i.e. regardless of age, sex, MHC genotype or extent of disease. (Auth.)

266

Check Out The Chicken Wing!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will examine a chicken wing to discover the different tissues and organs that make it up. They will relate this to the concept that cells make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems in the organism.

Admin, Admin

2011-10-07

267

Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics  

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Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

2012-03-01

268

Antigenic variation of indigenous streptococci.  

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Isolates of Group D streptococci indigenous to the murine oral cavity were studied to detect the occurrence of antigenic variation. Group D streptococci cultured from molar homogenates of Balb/c mice were randomly selected for study on the basis of distinctive colony morphology. Isolates obtained over a 12-week period were biotyped using the API 20S system, and subjected to Lancefield extraction and rocket immunoelectrophoresis for serotyping. All isolates were compared with an arbitrarily selected standard test strain (W1S-1) isolated the first week of the first experimental series. Four biotypes were encountered during the first week of two experimental series. Two very unusual biotypes detected during the first experimental series persisted throughout that series, as did two more common biotypes throughout the second experimental series. Anti-W1S-1 serum produced three precipitin bands (antigens O, D, and K) against W1S-1 Lancefield extract and against the respective biotypes detected during the first week of the two series. Of the three antigens detected, only the group antigen (D) did not vary during either experimental series. Antigenic variants lacking the O or K antigen and bearing these distinctive phenotypes were repeatedly isolated in subsequent weeks. Ultimately, 16% of 190 strains isolated during the first series and 26% of 167 strains isolated during the second series proved to be antigenic variants of the predominant biotypes detected in both series. PMID:2410468

Beem, J E; Clark, W B; Bleiweis, A S

1985-08-01

269

Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia  

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Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.

Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

2013-09-01

270

Research on indigenous elders: from positivistic to decolonizing methodologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although indigenous peoples have lower life expectancies than the social majority populations in their countries, increasing numbers of indigenous people are living into old age. Research on indigenous elders is informed by a number of research traditions. Researchers have mined existing data sets to compare characteristics of indigenous populations with non-indigenous groups, and these findings have revealed significant disparities experienced by indigenous elders. Some investigators have attempted to validate standardized research tools for use in indigenous populations. Findings from these studies have furthered our knowledge about indigenous elders and have highlighted the ways in which tools may need to be adapted to better fit indigenous views of the constructs being measured. Qualitative approaches are popular, as they allow indigenous elders to tell their stories and challenge non-indigenous investigators to acknowledge values and worldviews different from their own. Recently, efforts have extended to participatory and decolonizing research methods, which aim to empower indigenous elders as researchers. Research approaches are discussed in light of the negative experiences many indigenous peoples have had with Eurocentric research. Acknowledgment of historical trauma, life-course perspectives, phenomenology, and critical gerontology should frame future research with, rather than on, indigenous elders. PMID:23841952

Braun, Kathryn L; Browne, Colette V; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Kim, Bum Jung; Mokuau, Noreen

2014-02-01

271

Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science  

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This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students'…

Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

2012-01-01

272

Reconciling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Knowledges in Social Work Education: Action and Legitimacy  

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This article describes an action research project undertaken in Australia to confront Eurocentrism in our social work curricula. Our aims, action, and reflections are discussed. Further, we explore the legitimacy of non-indigenous teachers taking action to reconcile indigenous knowledges in curricula. The findings have relevance for international…

Gair, Susan; Miles, Debra; Thomson, Jane

2005-01-01

273

Microsatellite Marker Based Genetic Diversity among Four Varieties of Pakistani Aseel Chicken  

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Full Text Available Indian Aseel chicken (Gallus gallus is traditionally used as a favorite game bird all over the world. Bird fighting communities of Pakistan are the major source of its conservation and there are at least four distinctively recognized varieties of Aseel chicken based upon selective breeding, geographical location and color patterns. A pioneering study on genetic diversity of these varieties namely Lakha (n=17, Mushki (n=19, Mianwali (n=19 and Peshawari (n=13 was undertaken using FAO recommended 10 microsatellite loci. A total of 91 alleles were observed in 4 varieties of Aseel chicken with an average of 9.1 alleles per locus. Number of alleles varied between 4 to 8 in Lakha, 4 to 9 in Mushki, 3 to 10 in Mianwali and 3 to 7 in Pashawari. Mean polymorphic information content values were 0.67, 0.69, 0.71 and 0.65 in individual varieties, respectively. Mean observed and expected heterozygosity index values of 0.3941 and 0.7376 were recorded in Lakha, 0.4105 and 0.7468 for Mushki, 0.4105 and 0.7718 Mianwali and 0.3692 and 0.7191 for Peshawari. Mean Fixation index (Fst value was calculated as 0.1264. Highest Nei’s standard genetic distance (Ds value of 1.0735 was observed between Mushki and Peshawari, whereas its value was minimum (0.3533 between Lakha and Mushki. This report describes genetic diversity of Aseel chicken in Pakistan and provides foundation data to initiate extensive and more comprehensive studies on indigenous chicken genetic resource conservation and its future utilization in commercial breeding programs.

Masroor Ellahi Babar§*, Asif Nadeem§, Tanveer Hussain§, Abdul Wajid, Sajjad Ali Shah, Amjad Iqbal1, Zeeshan Sarfraz1 and Muhammad Akram1

2012-05-01

274

Identification of Genes Related to Beak Deformity of Chickens Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization. PMID:25198128

Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

2014-01-01

275

Adenoviral gizzard erosion in commercial broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathologic and immunohistochemical changes caused by group I of the fowl adenovirus (FAV) serotype-1 99ZH strain, isolated from broiler chickens exhibiting gizzard erosion, were investigated in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred twenty-two chickens were inoculated with the strain by both oral and ocular routes at 1, 3, or 5 weeks of age and euthanatized for necropsy within 4-18 days of inoculation. Focal gizzard erosions were observed in the inoculated chickens of each age group. A histologically degenerative koilin layer, necrotic mucosa, intranuclear inclusion bodies in the glandular epithelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltrations in the lamina propria, submucosa, and a muscle layer were seen in the gizzards. Immunohistochemical staining showed evidence of FAV antigens in the intranuclear inclusion bodies. These findings were recognized regardless of their maternal antibody levels for FAV serotype-1. Gizzard lesions appeared later in the lower-dose-inoculated chickens than in the higher-dose-inoculated chickens. Numerous CD3-positive cells and IgY-positive plasma cells were seen in the gizzard lesions. In 5-week-old chickens the heterophil infiltrations in the lesions were milder than in younger chickens. Intranuclear inclusion bodies also were observed in the epithelial cells of the ileum or cecal tonsils of some chickens. Thus, this study shows that FAV-99ZH causes adenoviral gizzard erosion in broiler chickens without hepatic or pancreatic lesions and that cell infiltration is more severe than in dietary gizzard erosions. PMID:12724571

Ono, M; Okuda, Y; Yazawa, S; Imai, Y; Shibata, I; Sato, S; Okada, K

2003-05-01

276

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil / Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dific [...] ultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX). Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis ( Abstract in english Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US [...] states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (

J.A., Noldin; J.M., Chandler; G.N., McCauley.

2006-12-01

277

Corticosterone and pace of life in two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucocorticoids are main candidates for mediating life-history trade-offs by regulating the balance between current reproduction and survival. It has been proposed that slow-living organisms should show higher stress-induced glucocorticoid levels that favor self-maintenance rather than current reproduction when compared to fast-living organisms. We tested this hypothesis in replicate populations of two ecotypes of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) that exhibit slow and fast pace of life strategies. We subjected free-ranging snakes to a capture-restraint protocol and compared the stress-induced corticosterone levels between slow- and fast-living snakes. We also used a five-year dataset to assess whether baseline corticosterone levels followed the same pattern as stress-induced levels in relation to pace of life. In accordance with the hypothesis, slow-living snakes showed higher stress-induced corticosterone levels than fast-living snakes. Baseline corticosterone levels showed a similar pattern with ecotype, although differences depended on the year of study. Overall, however, levels of glucocorticoids are higher in slow-living than fast-living snakes, which should favor self-maintenance and survival at the expense of current reproduction. The results of the present study are the first to relate glucocorticoid levels and pace of life in a reptilian system and contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in life-history evolution. PMID:22178432

Palacios, Maria G; Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M

2012-02-01

278

Diversity and Distribution of Ecotypes of the Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophy Gene pufM in the Delaware Estuary? †  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria has been examined in marine habitats, but the types of AAP bacteria in estuarine waters and distribution of ecotypes in any environment are not well known. The goal of this study was to determine the diversity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and to examine the distribution of select ecotypes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for the pufM gene, which encodes a protein in the light reaction center of AAP bacteria. In PCR libraries from the Delaware River, pufM genes similar to those from Beta- (Rhodoferax-like) or Gammaproteobacteria comprised at least 50% of the clones, but the expressed pufM genes from the river were not dominated by these two groups in August 2002 (less than 31% of clones). In four transects, qPCR data indicated that the gammaproteobacterial type of pufM was abundant only near the mouth of the bay whereas Rhodoferax-like AAP bacteria were restricted to waters with a salinity of pufM gene was ubiquitous, but its distribution along the salinity gradient varied with the season. High fractions (12 to 24%) of all three pufM types were associated with particles. The data suggest that different groups of AAP bacteria are controlled by different environmental factors, which may explain current difficulties in predicting the distribution of total AAP bacteria in aquatic environments. PMID:18469118

Waidner, Lisa A.; Kirchman, David L.

2008-01-01

279

Diversity and distribution of ecotypes of the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy gene pufM in the Delaware estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria has been examined in marine habitats, but the types of AAP bacteria in estuarine waters and distribution of ecotypes in any environment are not well known. The goal of this study was to determine the diversity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and to examine the distribution of select ecotypes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for the pufM gene, which encodes a protein in the light reaction center of AAP bacteria. In PCR libraries from the Delaware River, pufM genes similar to those from Beta- (Rhodoferax-like) or Gammaproteobacteria comprised at least 50% of the clones, but the expressed pufM genes from the river were not dominated by these two groups in August 2002 (less than 31% of clones). In four transects, qPCR data indicated that the gammaproteobacterial type of pufM was abundant only near the mouth of the bay whereas Rhodoferax-like AAP bacteria were restricted to waters with a salinity of pufM gene was ubiquitous, but its distribution along the salinity gradient varied with the season. High fractions (12 to 24%) of all three pufM types were associated with particles. The data suggest that different groups of AAP bacteria are controlled by different environmental factors, which may explain current difficulties in predicting the distribution of total AAP bacteria in aquatic environments. PMID:18469118

Waidner, Lisa A; Kirchman, David L

2008-07-01

280

The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

Kesselmeier, J.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Stable isotopes reveal ecotypic variation of water uptake patterns in Aleppo pine  

Science.gov (United States)

Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) has a large natural distribution range that encompasses a multitude of thermal and moisture conditions found in the Mediterranean basin. We hypothesized that due to the recurrent incidences of drought stress and high temperatures that occur at varying degrees along its distribution range, populations of Aleppo pine have undergone ecotypic differentiation in soil water uptake patterns. This study analyzed stable isotopic compositions (?18O and ?2H) of xylem water to identify adaptive divergence associated to the pattern of soil water consumption by roots of Aleppo pine populations originating from the Mediterranean region. The results from this study show that genetic diversity in the extraction pattern of soil water can be found among populations and ecological regions of Aleppo pine under common garden conditions. However, the ability to detect such differences depended on the period of the year examined. In particular, data collection in full summer (end of July) proved to be the most adequate in revealing genetic divergence among populations, while end of spring and, to a lesser extent, end of summer, were less successful for this purpose. Both water uptake patterns (as estimated by ?18O and ?2H) and above-ground growth, exhibited significant relationships with both climatic and geographical variables. This suggests that the underlying variation among populations can be explained by certain characteristics at origin. In addition, we used a bayesian mixing model (SIAR package for R) that incorporated isotopic signatures from xylem and soil water in order to determine the predominant soil layer of water source consumption at the aforementioned periods of the growing season, where water availably ranged from lowest to highest. This allowed us to gain some understanding of Aleppo pines' differential reaction to drought, at the intraspecific level, across the fluctuating conditions of the growing season by comparing the relative contribution of each water source. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the Spanish project FENOPIN (AGL 2012-40151-C03). J.P.F. has been supported by the Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MCINN, Spain) and a Marie Curie Reintegration Grant (MC-ERG-246725, FP7, EU). We acknowledge M. Lucà and P. Sopeña for field and technical assistance.

Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Regina; Voltas, Jordi

2014-05-01

282

Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens and small ruminants in particular play importantsoci-economic roles in developing countries. Production of village chickens is a source of easy and regular income for rural ...

Kondombo, S. R.

2005-01-01

283

Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do n...

Gresham Cathy R; Kumar Ranjit; Buza Teresia J; Burgess Shane C; McCarthy Fiona M

2009-01-01

284

Deep Sequencing of Chicken microRNAs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The use of new, deep sequencing technologies has greatly accelerated microRNA discovery. We have applied this approach to the identification of chicken microRNAs and to the comparison of microRNAs in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV) to those present in uninfected CEF. Results We obtained 125,463 high quality reads that showed an exact match to the chicken genome. The majority of the reads corresponded...

Isaacs Grace; Markis Milos; Green Pamela J; Meyers Blake C; Lu Cheng; Bernberg Erin; Anderson Amy; Ouyang Ming; Burnside Joan; Huang Emily; Morgan Robin W

2008-01-01

285

78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03  

Science.gov (United States)

...134A2100DD/AAK300000/a0t500000.000000] Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No...SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance...

2013-08-13

286

Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that different ecotypes of Maca (Red, Yellow and Black) after short-term (7 days) and long-term (42 days) treatment affects differentially spermatogenesis adult rats. After 7 days of treatment with Yellow and Red Maca, the length of stage VIII was increased (PMaca stages II-VI and VIII were increased (PMaca compared with control values (PMaca did not alter DSP and epididymal sperm motility was not affected by treatment with any ecotype of Maca. After 42 days of treatment, Black Maca was the only ecotype that enhanced DSP (PMaca was the only that increased epididymal sperm motility (PMaca did not affect testicular and epididymal weight nor epididymal sperm motility and sperm count; however, prostate weight was reduced (PMaca did not affect prostate weight. In conclusion, there were differences in the biological response of the three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Red and Black). Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility. PMID:16174556

Gonzales, Carla; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Nieto, Jessica; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

2006-02-20

287

PHYTOTOXICITY AND FIELD EFFICACY OF EXSEROHILUM LONGIROSTRA JC/MIN THE CONTROL OF BARNYARDGRASS ECOTYPES (ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI VAR. CRUS-GALLI(L. BEAUV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five selected ecotypes of bamyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-gatti from several rice growing areas in Malaysia and Indonesia were tested for their susceptibility to the potentia l bioherbicide (Exserohilum longirostratum. Bamyardgrass seedlings at the 2-3-lcaf stage were treated with 2.5xl07 conidia/ml from E. longirostratum at different application frequencies (single, double and triple. In addition, aqueous extract assays were ev aluated for the presence of a phytotoxic compound responsible for the virulence of the bioherbicide. Results of the study showed that disease severity significantly increased 20 days after treatment and resulted in mortality of the seedlin gs. Ecotypes from Perak and Lampung were most susceptible to the bioherbicide upon triple applications. Percentage dry weight reductions were 86.34 and 83.14%, respectively. Other ecotypes (Melaka, Banten and South Sulawesi were observed to have a relatively similar response. Moreover, aqueous extracts of E. longirostratum increased mortality up to 92.50% of bamyardgrass seedlings. These findings suggest that regular (double and triple applications of E. longirostratum at a concentration of 2.5xl07 conidia/ml significantly increased mortality among bamyardgrass ecotypes. Mortality of the seedlings was attributed to the presence of a secondary phytotoxic metabolite.

SUHAIMI NAPIS

2005-01-01

288

No effect of seed source on multiple aspects of ecosystem functioning during ecological restoration: cultivars compared to local ecotypes of dominant grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic principles underlie recommendations to use local seed, but a paucity of information exists on the genetic distinction and ecological consequences of using different seed sources in restorations. We established a field experiment to test whether cultivars and local ecotypes of dominant prairie grasses were genetically distinct and differentially influenced ecosystem functioning. Whole plots were assigned to cultivar and local ecotype grass sources. Three subplots within each whole plot were seeded to unique pools of subordinate species. The cultivar of the increasingly dominant grass, Sorghastrum nutans, was genetically different than the local ecotype, but genetic diversity was similar between the two sources. There were no differences in aboveground net primary production, soil carbon accrual, and net nitrogen mineralization rate in soil between the grass sources. Comparable productivity of the grass sources among the species pools for four years shows functional equivalence in terms of biomass production. Subordinate species comprised over half the aboveground productivity, which may have diluted the potential for documented trait differences between the grass sources to influence ecosystem processes. Regionally developed cultivars may be a suitable alternative to local ecotypes for restoration in fragmented landscapes with limited gene flow between natural and restored prairie and negligible recruitment by seed. PMID:24567751

Baer, Sara G; Gibson, David J; Gustafson, Danny J; Benscoter, Allison M; Reed, Lewis K; Campbell, Ryan E; Klopf, Ryan P; Willand, Jason E; Wodika, Ben R

2014-02-01

289

Cadmium sorption, influx, and efflux at the mesophyll layer of leaves from ecotypes of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Differential sorption and transport characteristics of the leaf mesophyll layer of the Prayon and Ganges ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens were examined. {sup 109}Cd influx and efflux experiments were conducted with leaf sections, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data were collected from leaves as a general comparison of in vivo cadmium (Cd) coordination. There were modest differences in cell wall sorption of Cd between ecotypes. There were obvious differences in time- and concentration-dependent Cd influx, including a greater V{sub MAX} for Prayon but a lower K{sub M} for Ganges for concentration-dependent Cd uptake and a notably greater Cd uptake by Ganges leaf sections at 1000 {micro}m Cd. Leaf sections of Prayon had a greater Cd efflux than Ganges. The XANES spectra from the two ecotypes suggested differences in Cd coordination. The fundamental differences observed between the two ecotypes may reflect differential activity and/or expression of plasma membrane and tonoplast transporters. More detailed study of these transporters and the in vivo coordination of Cd are needed to determine the contribution of these processes to metal homeostasis and tolerance.

Ebbs, S.D.; Zambrano, M.C.; Spiller, S.M.; Newville, M. (SIU); (UC)

2009-01-23

290

Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group discussion; and sensory assessment under controlled lighting conditions. Initial consumer sensory assessment indicated that wheat-fed chicken was perceived to be tenderer and to have a more intense flavour than that which was corn-fed. Qualitative enquiry discerned that this was because consumers perceived the yellow colour of corn-fed chicken negatively. Yellow-coloured corn-fed chicken was therefore again compared with wheat-fed chicken in terms of flavour, texture and overall liking with the flesh colour disguised by means of controlled lighting. Quality ratings for corn-fed chicken were more positive when the yellow flesh colour was disguised, with corn-fed chicken judged to be tenderer than wheat-fed chicken and more flavoursome. This study illustrates the importance of using a combination of methods to gain insight into interactions between different sensory modalities in consumer quality judgements and adds to previous research on the importance of colour upon consumer choice of real foods. PMID:15808892

Kennedy, Orla B; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mitchell, Peter C; Thurnham, David I

2005-04-01

291

Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

Wiwanitkit Viroj

2010-01-01

292

Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented. PMID:21430880

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2010-10-01

293

Enteropathogenic bacteria in frozen chicken.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eighty-two samples of frozen chicken from retail stores were examined for the presence of Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica, and salmonellae. Aerobic plate counts and numbers of coliform bacteria at 37 degrees C were determined. Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni was found in 22% of the samples, Y. enterocolitica was found in 24.5% and Salmonella typhimurium was found in one sample (1.2%). The isolated strains of Y. enterocolitica belonged to serotypes 4, 5b, 6, and 8. Aerobic plate count...

Norberg, P.

1981-01-01

294

Serological Survey on the Prevalence of Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks in Northern Jordan  

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Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus (CIAV) is a resistant and ubiquitous virus causing disease in young chickens and immunosuppression in all birds. CIAV infection in broiler chicken flocks has been described in most countries with a developed chicken industry and can result in economically important losses either clinical or subclinical form of the disease in broiler chickens. In this study 414 sera samples from 32 commercial broiler chickens flocks located in Northern Jordan, were tested...

Roussan, Dergham A.

2006-01-01

295

Homestead Creator : a tool for indigenous designers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article presents in-situ findings of introducing a tablet prototype, with touch interaction and 3D graphical visualizations, to empower knowledgeable village elders in Namibia to locally re-create a 3D graphical context for previously recorded video clips of indigenous practices and narratives. Findings indicate that tablets enable those indigenous users to partake in design sessions more equally than with laptops and other input devices. Through a GUI design example we illuminate the unique opportunities and challenges in designing in the space where cultures meet.

Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

2012-01-01

296

INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ CUSTOMARY LAW AND LEGAL PLURALISM  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to characterize the common or customary law of indigenous peoples in order to identify the legal pluralism existent in Brazil. Whereas each society presents its own social organization; positive law -- written, codified and founded on the state -- is not the only source of law, neither the safest or fairest manner to sort societies. The orality and the absence of the state in form of entity, which characterize customary law, give dynamism to indigenous societies and sort these communities based on the social body’s inherent rules.

Melissa Volpato Curi

2012-12-01

297

Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenou...

Alvarado Dzul, Santos H.; Rosado-may, Francisco J.; Susanne Kissmann; Gemma Burford; Harder, Marie K.

2012-01-01

298

Root and shoot transcriptome analysis of two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens uncovers the role of NcNramp1 in Cd hyperaccumulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, has been studied extensively for its ability to accumulate high levels of Zn and Cd in its leaves. Previous studies have indicated that the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation trait exhibited by this species involves different transport and tolerance mechanisms. It has also been well documented that certain ecotypes of N. caerulescens are much better Cd hyperaccumulators than others. However, there does not seem to be much ecotypic variation for Zn hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. In this study we employed a comparative transcriptomics approach to look at root and shoot gene expression in Ganges and Prayon plants in response to Cd stress to identify transporter genes that were more highly expressed in either the roots or shoots of the superior Cd accumulator, Ganges. Comparison of the transcriptomes from the two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens identified a number of genes that encoded metal transporters that were more highly expressed in the Ganges ecotype in response to Cd stress. Characterization of one of these transporters, NcNramp1, showed that it is involved in the influx of Cd across the endodermal plasma membrane and thus may play a key role in Cd flux into the stele and root-to-shoot Cd transport. NcNramp1 may be one of the main transporters involved in Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens and copy number variation appears to be the main reason for high NcNramp1 gene expression underlying the increased Cd accumulation in the Ganges ecotype. PMID:24547775

Milner, Matthew J; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Craft, Eric; Fei, Zhangjun; Ebbs, Stephen; Clemencia Zambrano, M; Ma, Jian Feng; Kochian, Leon V

2014-05-01

299

Expression of myogenic factors in denervated chicken breast muscle: isolation of the chicken Myf5 gene.  

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In this study, we have isolated and characterized the chicken Myf5 gene, and cDNA clones encoding chicken MyoD1 and myogenin. The chicken Myf5 and MRF4 genes are tandemly located on a single genomic DNA fragment, and the chicken Myf5 gene is organized into at least three exons. Using genomic and cDNA probes, we further analyzed the mRNA levels of four myogenic factors during chicken breast muscle development. This analysis revealed that myogenin expression is restricted to in ovo stages in br...

Saitoh, O.; Fujisawa-sehara, A.; Nabeshima, Y.; Periasamy, M.

1993-01-01

300

Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gaga’ chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga’ chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga’ chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Comparison of Plasma Amino Acid Levels of Two Breeds of Japanese Native Chicken and a Commercial Layer Line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to conduct amino acid profiling of two Japanese indigenous hens (Tosa-jidori; TJI and Ukokkei; UKO and compared with a commercial hen (JL. Asparagine, leucine and proline levels in commercial layers were higher than those in both native Japanese chickens. Lysine and glutamate in UKO were higher than those in others and taurine was also higher than in JL. Serine in UKO was lower than those in others and methionine and cysteine were also lower than in JL. Arginine in TJI was lower than those in JL and UKO. No significant differences between breed/line were observed in histidine, threonine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. These results suggest that levels of dietary amino acid requirements might be different between native Japanese chickens.

Takao Oka

2013-01-01

302

Empowering Identity Reconstruction of Indigenous College Students through Transformative Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the interplay between identity reconstruction of indigenous college students and the effects of transformative learning on their self-development and collective action. Seventeen indigenous college students were interviewed for this study. The findings showed that most indigenous college students developed stigmatized identity…

Chen, Peiying

2012-01-01

303

Educational Leadership and Indigeneity: Doing Things the Same, Differently  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…

Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)

2013-01-01

304

Eagle and the Condor: Indigenous Alliances for Youth Leadership Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This narrative describes the growth of an alliance between two indigenous organizations in North and South America, illustrating how a shared indigenous vision of cultural survival and connection to the land led to the creation of an ongoing collaboration for indigenous youth leadership development, which has extended to encompass collaboration…

Wihak, Christine; Hately, Lynne; Allicock, Sydney; Lickers, Michael

2007-01-01

305

Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

Keddie, Amanda

2014-01-01

306

Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

Iseke, Judy M.

2011-01-01

307

Indigenous Rights and the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process  

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Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.

Andrew Gunstone

2009-09-01

308

New Digital Technologies: Educational Opportunities for Australian Indigenous Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a number of possibilities that digital technologies can offer to increase access for Indigenous people to higher education in Australia. Such technologies can assist Indigenous high school students acquire the knowledge and skills they require to be accepted into higher education courses. They can also assist Indigenous

Watson, Shalini

2013-01-01

309

Indigenous Knowledge and Library Work in Sierra Leone  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous knowledge is vital information that is sadly diminishing at an alarming rate in Sierra Leone. There is, therefore, an urgent need to collect it before much of it is completely lost. This article explores the concept of indigenous knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems with a particular focus on Sierra Leone. Definitions and…

Kargbo, John Abdul

2006-01-01

310

The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

Chen, Shan-Hua

2014-01-01

311

"I Give You Back": Indigenous Women Writing to Survive  

Science.gov (United States)

This article corrects the assumption that "indigenous women and feminist issues remain undertheorized," by demonstrating that they do theorize their lives, but that they theorize differently, meaning, indigenous women do not rely solely on Western tools, worldviews, or epistemologies as methods of interpretation. One tool indigenous women use to…

Archuleta, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

312

Effect of Introgressing Dwarf Gene from Bangladeshi Indigenous to Exotic Breeds on Egg Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of introgressing autosomal recessive dwarf gene (adw from Bangladeshi indigenous (deshi dwarf (DD chicken to Rhode Island Red (RIR, White Leghorn (WLH and Fayoumi (FO on body weight and egg production. Deshi normal (DN, DD, RIR, WLH and FO were used in crossings to produce 8 genotypes; RIR, WLH, FO, DN, DD, RIR x DD, WLH x DD and FO x DD. At 19 weeks of age, for separation of crossbreds into normal and dwarf on the basis of shank length, altogether gave 11 genetic groups; RIR, WLH, FO, DN, DD, RIR x DD normal, WLH x DD normal, FO x DD normal, RIR x DD dwarf, WLH x DD dwarf and FO x DD dwarf. At 19 weeks of age, 154 pullets; 14 from each genetic group were individually caged up to 42 weeks of age to compare egg production performance. Introgression of adw gene significantly reduced mature body weight and feed intake and adw pullets utilized feed more efficiently into egg mass in comparison with their normal size counterparts. Conservation and improvement of deshi adw chicken is suggested for their future use in breeding for egg production.

T. Yeasmin

2003-01-01

313

Zoonotic Chicken Toxoplasmosis in Some Egyptians Governorates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR (69.5% than commercial farm Chickens (C (68.5%; while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

Ehab Kotb El-Mahllawy

2012-01-01

314

Indigenous Australian Artworks in Intercultural Contact Zones  

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Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my arg ument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I wil l argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural und erstanding and competence.

Eleanore Wildurger

2009-01-01

315

Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an interculturalperspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998), by the Anmatyerre artistLucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expressesexistential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and arttheory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

Eleonore Wildburger

2009-01-01

316

Remote Indigenous Students' Understandings of Measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that mathematical learning builds upon students' prior knowledge and understandings, and their identities. In this study, this phenomenon is explored with indigenous students in remote community schools in outback Australia. Through one-on-one task-based interviews, it was found that these students had some clear…

Grootenboer, Peter; Sullivan, Peter

2013-01-01

317

Fermented Cereal from Indigenous Raw Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented cereal was prepared from indigenous raw material like parboiled rice and Bengal gram. The approximate analysis, microbiology, edibility of cereal product has been done. It was found to be a high nutritive value and acceptable as a food.

Sahana Parveen

2003-01-01

318

Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

Saha Abhijeet

2010-01-01

319

Indigenous Knowledge, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Book Review of Indigenous Knowledge, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology. Raymond Pierotti. 2011. Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group, New York.  Pp. Xv + 264, Bibliography, index.  ISBN13: 978-0-415-87924-8 (hbk, 978-0-203-84711-4 (ebk.

E. N. Anderson

2011-01-01

320

Beyond South Africa's 'indigenous knowledge - science' wars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, the paradoxes and difficulties attending the notion of indigenous knowledge in South Africa are reviewed and an alternative dialogue about intellectual heritage is proposed. Beginning with a survey of debates on 'indigenous knowledge' and sciences in India, Australia and Latin America [...] , the discussion draws attention to differences in regional discussions on the subject of knowledge diversity. Turning to the South African context, the paper foregrounds contradictions in the debate on traditional medicines and the sciences in relation to HIV. The bifurcation of 'indigenous knowledge' and 'science' is argued against. Debates on both indigenous knowledge and science within the critical humanities in South Africa have been characterised by denunciation: an approach which does not facilitate the important discussions needed on intellectual heritage, or on the relationship between sciences and coloniality. In dialogue with current research on the anthropology of knowledge, strategies are proposed to broaden the possibilities for scholarship on knowledge, sciences, and different ways of understanding the world.

Lesley J.F., Green.

 
 
 
 
321

Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

2006-01-01

322

Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…

Sterenberg, Gladys

2013-01-01

323

Antimicrobial agents deriving from indigenous plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytonutrients in many indigenous plants are receiving a lot of attention as they are important in antimicrobial and anticancer therapies. Tropical areas, especially India, South America and Africa, are the main sources of patentable plant products and have indigenous populations with well developed traditional medicinal knowledge. Phytochemicals, including carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, nitrogen-containing compounds, and organosulfur compounds, are receiving much attention as they impart important health benefits. This article gives an insight into some important phytochemicals, and analyses the ethical issues on property rights of plant products. Many patent applications have been lodged, and quite a number have been granted. Pharmaceutical industries are engaging in massive speculative bioprospecting on plant based phytochemicals and products, usually resulting in conflicts with indigenous populations. More focus is given here-in to Tylosema esculentum (marama) plant, found in drier parts of Southern Africa and known to contain high quantities of essential phytochemicals. Important phytochemicals in marama include fatty acid (mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, behenic acid), protein and phenolic acid components. The marama plant has high potential as a source of medical and cosmetic products. If conflicts surrounding property rights on plant based products are resolved, phytochemicals can be a good source of income for indigenous populations in areas where such plants are found. PMID:20653553

Avrelija, Cencic; Walter, Chingwaru

2010-01-01

324

Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

325

Absence of disparities in anthropometric measures among Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous newborns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513. Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study.

Kaufman Jay S

2010-07-01

326

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) complet...

Gwynn Josephine D; Flood Victoria M; D'Este Catherine A; Attia John R; Turner Nicole; Cochrane Janine; Louie Jimmy; Wiggers John H

2012-01-01

327

Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

Garigliano, Leonard J.

1975-01-01

328

Chicken Skeleton - Ball and Socket Joint (Wing)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken has large feet because it spends so much of its time on the ground. The ball and socket joints and hinge joints allow the chicken to move its leg. It uses its sharp claws mainly for defense against predators.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

329

Chicken Skeleton - Ball and Socket Joint (Limb)  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken has wings modified for flight, although it spends much it its time on ground. The bones are very light and long with finger-like ends. The ball and socket joint and hinge joint allow the chicken to move its wing in different directions.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-28

330

Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil business  

...Activists from four Indigenous nations in Canada will attend Shell Oil's annual meeting to demand an end to its massive human and ecological rights ... Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil business Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book ...MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2012 / May / 17 / Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil Posted on May 17,...Get the Shell out! Indigenous activists expose dirty oil On May 18th in London, the Indigenous Environmental Network in partnership with Athabasca ...

331

A compatible interaction of Alternaria brassicicola with Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype DiG: evidence for a specific transcriptional signature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction of Arabidopsis with Alternaria brassicicola provides a model for disease caused by necrotrophs, but a drawback has been the lack of a compatible pathosystem. Infection of most ecotypes, including the widely-studied line Col-0, with this pathogen generally leads to a lesion that does not expand beyond the inoculated area. This study examines an ecotype, Dijon G (DiG, which is considered sensitive to A. brassicicola. Results We show that the interaction has the characteristics of a compatible one, with expanding rather than limited lesions. To ask whether DiG is merely more sensitive to the pathogen or, rather, interacts in distinct manner, we identified genes whose regulation differs between Col-0 and DiG challenged with A. brassicicola. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes, and their expression was verified using semi-quantitative PCR. We also tested a set of known defense-related genes for differential regulation in the two plant-pathogen interactions. Several known pathogenesis-related (PR genes are up-regulated in both interactions. PR1, and a monooxygenase gene identified in this study, MO1, are preferentially up-regulated in the compatible interaction. In contrast, GLIP1, which encodes a secreted lipase, and DIOX1, a pathogen-response related dioxygenase, are preferentially up-regulated in the incompatible interaction. Conclusion The results show that DiG is not only more susceptible, but demonstrate that its interaction with A. brassicicola has a specific transcriptional signature.

Gepstein Shimon

2009-03-01

332

Characterization and expression of chicken selenoprotein W.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an essential trace element, selenium (Se) deficiency results in White Muscle Disease in livestock and Keshan disease in humans. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken selenoprotein W (SeW) gene and investigate SeW mRNA expression in chicken tissues. The deduced amino acid (AA) sequence of chicken SeW contains 85 AAs with UAG as the stop codon. Like all SeW genes identified in different species, chicken SeW contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 13th position encoded by the UGA codon. The proposed glutathione (GSH)-binding site at the Cys(37) of SeW is not conserved in the chicken, but Cys(9) and Sec(13), with possible GSH binding, are conserved in SeWs identified from all species. There are 23-59% and 50-61% homology in cDNA and deduced AA sequences of SeW, respectively, between the chicken and other species. The predicted secondary structure of chicken SeW mRNA indicates that the selenocysteine insertion sequence element is type II with invariant adenosines within the apical bulge. The SeW mRNA expression is high in skeletal muscle followed by brain, but extremely low in other tissues from chickens fed a commercial maize-based diet. The SeW gene is ubiquitously expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, brain, testis, spleen, kidney, lung, liver, stomach and pancreas in chickens fed a commercial diet supplemented with sodium selenite. These results indicate that dietary selenium supplementation regulates SeW gene expression in the chicken and skeletal muscle is the most responsive tissue when dietary Se content is low. PMID:21207117

Ou, Bor-Rung; Jiang, Mei-Jung; Lin, Chao-Hsiang; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lee, Kuei-Jen; Yeh, Jan-Ying

2011-04-01

333

A brief history of indigenous health in brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to provide a brief history context on the indigenous struggle for rights. It was at its peak in the 1970s, until the Indigenous Health Subsystem implementation in 1999. Method: it is a bibliographic review research made through BIREME and Scielo databases, including documents and publications of FUNASA, FUNAI, and the Brazilian legislation on indigenous, from 1970s to 2000s using the term: indigenous health. Results: after a myriad of movements that fought for indigenous rights recognition, the Indian Statute was sanctioned in 1973 regulating the indigenous issues in Brazil. Thereafter the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 it took a new direction, recognizing the right for cultural and social diversity, among others. Conclusion: the indigenous people integration to the health systems happened, and is still happening, according to the SUS purpose of reduce health inequalities among the whole population.

Maria Neyrian de Fátima Fernandes, Arieli Rodrigues Nóbrega, Rosinaldo Santos Marques, Ana Michele de Farias Cabral, Clélia Albino Simpson

2010-10-01

334

Editor in Chief Commentary: Water - Recognizing the Indigenous Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous peoples have, since time immemorial, understood that water is central to the cycles of life. Yet, as many of the articles in this special issue on water in Indigenous communities point out, Indigenous peoples have real problems accessing safe water. Why?Indigenous peoples have always cared for the water and followed practices that, depending on their geography, varied by season to protect and conserve fresh safe water. They have celebrated it as witnessed by the ceremony and language used. Colonial practices have disrupted the care and knowledge passing in Indigenous communities.Cost-effective technology exists to deliver safe water to Indigenous communities. The issue is that utilization of technology and environmental sustainability rest on the social determinants of safe water. From a policy perspective, this means we have to look outside of Western technological solutions and come to listen to the other ‘story’ - the one that emanates from Indigenous Traditional Knowledge.

Jerry P. White

2012-10-01

335

Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge  

CERN Document Server

Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for the future. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project involving experts in the higher education, library, and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a cult...

Nakata, N M; Warren, J; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M; Harley, R; Venugopal, S; Thorpe, K; Neville, R; Bolt, R

2014-01-01

336

The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media  

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Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

Melissa J. Stoneham

2014-04-01

337

Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG) and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with dec...

Martin Kliment; Mária Angelovi?ová

2012-01-01

338

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-10-12

339

Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model for "science for all".

Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

2011-09-01

340

The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining an historical overview and first-hand account of the indigenous involvement with the UN with an analysis of global indigenous identity as a relativist and constructed term rather than a positivist definitional concept, Dahl addresses how indigenous peoples have implemented the UN achievements at home.

Dahl, Jens

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

THE REPRESENTATION INDIGENOUS GUARANI MEMOIR IN BOOKS  

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Full Text Available The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon of invisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Caroline Hermínio Maldonado

2010-06-01

342

Are Supernovae Recorded in Indigenous Astronomical Traditions?  

CERN Document Server

Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.

Hamacher, Duane W

2014-01-01

343

Indigenous patterns of conserving biodiversity: pharmacologic implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accelerating rate at which the world's botanical resources are being depleted today has inspired redoubled efforts on the part of global conservation programs. For the most part, this reflects the actions of outsiders who are culturally and politically detached from the threatened environments, and who identify species for conservation through western economic models. In view of this, ethnopharmacologists--and primarily those representing the social sciences--have drawn attention to the cogency of indigenous knowledge of biotic diversity and its conservation. This paper reviews how local paradigms of plant management promote conservation, and problematizes the issue specifically to the use of plants by Hausa peoples in northern Nigeria. The pharmacologic implications of indigenous patterns of plant use and conservation derive from the manifold and overlapping contexts in which plants, especially wild species, are used by local communities. These applications identify the importance of particular species and should be employed in assigning priority for the conservation of plants. PMID:10030728

Etkin, N L

1998-12-01

344

Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

345

Nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel NIMF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding ISP of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inertial mass low earth orbit (IMLEO) of lunar missions by 35 percent and Mars missions by 50 to 65 percent. The same personnel and facilities used to revive the hydrogen NTR can also be used to develop NTR engines capable of using indigenous Martian volatiles as propellant. By putting this capacity of the NTR to work in a Mars descent/acent vehicle, the Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF) can greatly reduce the IMLEO of a manned Mars mission, while giving the mission unlimited planetwide mobility

346

Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may ha...

Zhao Chen; Xiuping Jiang

2014-01-01

347

Chondroitin sulphate distribution in broiler chicken carcasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The content of chondroitin sulphate (CS), known as a nutraceutical, was estimated in broiler chicken carcasses by analysing sulphated glycosaminoglycan uronic acid in posterior sternum (keel) cartilage and bones from 4 parts (wing, leg, front and hind) of carcasses. 2. The results of the present study suggested that approximately 0.63 g CS uronic acid (or 1.9 g as CS) can be extracted from a 1.66 kg whole broiler chicken carcass. The amount of extractable CS from keel cartilage, which has been reported as a valuable source of CS in broiler chicken carcasses, was surprisingly low (<10% of total CS). PMID:24392803

Nakano, T; Ozimek, L

2014-02-01

348

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

2003-02-11

349

Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

350

[Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

2009-07-01

351

Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students' non-Indigenous teacher played a central role in developing a science module `Measuring Time' that combined Amis knowledge and Western science knowledge. The study identified two cultural worldview perspectives on time; for example, the place-based cyclical time held by the Amis, and the universal rectilinear time presupposed by scientists. Students' pre-instructional fragmented concepts from both knowledge systems became more informed and refined through their engagement in `Measuring Time'. Students' increased interest and pride in their Amis culture were noted.

Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

2012-12-01

352

Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L. predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1 as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill, em diferentes meios; 2 as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3 as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após, ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após, coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI.The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L. predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1 the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pectinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill, in different media; 2 the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3 the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours, or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours, staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

Ana Maria Queijeiro López

2010-01-01

353

Interação entre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e ecótipos de pinha / Interaction between Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and ecotypes of sugar apple  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção brasileira de pinha (Annona squamosa L.) predomina no Nordeste, sendo afetada pela antracnose causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Este estudo avaliou: 1) as taxas de crescimento micelial e conidiação, dimensões de conídios e produção de amilase, xilanase, pectinases e protease por [...] isolado desse fungo de lesões de abacate (Persea americana Mill), em diferentes meios; 2) as porcentagens de germinação e formação de apressórios do mesmo sobre folhas jovens de pinha; 3) as alterações in vivo nos teores de proteínas, fenóis e carboidratos solúveis totais, antes e após a inoculação. Folhas jovens de plântulas de dois ecótipos de pinha (PI e CT) foram destacadas, submetidas à inoculação e incubadas ou para sua extração (0 e 36 horas após), ou para seu clareamento (0, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 e 46 horas após), coloração e análise ao microscópio. Particionou-se cada extrato contra hexano, e a fração polar foi concentrada e resolubilizada para determinação dos parâmetros bioquímicos mencionados. Verificou-se maior esporulação do isolado fúngico em meio Mathur, e este produziu todas as enzimas ensaiadas in vitro. In vivo, este foi mais agressivo ao ecótipo PI, mas verificou-se ca. de 80% de germinação e 50% de formação de apressórios após 24 e 30 horas de incubação respectivamente sobre os ecótipos PI e CT. Os teores de proteínas, glicídeos redutores e fenóis totais dos extratos de CT foram mais elevados 36 horas após a inoculação, enquanto apenas uma ligeira elevação no conteúdo de fenóis foi constatada nos extratos de PI. Abstract in english The Brazilian production of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.) predominates in the Northeast, being affected by anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This study evaluated:1) the rates of micelial growth, conidiation, size of conidia and production of amylase, xylanase, protease and pec [...] tinases by the fungus isolated from lesions of avocado (Persea americana Mill), in different media; 2) the percentage of its germination and formation of appressoria on the young leaves of sugar apple; 3) the in vivo changes in levels of total proteins, phenols and soluble carbohydrates, before and after inoculation. Young leaves of two different ecotypes of sugar apple (PI and CT) were detached, inoculated and incubated either for their extraction (after 0 and 36 hours), or for its clearing (after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 46 hours), staining and analysis under the microscope. Each extract was partitioned against hexane, and the polar fraction was concentrated and re-solubilized for determination of biochemical parameters above mentioned. It was observed a higher sporulation of the fungal isolate in Mathur's medium, and it has produced all the enzymes tested in vitro. In vivo, this was more aggressive on the ecotype PI. There was ca. 80% germination and 50% of appressoria formation of the same after 24 and 30 hours of incubation on the ecotypes PI and CT respectively. The levels of total proteins, phenols and reducing glycids in extracts of CT were higher at 36 hours after inoculation, while only a slight increase in phenolic content was detected in extracts of PI.

Ana Maria Queijeiro, López; Danielle dos Santos Tavares, Pereira.

354

Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

2004-04-01

355

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

Science.gov (United States)

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands. PMID:24687096

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-01-01

356

Implementation of Indigenous Rights in Russia: Shortcomings and Recent Developments  

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Full Text Available After more than 20 years of active engagement in Indigenous issues, RAIPON, the umbrella organization of the Indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East, was ordered to suspend its activities by the Russian Ministry of Justice in November 2012. Eventually, this order was withdrawn provided that RAIPON changed its statute, which subsequently took place in early 2013. Why such sudden and definitive decisions? Apparently, the measures taken against RAIPON were due to its active engagement to defend Indigenous peoples' rights especially vis-à-vis the Russian extractive industry. A starting point for all possible explanations is thus the existing gap between the legal protection of Indigenous peoples' and its enforcement. The aims of this article are thus to gain a deeper understanding of the legal protection of Indigenous peoples’ rights in the Russian Federation, and to explore the interests and the politics lying behind the government attitude vis-à-vis Indigenous peoples.

Anna Koch

2014-10-01

357

Towards the 'tangible unknown': Decolonization and the Indigenous future  

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Full Text Available On the occasion of the inaugural issue of Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, we examine the many contradictions, contestations and possible pathways to decolonization. In working to explore the many themes that the articles in this issue bring forth, we recognize that, despite our certainty that decolonization centers Indigenous methods, peoples, and lands, the future is a ‘tangible unknown’, a constant (renegotiating of power, place, identity and sovereignty. In these contestations, decolonization and Indigeneity are not merely reactionary nor in a binary relationship with colonial power. Decolonization is indeed oppositional to colonial ways of thinking and acting but demands an Indigenous starting point and an articulation of what decolonization means for Indigenous peoples around the globe. This editorial works towards the possibility of a global Indigenous movement that strengthens and supports local moments for decolonization, and does so by exploring some of the many layers and questions that this necessarily entails.

Aman Sium

2012-09-01

358

Globalization and Science Education: The Implications for Indigenous Knowledge Systems  

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Full Text Available Much of the current diversity literature in science education does not address the complexity of the issues of indigenous learners in their postcolonial environments and calls for a “one size fits all” instructional approach (Lee, 2001.  Indigenous knowledge needs to be promoted and supported. There is currently a global initiative of maintaining worldviews, languages, and environments of which science education can be a part (McKinley, 2007. This paper is organized around five main topics that further guide the theoretical framework for this important area: a describing postcolonialism and indigeneity related to science education, b defining the terms indigenous knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, c western modern science and the effects of globalization on these terms d examining the research on learning implications of IK and/or TEK in classrooms with a focus on the research into student learning in indigenous language, e connecting place-based education to curricular implications for indigenous knowledge systems.

Cassie Quigley

2009-02-01

359

Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America  

Science.gov (United States)

Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

2014-04-01

360

A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players  

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Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

Jessica Orchard

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

Gwynn Josephine D

2012-02-01

362

Comparative analysis of the chicken TCR?/? locus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The access to whole genome sequences has provided the opportunity to study the evolution and organization of immunologically related genes on a large scale. The genes encoding the T cell receptor (TCR) ? and ? chains are part of a complex locus that has shown remarkable conserved organization across different amniote lineages. In this study we have examined and annotated the TCR?/? locus in chicken (Gallus gallus) and compared it to that of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and other avian species using the current available genome data. We also analyzed the expressed chicken TCR?/? transcript repertoire and compared it with that previously described for zebra finch. The analyses conducted in this study show that the TCR?/? locus in birds has undergone major rearrangements and expansion of the germ line repertoire in chicken, compared to zebra finch. A major expansion of the chicken variable gene repertoire appears to be driven by selection for genes from a limited number of subgroups. PMID:22592501

Parra, Zuly E; Miller, Robert D

2012-08-01

363

2025 Vision for Mexican Chicken Consumption  

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Full Text Available This study estimates the demand for chicken meat for Mexico in 2025. Expenditure elasticities are calculated separately for ten income groups using national household survey data for the period 1984 to 2002. The results reveal that lower income groups will increase their chicken meat consumption in the future at a much higher rate than the upper income groups with the rise in income. Overall, the total chicken meat consumption is projected to increase by 70 percent in the next two decades. This translates into average annual growth of 3.5 percent which is much smaller than the current annual production growth of more than 8 percent. Based on these projections, it is very likely that Mexico will remain as either a small importer or self-sufficient in chicken meat in the future.

Alejandro Salazar

2005-01-01

364

A Swazi nursing perspective on the role of indigenous healers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses are potential collaborators with local, indigenous healers in Swaziland. This study, using the ethnographic method, examines Swazi nurses' knowledge of indigenous healers including the roles of healers and their utilization. Results indicate that nurses are aware of particular indigenous healing practices and may have themselves frequented healers. However, not all nurses agree with these practices and have expressed their individual views to patients accordingly. PMID:7663896

Upvall, M J

1995-01-01

365

Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo  

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Full Text Available Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dificultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX. Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis (<1%. No entanto, quando as sementes foram enterradas em maior profundidade (25 cm, nove ecótipos tinham sementes viáveis após 2 anos. Trinta e seis meses após o enterrio, cinco ecótipos apresentavam sementes com alguma viabilidade, mas todos inferiores a 1%. Sementes de arroz-vermelho produzidas e enterradas em College Station na profundidade de 12 cm, um dia após a colheita, apresentaram maior longevidade que aquelas mantidas na superfície do solo. Após 17 meses, um dos ecótipos de arroz-preto (TX 4, enterrado a 12 cm, foi o que apresentou maior percentual de viabilidade (2%. Nos dois experimentos, observou-se que os cultivares comerciais, Lemont e Mars, não apresentaram sementes viáveis após cinco meses, independentemente da localização no solo. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que em áreas com arroz-vermelho deve-se evitar o preparo do solo logo após a colheita, favorecendo assim a germinação ou a perda da viabilidade das sementes. O enterrio das sementes de arroz-vermelho, através de operações de preparo do solo, contribui para aumentar o banco de sementes e a longevidade no solo.

J.A. Noldin

2006-12-01

366

Endogenous retroviruses of the chicken genome  

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Abstract We analyzed the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome sequence to search for previously uncharacterized endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences using ab initio and combined evidence approaches. We discovered 11 novel families of ERVs that occupy more than 21 million base pairs, approximately 2%, of the chicken genome. These novel families include a number of recently active full-length elements possessing identical long terminal repeats (LTRs) as well as intac...

King, Jordan I.; Polavarapu Nalini; Huda Ahsan; McDonald John F

2008-01-01

367

The chicken gene nomenclature committee report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Comparative genomics is an essential component of the post-genomic era. The chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced and it will serve as a model for other avian species. Moreover, due to its unique evolutionary niche, the chicken genome can be used to understand evolution of functional elements and gene regulation in mammalian species. However comparative biology both within avian species and within amniotes is hampered due to the difficulty of recognising ...

2009-01-01

368

Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History  

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Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

Sean Gorman

2010-08-01

369

The Anchorage Declaration: Indigenous Meeting Demands Action on Climate Crisis  

... Amy Eisenberg Sonoma County Indian Health Project Center for World Indigenous Studies International Society of Ethnobiology USA Comments are closed. Previous: Indigenous Leaders Confront Barrick Gold Next: Indigenous Conference Sounds Climate Warning Find articles by subject … 21st Century BarbarismAfricaAsiaAustraliaBiodiversity BiofuelBoliviaBooks & Reports Canada & QuebecCapitalismCarbon Taxes and TradingClimate ChangeClimate JusticeCoalCochabambaConsumers, consumptionCorporate pollutersCubaDeniersEcosocialismEcosocialist groupsEcosocialist NotebookEcosocialist resourcesEnergyEuropeExtreme weatherFeaturedFilmsFood and FarmingForestsFrackingGreen Parties & NGOsGreenhouse GasHealth threatsHumorImmigrationIndigenous ...

370

REDD+ and the Indigenous Question: A Case Study from Ecuador  

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Full Text Available One of the main issues regarding the implementation of REDD+ in Latin America has been the growing concern that such projects may infringe upon the rights and negatively affect the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities. Various indigenous and civil society organizations are ardently opposed to the initiative. Such is the case in Ecuador, where indigenous opposition to REDD+ represents a considerable obstacle in the creation of a national strategy since more than 60% of the country’s remaining forest cover is on indigenous land or under indigenous occupation. Thus one of the most critical challenges remaining for Ecuador will be the construction of a strong legal, financial, and institutional framework—one that the greater indigenous community might be willing to accept. Closer examination of this topic however, reveals just how difficult this may become. Lack of information, a recent political split between national authorities and the indigenous sector, and the dissimilar organizational capacity levels of indigenous communities make the feasibility of carrying out REDD+ projects on these lands extremely complex. However, the biggest obstacle may be ideological. Many indigenous groups view REDD+, with its possible emphasis on international markets and neoliberal mechanisms, as a continuation of the type of policies that have impeded their quest for sovereignty and self determination. As such, indigenous people are only willing to consider such projects if they clearly see preconditions in place that would safeguard their cultures, territories, and autonomy.

Pablo Reed

2011-04-01

371

Virulence of Francisella spp. in Chicken Embryos  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the utility of infecting chicken embryos as a means of evaluating the virulence of different Francisella sp. strains and mutants. Infection of 7-day-old chicken embryos with a low dose of F. novicida or F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain (LVS) resulted in sustained growth for 6 days. Different doses of these two organisms were used to inoculate chicken embryos to determine the time to death. These experiments showed that wild-type F. novicida was at least 10,000-fold more virulent than the LVS strain. We also examined the virulence of several attenuated mutants of F. novicida, and they were found to have a wide range of virulence in chicken embryos. Fluorescent microscopic examination of infected chicken embryo organs revealed that F. tularensis grew in scattered foci of infections, and in all cases the F. tularensis appeared to be growing intracellularly. These results demonstrate that infection of 7-day-old chicken embryos can be used to evaluate the virulence of attenuated F. tularensis strains. PMID:16861669

Nix, Eli B.; Cheung, Karen K. M.; Wang, Diana; Zhang, Na; Burke, Robert D.; Nano, Francis E.

2006-01-01

372

Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous

Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

2014-01-01

373

Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review  

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Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

Zhao Chen

2014-01-01

374

Nitric Oxide Functions as a Signal in Salt Resistance in the Calluses from Two Ecotypes of Reed1  

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Calluses from two ecotypes of reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) plant (dune reed [DR] and swamp reed [SR]), which show different sensitivity to salinity, were used to study plant adaptations to salt stress. Under 200 mm NaCl treatment, the sodium (Na) percentage decreased, but the calcium percentage and the potassium (K) to Na ratio increased in the DR callus, whereas an opposite changing pattern was observed in the SR callus. Application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as a nitric oxide (NO) donor, revealed that NO affected element ratios in both DR and SR calluses in a concentration-dependent manner. N?-nitro-l-arginine (an NO synthase inhibitor) and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxyde (a specific NO scavenger) counteracted NO effect by increasing the Na percentage, decreasing the calcium percentage and the K to Na ratio. The increased activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase caused by NaCl treatment in the DR callus was reversed by treatment with N?-nitro-l-arginine and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxyde. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that NO stimulated the expression of PM H+-ATPase in both DR and SR calluses. These results indicate that NO serves as a signal in inducing salt resistance by increasing the K to Na ratio, which is dependent on the increased PM H+-ATPase activity. PMID:14739346

Zhao, Liqun; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Jinkui; Yang, Yingli; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Lixin

2004-01-01

375

Nitric oxide functions as a signal in salt resistance in the calluses from two ecotypes of reed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calluses from two ecotypes of reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) plant (dune reed [DR] and swamp reed [SR]), which show different sensitivity to salinity, were used to study plant adaptations to salt stress. Under 200 mm NaCl treatment, the sodium (Na) percentage decreased, but the calcium percentage and the potassium (K) to Na ratio increased in the DR callus, whereas an opposite changing pattern was observed in the SR callus. Application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as a nitric oxide (NO) donor, revealed that NO affected element ratios in both DR and SR calluses in a concentration-dependent manner. N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (an NO synthase inhibitor) and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxyde (a specific NO scavenger) counteracted NO effect by increasing the Na percentage, decreasing the calcium percentage and the K to Na ratio. The increased activity of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase caused by NaCl treatment in the DR callus was reversed by treatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxyde. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that NO stimulated the expression of PM H(+)-ATPase in both DR and SR calluses. These results indicate that NO serves as a signal in inducing salt resistance by increasing the K to Na ratio, which is dependent on the increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity. PMID:14739346

Zhao, Liqun; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Jinkui; Yang, Yingli; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Lixin

2004-02-01

376

Characterization of an ecotype of brake-fern, Pteris vittata, for arsenic tolerance and accumulation in plant biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ecotype of brake fern (Pteris vittata) was assessed for arsenic tolerance and accumulation in its biomass under in vivo and in vitro condition; using soil, and agar-gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of arsenic. The plants were raised in soil amended with 100-1000 mg arsenic kg(-1) soil, and MS medium was supplemented with 10-300 mg arsenic L(-1) medium using Na2HAsO4 x x 7H2O. The spores and haploid gametophytic-prothalli were raised in vitro on MS medium supplemented with arsenic. The field plants showed normal growth and biomass formation in arsenic amended soil, and accumulated 1908-4700 mg arsenic kg(-1) dry aerial biomass after 10 weeks of growth. Arsenic toxicity was observed above > 200 mg arsenic kg(-1) soil. The concentrations of arsenic accumulated in the plant biomass were statistically significant (p plants were developed from spores and gametophyte prothalli on the MS media supplemented with 50-200 mg arsenic L(-1) medium. The in vitro raised plants were tolerant to 300 mg arsenic kg(-1) of soil and accumulated up to 3232 mg arsenic kg(-1) dry aerial biomass that showed better growth performance, biomass generation and arsenic accumulation in comparison to the field plants. PMID:19140437

Sarangi, B K; Chakrabarti, T

2008-01-01

377

Create a new vision for indigenous development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

2009-07-01

378

Effect of steam and lactic acid treatments on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonotic infectious diseases. The present work evaluated the effectiveness of steam treatment at 100 °C for 8s, a 5% lactic acid treatment for 1 min and their combination for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin. The impact of each treatment on the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the effect of rinsing after contact with lactic acid were also evaluated. Residual bacteria were counted immediately after treatment or after seven days of storage at 4 °C. Results demonstrated the immediate efficiency of the steam and the combined treatments with reductions of approximately 6 and 5 log cfu/cm2 respectively for S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. They also showed significant reductions (equal to or >3.2 log cfu/cm2) in the total aerobic mesophilic plate count. Lactic acid had a persistent effect on pathogen growth during storage which was significantly higher when the skin was not rinsed, reaching reductions of 3.8 log cfu/cm2 for both S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. Only the combined treatments significantly reduced the recovery of the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria during storage. The significant reductions in both pathogens and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria on treated chicken skins are possible ways to improve the safety and shelf life of the product although high levels of indigenous non-pathogenic bacteria may be beneficial due to their protective effect against potential re-contamination of chicken skin. PMID:23454819

Chaine, Aline; Arnaud, Elodie; Kondjoyan, Alain; Collignan, Antoine; Sarter, Samira

2013-04-01

379

Gene Segregation Effects on Fertility and Hatchability of Pure and Crossbred Chicken Genotypes in the Humid Tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare fertility and hatchability among pure and crossbred chicken genotypes. A total of three sires and thirty dams per genetic group were used in a study which was conducted over three months involving both direct and reciprocal crosses. A total number of 5804 eggs were set out of the total laid. Number of eggs fertile at first and second candling were significantly (P < 0.01 affected by both sire and dam strains. Similarly, number of eggs hatched, percentage fertility and hatchability were significantly (P < 0.01 affected by both sire and dam strains. There was also significant (P < 0.05 interaction effects between dam and sire strains on fertility and hatchability percentages. Matings involving pure strains of Naked Neck indigenous chicken resulted in lowest hatchability when compared to matings involving other pure and crossbred genotypes. Variations observed in percentage fertility and hatchability of eggs were attributed to segregation effects of genes in both pure and crossbred chicken genotypes used for the study.

S.O. Peters

2008-01-01

380

Interpreting indigenous art in university collections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Debates on the representation of indigenous cultures in museums have come to the fore in the past thirty years. This paper examines the context for the opening of Waipapa Marae at the University of Auckland in 1988. It outlines a history of M?ori meeting houses used for teaching and learning in a specifically M?ori context in the New Zealand tertiary sector. The challenge for the university curator with a marae as part of the collection is how to interpret it for the 21st century. Facilitat...

Linda Tyler

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Expanding health literacy: indigenous youth creating videos.  

Science.gov (United States)

How can creating videos contribute to expanding health literacy? This article describes a participatory action research project with a group of Canadian Indigenous youth and their teachers. As the youth explored their interests about health and wellness through the artistic creation of videos, they developed a critical consciousness about community, culture, confidence, and control. They became mobilized and obtained information about health and wellness that allowed for the development and expansion of their notion of health literacy that included cultural conceptions of health and wellness. PMID:18375624

Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Ted; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Riecken, Janet

2008-03-01

382

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

2003-02-11

383

Indigenous Australian art in practice and theory”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the centre of this article lies the famous Ngurrara Canvas , a work of art that has supported land claims in a Native Title Tribunal in the Kimberley region (NT in 1997. This artwork serves as model case for my discussion of the cross - cultural relevance of Indigenous Australian art. My concern is, in particular, the role European art museums play in representations of the ‘Other’. A brief look at some sample exh ibitions in Europe supports my perspective on Indi genous Australian art in cross - cultural contact zones.

Eleanor Wildburger

2013-01-01

384

Indigenous development of scanning electron microscope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a precision instrument and plays very important role in scientific studies. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has taken up the job of development of SEM indigenously. Standard and commercially available components like computer, high voltage power supply, detectors etc. shall be procured from market. Focusing and scanning coils, vacuum chamber, specimen stage, control hardware and software etc. shall be developed at BARC with the help of Indian industry. Procurement, design and fabrication of various parts of SEM are in progress. (author)

385

Combining abilities of growth traits among pure and crossbred meat type chickens / Posibilidades de combinación de las características de crecimiento entre pollos para carne puros y cruzados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cinco mil ciento diecinueve pollos fueron obtenidos, en un programa de mejora de pollos de engorde, a partir de una combinación dialélica de cuatro razas: Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) y Normal indígena (N). Los pollos fueron criados a 12 semanas en las que se registraron los datos sobre p [...] eso corporal por semana (BW), circunferencia del pecho (BG) y longitud de la tibia (TL). El genotipo de machos y hembras afectó significativamente (p Abstract in english Five thousand one hundred and nineteen chicks were obtained from a diallel combination of four breeds of chickens; (Anak Titan (A), Alpha (B), Giriraja (G) and Normal indigenous (N) chickens) in a broiler improvement program. The chicks were reared to 12 weeks in which data on weekly body weight (BW [...] ), breast girth (BG) and tibia length (TL) were recorded. Sire and dam genotype significantly (p

A.O., Adebambo; C.O.N., Ikeobi; M.O., Ozoje; O.O., Oduguwa; A., Adebambo Olufunmilayo.

386

Annex E: Implementation of the meat chicken Directive ...  

Monitoring at the slaughterhouse by the Meat Hygiene Service (MHS) represents \\a vital component of the meat chicken ... provided with one when they register \\with Animal Health (AH) (see Annex D for ... Breed or hybrid line of the chickens. \\5.

387

Combining Abilities of Carcass Traits among Pure and Crossbred Meat Type Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred and ninety five cocks and two hundred and ninety nine hens were selected from a diallel combination of four breeds of chickens; [Anak Titan (A, Alpha (B, Giriraja (G and Normal indigenous (N chickens] at 12 weeks of age in a broiler improvement program for carcass analysis. The following data were collected in percentages: economically important traits = Live weight (g, Plucked weight, Eviscerated weight, Carcass yield, Abdominal fat percentage, Breast yield, Thigh yield, Drumstick yield; survival organs = Wing yield, Internal organ, Empty gizzard yield, Heart yield, Lung yield, Kidney yield, Liver yield. Analyses of variance of carcass traits show that sire and dam genotype significantly (p<0.05 affected carcass traits. Anak Titan sires and dams performed best in economically important traits, while N and B performed better in survival organs. Sex had significant (p<0.05 effect only on live weight with cocks having higher values of 979.55±56.62 and hens 879.6±34.18. Results of diallel analysis to test for general and specific combining abilities of breeds on traits showed that additive genetic effects were important in determining economically important traits, indicative that improvement can be achieved by selection. Dominance effects were important in control of survival organs, indicative of improvement by crossbreeding. Estimates of GCA for carcass traits show that Anak Titan had highest general combining ability for most of the carcass parameters while the least values were found among Alpha chickens. Estimates of SCA for carcass parameters showed AN cross generally had highest SCA for most of the carcass traits. Least SCA values for carcass parameters were generally recorded for AB crosses. It is recommended that an improvement process that involves all the breeds should be adapted using reciprocal recurrent selection or modifications of it.

O.O. Oduguwa

2010-01-01

388

Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism--Theory, Research, Praxis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to…

McCarty, Teresa L.; Wyman, Leisy T.

2009-01-01

389

Closing the Gap: Using Graduate Attributes to Improve Indigenous Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Peter J. Anderson and Bernadette Atkinson teach Indigenous and Traditionally Education in a Global World as a fourth year unit in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. This paper is a self reflective piece of work where they discuss the use of graduate attributes relating to Indigenous Education, put forward by the Australian…

Anderson, Peter J.; Atkinson, Bernadette

2013-01-01

390

The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these…

Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

2012-01-01

391

Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

Schmelkes, Sylvia

2011-01-01

392

Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

2009-01-01

393

Indigenous Healing Practices among Rural Elderly African Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

Elderly African Americans residing in rural areas have practiced and continue to practice indigenous healing practices for various reasons. In addition to the belief in the value of such practices, many of these individuals practice indigenous healing because it is cost effective. In this article information is presented on the history of research…

Harley, Debra A.

2006-01-01

394

Uranium mining and indigenous social impact issues - Kakadu Region, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on indigenous social impact issues in the Kakadu/Alligators Rivers region of Australia. It briefly outlines the social history of the region, reflects on local, national and international attention being given to the impact of regional development on local indigenous (bininj) people, notes how social impact issues are being addressed and suggests some lessons learnt. (author)

395

Anticolonial Strategies for the Recovery and Maintenance of Indigenous Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional Indigenous Knowledge (IK) systems must be recovered and promoted by academics, indigenous knowledge holders, and political leaders by dismantling colonialism and state government control. While Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) has received attention due to its focus on management of natural resources and conservation, non-native…

Simpson, Leanne R.

2004-01-01

396

Indigenous Knowledge and Education: Sites of Struggle, Strength, and Survivance  

Science.gov (United States)

This book brings together essays that explore Indigenous ways of knowing and that consider how such knowledge can inform educational practices and institutions. Indigenous Knowledge is resiliently local in character and thus poses a distinct contrast to the international, more impersonal system of knowledge prevalent in Western educational…

Villegas, Malia, Ed.; Neugebauer, Sabina Rak, Ed.; Venegas, Kerry R., Ed.

2008-01-01

397

Indigenous Thought, Appropriation, and Non-Aboriginal People  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I explore the question, "What is the relationship between appropriation of Indigenous thought and what might be called "deep learning" based in years of education in Indigenous contexts." Beginning with an examination of meanings ascribed to cultural appropriation, I bring texts from Gee on secondary discourses, Foucault on the…

Haig-Brown, Celia

2010-01-01

398

Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

2013-01-01

399

Indigenous Knowledges and the Story of the Bean  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy and Emma Maughn explore epistemic tensions within an Indigenous teacher preparation program where students question Western systems for creating, producing, reproducing, and valuing knowledge. Grounding their argument in a rich understanding of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, the authors advocate for an…

Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones; Maughn, Emma

2009-01-01

400

Indigenous Models of Therapy in Traditional Asian Societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an overview of some indigenous ways of understanding and dealing with psychological disorders in the traditional societies of Asia. Indigenous approaches to healing and psychotherapy existing in India, China, and Japan are included. Models of healing in these three societies are classified as folk traditions, mystical traditions, and…

Das, Ajit K.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Pathways for Indigenous Education in the Australian Curriculum Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reflects on pathways for Indigenous education in the developing agenda of the Australian Curriculum, the cross-curriculum priorities, the general capability area of intercultural understanding, and the positioning of Indigenous learners within the diversity of learners with English as an additional language or dialect (EALD).

Nakata, Martin

2011-01-01

402

Indigenous Studies: Tool of Empowerment within the Academe  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, I consider the importance of Indigenous studies programs, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, as critical elements in enabling Indigenous Australian students to engage in the academe in ways that not only allow them to empower themselves, but, ultimately, to become effective change agents within both their own and the…

Herbert, Jeannie

2010-01-01